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Sample records for crystalline silicate zeolite

  1. Structure-Directing Roles and Interactions of Fluoride and Organocations with Siliceous Zeolite Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Shayib, Ramzy M.; George, Nathan C.; Seshadri, Ram; Burton, Allen W.; Zones, Stacey I.; Chmelka, Bradley F.

    2012-02-06

    Interactions of fluoride anions and organocations with crystalline silicate frameworks are shown to depend subtly on the architectures of the organic species, which significantly influence the crystalline structures that result. One- and two-dimensional (2D) {sup 1}H, {sup 19}F, and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements establish distinct intermolecular interactions among F{sup -} anions, imidazolium structure-directing agents (SDA{sup +}), and crystalline silicate frameworks for as-synthesized siliceous zeolites ITW and MTT. Different types and positions of hydrophobic alkyl ligands on the imidazolium SDA{sup +} species under otherwise identical zeolite synthesis compositions and conditions lead to significantly different interactions between the F{sup -} and SDA{sup +} ions and the respective silicate frameworks. For as-synthesized zeolite ITW, F{sup -} anions are established to reside in the double-four-ring (D4R) cages and interact strongly and selectively with D4R silicate framework sites, as manifested by their strong {sup 19}F{sup 29}Si dipolar couplings. By comparison, for as-synthesized zeolite MTT, F{sup -} anions reside within the 10-ring channels and interact relatively weakly with the silicate framework as ion pairs with the SDA{sup +} ions. Such differences manifest the importance of interactions between the imidazolium and F{sup -} ions, which account for their structure-directing influences on the topologies of the resulting silicate frameworks. Furthermore, 2D {sup 29}Si{l_brace}{sup 29}Si{r_brace} double-quantum NMR measurements establish {sup 29}Si-O-{sup 29}Si site connectivities within the as-synthesized zeolites ITW and MTT that, in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses, establish insights on complicated order and disorder within their framework structures.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin irritation study. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate and Sodium Magnesium Silicate caused minimal eye irritation in a Draize eye irritation test. Bentonite caused severe iritis after injection into the anterior chamber of the eyes of rabbits and when injected intralamellarly, widespread corneal infiltrates and retrocorneal membranes were recorded. In a primary eye irritation study in rabbits, Hectorite was moderately irritating without washing and practically nonirritating to the eye with a washout. Rats tolerated a single dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect on nidation or on maternal or fetal survival in rabbits. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate had neither a teratogenic nor adverse effects on the mouse fetus. Female rats receiving a 20% Kaolin diet exhibited maternal anemia but no significant reduction in birth weight of the pups was recorded. Type A Zeolite produced no adverse effects on the dam, embryo, or fetus in either rats or rabbits at any dose level. Clinoptilolite had no effect on female rat reproductive performance. These ingredients were not genotoxic in the Ames bacterial test system. In primary hepatocyte cultures, the addition of Attapulgite had no significant unscheduled DNA synthesis. Attapulgite did cause significant increases in unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat pleural mesothelial cells, but no significant increase in sister chromosome exchanges were seen. Zeolite particles (<10 microm) produced statistically significant increase in the percentage of aberrant metaphases in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cells collected by peritoneal lavage from exposed mice. Topical application of Magnesium Aluminum Silicate to human skin daily for 1 week produced no adverse effects. Occupational exposure to mineral dusts has been studied extensively. Fibrosis and pneumoconiosis have been documented in workers involved in the mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingre

  3. Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars II. The crystalline silicate complexes

    E-print Network

    F. J. Molster; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2002-01-18

    This is the second paper in a series of three in which we present an exhaustive inventory of the 49 solid state emission bands observed in a sample of 17 oxygen-rich dust shells surrounding evolved stars. Most of these emission bands are concentrated in well defined spectral regions (called complexes). We define 7 of these complexes; the 10, 18, 23, 28, 33, 40 and 60 micron complex. We derive average properties of the individual bands. Comparison with laboratory data suggests that both olivines (Mg(2x)Fe(2-2x)SiO(4)) and pyroxenes (Mg(x)Fe(1-x)SiO(3)) are present, with x close to 1, i.e. the minerals are very Mg-rich and Fe-poor. This composition is similar to that seen in disks surrounding young stars and in the solar system comet Hale-Bopp. A significant fraction of the emission bands cannot be identified with either olivines or pyroxenes. Possible other materials that may be the carriers of these unidentified bands are briefly discussed. There is a natural division into objects that show a disk-like geometry (strong crystalline silicate bands), and objects whose dust shell is characteristic of an outflow (weak crystalline silicate bands). In particular, stars with the 33.5 micron olivine band stronger than about 20 percent over continuum are invariably disk sources. Likewise, the 60 micron region is dominated by crystalline silicates in the disk sources, while it is dominated by crystalline H(2)O ice in the outflow sources. We show that the disk and outflow sources have significant differences in the shape of the emission bands. This difference must be related to the composition or grain shapes of the dust particles. The incredible richness of the crystalline silicate spectra observed by ISO allows detailed studies of the mineralogy of these dust shells, and is the origin and history of the dust.

  4. Negative Poisson's ratios in siliceous zeolite MFI-silicalite.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Lethbridge, Zoe A D; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Williams, Jennifer J; Walton, Richard I; Evans, Kenneth E; Bass, Jay D

    2008-05-14

    Brillouin scattering measurements of the single-crystal elastic properties of the as-made zeolite silicalite mid R:(C(3)H(7))(4)NFmid R:(4)[Si(96)O(192)]-MFI provides the first experimental evidence for on-axis negative Poisson's ratios (auxeticity) in a synthetic zeolite structure. MFI laterally contracts when compressed and laterally expands when stretched along x(1) and x(2) directions in the (001) plane (nu(12)=-0.061, nu(21)=-0.051). The aggregate Poisson's ratio of MFI, although positive, has an anomalously low value nu=0.175(3) compared to other silicate materials. These results suggest that the template-free MFI-silicalite [Si(96)O(192)] might have potential applications as tunable sieve where molecular discriminating characteristics are adjusted by application of stress along specific axes. PMID:18532822

  5. Multiple episodes of zeolite deposition in fractured silicic tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Snow, M.G.

    1995-04-01

    Fractures in silicic tuffs above the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA contain two morphologies of heulandite with different compositions. Tabular heulandite is zoned, with Sr-rich cores and Mg-rich rims. Later prismatic heulandite is nearly the same composition as the more magnesian rims. Heulandite and stellerite may occur between layers of calcite, and calcite occurs locally between generations of heulandite. Thermodynamic modeling, using estimated thermodynamic data and observed chemical compositions for heulandite and stellerite, shows that stellerite is the favored zeolite unless Ca concentrations are reduced or Mg and/or Sr concentrations are significantly elevated above current Yucca Mountain waters.

  6. Silicate Mineralogy and Crystallinity as Indicators of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, D. E.; Wooden, D. H.; Woodward, C. E.

    2000-12-01

    To understand the formation of protoplanetesimals in the early solar nebula one must ascertain how dust grains condense, collide, and grow into cm-sized rocks. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are thought to be pristine solar nebula condensates (Bell et al. 2000, PP IV, 897) or interstellar amorphous silicates annealed into crystals at ~1000 K temperatures (Hallenbeck et al. 1998, Icarus, 131, 198) in the inner hot zones of the accretion disk. Hence, our knowledge of solar nebula processes suggest Mg-rich crystals are signposts of pristine materials that were processed in the nebula, be they nebular condensates or annealed ISM grains. If radial migrations transport Mg-rich crystals out of the hot inner zones to larger radii, then we can expect the degree of crystallinity of grains throughout the disk to increase with time (Irvine et al. 1998, Faraday Diss., 109, 475; Nuth 1998; LPI, 20, 1801; Grady et al. 1999, BAAS, 194, #69.07). We present 7.5 - 13.4 ?m \\ spectrophotometry of three intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars of similar spectral type obtained with the NASA/Ames HIFOGS. Between the three objects we will demonstrate that the 10 \\micron\\ silicate resonance features differ from amorphous silicate dominated to crystalline silicate dominated. ISO SWS observations that include the 20 \\micron\\ silicate resonance features are used to further examine the degree of crystallinity. The degree of crystallinity is not correlated with stellar age. However, a tantalizing trend is apparent between the increasing strength of the crystalline silicate features and the diminishment of near-IR to ~6 \\micron\\ flux in both SEDs (Malfait, et al. 1998, A&A, 331, 221) and the 6 - 45 \\micron\\ ISO SWS spectra; albeit the sample is small. We suggest that the drop in 2--6 \\micron\\ flux is an important discriminator of inner disk evolution, possibly indicating inner disk clearing by the formation of planetesimals. The degree of crystallinity deduced from the 10 \\micron\\ and 20 \\micron\\ silicate resonances appears to be correlated with evolution of the inner disk. We acknowledge support from the NRC, NASA and NSF.

  7. Studies on crystalline microporous vanadium silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Ramaswamy, A.V.; Ratnasamy, P. )

    1993-09-01

    The synthesis and catalytic properties of V-NCL-1, a novel vanadium silicate, large-pore molecular sieve in various oxidation reactions, are described. The reactions include the oxidation of n-octane, cyclohexane, toluene, trimethylbenzenes, and naphthalene. In the as-synthesized form, most of the vanadium in V-NCL-1 is present as atomically dispersed and isolated V[sup 4+] located in framework positions, though not necessarily in tetrahedral coordination. On calcination in air, the vanadium ions are oxidized to the pentavalent state. In addition, part of the vanadium leaves lattice locations and forms nonframework clusters. When the oxidized sample is reduced, V[sup 4+] ions are formed again. The three-dimensional silicate structure of the molecular sieve is intact during all these treatments. Due to the presence of large pores, V-NCL-1 is able to oxidize bulky molecules such as mesitylene and naphthalene. Unlike their titanium analogs, vanadium silicates are able to oxyfunctionalize the primary carbon atoms in alkanes and the side chains in alkylaromatics. 18 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Application of thermodynamics to silicate crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic relations is presented, describing Guggenheim's regular solution models, the simple mixture, the zeroth approximation, and the quasi-chemical model. The possibilities of retrieving useful thermodynamic quantities from phase equilibrium studies are discussed. Such quantities include the activity-composition relations and the free energy of mixing in crystalline solutions. Theory and results of the study of partitioning of elements in coexisting minerals are briefly reviewed. A thermodynamic study of the intercrystalline and intracrystalline ion exchange relations gives useful information on the thermodynamic behavior of the crystalline solutions involved. Such information is necessary for the solution of most petrogenic problems and for geothermometry. Thermodynamic quantities for tungstates (CaWO4-SrWO4) are calculated.

  9. Topologically ordered amorphous silica obtained from the collapsed siliceous zeolite, silicalite-1-F: a step toward "perfect" glasses.

    PubMed

    Haines, Julien; Levelut, Claire; Isambert, Aude; Hébert, Philippe; Kohara, Shinji; Keen, David A; Hammouda, Tahar; Andrault, Denis

    2009-09-01

    A dense amorphous form of silica was prepared at high pressure from the highly compressible, siliceous zeolite, silicalite-1-F. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of total X-ray scattering data shows that the structure of this novel amorphous form of SiO(2) recovered under ambient conditions is distinct from vitreous SiO(2) and retains the basic framework topology (i.e., chemical bonds) of the starting crystalline zeolite. This material is, however, amorphous over the different length scales probed by Raman and X-ray scattering due to strong geometrical distortions. This is thus an example of new topologically ordered, amorphous material with a different intermediate-range structure, a lower entropy with respect to a standard glass, and distinct physical and mechanical properties, eventually approaching those of an "ordered" or "perfect" glass. The same process in more complex aluminosilicate zeolites will, in addition, lead to an amorphous material which conserves the framework topology and chemical order of the crystal. The large volume collapse in this material may also be of considerable interest for new applications in shock wave absorption. PMID:19705916

  10. INTERSTELLAR SILICATE DUST IN THE z = 0.89 ABSORBER TOWARD PKS 1830-211: CRYSTALLINE SILICATES AT HIGH REDSHIFT?

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni

    2012-03-20

    We present evidence of a >10{sigma} detection of the 10 {mu}m silicate dust absorption feature in the spectrum of the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS 1830-211, produced by a foreground absorption system at redshift 0.886. We have examined more than 100 optical depth templates, derived from both observations of Galactic and extragalactic sources and laboratory measurements, in order to constrain the chemical structure of the silicate dust. We find that the best fit to the observed absorption profile is produced by laboratory crystalline olivine, with a corresponding peak optical depth of {tau}{sub 10} = 0.27 {+-} 0.05. The fit is slightly improved upon by including small contributions from additional materials, such as silica, enstatite, or serpentine, which suggests that the dust composition may consist of a blend of crystalline silicates. Combining templates for amorphous and crystalline silicates, we find that the fraction of crystalline silicates needs to be at least 95%. Given the rarity of extragalactic sources with such a high degree of silicate crystallinity, we also explore the possibility that the observed spectral features are produced by amorphous silicates in combination with other molecular or atomic transitions, or by foreground source contamination. While we cannot rule out these latter possibilities, they lead to much poorer profile fits than for the crystalline olivine templates. If the presence of crystalline interstellar silicates in this distant galaxy is real, it would be highly unusual, given that the Milky Way interstellar matter contains essentially only amorphous silicates. It is possible that the z = 0.886 absorber toward PKS 1830-211, well known for its high molecular content, has a unique star-forming environment that enables crystalline silicates to form and prevail.

  11. Zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates that have complex framework structures. However, there are several features of zeolite crystals that make unequivocal structure determinations difficult. The acquisition of reliable structural information on zeolites is greatly facilitated by the availability of high-quality specimens. For structure determinations by conventional diffraction techniques, large single-crystal specimens are essential. Alternatively, structural determinations by powder profile refinement methods relax the constraints on crystal size, but still require materials with a high degree of crystalline perfection. Studies conducted at CAMMP (Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing) have demonstrated that microgravity processing can produce larger crystal sizes and fewer structural defects relative to terrestrial crystal growth. Principal Investigator: Dr. Albert Sacco

  12. Mineralogy of clay and zeolite dusts (exclusive of 1:1 layer silicates)

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Clays and zeolites are among the most important of natural dusts by virtue of their occurrence through out the world on the earth`s surface and their important industrial uses. (The 1:1 layer silicates, including the serpentine and kaolin minerals, are not addressed in this chapter.) This chapter provides basic information on a variety of important aspects of each mineral, including crystal structure diagrams of each and references to more detailed discussions. 110 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope 2012 Keywords: oxygen isotope ratios crystalline silicate comet 81P/Wild 2 solar system formation Stardust Abstract: Oxygen three-isotope ratios of nine crystalline silicate particles from comet Wild 2

  14. Synthesis of Silicate Zeolite Analogues Using Organic Sulfonium Compounds as Structure-Directing Agents.

    PubMed

    Jo, Changbum; Lee, Sungjune; Cho, Sung June; Ryoo, Ryong

    2015-10-19

    A microporous crystalline silica zeolite of the MEL structure type and three other zeolite analogues composed of germanosilicate frameworks were synthesized using tributylsulfonium, triphenylsulfonium, or tri(para-tolyl)sulfonium as the structure-directing agent. The germanosilicates thus obtained had ISV, ITT, or a new zeolite structure depending on the synthesis conditions. The structure of the new germanosilicate was solved using X-ray powder diffraction data with the aid of a charge-flipping method. The solution indicated a crystal structure belonging to the P63/mmc space group with cell parameters of a=16.2003?Å and c=21.8579?Å. After calcination, the new germanosilicate material exhibited two types of accessible micropores with diameters of 0.61 and 0.78?nm. PMID:26302889

  15. Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V.; Bortolozzi, G.

    2010-06-01

    Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strätlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

  16. Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distribution between Crystalline and Impurity Amorphous Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Macias, Claudia; Xu, Pinghong; Hwang, Son-Jong; Lu, Jing; Chen, Cong-Yan; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-07-08

    Dealuminated zeolite HY was used to support Ir(CO)2 complexes formed from Ir(CO)2(C5H7O2). Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra and atomic-resolution electron microscopy images identify these complexes, and the images and 27Al NMR spectra identify impurity amorphous regions in the zeolite where the iridium is more susceptible to aggregation than in the crystalline regions. The results indicate a significant stability limitation of metal in amorphous impurity regions of zeolites.

  17. Amphiphilic organosilane-directed synthesis of crystalline zeolite with tunable mesoporosity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkee; Cho, Hae Sung; Srivastava, Rajendra; Venkatesan, Chithravel; Choi, Dae-Heung; Ryoo, Ryong

    2006-09-01

    Zeolites are a family of crystalline aluminosilicate materials widely used as shape-selective catalysts, ion exchange materials, and adsorbents for organic compounds. In the present work, zeolites were synthesized by adding a rationally designed amphiphilic organosilane surfactant to conventional alkaline zeolite synthesis mixtures. The zeolite products were characterized by a complementary combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analyses show that the present method is suitable as a direct synthesis route to highly mesoporous zeolites. The mesopore diameters could be uniformly tailored, similar to ordered mesoporous silica with amorphous frameworks. The mesoporous zeolite exhibited a narrow, small-angle XRD peak, which is characteristic of the short-range correlation between mesopores, similar to disordered wormhole-like mesoporous materials. The XRD patterns and electron micrographs of the samples taken during crystallization clearly showed the evolution of the mesoporous structure concomitantly to the crystallization of zeolite frameworks. The synthesis of the crystalline aluminosilicate materials with tunable mesoporosity and strong acidity has potentially important technological implications for catalytic reactions of large molecules, whereas conventional mesoporous materials lack hydrothermal stability and acidity. PMID:16892049

  18. The Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-print Network

    H. W. W. Spoon; A. G. G. M. Tielens; L. Armus; G. C. Sloan; B. Sargent; J. Cami; V. Charmandaris; J. R. Houck; B. T. Soifer

    2005-09-28

    Silicates are an important component of interstellar dust and the structure of these grains -- amorphous versus crystalline -- is sensitive to the local physical conditions. We have studied the infrared spectra of a sample of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. Here, we report the discovery of weak, narrow absorption features at 11, 16, 19, 23, and 28 microns, characteristic of crystalline silicates, superimposed on the broad absorption bands at 10 and 18 microns due to amorphous silicates in a subset of this sample. These features betray the presence of forsterite (Mg_2SiO_4), the magnesium-rich end member of the olivines. Previously, crystalline silicates have only been observed in circumstellar environments. The derived fraction of forsterite to amorphous silicates is typically 0.1 in these ULIRGs. This is much larger than the upper limit for this ratio in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way, 0.01. These results suggest that the timescale for injection of crystalline silicates into the ISM is short in a merger-driven starburst environment (e.g., as compared to the total time to dissipate the gas), pointing towards massive stars as a prominent source of crystalline silicates. Furthermore, amorphization due to cosmic rays, which is thought to be of prime importance for the local ISM, lags in vigorous starburst environments.

  19. Defect sites in highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolites: A study performed by alumination and IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Kouji; Namba, Seitaro; Yashima, Tatsuaki )

    1991-01-24

    The concentration of oxygen atoms on defect sites in a highly siliceous HZSM-5 type zeolite was estimated by the {sup 18}O-exchange reaction between C{sup 18}O{sub 2} and the zeolite. The concentration of oxygen atoms on defect sites could be controlled by means of changes of the gel composition and of the use of various silica sources in the hydrothermal synthesis. The relationship between the concentration of oxygen atoms on defect sites in a highly siliceous HZSM-5 and the concentration of aluminum introduced into the framework of the HZSM-5 by an alumination was examined. The concentration of the framework aluminum was the same as one-fourth that of the oxygen atoms on defect sites. These results suggest that the defect sites into which aluminum atoms are introduced tetrahedrally can be identified with hydroxyl nests that consist of four silanol groups. The existence of hydroxyl nests could be confirmed by IR spectroscopy. From the {sup 18}O-exchange reaction and IR measurements, the authors conclude that the sharp band at 3,740 cm{sup {minus}1} can be attributed to both isolated SiOH groups on the external surface and intracrystalline isolated SiOH groups and that the broad band at 3,505 cm{sup {minus}1} can be attributed to the SiOH groups in hydroxyl nests.

  20. A SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Poteet, Charles A.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Fischer, William J.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Watson, Dan M.; Remming, Ian S.; McClure, Melissa K.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori E.; Ali, Babar

    2011-06-01

    We present the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of the Orion A protostar HOPS-68. The mid-infrared spectrum reveals crystalline substructure at 11.1, 16.1, 18.8, 23.6, 27.9, and 33.6 {mu}m superimposed on the broad 9.7 and 18 {mu}m amorphous silicate features; the substructure is well matched by the presence of the olivine end-member forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). Crystalline silicates are often observed as infrared emission features around the circumstellar disks of Herbig Ae/Be stars and T Tauri stars. However, this is the first unambiguous detection of crystalline silicate absorption in a cold, infalling, protostellar envelope. We estimate the crystalline mass fraction along the line of sight by first assuming that the crystalline silicates are located in a cold absorbing screen and secondly by utilizing radiative transfer models. The resulting crystalline mass fractions of 0.14 and 0.17, respectively, are significantly greater than the upper limit found in the interstellar medium ({approx}<0.02-0.05). We propose that the amorphous silicates were annealed within the hot inner disk and/or envelope regions and subsequently transported outward into the envelope by entrainment in a protostellar outflow.

  1. Cooked GEMS - Insights into the Hot Origins of Crystalline Silicates in Circumstellar Disks and the Cold Origins of GEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Matrajt, G.; Wooden, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    The comparison of interstellar, circumstellar and primitive solar nebula silicates has led to a significant conundrum in the understanding of the nature of solid materials that begin the planet forming processes. Crystalline silicates are found in circumstellar regions around young stars and also evolved stars ejecting particles into the interstellar medium (ISM) but they are not seen in the interstellar medium itself, the source material for star and planet formation. Crystalline silicates are minor to major components of all known early solar system materials that have been examined as meteorites or interplanetary dust samples. The strong presence of Mg-rich crystalline silicates in Oort cloud comets and their minor presence in some Kuiper belt comets is also indicated by 11.2 m peak in approx. 10 microns "silicate" infrared feature. This evidence strongly indicates that Mg-rich crystalline silicates were abundant components of the solar nebula disk out to at least 10 AU, and present out to 30 AU.

  2. First-principles molecular modeling of structure-property relationships and reactivity in the zeolite chabazite

    E-print Network

    Lo, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline, porous aluminosilicates; while a pure silicate structure is charge-neutral, the substitution of A1³? for Si?? creates in the framework a negative charge, which can be compensated by a proton that ...

  3. CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN EVOLVED STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, AND 23239+5754

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, B. W.; Zhang, Ke; Li, Aigen; Lisse, C. M. E-mail: kzhang@caltech.edu E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu

    2013-03-01

    We report the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of three evolved stars: IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, and 23239+5754. The 9.9-37.2 {mu}m Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectra of these three sources exhibit rich sets of enstatite-dominated crystalline silicate emission features. IRAS 16456-3542 is extremely rich in crystalline silicates, with >90% of its silicate mass in crystalline form, the highest to date ever reported for crystalline silicate sources.

  4. Infrared spectra of crystalline phase ices condensed on silicate smokes at T less than 20 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Ferrante, Robert F.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Donn, Bertram

    1994-01-01

    Infrared spectra of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 condensed at T less than 20 K on amorphous silicate smokes reveal that predominantly crystalline phase ice forms directly on deposit. Spectra of these molecules condensed on aluminum substrates at T less than 20 K indicate that amorphous phase ice forms. On aluminum, crystalline phase H2O and CH3OH are formed by annealing amorphous deposits to 155 K and 130 K, respectively (or by direct deposit at these temperatures); crystalline NH3 is formed by direct deposit at 88 K. Silicate smokes are deposited onto aluminum substrates by evaporation of SiO solid or by combustion of SiH4 with O2 in flowing H2 followed by vapor phase nucleation and growth. Silicate smokes which are oxygen-deficient may contain active surface sites which facilitate the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition during condensation. Detailed experiments to understand the mechanism are currently in progress. The assumption that amorphous phase ice forms routinely on grains at T less than 80 K is often used in models describing the volatile content of comets or in interpretations of interstellar cloud temperatures. This assumption needs to be reexamined in view of these results.

  5. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Wodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approximately 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) greater than 1000K at r(sub h) less than 5AU, 10(exp -6) -10(exp -5) solar mass per year, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-toamorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  6. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Woodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approx. 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10 AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) > 1000 K at r(sub h) < 5 AU, 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -5) M(sub O)/yr, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-to-amorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  7. Dust in the wind: Crystalline silicates, corundum and periclase in PG 2112+059

    E-print Network

    F. Markwick-Kemper; S. C. Gallagher; D. C. Hines; J. Bouwman

    2007-10-11

    We have determined the mineralogical composition of dust in the Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasar PG 2112+059 using mid-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. From spectral fitting of the solid state features, we find evidence for Mg-rich amorphous silicates with olivine stoichiometry, as well as the first detection of corundum (Al_2O_3) and periclase (MgO) in quasars. This mixed composition provides the first direct evidence for a clumpy density structure of the grain forming region. The silicates in total encompass 56.5% of the identified dust mass, while corundum takes up 38 wt.%. Depending on the choice of continuum, a range of mass fractions is observed for periclase ranging from 2.7% in the most conservative case to 9% in a less constrained continuum. In addition, we identify a feature at 11.2 micron as the crystalline silicate forsterite, with only a minor contribution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The 5% crystalline silicate fraction requires high temperatures such as those found in the immediate quasar environment in order to counteract rapid destruction from cosmic rays.

  8. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Saengmee-anupharb, Sirikamon; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Amornsakchai, Taweechai; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Suddhasthira, Theeralaksna; Kamaguchi, Arihide

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0–60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5–3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection. PMID:23570016

  9. Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . .

    E-print Network

    Servatius, Brigitte

    . Chemical Zeolites · crystalline solid · units: Si + 4O Si O O O O · two covalent bonds per oxygen #12Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . . Realization 2d Zeolites Finite Zeolites The Layer . . . Holes University (Brigitte Servatius -- WPI) #12;Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . . Realization 2d Zeolites

  10. Combined experimental and computational NMR study of crystalline and amorphous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Emma F; Bennett, Thomas D; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Gervais, Christel; Blanc, Frédéric; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-10-14

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have attracted great interest in recent years due to their high chemical and thermal stability with promising applications in gas storage and separations. We investigate the structures of three different crystalline ZIFs - ZIF-4, ZIF-8, ZIF-zni - and their amorphous counterparts using high field (13)C and (15)N CP MAS NMR. The high field (20 T) allows for the observation of all crystallographically independent carbon and nitrogen atoms in the crystalline ZIFs. Combining our experimental results with density functional theory calculations enabled the assignment of all chemical shifts. The crystalline spectra reveal the potential of high field NMR to distinguish between two ZIF polymorphs, ZIF-4 and ZIF-zni, with identical [Zn(C3H3N2)2] chemical compositions. (13)C and (15)N CP MAS NMR data obtained for the amorphous ZIFs clearly showed signal broadening upon amorphization, confirming the retention of chemical composition and the structural similarity of amorphous ZIF-4 and ZIF-zni. In the case of amorphous ZIF-8, we present evidence for the partial de-coordination of the 2-methyl imidazole linker. PMID:26351979

  11. DESTRUCTION OF MASSIVE FRAGMENTS IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AND CRYSTALLINE SILICATE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.

    2011-02-20

    We present a mechanism for the crystalline silicate production associated with the formation and subsequent destruction of massive fragments in young protostellar disks. The fragments form in the embedded phase of star formation via disk fragmentation at radial distances {approx}>50-100 AU and anneal small amorphous grains in their interior when the gas temperature exceeds the crystallization threshold of {approx}800 K. We demonstrate that fragments that form in the early embedded phase can be destroyed before they either form solid cores or vaporize dust grains, thus releasing the processed crystalline dust into various radial distances from sub-AU to hundred-AU scales. Two possible mechanisms for the destruction of fragments are the tidal disruption and photoevaporation as fragments migrate radially inward and approach the central star and also dispersal by tidal torques exerted by spiral arms. As a result, most of the crystalline dust concentrates to the disk inner regions and spiral arms, which are the likely sites of fragment destruction.

  12. Discrimination of zeolites and beryllium containing silicates using portable Raman spectroscometric equipment with near-infrared excitation.

    PubMed

    Jehli?ka, J; Vandenabeele, P; Edwards, H G M

    2012-02-01

    In this paper Raman spectra were obtained for a series of zeolites (thomsonite, stilbite, natrolite) and beryllium containing silicates (beryl, chrysoberyl, euclase, phenacite, bavenite, milarite) using a portable Raman specrometer with a 785 nm laser excitation to show the possibility to apply this setting for unambiguous detection and discrimination of these silicate minerals. Obtained spectra contain the most intense Raman bands at the same positions ±2-4 cm(-1) as reported in the literature. The use of these bands permits the unambiguous identification of these phases. Data show the possibility to discriminate individual species of similar whitish color and aspect. Measurements showed an excellent correspondence of Raman bands obtained using the portable system and a laboratory Raman microspectrometer (with the same excitation laser wavelenght). However, for several minerals of these groups (chrysoberyl, bertrandite, chiavennite) Raman spectra were not of sufficient quality to permit unambiguous identification. The reasons are discussed. Raman spectrum of chiavennite CaMnBe(2)Si(5)O(13)(OH)(2)·2(H(2)O) - a transformation product occurring together with bavenite on the surface of beryl crystals was obtained for the first time using the laboratory Raman spectrometer. PMID:22099060

  13. Crystalline Silicates in Comets: Modeling Irregularly-Shaped Forsterite Crystals and Its Implications on Condensation Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline silicates in comets are a product of the condensation in the hot inner regions (T > or approx. equals 1400 K [1]) of our proto-planetary disk or annealing at somewhat lower temperatures (T > or approx. equals 1000-1200 K) [2, 3, 4] in shocks coupled with disk evolutionary processes that include radial transport of crystals from their formation locations out to the cold outer regions where comet nuclei formed. The grain shape of forsterite (crystals) could be indicative of their formation pathways at high temperatures through vapor-solid condensation or at lower temperatures through vapor-liquid-solid formation and growth [5, 6, 7]. Experiments demonstrate that crystals that formed from a rapidly cooled highly supersaturated silicate vapor are characterized by bulky, platy, columnar/needle and droplet shapes for values of temperature and supersaturation, T and sigma, of 1000-1450 C and < 97, 700-1000 C and 97-161, 580-820 C and 131-230, and <500 C and > 230, respectively [7]. The experimental columnar/needle shapes, which form by vapor-liquid-solid at lower temperatures (<820 C), are extended stacks of plates, where the extension is not correlated with an axial direction: columnar/needles may be extended in the c-axis or a-axis direction, can change directions, and/or are off-kilter or a bit askew extending in a combination of the a- and c-axis direction.

  14. Crystalline Mg2SiO4 and amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grain formation by coalescence and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitsuji, K.; Suzuki, H.; Kimura, Y.; Sato, T.; Saito, Y.; Kaito, C.

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for producing MgO and SiO2 smokes was developed. Mg-bearing silicate grain formation using the coalescence and growth of MgO and SiO2 grains was carried out in our laboratory. It becomes evident that single and poly crystalline Mg2SiO4 (forsterite) and amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grains can be produced by the coalescence and growth of MgO and SiO2 grains. This result suggests that the observed crystalline Mg2SiO4 grains and amorphous Mg-bearing silicate particles in Red Super Giant (RSG), Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), post-AGB and planetary nebula (PNe) could be produced by the coalescence and growth of MgO and SiO2 grains.

  15. Crystalline Silicate Grains Of Comet 17P/Holmes Ejected At Its Outburst Observed With Subaru/COMICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsuru; Ootsubo, T.; Watanabe, J.; Honda, M.; Sakon, I.; Ishiguro, M.; Sarugaku, Y.; Shinnaka, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Kawakita, H.

    2010-10-01

    Comets had formed from dust and icy materials in the solar nebula 4.6 Gyrs ago. The cometary materials are considered as the most pristine in the solar system and both dust grains and icy materials in comets have been used to investigate the formation conditions of the solar system. Furthermore, it is considered that the existence of crystalline silicate in comets indicates the radial mixing of materials in the early solar nebula. Crystalline silicate is formed in high temperature environment. Then, it is clue to understand the difference between thermal and dynamical evolution of dust in proto-solar nebula. A large outburst of comet 17P/Holmes has occurred in late October 2007. Just after the outburst began, we carried out low-dispersion spectroscopic observation in mid-infrared region (8 -13 µm) with COMICS mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope on October 25th-28 th, 2007 UT, when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of 2.44 -2.45 AU. We detected an isolated dust cloud that moved toward the south-west direction from the nucleus by imaging observations in mid-infrared region. The 11.2 µm peak of a crystalline silicate feature onto a broad amorphous silicate feature was detected both in the central condensation of the nucleus and an isolated dust cloud. We will present the time variation of the spectra at different positions in the coma of comet 17P/Holmes at the outburst.

  16. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral harmotome - (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16?6H2O - A natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Wang, Lina; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The mineral harmotome (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16?6H2O is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and other industrial applications. It is a natural zeolite with catalytic potential. Raman bands at 1020 and 1102 cm-1 are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of three dimensional siloxane units. Raman bands at 428, 470 and 491 cm-1 are assigned to OSiO bending modes. The broad Raman bands at around 699, 728, 768 cm-1 are attributed to water librational modes. Intense Raman bands in the 3100 to 3800 cm-1 spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of water in harmotome. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. A sharp infrared band at 3731 cm-1 is assigned to the OH stretching vibration of SiOH units. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterization of the silicate mineral harmotome.

  17. Petrologic Constraints on Amorphous and Crystalline Magnesium Silicates: Dust Formation and Evolution in Selected Herbig Ae/Be Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and "amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry" around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting "astronomical nomenclature" and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the "Principle of Actualism" that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite ± tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  18. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  19. Synthesis of zeolite Li-ABW from fly ash by fusion method.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z T; Xia, M S; Ye, Y; Zhang, L

    2009-10-30

    The zeolite Li-ABW was synthesized by fusion method using fly ash as raw material. It comprised alkaline fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment in LiOH x H2O medium. Crystallinity of zeolite as high as 97.8% was attained under the following conditions: LiOH x H2O concentration, 3M; hydrothermal temperature, 180 degrees C; the corresponding aging time, 12 h. The content of Li-ABW increased at the expense of lithium aluminum silicate or quartz with an increase of LiOH x H2O concentration. With increasing hydrothermal temperature and aging time, the soluble species re-crystallized and crystalline phase transformation between different zeolites was observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation revealed that the obtained zeolite Li-ABW was a rod-like crystal. The pore size distribution curve indicated the presence of mesopores. PMID:19493616

  20. Lyotropic liquid crystalline L3 phase silicated nanoporous monolithic composites and their production

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Kathryn M.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2003-10-28

    A mesoporous ceramic material is provided having a pore size diameter in the range of about 10-100 nanometers produced by templating with a ceramic precursor a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase consisting of a three-dimensional, random, nonperiodic network packing of a multiple connected continuous membrane. A preferred process for producing the inesoporous ceramic material includes producing a template of a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase by mixing a surfactant, a co-surfactant and hydrochloric acid, coating the template with an inorganic ceramic precursor by adding to the L.sub.3 phase tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then converting the coated template to a ceramic by removing any remaining liquids.

  1. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura; Osamu Tochiyama

    2007-07-01

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

  2. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  3. Zeolite Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Zeolites are as hard as rocks but work like sponges. They have a rigid crystalline structure with a network of interconnected tunnels and cages, similar to honeycomb. These tunnels can store chemicals, like fuels, and then release them when the zeolites are heated. The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) - one of 17 NASA sponsored Commercial Space Centers - is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. The center is also applying zeolite research to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce hazardous by-products.

  4. IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin; McKee, Christopher F.; Suh, Kyung-Won; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi; Burton, Michael G.; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Bessell, Michael S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime; Kohno, Kotaro; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.

    2011-05-01

    We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended ({approx}4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at {>=}10 {mu}m. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 {mu}m, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

  5. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, Mari L. (West Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  6. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, M.L.

    1997-01-07

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

  7. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - A natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe2+ and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125 cm-1. The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119 cm-1. These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484 cm-1 is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608 cm-1. The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime.

  8. Zeolite with trimodal porosity by desilication of zeolite nanocrystals aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuxin; Liu Kaituo; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; He Tao; Wu Jinhu; Fang Yunming

    2012-10-15

    Zeolite with trimodal porosity can be synthesized by desilication of zeolite nanocrystal aggregate. In the desilication process, the originally existed intercrystalline mesopores of zeolite nanocrystal aggregate were enlarged into large mesopore, and the new small intracrystalline mesopore channel was created, thus the Zeolite with trimodal porosity was formed. The structure of resulted zeolite, both on aggregate and mesopore level can be fine tuned by the desilication degree. - Graphical abstract: The Si from the edges and boundary of nanocrystals was first removed resulted the surface roughness and enlarges of the originally existed intercrystalline mesopores. As the degree of alkali-treatment increasing, the Si species inside zeolite nanocrystals was also removed, leading to further enlarges the intercrystalline mesopores and the formation of small intracrystalline mesopores. In case the alkali-treatment is serve enough to completely dissolve the bridges between zeolite nanocrystals, zeolite nanocrystals were exfoliated from the aggregate. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite with trimodal porosity by desilication of zeolite nanocrystals aggregate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The original intercrystalline mesopores were enlarged into large mesopore. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new intracrystalline mesopores were created as the inside Si extracted out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aggregate structure, crystallinity and acidity of parent zeolite remained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desilication is start on the edges then in the inner part of zeolite.

  9. Thermal desorption characteristics of CO, O2 and CO2 on non-porous water, crystalline water and silicate surfaces at sub-monolayer and multilayer coverages

    E-print Network

    Noble, J A; Dulieu, F; Fraser, H J

    2011-01-01

    The desorption characteristics of molecules on interstellar dust grains are important for modelling the behaviour of molecules in icy mantles and, critically, in describing the solid-gas interface. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments exploring the desorption of three small molecules from three astrophysically relevant surfaces are presented. The desorption of CO, O2 and CO2 at both sub-monolayer and multilayer coverages was investigated from non-porous water, crystalline water and silicate surfaces. Experimental data was modelled using the Polanyi-Wigner equation to produce a mathematical description of the desorption of each molecular species from each type of surface, uniquely describing both the monolayer and multilayer desorption in a single combined model. The implications of desorption behaviour over astrophysically relevant timescales are discussed.

  10. Radiation effects and annealing kinetics in crystalline silicates, phosphates and complex Nb-Ta-Ti oxides. FInal Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1987-08-10

    Interaction of heavy particles (alpha-recoil nuclei, fission fragments, implanted ions) with ceramics is complex because they have a wide range of structure types, complex compositions and chemical bonding is variable. Radiation damage can produce diverse results, but most commonly, crystalline periodic materials become either polycrystalline or aperiodic (metamict state). We studied the transition from crystalline to aperiodic state in natural materials that have been damaged by alpha recoil nuclei in the U and Th decay series and in synthetic, analogous structure types which have been amorphized by ion implantation. Transition from crystalline to aperiodic was followed by analysis of XRD, high resolution TEM, and EXAFS/XANE spectroscopy. Use of these techniques with increasing dose provided data on an increasing finer scale as the damage process progressed.

  11. Spectroscopic analysis of Eu{sup 3+} -and Eu{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}-doped yttrium silicate crystalline powders prepared by combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rakov, Nikifor; Amaral, Dayanne F.; Guimaraes, Renato B.; Maciel, Glauco S.

    2010-10-15

    Yttrium silicate powders doped with Eu{sup 3+} and codoped with Eu{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} were prepared by combustion synthesis. The x-ray powder diffraction data showed the presence of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystalline phases. Singly doped (1 wt %) sample illuminated with ultraviolet light ({lambda}=256 nm) showed the characteristic red luminescence corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated from experimental data and the radiative and nonradiative relaxation rates were estimated. The results showed that the nonradiative relaxation rate is smaller in yttrium silicate compared to yttrium oxide powder, a reference material, prepared under similar conditions. Codoped samples were exposed to near-infrared laser excitation ({lambda}=975 nm) and the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} was also observed. In this case, the luminescence is achieved due to a cooperative upconversion (CUC) process involving energy transfer (ET) from pairs of ytterbium ions to europium ions. The ET rate was estimated by fitting a rate equation model with the dynamics of CUC red emission.

  12. Lack of Evidence of In-Situ Decay of Aluminum-26 in a FeO-Poor Ferromagnesian Crystalline Silicate Particle, Pyxie, from Comet Wild 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ebel, D. S.; Kita, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the important discoveries from the Stardust mission is the observation of crystalline silicate particles that resemble Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites], which suggests radial transport of high temperature solids from the inner to the outer solar nebula regions and capture by accreting cometary objects. The Al-Mg isotope analyses of CAI-like and type II chondrule-like particles revealed no excess of Mg-26 derived from in-situ decay of Al-26 (Tau)(sub 1/2) = 0.705Myr; ), suggesting late formation of these particles. However, the number of Wild 2 particles analyzed for Al-Mg isotopes is still limited (n = 3). In order to better understand the timing of the formation of Wild 2 particles and possible radial transport in the protoplanetary disk, we performed SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) Al-Mg isotope analyses of plagioclase in a FeO-poor ferromagnesian Wild 2 particle, which is the most abundant type among crystalline Wild 2 particles.

  13. Cesium incorporation and diffusion in cancrinite, sodalite, zeolite, and allophane

    E-print Network

    Flury, Markus

    Cesium incorporation and diffusion in cancrinite, sodalite, zeolite, and allophane Jarai Mon of silicate minerals and precipitation of new aluminosilicate minerals. Cancrinite, sodalite, LTA zeolite in sodalite and cancrinite was far more difficult to replace than that in LTA zeolite or allophane. Most

  14. Entrapment of Ionic Tris(2,2-Bipyridyl) Ruthenium(II) in Hydrophobic Siliceous Zeolite: O2 Sensing in Biological Environments

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    ). The emission quenching of the Ru(bpy)3 2+-zeolite crystals dispersed in polydimethoxysiloxane (PDMS) films by dissolved oxygen in water was examined. The quenching data as a function of oxygen concentration was fit in concentration of dissolved oxygen due to reaction with glucose in the presence of glucose oxidase was monitored

  15. Constructing Hierarchical Porous Zeolites via Kinetic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kunlun; Corma, Avelino; Maciá-Agulló, Juan Antonio; Hu, Jerry G; Krämer, Stephan; Stair, Peter C; Stucky, Galen D

    2015-09-01

    Zeolites are crystalline inorganic solids with microporous structures, having widespread applications in the fields of catalysis, separation, adsorption, microelectronics, and medical diagnosis. A major drawback of zeolites is the mass transfer limitation due to the small size of the micropores (less than 1 nm). Numerous efforts have been dedicated to integrating mesopores with the microporous zeolite structures by using templating and/or destructive approaches. Here we provide a new strategy for hierarchical pore size zeolite synthesis, without using supramolecular or hard templates. The branching epitaxial growth behavior, as a result of aluminum-zoning, contributes to the formation of the hierarchical porous zeolite structures. PMID:26322625

  16. Synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Davood

    This work focuses on the synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y. The synthesis formulations of faujasite-type structure of zeolite Y prepared in nanosized form are described. The synthetic zeolite Y is the most widely employed for the preparation of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. The synthesis of zeolite Y is very complicated process. The mean particle size of zeolite Y is 1800 nm. The major challenge of this work involved reducing this average particle size to less than 500 nm. The preliminary experiments were conducted to obtain the pure zeolite Y using the soluble silicates as a silica source. This was achieved by applying the experimental design approach to study the effects of many parameters. The ageing time turned out to be the most significant variable affecting product purity. Based on the preliminary results, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the effects of silica-alumina precursor preparations on zeolite Y synthesis. Aluminosilicate precursors were prepared by gelling and precipitation of soluble silicate. The as-prepared precursors were used for the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Y. The procedure of the precipitation of soluble silicate yielded pure zeolite Y at the conventional synthesis conditions. The extent of purity of zeolite Y depends on the surface areas of aluminosilicate precursors. A novel approach to zeolite Y synthesis was employed for the preparation of the pure nanosized zeolite Y. This was achieved by applying the method of impregnation of precipitated silica. This novel method of impregnation for zeolite Y preparation allows eliminating the vigorous agitation step required for the preparation of a homogeneous silica solution, thereby simplifying the synthesis of zeolite Y in one single vessel. In case of the synthesis of nanosized zeolite Y, the effect of varying the organic templates on the formation of nanosized particles of zeolite Y was investigated, while all other reaction parameters were kept constant. The extent to which the nanosized zeolite Y was formed depended on the types and amount of the organic templates as well as the ageing duration. The activity testing of four FCC catalysts prepared by using CREY (Calcined Rare Earth ion-exchanged) zeolites with different particle sizes was carried out in a fluidized bench-scale batch riser simulator reactor. The starting zeolites NaY of different particle sizes were subjected to two cycles of ion exchange treatment. The particle size of the supported zeolites was varied between 150 and 1800 nm. The preparation of FCC catalysts was conducted by mixing the CREY zeolite with silica-alumina matrix and silica sol binder. Each catalyst contained 25% zeolite. The results of catalytic cracking demonstrated the significant effect of size reduction of the starting zeolite Y on catalytic performance of FCC catalyst. Keywords. Zeolite NaY, Faujasite, Nanosized particles, Nanozeolite, Nanotechnology, Synthesis, Crystallization, Seeding, Ageing, Precipitated silica, Sylopol silica, Fumed silica, Silica sol, Soluble silicates, Alumina, SAR or SiO2/Al2O3 Ratios, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium aluminate, Organic templates, TMAOH, Surfactant (CTAB), Ammonium Sulfate, BET surface area, BJH Pore Size Distribution, Zetasizer Particle Size Distribution, Powder XRD, 27Al Solid-State NMR, Catalytic Impregnation, CREY Zeolite, Silica-Alumina Matrix, Ion Exchange, FCC Catalyst, Catalytic cracking, Riser SimulatorRTM, Steaming, Zeolite HY, Utrastable Zeolite Y (USY)

  17. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  18. Effect of different glasses in glass bonded zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.; Verma, S.

    1995-05-01

    A mineral waste form has been developed for chloride waste salt generated during the pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of salt-occluded zeolite powders bound within a glass matrix. The zeolite contains the salt and immobilizes the fission products. The zeolite powders are hot pressed to form a mechanically stable, durable glass bonded zeolite. Further development of glass bonded zeolite as a waste form requires an understanding of the interaction between the glass and the zeolite. Properties of the glass that enhance binding and durability of the glass bonded zeolite need to be identified. Three types of glass, boroaluminosilicate, soda-lime silicate, and high silica glasses, have a range of properties and are now being investigated. Each glass was hot pressed by itself and with an equal amount of zeolite. MCC-1 leach tests were run on both. Soda-lime silicate and high silica glasses did not give a durable glass bonded zeolite. Boroaluminosilicate glasses rich in alkaline earths did bind the zeolite and gave a durable glass bonded zeolite. Scanning electron micrographs suggest that the boroaluminosilicate glasses wetted the zeolite powders better than the other glasses. Development of the glass bonded zeolite as a waste form for chloride waste salt is continuing.

  19. Sonochemical synthesis of zeolite NaP from clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Behin, Jamshid; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, natural clinoptilolite was converted to zeolite NaP using ultrasonic energy, in which the transformation time shortened remarkably. The effect of post-synthesis treatment using conventional hydrothermal was also investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, TGA/DTA, SEM, and PSD analysis. The results showed that, increasing the sonication time (energy) has no significant effect on the product's morphology. The crystallinity of the synthesized samples increased slightly with increasing sonication time, but their yield remained relatively unchanged. Furthermore, post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment showed very little influence on properties of the final product. Because the ultrasonic irradiation creates acoustic cavitation cracks on the surface structure of clinoptilolite particulates and increases the concentration of soluble alumino-silicate species, which favors the prevailing super-saturation, crystallization and crystal growth of zeolite NaP happen faster. The particles of zeolite NaP synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation consist of small crystallites of uniform size. PMID:26341462

  20. Synthesis of hierarchical micro/mesoporous structures via solid-aqueous interface growth: zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 on siliceous mesocellular foams for enhanced pervaporation of water/ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sue, Yu-Chain; Wu, Jhe-Wei; Chung, Shao-En; Kang, Chao-Hsiang; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wu, Kevin C-W; Shieh, Fa-Kuen

    2014-04-01

    A new hierarchical micro/mesoporous composite is synthesized via direct growth of microporous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) on siliceous mesocellular foams (MCF). Depending on different synthetic conditions, ZIF-8 with two different particle sizes, i.e., ZIF-8 microparticles and ZIF-8 nanoparticles, were successfully formed on the external surface of amine-functionalized MCF (denoted as microZIF-8@MCF and nanoZIF-8@MCF, respectively). The synthesized hierarchical micro/mesoporous ZIF-8@MCF structures were characterized with several spectroscopic techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state NMR, and FT-IR and electron microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscope, SEM, and transmission electron microscopy, TEM). In addition, the pervaporation measurements of the liquid water/ethanol mixture show that nanoZIF-8@MCF/PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol) mixed-matrix membrane exhibits enhanced performance both on the permeability and separation factor. Compared to conventional routes for chemical etching, this study demonstrates a promising and simple strategy for synthesizing novel hierarchical porous composites exhibiting both advantages of mesoporous materials and microporous materials, which is expected to be useful for gas adsorption, separation, and catalysis. PMID:24625412

  1. Design of Microporous Material HUS-10 with Tunable Hydrophilicity, Molecular Sieving, and CO2 Adsorption Ability Derived from Interlayer Silylation of Layered Silicate HUS-2.

    PubMed

    Tsunoji, Nao; Yuki, Sota; Oumi, Yasunori; Sekikawa, Miyuki; Sasaki, Yukichi; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2015-11-01

    The attractive properties of zeolites, which make them suitable for numerous applications for the energy and chemical industries and for life sciences, are derived from their crystalline framework structures. Herein, we describe the rational synthesis of a microporous material, HUS-10, utilizing a layered silicate precursor, HUS-2, as a structural building unit. For the ordered micropores to be formed, interlayer pillars that supported the original silicate layer of HUS-2 were immobilized through the interlayer silylation of silanol groups with trichloromethylsilane and a subsequent dehydration-condensation reaction of the hydroxyl groups on the preintroduced tetrahedral units. An actual molecular sieving ability, enabling the adsorption of molecules smaller than ethane, was confirmed in the ordered micropores of HUS-10. The hydrophilic adsorption could also be controlled by changing the number of methyl and hydroxyl groups in the immobilized interlayer pillars. In addition, when the adsorption behaviors of CO2, CH4, and N2 on HUS-10 were compared to those on siliceous MFI and CDO zeolites with approximately the same pore diameter, the CO2 adsorption capacity of HUS-10 was comparable. Conversely, because of the adsorption inhibition of CH4 and N2, HUS-10 exhibited larger CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 adsorption ratios relative to those of MFI and CDO zeolites. These results reveal that the unique microporous framework structure presented by the rational structural design using the layered silicate precursor HUS-2 has the potential to separate CO2 from gas mixtures. PMID:26479449

  2. Vapor Phase Transport Synthesis of Zeolites from Sol-Gel Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    THOMA,STEVEN G.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-07-14

    A study of zeolite crystallization from sol-gel precursors using the vapor phase transport synthesis method has been performed. Zeolites (ZSM-5, ZSM-48, Zeolite P, and Sodalite) were crystallized by contacting vapor phase organic or organic-water mixtures with dried sodium silicate and dried sodium alumino-silicate gels. For each precursor gel, a ternary phase system of vapor phase organic reactant molecules was explored. The vapor phase reactant mixtures ranged from pure ethylene diamene, triethylamine, or water, to an equimolar mixture of each. In addition, a series of gels with varied physical and chemical properties were crystallized using the same vapor phase solvent mixture for each gel. The precursor gels and the crystalline products were analyzed via Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray mapping, X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen surface area, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and thermal analyses. The product phase and purity as a function of the solvent mixture, precursor gel structure, and precursor gel chemistry is discussed.

  3. Ionic Liquid assisted Synthesis of Zeolite-TON

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuyang; McPherson, Matthew J; Wheatley, Paul S; Morris, Russell E

    2014-01-01

    An ionic liquid assisted strategy for the synthesis of zeolitic material is reported. This strategy is a solid state synthetic method and the ionic liquid is employed as structure directing agent. A TON-type zeolite, which contains one-dimensional 10-member-ring, is successfully synthesized with the assistance of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide. This finding improves our understanding about the challenge of ionothermally synthesizing siliceous and aluminosilicate zeolites. PMID:26213423

  4. Growth of zeolite crystals in the microgravity environment of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Sand, L. B.; Collette, D.; Dieselman, K.; Crowley, J.; Feitelberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    Zeolites are hydrated, crystalline aluminosilicates with alkali and alkaling earth metals substituted into cation vacancies. Typically zeolite crystals are 3 to 8 microns. Larger cyrstals are desirable. Large zeolite crystals were produced (100 to 200 microns); however, they have taken restrictively long times to grow. It was proposed if the rate of nucleation or in some other way the number of nuclei can be lowered, fewer, larger crystals will be formed. The microgravity environment of space may provide an ideal condition to achieve rapid growth of large zeolite crystals. The objective of the project is to establish if large zeolite crystals can be formed rapidly in space.

  5. Early age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in natural zeolite blended cements: Reaction kinetics and products by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, R.; Mertens, G.; Cizer, O.; Elsen, J.

    2010-12-15

    The in situ early-age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in cements blended with natural zeolites were investigated by time-resolved synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. Chabazite and Na-, K-, and Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite materials were mixed with Portland cement in a 3:7 weight ratio and hydrated in situ at 40 {sup o}C. The evolution of phase contents showed that the addition of natural zeolites accelerates the onset of C{sub 3}S hydration and precipitation of CH and AFt. Kinetic analysis of the consumption of C{sub 3}S indicates that the enveloping C-S-H layer is thinner and/or less dense in the presence of alkali-exchanged clinoptilolite pozzolans. The zeolite pozzolanic activity is interpreted to depend on the zeolite exchangeable cation content and on the crystallinity. The addition of natural zeolites alters the structural evolution of the C-S-H product. Longer silicate chains and a lower C/S ratio are deduced from the evolution of the C-S-H b-cell parameter.

  6. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na{sub 2}O added as NAOH instead of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to avoid severe foaming due to CO{sub 2} evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  7. [What a physician should know about zeolites].

    PubMed

    Borani?, M

    2000-01-01

    Zeolites are natural and synthetic hydrated crystalline aluminosilicates endowed with absorptive and ion exchange properties. They have found numerous and multifarous applications--in industry as catalysts and absorbents, in water sanitation for the removal of ammonia and heavy metals, in agriculture as fertilizers, and in animal husbandry as the absorbents of excreted material and as food additives. Medical applications have included the use in filtration systems for anesthesia or dialysis and as the contrast materials in NMR imaging. Recently, zeolite powders for external use have found application as deodorants, antimycotic agents and wound dressings. Peroral use of encapsulated zeolite powders enriched with vitamins, oligoelements or other ingredients has been claimed to exert beneficial medical effects. Ingestion of zeolites may be considered analogous to the clay eating (geophagia), considered in traditional medicine as a remedy for various illnesses. Being amphoteric, zeolites are partly soluble in acid or alkaline media, but within the physiological pH range the solubility is generally low. Minimal amounts of free aluminium or silicium from the ingested zeolites are resorbed from the gut. The bulk of ingested zeolite probably remains undissolved in the gut. In view of the ion exchange properties, zeolites may be expected to change the ionic content, pH and buffering capacity of the gastrointestinal secretions and to affect the transport through the intestinal epithelium. In addition, zeolites could affect the bacterial flora and the resorption of bacterial products, vitamins and oligoelements. The contact of zeolite particles with gastrointestinal mucosa may elicit the secretion of cytokines with local and systemic actions. Reactive silicium ions might react with biomolecules of the intestinal epithelium, and if resorbed, do so in other cells. Mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of zeolite particles have been described, resembling such effects of asbestos fibers. Thus, local and systemic effects of zeolites may be complex and interrelated, and an objective assessment requires appropriate experimental models. PMID:11291273

  8. Zeolite-like liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Silvio; Lehmann, Anne; Scholte, Alexander; Prehm, Marko; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    Zeolites represent inorganic solid-state materials with porous structures of fascinating complexity. Recently, significant progress was made by reticular synthesis of related organic solid-state materials, such as metal-organic or covalent organic frameworks. Herein we go a step further and report the first example of a fluid honeycomb mimicking a zeolitic framework. In this unique self-assembled liquid crystalline structure, transverse-lying ?-conjugated rod-like molecules form pentagonal channels, encircling larger octagonal channels, a structural motif also found in some zeolites. Additional bundles of coaxial molecules penetrate the centres of the larger channels, unreachable by chains attached to the honeycomb framework. This creates a unique fluid hybrid structure combining positive and negative anisotropies, providing the potential for tuning the directionality of anisotropic optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This work also demonstrates a new approach to complex soft-matter self-assembly, by using frustration between space filling and the entropic penalty of chain extension.

  9. Single and Multiple Heteroatom Incorporation in MFI Zeolites 

    E-print Network

    Garcia Vargas, Nataly

    2012-11-05

    Zeolites are crystalline inorganic solids that are industrially used for adsorption, ion exchange and catalysis. As catalysts, they have been particularly successful in the hydrocarbon processing industry due to their ...

  10. Carbonatization effect on basaltic glass and silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmann, G. J.; Wolff-Boenisch, D.; Gislason, S.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Combined silicate dissolution and carbonatization experiments were conducted on basaltic glass and five different silicate minerals (augite, diopside, enstatite, labradorite, olivine) using mixed-flow reactors at 25 and 70°C. The aim of the study was to see if a) dissolving silicates acting as the Ca-source lead to calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of a carbonate-bearing aqueous solution, b) whether different crystallographical properties of the silicates play a role for how much calcite is precipitating, and finally c) whether carbonate coatings affect the silicate dissolution rates. All experiments were conducted within the context of ';CarbFix', an international CO2 sequestration project in Iceland with the aim to trap CO2 through mineral carbonatization in basaltic rocks. A substantial part of the Icelandic lithology comprises basaltic glass. This glass is rich in divalent cations and easily dissolved compared to basaltic silicate minerals, which makes it interesting for CO2 mineralization efforts. In the crystalline basalt, the dominant minerals are plagioclase (labradorite), clinopyroxene (augite), and Mg-rich olivine, which were therefore chosen for this study. Diopside (cpx) and enstatite (opx) were included because more literature data are available for these pyroxenes than for augite. Basaltic glass proved viable as a Ca-source to form calcium carbonates at pH 8-10 at both 25 and 70°C. However, at 70°C the formation of zeolites competed with the carbonates for the Ca. Both calcite and aragonite were forming and co-existing in the case of basaltic glass. In all other experiments, calcite was the only carbonate phase found. To maximize the effect of carbonate coatings, a mixed-reactor with two inlets was developed; a Ca-bearing and a CO3-bearing. In two different sets of experiments at 25°C the saturation index of calcite in the mixed inlet solution was 1) 0.6 and 2) ~1.8, respectively. The high-saturation experiments 2) were tested on basaltic glass and diopside. Massive calcite coatings formed on the diopside crystals, whereas the basaltic glass surfaces were carbonate-free as all calcite-aragonite mass appeared in big separate clusters. The low-saturation experiments 1) were tested on basaltic glass, enstatite, augite, olivine, and labradorite and showed different degrees of calcite precipitation on the silicate surfaces with least on basaltic glass and most on enstatite and olivine. We attribute this to a crystallographical match effect favoring trigonal calcite precipitation on the orthorhombic minerals in our study, whereas glass with its non-ordered silicate structure turned out to be a less favorable growing substrate. For all carbonatization experiments, a dissolution experiment of the same silicate in a precipitation-free environment was conducted in order to compare dissolution rates with and without carbonates present. No effect of carbonate coatings was found to affect the silicate dissolution rates, and no passivating silicate surface layers were forming in any of the experiments.

  11. Flexibility mechanisms in ideal zeolite frameworks.

    PubMed

    Treacy, M M J; Dawson, C J; Kapko, V; Rivin, I

    2014-02-13

    Zeolites are microporous crystalline aluminosilicate materials whose atomic structures can be usefully modelled in purely mechanical terms as stress-free periodic trusses constructed from rigid corner-connected SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedra. When modelled this way, all of the known synthesized zeolite frameworks exhibit a range of densities, known as the flexibility window, over which they satisfy the framework mechanical constraints. Within the flexibility window internal stresses are accommodated by force-free coordinated rotations of the tetrahedra about their apices (oxygen atoms). We use rigidity theory to explore the folding mechanisms within the flexibility window, and derive an expression for the configurational entropic density throughout the flexibility window. By comparison with the structures of pure silica zeolite materials, we conclude that configurational entropy associated with the flexibility modes is not a dominant thermodynamic term in most bulk zeolite crystals. Nevertheless, the presence of a flexibility window in an idealized hypothetical tetrahedral framework may be thermodynamically important at the nucleation stage of zeolite formation, suggesting that flexibility is a strong indicator that the topology is realizable as a zeolite. Only a small fraction of the vast number of hypothetical zeolites that are known exhibit flexibility. The absence of a flexibility window may explain why so few hypothetical frameworks are realized in nature. PMID:24379426

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of natural zeolite stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    Zeolites occur in a variety of geologic environments and are used in numerous agricultural, commercial, and environmental applications. It is desirable to understand their stability both to predict future stability and to evaluate the geochemical conditions resulting in their formation. The use of estimated thermodynamic data for measured zeolite compositions allows thermodynamic modeling of stability relationships among zeolites in different geologic environments (diagenetic, saline and alkaline lakes, acid rock hydrothermal, basic rock, deep sea sediments). This modeling shows that the relative cation abundances in both the aqueous and solid phases, the aqueous silica activity, and temperature are important factors in determining the stable zeolite species. Siliceous zeolites (e.g., clinoptilolite, mordenite, erionite) present in saline and alkaline lakes or diagenetic deposits formed at elevated silica activities. Aluminous zeolites (e.g., natrolite, mesolite/scolecite, thomsonite) formed in basic rocks in association with reduced silica activities. Likewise, phillipsite formation is favored by reduced aqueous silica activities. The presence of erionite, chabazite, and phillipsite are indicative of environments with elevated potassium concentrations. Elevated temperature, calcic water conditions, and reduced silica activity help to enhance the laumontite and wairakite stability fields. Analcime stability increases with increased temperature and aqueous Na concentration, and/or with decreased silica activity.

  13. A pair distribution function analysis of zeolite beta

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Inesta, M.M.; Peral, I.; Proffen, T.; Lobo, R.F.

    2010-07-20

    We describe the structural refinement of zeolite beta using the local structure obtained with the pair distribution function (PDF) method. A high quality synchrotron and two neutron scattering datasets were obtained on two samples of siliceous zeolite beta. The two polytypes that make up zeolite beta have the same local structure; therefore refinement of the two structures was possible using the same experimental PDF. Optimized structures of polytypes A and B were used to refine the structures using the program PDFfit. Refinements using only the synchrotron or the neutron datasets gave results inconsistent with each other but a cyclic refinement with the two datasets gave a good fit to both PDFs. The results show that the PDF method is a viable technique to analyze the local structure of disordered zeolites. However, given the complexity of most zeolite frameworks, the use of both X-ray and neutron radiation and high-resolution patterns is essential to obtain reliable refinements.

  14. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on zeolite NaA synthesized from by-product silica.

    PubMed

    Vai?iukynien?, Danut?; Kantautas, Aras; Vaitkevi?ius, Vitoldas; Jakevi?ius, Leonas; Rudžionis, Žymantas; Paškevi?ius, Mantas

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of zeolite NaA from silica by-product was carried out in the presence of 20 kHz ultrasound at room temperature. Zeolites obtained in this type of synthesis were compared to zeolites obtained by performing conventional static syntheses under similar conditions. The sonication effects on zeolite NaA synthesis were characterized by phase identification, crystallinity etc. The effects of different parameters such as crystallization time and initial materials preparation methods on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized zeolites were investigated. The final products were characterized by XRD and FT-IR. It was possible to obtain crystalline zeolite NaA from by-product silica in the presence of ultrasound. PMID:26186874

  15. Factors that Determine Zeolite Stability in Hot Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Kuizhi; Chen, Banghao; White, Jeffery L; Resasco, Daniel E

    2015-09-16

    The susceptibility of zeolites to hot liquid water may hamper their full utilization in aqueous phase processes, such as those involved in biomass conversion and upgrading reactions. Interactions of zeolites with water strongly depend on the presence of hydrophilic moieties including Brønsted acid sites (BAS), extraframework cations, and silanol defects, which facilitate wetting of the surface. However, it is not clear which of these moieties are responsible for the susceptibility of zeolites to liquid water. Previous studies have offered contradictory explanations because the role of each of these characteristics has not been investigated independently. In this work, a systematic comparison has been attempted by relating crystallinity losses to the variation of each of the five zeolite characteristics that may influence their stability in liquid water, including number of BAS, Si-O-Si bonds, framework type, silanol defects, and extraframework Al. In this study, we have systematically monitored the crystallinity changes of a series of HY, H-ZSM-5, and H-? zeolite samples with varying Si/Al ratio, density of BAS, zeolite structure, and density of silanol defects upon exposure to liquid water at 200 °C. The results of this comparison unambiguously indicate that the density of silanol defects plays the most crucial role in determining susceptibility of zeolites to hot liquid water. By functionalizing the silanol defects with organosilanes, the hydrophobicity of defective zeolite is increased and the tolerance to hot liquid water is significantly enhanced. PMID:26301890

  16. Novel long-term immobilization method for radioactive iodine-129 using a zeolite/apatite composite sintered body.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yujiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Suetsugu, Yasushi; Komatsu, Yu; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Moriyoshi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Junzo

    2009-07-01

    The amount of radioactive iodine generated from nuclear power plants is expected to increase with the proliferation of nuclear energy production, and long-term immobilization methods for such radioactive elements need to be developed to make nuclear energy sustainable. The standard immobilization method of radioactive elements, vitrification, is not very effective for radioactive iodine-129 because of the low solubility of iodine in silicate melts, its very high volatility at standard vitrification process temperatures, and its instability in the alkaline environment of deep geological layers below 300 m. We have developed a novel three-phase ceramic composite produced by a sintering process. Iodine adsorbed onto Ca-type zeolite A was covered with a hydroxyapatite nanolayer through the exchange reaction of ammonium with calcium. Clusters of iodine of 30 nm within the zeolite structure were found to be thermally stable up to 1253 K because of the partial blockage of the alpha-cage apertures by ammonium ions and the partial change from a crystalline phase to an amorphous phase at 473 K. No gasification of iodine molecules was found to occur during the sintering process. The outer phase was highly crystalline hydroxyfluorapatite in which the hydroxyapatite nanolayer plays an important role for successful sintering. The elution of iodine in low-dioxygen water, similar to that found within the Earth's crust, was investigated and was found to occur only in the surface layer of the sintered body. PMID:20355964

  17. Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2007-09-30

    The objective of this project is to synthesize nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y nanoclusters, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates, and evaluate the 'zeolite Y/Nanoporous host' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. In comparison to conventionally-used zeolite Y catalysts of micron size particles, the nanocrystals (< 100 nm particle size) which contain shorter path lengths, are expected to allow faster diffusion of large hydrocarbon substrates and the catalysis products within and out of the zeolite's channels and cages (<1 nm size). This is expected to significantly reduce deactivation of the catalyst and to prolong their period of reactivity. Encapsulating zeolite Y nanocrystals within the nanoporous materials is expected to protect its external surfaces and pore entrances from being blocked by large hydrocarbon substrates, since these substrates will initially be converted to small molecules by the nanoporous host (a catalyst in its own right). The project consisted of four major tasks as follows: (1) synthesis of the nanoparticles of zeolite Y (of various chemical compositions) using various techniques such as the addition of organic additives to conventional zeolite Y synthesis mixtures to suppress zeolite Y crystal growth; (2) synthesis of nanoporous silicate host materials of up to 30 nm pore diameter, using poly (alkylene oxide) copolymers which when removed will yield a mesoporous material; (3) synthesis of zeolite Y/Nanoporous Host composite materials as potential catalysts; and (4) evaluation of the catalyst for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks.

  18. Zeolite-like liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Silvio; Lehmann, Anne; Scholte, Alexander; Prehm, Marko; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites represent inorganic solid-state materials with porous structures of fascinating complexity. Recently, significant progress was made by reticular synthesis of related organic solid-state materials, such as metal-organic or covalent organic frameworks. Herein we go a step further and report the first example of a fluid honeycomb mimicking a zeolitic framework. In this unique self-assembled liquid crystalline structure, transverse-lying ?-conjugated rod-like molecules form pentagonal channels, encircling larger octagonal channels, a structural motif also found in some zeolites. Additional bundles of coaxial molecules penetrate the centres of the larger channels, unreachable by chains attached to the honeycomb framework. This creates a unique fluid hybrid structure combining positive and negative anisotropies, providing the potential for tuning the directionality of anisotropic optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This work also demonstrates a new approach to complex soft-matter self-assembly, by using frustration between space filling and the entropic penalty of chain extension. PMID:26486751

  19. Zeolite-like liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, Silvio; Lehmann, Anne; Scholte, Alexander; Prehm, Marko; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites represent inorganic solid-state materials with porous structures of fascinating complexity. Recently, significant progress was made by reticular synthesis of related organic solid-state materials, such as metal-organic or covalent organic frameworks. Herein we go a step further and report the first example of a fluid honeycomb mimicking a zeolitic framework. In this unique self-assembled liquid crystalline structure, transverse-lying ?-conjugated rod-like molecules form pentagonal channels, encircling larger octagonal channels, a structural motif also found in some zeolites. Additional bundles of coaxial molecules penetrate the centres of the larger channels, unreachable by chains attached to the honeycomb framework. This creates a unique fluid hybrid structure combining positive and negative anisotropies, providing the potential for tuning the directionality of anisotropic optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This work also demonstrates a new approach to complex soft-matter self-assembly, by using frustration between space filling and the entropic penalty of chain extension. PMID:26486751

  20. ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

  1. The recyclable synthesis of hierarchical zeolite SAPO-34 with excellent MTO catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongyang; Sun, Qiming; Chen, Xiaoxin; Wang, Ning; Yu, Jihong

    2015-08-01

    A facile and green route has been developed for the synthesis of hierarchical zeolite catalysts by recycling of waste mother-liquors. After three recycles of mother-liquors, the obtained hierarchical SAPO-34 zeolites retain high crystallinity, texture properties, and acidity, as well as excellent MTO catalytic performance as compared to the initially prepared catalysts. PMID:26121259

  2. Silanization-Based Zeolite Crystallization: Participation Degree and Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yueer; Azhati, Arepati; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Yahong; Tang, Yi

    2015-08-17

    A clear and deep understanding of zeolite crystallization with the addition of organosilane is desirable for the reasonable design and preparation of hierarchical zeolites. Herein, the effects of different organosilanes on zeolite crystallization were systematically studied. It was found that organosilane plays the role of an inhibitor in the silanization-based zeolite preparation, and this inhibition effect was determined by its participation degree. An organosilane with a high participation degree can result in the prolongation of nucleation and growth periods of zeolite as well as the variation of product properties. More importantly, a dynamic participation pathway of organosilane is proposed, that is, the growth of zeolite is accompanied by the continuous removal of organosilane, leading to an increase of product crystallinity as well as the decrease of mesoporosity. This study gives a new insight into the role that organosilane plays in zeolite crystallization, which will help to direct the rational selection of organosilane and design of crystallization condition for the optimal synthesis of hierarchical zeolites. PMID:26173899

  3. Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Susan A.; Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby; Provis, John L.; Rose, Volker

    2010-06-15

    Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO{sub 2}-rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na{sup +} present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na{sup +} for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

  4. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy.

    PubMed

    Jurki?, Lela Munjas; Cepanec, Ivica; Paveli?, Sandra Kraljevi?; Paveli?, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources. PMID:23298332

  5. Effect of reaction mixture composition and silica source on size distribution of zeolite X crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekin, Rumeysa; Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert

    2015-02-01

    Zeolite X crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization from gels with different compositions. The syntheses were performed at 95 °C using different silica sources such as sodium metasilicate anhydrous, sodium metasilicate pentahydrate, silicate solution and Cab-O-Sil. Triethanolamine was used in some syntheses in order to grow large crystals. Zeolite X crystals with diameters in the range of 1-220 ?m were obtained, and Cab-O-Sil in concert with triethanolamine yielded the largest crystals.

  6. Growth of large zeolite crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Dixon, A.; Thompson, R.; Scott, G.; Ditr, J.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis studies performed using close analogs of triethanolamine (TEA) have shown that all three hydroxyl groups and the amine group in this molecule are necessary to provide nucleation suppression. Studies using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the hydroxyl ions and the amine group are involved in the formation of an aluminum complex. It was also shown that silicate species fo not interact this way with TEA in an alkaline solution. These results suggest that successful aluminum complexation leads to nucleation in zeolite-A crystallization.

  7. EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

  8. Zeolite synthesis from fly ash and cement kiln dust

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    Zeolites added to portland cement paste normally undergo a pozzolanic reaction. However, if the composition of the cement is modified by blending it with fly ash, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that forms has a low CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio which allows it to coexist with a zeolite. In fact, if one adds alkali to the system, it then becomes possible to nucleate and grow a zeolitic phase with C-S-H. Normally zeolites that form from fly ash and NaOH include NaP-1 and analcime. But when the fly ash and NaOH are mixed with cement kiln dust, cancrinite-like phases and tobermorite form instead. This implies that a zeolite-containing monolith could be produced that would exhibit both the cation-exchange and adsorptive properties of zeolites while retaining the characteristic strength and ease of use attributable to cement based materials. These composites show promise as a new class of inexpensive cation exchange and/or chemical adsorbents that can be used for large scale applications.

  9. Dispersible Exfoliated Zeolite Nanosheets and Their Application as a Selective Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Varoon, Kumar; Zhang, Xueyi; Elyassi, Bahman; Brewer, Damien D.; Gettel, Melissa; Kumar, Sandeep; Lee, J. Alex; Maheshwari, Sundeep; Mittal, Anudha; Sung, Chun-Yi; Cococcioni, Matteo; Francis, Lorraine F.; McCormick, Alon V.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2011-10-06

    Thin zeolite films are attractive for a wide range of applications, including molecular sieve membranes, catalytic membrane reactors, permeation barriers, and low-dielectric-constant materials. Synthesis of thin zeolite films using high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets is desirable because of the packing and processing advantages of the nanosheets over isotropic zeolite nanoparticles. Attempts to obtain a dispersed suspension of zeolite nanosheets via exfoliation of their lamellar precursors have been hampered because of their structure deterioration and morphological damage (fragmentation, curling, and aggregation). We demonstrated the synthesis and structure determination of highly crystalline nanosheets of zeolite frameworks MWW and MFI. The purity and morphological integrity of these nanosheets allow them to pack well on porous supports, facilitating the fabrication of molecular sieve membranes.

  10. Rapid crystallization of faujasitic zeolites: mechanism and application to zeolite membrane growth on polymer supports.

    PubMed

    Severance, Michael; Wang, Bo; Ramasubramanian, Kartik; Zhao, Lin; Ho, W S Winston; Dutta, Prabir K

    2014-06-17

    Zeolites are microporous, crystalline aluminosilicates with the framework made up of T-O-T (T = Si, Al) bonds and enclosed cages and channels of molecular dimensions. Influencing and manipulating the nucleation and growth characteristics of zeolites can lead to novel frameworks and morphologies, as well as decreased crystallization time. In this study, we show that manipulating the supersaturation during synthesis of zeolite X/Y (FAU) via dehydration led to extensive nucleation. Controlled addition of water to this nucleated state promotes the transport of nutrients, with a 4-fold increase in the rate of crystal growth, as compared to conventional hydrothermal process. Structural signature of the nucleated state was obtained by electron microscopy, NMR, and Raman spectroscopy. This extensively intermediate nucleated state was isolated and used as the starting material for zeolite membrane synthesis on porous polymer supports, with membrane formation occurring within an hour. With this time frame for growth, it becomes practical to fabricate zeolite/polymer membranes using roll-to-roll technology, thus making possible new commercial applications. PMID:24758695

  11. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Prócoro; Almanza, José Manuel; Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascención; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, María

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 degrees C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na(2)HAsO(4).7H(2)O originally containing 740 ppb. PMID:20537461

  12. Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of transition-metal-containing zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transition metal containing zeolites (zeolite A and ZSM-5) were prepared by addition of various transition metal containing substrates to zeolite synthesis gels. Crystal growth data were recorded in order to determine the influence of the transition metal species on the rate of crystal growth. X-ray diffraction, oxygen adsorption, FTIR and SEM were utilized to evaluate crystal purity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical analysis and electron microprobe analysis were performed in order to ascertain the position (intrazeolitic versus surface) and homogeneity of the transition metal. It was concluded that intrazeolitic transition metals are produced by the novel procedure presented in this work. 1-Hexane hydroformylation by rhodium zeolite A showed intrazeolitic rhodium to migrate to the external surface of the zeolite. However, in the presence of a solution and surface rhodium poison, intrazeolitic rhodium was found to hydroformylate 1-hexene exclusively to heptanal. Ruthenium containing zeolite A was evaluated under CO-hydrogenation conditions. No migration of intrazeolitic ruthenium to the external surface of the zeolite was observed over the course of the reaction. The product distribution obtained for this catalyst did not follow a log normal behavior. Also, loss of zeolite crystallinity was observed following the reaction. Cobalt ZSM-5 was evaluated under CO-hydrogenation conditions. No migration of cobalt to the external surface of the zeolite occurred. XPS analysis of the catalyst following various stages of the reaction indicated that intrazeolitic cobalt was not reduced to the zero valent state. Consequently, the non-zero valent cobalt was not capable of hydrogenating carbon monoxide.

  14. Diagram of Zeolite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

  15. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  16. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons up to C9, a performance attesting the hierarchal pore structure. The preliminary techno-economic feasibility assessment demonstrates a net energy saving of 75% and cost saving of 63% compared to the commercial zeolite manufacturing process.

  17. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  18. ZEOLITE CHARACTERIZATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, W; Herbert Nigg, H

    2007-09-13

    The Savannah River Site isolates tritium from its process streams for eventual recycling. This is done by catalyzing the formation of tritiated water (from process streams) and then sorbing that water on a 3A zeolite (molsieve) bed. The tritium is recovered by regenerating the saturated bed into a Mg-based water cracking unit. The process described has been in use for about 15 years. Recently chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was noted in the system piping. This has resulted in the need to replace the corroded piping and associated molecular sieve beds. The source of chlorine has been debated and one possible source is the zeolite itself. Since new materials are being purchased for recently fabricated beds, a more comprehensive analysis protocol for characterizing zeolite has been developed. Tests on archived samples indicate the potential for mobile chloride species to be generated in the zeolite beds.

  19. Crystalline Silica

    Cancer.gov

    An abundant natural material, crystalline silica is found in stone, soil, and sand. It is also found in concrete, brick, mortar, and other construction materials. Crystalline silica comes in several forms, with quartz being the most common. Quartz dust is respirable crystalline silica, which means it can be taken in by breathing.

  20. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B.; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact. PMID:26482337

  1. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B.; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-10-01

    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact.

  2. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact. PMID:26482337

  3. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  4. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Wang, Bo

    2013-07-09

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  5. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Yaghi, Omar M; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P

    2012-11-20

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  6. Effect of synthetic conditions on the adsorption properties of the resulting offretite-type zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshunova, K. K.; Travkina, O. S.; Kapustin, G. I.; Kustov, L. M.; Pavlov, M. L.; Kutepov, B. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the nature of the silicon-containing component of the reaction mixture and that of the crystallization conditions on characteristics of the resulting offretite-type zeolite powder, including its degree of crystallinity, particle-size distribution, and adsorption properties with respect to toluene, cyclohexane, n-hexane, and water molecules, are considered. The thermal desorption of toluene from cationic forms of the offretite-type zeolite is reported. The K-forms of this zeolite can retain adsorbed toluene up to 300-400°C.

  7. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    E-print Network

    Nair, Sankar

    Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations Wun. The exfoliated SAMH-3 flakes were used to form SAMH-3/cellulose acetate (CA) membranes. Their micro- structure of each type of material [4]. Various inorganic porous materials such as zeolite, metal oxide nanotubes

  8. Sol-gel synthesis and luminescence of unexpected microrod crystalline Ca 5La 5(SiO 4) 3(PO 4) 3O 2:Dy 3+ phosphors employing different silicate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Huang, Honghua

    2007-08-01

    Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2 doped with Dy3+ were synthesized by sol-gel technology with hybrid precursor employed four different silicate sources, 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APMS), 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APES), 3-aminopropyl-methyl-diethoxysilane (APMES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), respectively. The SEM diagraphs show that there exist some novel unexpected morphological structures of microrod owing to the crosslinking reagents than TEOS as silicate source for their amphipathy template effect. X-ray pictures confirm that Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Dy3+ compound is formed by a pure apatitic phase. The Dy3+ ions could emit white light in Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2 compound, and the ratio of Y/B is 1.1, when the Dy3+ doped concentration is 1.0 mol%.

  9. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  10. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, B.

    2009-08-10

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 {mu}m silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 {mu}m, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of {approx}2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of {approx}87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a {approx}26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  11. Mg/Fe FRACTIONATION IN CIRCUMSTELLAR SILICATE DUST INVOLVED IN CRYSTALLIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.; Takakura, T.; Chihara, H.; Koike, C.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    2009-05-10

    Infrared astronomical observations of oxygen-rich young and evolved stars show that only magnesium-rich crystalline silicates exist in circumstellar regions, and iron, one of the most important dust-forming elements, is extremely depleted. The compositional characteristic of circumstellar crystalline silicates is fundamentally different from that of primitive extraterrestrial materials in our solar system, such as chondritic meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Amorphous silicates are ubiquitous and abundant in space, and are a promising carrier of iron. However, since the first detection of crystalline silicates, there has been an unsolved inconsistency due to differing compositions of coexisting crystalline and amorphous phases, considering that amorphous silicates have been expected to be precursors of these crystals. Here we show the first experimental evidence that Fe-depleted olivine can be formed by crystallization via thermal heating of FeO-bearing amorphous silicates under subsolidus conditions. Mg/Fe fractionation involved in crystallization makes possible to coexist Mg-rich crystalline silicates with Fe-bearing amorphous silicates around stars.

  12. Topotactic condensation of layer silicates with ferrierite-type layers forming porous tectosilicates.

    PubMed

    Marler, B; Wang, Y; Song, J; Gies, H

    2014-07-21

    Five different hydrous layer silicates (HLSs) containing fer layers (ferrierite-type layers) were obtained by hydrothermal syntheses from mixtures of silicic acid, water and tetraalkylammonium/tetraalkylphosphonium hydroxides. The organic cations had been added as structure directing agents (SDA). A characteristic feature of the structures is the presence of strong to medium strong hydrogen bonds between the terminal silanol/siloxy groups of neighbouring layers. The five-layered silicates differ chemically only with respect to the organic cations. Structurally, they differ with respect to the arrangement of the fer layers relative to each other, which is distinct for every SDA-fer-layer system. RUB-20 (containing tetramethylammonium) and RUB-40 (tetramethylphosphonium) are monoclinic with stacking sequence AAA and shift vectors between successive layers 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.19c0 and 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.24c0, respectively. RUB-36 (diethyldimethylammonium), RUB-38 (methyltriethylammonium) and RUB-48 (trimethylisopropylammonium) are orthorhombic with stacking sequence ABAB and shift vectors 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.36c0, 0.5a0 + 0b0 + 0.5c0 and 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.39c0, respectively. Unprecedented among the HLSs, two monoclinic materials are made up of fer layers which possess a significant amount of ordered defects within the layer. The ordered defects involve one particular Si-O-Si bridge which is, to a fraction of ca. 50%, hydrolyzed to form nests of two ?Si-OH groups. When heated to 500-600 °C in air, the HLSs condense to form framework silicates. Although all layered precursors were moderately to well ordered, the resulting framework structures were of quite different crystallinity. The orthorhombic materials RUB-36, -38 and -48, general formula SDA4Si36O72(OH)4, which possess very strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ? 2.4 Å), transform into a fairly or well ordered CDO-type silica zeolite RUB-37. The monoclinic materials RUB-20 and -40, general formula SDA2Si18O36(OH)2OH, possessing medium strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ? 2.65 Å) are transformed into poorly ordered framework silicates. Some rules of thumb can be established concerning the successful zeolite synthesis via a topotactic condensation of layered precursors. Favourably, the precursor (i) possesses already a well ordered structure without defects, (ii) contains strong inter-layer hydrogen bonds and does not contain strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds and (iii) contains a suitable cation. The nature of the organic cation (size, geometry, flexibility, thermal stability) plays a key role in the formation of a microporous tectosilicate with well ordered structure. RUB-36 which meets these criteria yields a well ordered condensation product (RUB-37). PMID:24875843

  13. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The data also indicate that DXVliQP2O5 decrease in the same order, but DOVLiQP2O5 and DOpx/LiQP205 are likely constant, respectively equal to 0.08(3) and 0.007(4), in contrast, DG1ILiQP205 increases from 0.15(3) to 0.36(10) as garnet becomes majoritic, thus silica-enriched, and may also depend on liquid composition (SiO2, P2O5 and Na2O wt%).

  14. Synthesis, deposition and characterization of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures on zeolite 4A

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Pei-Yoong; Yan, Jing; Ward, Jason; Koros, William J.; Teja, Amyn S.; Xu, Bo

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reports a simple precipitation-growth method to produce nanostructures of Mg(OH){sub 2} on the surface of zeolite 4A. {yields} Able to control the growth of the nanostructures by manipulating the experimental procedure. {yields} Able to deposit Mg(OH){sub 2} onto specific sites namely bridging hydroxyl protons (SiOHAl) on the surface of zeolite 4A. -- Abstract: The precipitation and self-assembly of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH){sub 2} nanopetals on dispersed zeolite 4A particles was investigated. Mg(OH){sub 2}/zeolite nanocomposites were produced from magnesium chloride solutions and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), and solid state NMR. It was determined that Mg(OH){sub 2} interacted with bridging hydroxyl protons (SiOHAl) on the zeolite surface, but not with silanol or aluminol groups. NMR analysis showed that 13% of the tetrahedral Al sites on the zeolite were converted to octahedral Al. The zeolite structure and crystallinity remained intact after treatment, and no dealumination reactions were detected. This suggests that the deposition-precipitation process at ambient conditions is a facile method for controlling Mg(OH){sub 2} nanostructures on zeolites.

  15. Exothermic Chemical Reactions Can Drive Nonthermal Crystallization of Amorphous Silicate Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaito, Chihiro; Miyazaki, Yu; Kumamoto, Akihito; Kimura, Yuki

    2007-09-01

    To explain how cometary silicates crystallize yet still preserve volatile interstellar ices in their parent comets, we experimentally demonstrate the possibility of chemical-reaction-driven crystallization, which is called nonthermal crystallization, using laboratory-synthesized amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grains. Analog silicate grains ~50-100 nm in diameter covered with a carbonaceous layer consisting of amorphous carbon, CH 4, and other organics to a thickness of ~10-30 nm were used as models. The analog silicate grains crystallized via the direct flow of surface reaction energy, which is produced by the graphitization of the carbonaceous layer due to oxidation at room temperature in air, into the silicates. The experimental results imply that amorphous silicates are transformed into crystalline silicates as the grains leave the comet's surface, rather than as the comet was accreted 4.5 billion years ago. Thus, primordial ices and amorphous silicate grains are predicted to reside in most comets until they approach the Sun.

  16. Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates in the Far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A,; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Henry, Ross M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Silverberg, Robert f.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct interpretation of a vast array of astronomical data relies heavily on understanding the properties of silicate dust as a function of wavelength, temperature, and crystallinity. We introduce the QPASI-T (Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques) project to address the need for high fidelity optical characterization data on the various forms of astronomical dust. We use two spectrometers to provide extinction data for silicate samples across a wide wavelength range (from the near infrared to the millimeter). New experiments are in development that will provide complementary information on the emissivity of our samples, allowing us to complete the optical characterization of these dust materials. In this paper, we present initial results from several materials including amorphous iron silicate, magnesium silicate and silica smokes, over a wide range of temperatures, and discuss the design and operation of our new experiments.

  17. Monodispersed Ultrafine Zeolite Crystal Particles by Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.; Harris, Michael Tyrone; Khatri, Lubna

    2008-01-01

    Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites is reviewed. Monodispersed ultrafine crystal particles of zeolite (Silicalite-1) have been synthesized in batch reactor vessels by microwave irradiation heating of aqueous basic silicate precursor solutions with tetra propyl ammonium hydroxide as the templating molecule. The effects of major process parameters (such as synthesis temperature, microwave heating rate, volume ratio (i.e., the volume of the initial synthesis solution over the total volume of the reactor vessel), and synthesis time on the zeolite particle characteristics are studied using a computer-controlled microwave reactor system that allows real-time monitoring and control of reaction medium temperature. The changes in the morphology, size and crystal structure of the particles are investigated using scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and BET surface analysis. We have found that the synthesis temperature, volume ratio, and heating rate play a significant role in controlling the particle size, uniformity, and morphology. Microwave processing has generated new morphologies of zeolite particles (i.e., uniform block-shaped particles that contain mixed gel-nanocrystallites and agglomerated crystal particles) that could not be made by a conventional hydrothermal process. At higher synthesis temperature and lower volume ratio, irregular block-shaped particles were produced, whereas increasing the volume ratio promoted the formation of monodispersed single-crystal particles with uniform shape. Our results clearly demonstrate that faster microwave heating is advantageous to enhance the zeolite crystallization kinetics and produces larger-size crystal particles in shorter time. In addition, zeolite crystallization mechanisms, depending on the microwave heating rate, were also discussed.

  18. Association of Indigo with Zeolites for Improved Color Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejoie, Catherine; Martinetto, Pauline; Dooryhée, Eric; van Elslande, Elsa; Blanc, Sylvie; Bordat, Patrice; Brown, Ross; Porcher, Florence; Anne, Michel

    2010-10-01

    The durability of an organic colour and its resistance against external chemical agents and exposure to light can be significantly enhanced by hybridizing the natural dye with a mineral. In search for stable natural pigments, the present work focuses on the association of indigo blue with several zeolitic matrices (LTA zeolite, mordenite, MFI zeolite). The manufacturing of the hybrid pigment is tested under varying oxidising conditions, using Raman and UV-visible spectrometric techniques. Blending indigo with MFI is shown to yield the most stable composite in all of our artificial indigo pigments. In absence of defects and substituted cations such as aluminum in the framework of the MFI zeolite matrix, we show that matching the pore size with the dimensions of the guest indigo molecule is the key factor. The evidence for the high colour stability of indigo@MFI opens a new path for modeling the stability of indigo in various alumino-silicate substrates such as in the historical Maya Blue pigment.

  19. Association of indigo with zeolites for improved color stabilization.

    PubMed

    Dejoie, Catherine; Martinetto, Pauline; Dooryhée, Eric; Van Elslande, Elsa; Blanc, Sylvie; Bordat, Patrice; Brown, Ross; Porcher, Florence; Anne, Michel

    2010-10-01

    The durability of an organic color and its resistance against external chemical agents and exposure to light can be significantly enhanced by hybridizing the natural dye with a mineral. In search for stable natural pigments, the present work focuses on the association of indigo blue with several zeolitic matrices (LTA zeolite, mordenite, MFI zeolite). The manufacturing of the hybrid pigment is tested under varying oxidizing conditions, using Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometric techniques. Blending indigo with MFI is shown to yield the most stable composite in all of our artificial indigo pigments. In the absence of defects and substituted cations such as aluminum in the framework of the MFI zeolite matrix, we show that matching the pore size with the dimensions of the guest indigo molecule is the key factor. The evidence for the high color stability of indigo@MFI opens a new path for modeling the stability of indigo in various alumino-silicate substrates such as in the historical Maya Blue pigment. PMID:20925983

  20. IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad Ingram

    2003-09-03

    The focus of this project is to improve the catalytic performance of zeolite Y for petroleum hydrocracking by synthesizing nanoparticles of the zeolite ({approx}20-25 nm) inside nanoporous silicate or aluminosilicate hosts. The encapsulated zeolite nanoparticles are expected to possess reduced diffusional path lengths, hence hydrocarbon substrates will diffuse in, are converted and the products quickly diffused out. This is expected to prevent over-reaction and the blocking of the zeolite pores and active sites will be minimized. In this phase of the project, procedures for the synthesis of ordered nanoporous silica, such as SBA-15, using block copolymers and nonionic surfactant were successful reproduced. Expansion of the pores sizes of the nanoporous silica using trimethylbenzene is suggested based on shift in the major X-Ray Diffraction peak in the products to lower 2 angles compared with the parent SBA-15 material. The synthesis of ordered nanoporous materials with aluminum incorporated in the predominantly silicate framework was attempted but is not yet successful, and the procedures needs will be repeated and modified as necessary. Nanoparticles of zeolite Y of particle sizes in the range 40 nm to 120 nm were synthesized in the presence of TMAOH as the particle size controlling additive.

  1. Pyrolytic Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Sucrose on a Mesoporous Silicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Siochi, Mia; Crooks, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized from sucrose by a pyrolytic technique using mesoporous MCM-41 silicate templates without transition metal catalysts. The Nanotubes were examined in the carbon/silicate composite and after dissolution of the silicate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of the multiwall nanotubes showed them to be 15 nm in diameter, 200 nm in length and close-ended. There was variation in crystallinity with some nanotubes showing disordered wall structures.

  2. Alkalinity and formation of zeolites in saline alkaline lakes.

    PubMed

    Mariner, R H; Surdam, R C

    1970-11-27

    The solubility of rhyolitic glass increases with increasing alkalinity, whereas the ratio of silicon to aluminum decreases with increasing alkalinity. The strong correlation observed between alkalinity and zeolite mineralogy in saline, alkaline lakes is thought to be a function of this relationship between pH and the Si/Al ratio. It is suggested that this function is a result of the reaction between silicic glass and alkaline solution whereby (i) a gel forms, whose Si/Al ratio is controlled by the Si/Al ratio of the solution, and (ii) a zeolite forms from the gel, whose Si/Al ratio is, in turn, controlled by the composition of the gel. PMID:17834613

  3. Effect of ultrasound energy on the zeolitization of chemical extracts from fused coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Syed Salman; Rohani, Sohrab; Kazemian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of ultrasound (UTS) energy at different temperatures on the zeolitization of aluminosilicate constituents of coal fly ash. UTS energy irradiated directly into the reaction mixture utilizing a probe immersed into the reaction mixture, unlike previously reported works that have used UTS baths. Controlled synthesis was also conducted at constant stirring and at the same temperatures using conventional heating. The precursor reaction solution was obtained by first fusing the coal fly ash with sodium hydroxide at 550°C followed by dissolution in water and filtration. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRF, XRD, SEM and TGA. The crystallinity of crystals produced with UTS assisted conversion compared to conventional conversion at 85°C was twice as high. UTS energy also reduced the induction time from 60 min to 40 min and from 80 min to 60 min for reaction temperatures of 95°C and 85°C, respectively. Prolonging the UTS irradiation at 95°C resulted in the conversion of zeolite-A crystals to hydroxysodalite, which is a more stable zeolitic phase. It was found that at 85°C coupled with ultrasound energy produced the best crystalline structure with a pure single phase of zeolite-A. It has been shown that crystallization using UTS energy can produce zeolitic crystals at lower temperatures and within 1h, dramatically cutting the synthesis time of zeolite. PMID:26384882

  4. Synthesis of new zeolite structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyang; Corma, Avelino; Yu, Jihong

    2015-10-21

    The search for new zeolites is of continuous interest in the field of zeolite science because of their widespread application in catalysis and adsorption-separation. To this end, considerable efforts have been devoted to the preparation of new zeolites with novel porous architectures and compositions. Taking account of the key factors governing the formation of zeolites (e.g., guest species, framework elements, construction processes, etc.), several synthetic strategies have been developed recently. These allow the discovery of many new zeolites with unprecedented structural features, such as hierarchical pores, odd-ring numbers (11-, 15-rings), extra-large pores (16-, 18-, 20-, 28-, and 30-rings), chiral pores, and extremely complex framework topologies, etc. In this review, we will present the advances in the synthesis of new zeolite structures in the last decade, which are achieved by utilization of the synthetic strategies based on pre-designed structure-directing agents, heteroatom substitution, and topotactic transformations. PMID:25740693

  5. Zeolite crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert W.; Dixon, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of large, uniform zeolite crystals in high yield in space can have a major impact on the chemical process industry. Large zeolite crystals will be used to improve basic understanding of adsorption and catalytic mechanisms, and to make zeolite membranes. To grow large zeolites in microgravity, it is necessary to control the nucleation event and fluid motion, and to enhance nutrient transfer. Data is presented that suggests nucleation can be controlled using chemical compounds (e.g., Triethanolamine, for zeolite A), while not adversely effecting growth rate. A three-zone furnace has been designed to perform multiple syntheses concurrently. The operating range of the furnace is 295 K to 473 K. Teflon-lined autoclaves (10 ml liquid volume) have been designed to minimize contamination, reduce wall nucleation, and control mixing of pre-gel solutions on orbit. Zeolite synthesis experiments will be performed on USML-1 in 1992.

  6. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL GRUTZECK

    1998-10-31

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO2 from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO2 from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150°C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO2 adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. _100°C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with other fly ashes, ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO2 adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the country.

  7. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Grutzeck

    1999-04-30

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO{sub 2} from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO{sub 2} from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150 C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO{sub 2} adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. 100 C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO{sub 2} adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the US.

  8. Energetics and structures of fluoro- and chlorofluorocarbons in zeolites: Force field development and Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mellot, C.F.; Cheetham, A.K.

    1999-05-13

    Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on the adsorption of a series of fluoro-, chlorofluoro-, and hydrofluorocarbons (CF{sub 4}, CF{sub 3}Cl, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CFCl{sub 3}, CHF{sub 3}) in siliceous Y and NaY zeolites have been performed and are compared with available calorimetric data on the same host-guest systems. A new force field for fluorocarbon-type molecules in zeolites has been developed, and the (N,V,T) simulations predict adsorption heats with good accuracy. Further insights into the key features of host-guest interactions are gleaned from the relative contributions of the short-range and electrostatic interactions to the total adsorption heats and the analysis of host-guest pair functions. In siliceous Y, host-guest interactions are driven primarily by F{hor_ellipsis}O{sub zeolite} and Cl{hor_ellipsis}O{sub zeolite} van der Waals interactions, and H{hor_ellipsis}O{sub zeolite} hydrogen bonding in the case of hydrogen-containing fluorocarbons. When the fluorocarbon is adsorbed in a cation-containing zeolite, such as NaY, additional F{hor_ellipsis}Na{sub zeolite} electrostatic interactions with Na cations of the supercage are clearly revealed and control the orientation of the sorbate molecules within the supercages. In addition, (N,V,T) simulations have enabled us to compare the behavior of CHF{sub 3} with that of CHCl{sub 3}. The heats of adsorption at zero loading are very similar, but the relative contributions of the short-range and long-range interactions are inverted between the two systems, with the electrostatic term dominating in the case of the fluorocarbon.

  9. Density functional modelling of silicate and aluminosilicate dimerisation solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    White, Claire E; Provis, John L; Kearley, Gordon J; Riley, Daniel P; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2011-02-14

    Common throughout sol-gel chemistry, including zeolite synthesis, aluminosilicate glass formation and geopolymerisation, is the process of inorganic oxide polymerisation and deprotonation. In this investigation, some of the fundamental reactions occurring during zeolite synthesis and geopolymerisation at high pH are investigated using density functional theory (DFT), and are compared with: (i) existing values reported in the literature, and (ii) new and previously published DFT-derived data for similar silicate reactions at near-neutral pH. From the results it is seen that the energetics of deprotonation and dimerisation reactions depend greatly on the pH value, and these results correlate well with existing experimental values and trends. Hence, this investigation exemplifies that an accurate replication of the solution environment is crucial for obtaining useful theoretical results for species dissolved in non-ideal environments. PMID:21180742

  10. Study of ethylene adsorption on zeolite NaY modified with group I metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue-aok, Niramai; Srithanratana, Tipaporn; Rangsriwatananon, Kunwadee; Hengrasmee, Sunantha

    2010-04-01

    The adsorption of ethylene by zeolite NaY and zeolite NaY modified by cation exchange with potassium, rubidium, and cesium ions was studied. Cation exchanges were carried out using KNO 3, RbNO 3, and CsNO 3 in the concentration ranges of 0.2-10 mM. XRD patterns and specific surface areas illustrated that modification of NaY zeolite by very dilute solutions containing K +, Rb + and Cs + did not lead to significant changes in the crystallinity. Analysis of metals content (ICP-OES) showed that Cs + can replace Na + better than Rb + and K +. Particle analysis indicated slight decreases in surface area but pore volumes and pore diameters remained unchanged. Ethylene adsorption isotherms indicated that Na-Y zeolite which was modified by 5.0 mM KNO 3, 0.5 mM RbNO 3 and 1.0 mM CsNO 3 could adsorb ethylene better than zeolite Na-Y. K-NaY zeolite adsorbed up to 102.45 cm 3/g ethylene, while Rb-NaY and Cs-NaY zeolites adsorbed up to 98.50 cm 3/g and 90.15 cm 3/g ethylene, respectively. Ethylene adsorption capacities depended on number of adsorption sites and surface interactions.

  11. Molecular Chemistry in a Zeolite: Genesis of a Zeolite Y-Supported Ruthenium Complex Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, I.; Gates, B.C.

    2009-05-22

    Dealuminated zeolite Y was used as a crystalline support for a mononuclear ruthenium complex synthesized from cis-Ru(acac){sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}. Infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra indicated that the surface species were mononuclear ruthenium complexes, Ru(acac)(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2+}, tightly bonded to the surface by two Ru-O bonds at Al{sup 3+} sites of the zeolite. The maximum loading of the anchored ruthenium complexes was one complex per two Al{sup 3+} sites; at higher loadings, some of the cis-Ru(acac){sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} was physisorbed. In the presence of ethylene and H{sub 2}, the surface-bound species entered into a catalytic cycle for ethylene dimerization and operated stably. IR data showed that at the start of the catalytic reaction, the acac ligand of the Ru(acac)(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2+} species was dissociated and captured by an Al{sup 3+} site. Ethylene dimerization proceeded 600 times faster with a cofeed of ethylene and H{sub 2} than without H{sub 2}. These results provide evidence of the importance of the cooperation of the Al{sup 3+} sites in the zeolite and the H{sub 2} in the feed for the genesis of the catalytically active species. The results presented here demonstrate the usefulness of dealuminated zeolite Y as a nearly uniform support that allows precise synthesis of supported catalysts and detailed elucidation of their structures.

  12. Synthesis of Foam-Shaped Nanoporous Zeolite Material: A Simple Template-Based Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saini, Vipin K.; Pires, Joao

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous zeolite foam is an interesting crystalline material with an open-cell microcellular structure, similar to polyurethane foam (PUF). The aluminosilicate structure of this material has a large surface area, extended porosity, and mechanical strength. Owing to these properties, this material is suitable for industrial applications such as…

  13. Solid-state radioluminescent zeolite-containing composition and light sources

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1992-01-01

    A new type of RL light source consisting of a zeolite crystalline material, the intralattice spaces of which a tritiated compound and a luminophore are sorbed, and which material is optionally further dispersed in a refractive index-matched polymer matrix.

  14. Ultrafast synthesis of nano-sized zeolite SAPO-34 with excellent MTO catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Guo, Guanqi; Yu, Jihong

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized SAPO-34 zeolites with high crystallinity are obtained in 10 minutes by fast heating the reaction gel in a stainless steel tubular reactor combined with the seed-assisted method, which show outstanding performance in methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction. PMID:26412585

  15. Photochemical processes in zeolites: new developments Prabir K. Dutta *, Yanghee Kim

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    , the triplet state, radical cation, and radical anion of biphenyl was formed. At low light fluence, the triplet framework, extra-framework cations and the unique solvent nature of the zeolite all have profound influence crystalline aluminosilicates with structural features that make them attractive hosts for photochemical

  16. Zeolite Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, University of

    decomposes to produce a single crystalline phase at 800o C prior to further decomposition at 850o C to a mixture of nepheline and elemental silver. INTRODUCTION The long term immobilisation of iodine-129 arising. The occlusion of a metal (iodide) salt into a suitable zeolite host affords a nano-composite material in which

  17. Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential.

    PubMed

    Ruen-ngam, Duangkamol; Rungsuk, Doungmanee; Apiratikul, Ronbanchob; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-10-01

    The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m2/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90 degrees C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. PMID:19842322

  18. Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential

    SciTech Connect

    Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul; Prasert Pavasant

    2009-10-15

    The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates synthesised by reactive milling

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Leon . E-mail: l.black@shu.ac.uk; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Stemmermann, Peter; Schild, Dieter

    2006-06-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyse a series of mechanochemically synthesised, nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The samples, with Ca/Si ratios of 0.2 to 1.5, showed structural features of C-S-H(I). XPS analysis revealed changes in the extent of silicate polymerisation. Si 2p, Ca 2p and O 1s spectra showed that, unlike for the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases studied previously, there was no evidence of silicate sheets (Q{sup 3}) at low Ca/Si ratios. Si 2p and O 1s spectra indicated silicate depolymerisation, expressed by decreasing silicate chain length, with increasing C/S. In all spectra, peak narrowing was observed with increasing Ca/Si, indicating increased structural ordering. The rapid changes of the slope of FWHM of Si 2p, {delta} {sub Ca-Si} and {delta} {sub NBO-BO} as function of C/S ratio indicated a possible miscibility gap in the C-S-H-solid solution series between C/S 5/6 and 1. The modified Auger parameter ({alpha}') of nanocrystalline C-S-H decreased with increasing silicate polymerisation, a trend already observed studying crystalline C-S-H. Absolute values of {alpha}' were shifted about - 0.7 eV with respect to crystalline phases of equal C/S ratio, due to reduced crystallinity.

  20. Thermal behavior of natural zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    Thermal behavior of natural zeolites impacts their application and identification and varies significantly from zeolite to zeolite. Zeolites evolve H{sub 2}0 upon heating, but recent data show that distinct ``types`` of water (e.g., loosely bound or tightly bound zeolitic water) do not exist. Rather water is bound primarily to extra-framework cations with a continuum of energies, giving rise to pseudocontinuous loss of water accompanied by a dynamic interaction between remaining H{sub 2}0 molecules and extra-framework cations. These interactions in the channels of zeolites give rise to dehydration dependent on the extra-framework cation, in addition to temperature and water vapor pressure. The dehydration reaction and the extra-framework cation also affect the thermal expansion/contraction. Most zeolites undergo dehydration-induced contractions that may be anisotropic, although minor thermal expansion can be seen with some zeolites. Such contractions can be partially or completely irreversible if they involve modifications of the tetrahedral framework and/or if rehydration is sluggish. Thermally induced structural modifications are also driven initially by dehydration and the concomitant contraction and migration of extra-framework cations. Contraction is accommodated by rotations of structural units and tetrahedral cation-oxygen linkages may break. Thermal reactions that involve breaking of tetrahedral cation-oxygen bonds markedly irreversible and may be kinetically limited, producing large differences between short- and long-term heating.

  1. European Microgravity Facilities for ZEOLITE Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, V.; Minster, O.; Kremer, S.; Kirschhock, C.; Martens, J.; Jacobs, P.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are complex porous silicates. Zeolites are applied as catalysts, adsorbents and sensors. Whereas the traditional applications are situated in the petrochemical area, zeolite catalysis and related zeolite-based technologies have a growing impact on the economics and sustainability of products and processes in a growing number of industrial sectors, including environmental protection and nanotechnology. A Sounding Rocket microgravity experiment led to significant insight in the physical aggregation patterns of zeolitic nanoscopic particles and the occurrence of self-organisation phenomena when undisturbed by convection. The opportunity of performing longer microgravity duration experiments on zeolite structures was recently offered in the frame of a Taxi-Flight to the ISS in November 2002 organized by Belgium and ESA. Two facilities are currently under development for this flight. One of them will use the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the US Lab. Destiny to achieve thermal induced self-organization of different types of Zeosil nanoslabs by heating and cooling. The other facility will be flown on the ISS Russian segment and will allow to form Zeogrids at ambient temperature. On the other hand, the European Space Agency (ESA) is studying the possibility of developing a dedicated insert for zeolite experiments to be used with the optical and diagnostic platform of the Protein Crystallisation Diagnostic Facility (PCDF), that will fly integrated in the European Drawer Rack on the Columbus Laboratory starting in 2004. This paper will present the approach followed by ESA to prepare and support zeolite investigations in microgravity and will present the design concept of these three facilities.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration and zeolitization of the Fohberg phonolite, Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, Tobias Björn; Spürgin, Simon; Lahaye, Yann

    2014-11-01

    The subvolcanic Fohberg phonolite (Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany) is an economic zeolite deposit, formed by hydrothermal alteration of primary magmatic minerals. It is mined due to the high (>40 wt%) zeolite content, which accounts for the remarkable zeolitic physicochemical properties of the ground rock. New mineralogical and geochemical studies are carried out (a) to evaluate the manifestation of hydrothermal alteration, and (b) to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the fluids, which promoted hydrothermal replacement. The alkaline intrusion is characterized by the primary mineralogy: feldspathoid minerals, K-feldspar, aegirine-augite, wollastonite, and andradite. The rare-earth elements-phase götzenite is formed during the late-stage magmatic crystallization. Fluid-induced re-equilibration of feldspathoid minerals and wollastonite caused breakdown to a set of secondary phases. Feldspathoid minerals are totally replaced by various zeolite species, calcite, and barite. Wollastonite breakdown results in the formation of various zeolites, calcite, pectolite, sepiolite, and quartz. Zeolites are formed during subsolidus hydrothermal alteration (<150 °C) under alkaline conditions. A sequence of Ca-Na-dominated zeolite species (gonnardite, thomsonite, mesolite) is followed by natrolite. The sequence reflects an increase in and decrease in of the precipitating fluid. Low radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a local origin of the elements necessary for secondary mineral formation from primary igneous phases. In addition, fractures cut the intrusive body, which contain zeolites, followed by calcite and a variety of other silicates, carbonates, and sulfates as younger generations. Stable isotope analysis of late-fracture calcite indicates very late circulation of meteoric fluids and mobilization of organic matter from surrounding sedimentary units.

  3. Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition of a Presolar Silicate from the Queen Elizabeth Range 99177 Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral characterization of presolar silicate grains, the most abundant stardust phase, has provided valuable information about the formation conditions in circumstellar environments and in super-nova (SN) outflows. Spectroscopic observations of dust around evolved stars suggest a majority of amor-phous, Mg-rich olivine grains, but crystalline silicates, most of which are pyroxene, have also been observed [1]. The chemical compositions of hundreds of presolar silicates have been determined by Auger spectroscopy and reveal high Fe contents and nonstoichiometric compositions intermediate to olivine and pyroxene [2-6]. The unexpectedly high Fe contents can partly be attributed to secondary alteration on the meteorite parent bodies, as some grains have Fe isotopic anomalies from their parent stellar source [7]. Only about 35 presolar silicates have been studied for their mineral structures and chemical compositions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains display a wide range of compositions and structures, including crystalline forsterite, crystalline pyroxene, nanocrystalline grains, and a majority of amorphous nonstoichiometric grains. Most of these grains were identified in the primitive Acfer 094 meteorite. Presolar silicates from this meteorite show a wide range of Fe-contents, suggestive of secondary processing on the meteorite parent body. The CR chondrite QUE 99177 has not suffered as much alteration [8] and displays the highest presolar silicate abundance to date among carbonaceous chondrites [3, 6]. However, no mineralogical studies of presolar silicates from this meteorite have been performed. Here we examine the mineralogy of a presolar silicate from QUE 99177.

  4. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2015-05-01

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping is achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. Application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0 nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8 nm average surface roughness.

  5. Spectral and structural evolution in annealed amorphous Mg-silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. P.; Verrienti, C.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.; Lennie, A. R.

    The long residence times and disruptive processes experienced in interstellar space by silicate grains that originally condensed from the atmospheres of evolved O-rich stars is likely to have resulted in a homogenised population of pre-solar silicates with amorphous structures. However, prior to being incorporated into comet bodies during the initial phases of solar system formation, these grains are thought to have undergone substantial thermal processing in the early solar nebula. Depending on which regions of the nebula a given grain sampled, this would have resulted in either partial or complete structural rearrangement of the grain material into more ordered forms. This is widely believed to be the origin of the fine-structured features detected in the IR spectra at 10 and 20 um of certain comets today and attributed to crystalline silicate grains. To better understand the nature and thermal history of cometary silicates and to place physical constraints on both the extent of grain processing and on models of the early nebula it is therefore necessary to simulate the thermal processing of pre-solar silicates in the laboratory. To this end we have synthesised several amorphous Mg-rich silicates with compositions described by MgxSiyOz (where x, y, z have been determined by EDX analysis) and investigated their annealing response in the region of 1000K using the combined techniques of IR spectroscopy and high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. The main results of this investigation are (1) partially crystalline silicates produce spectral features at 10 and 20 um that resemble cometary features. (2) Partially crystalline silicates although exhibiting long-range crystal structure also show a large degree of disorder over short-length scales. (3) Thermal response is strongly dependent on composition. (4) For certain ranges in composition a mixed amorphous silicate and crystalline forsterite structure is formed, while for others an amorphous-to-amorphous phase transition is observed, with crystallisation occurring at much higher temperatures. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of observational spectra, particularly at 10 and 20 um, will be discussed.

  6. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

  7. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C.; Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G.; Henning, T.

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  8. Template-free nanosized faujasite-type zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awala, Hussein; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Nanosized faujasite (FAU) crystals have great potential as catalysts or adsorbents to more efficiently process present and forthcoming synthetic and renewable feedstocks in oil refining, petrochemistry and fine chemistry. Here, we report the rational design of template-free nanosized FAU zeolites with exceptional properties, including extremely small crystallites (10-15 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution, high crystalline yields (above 80%), micropore volumes (0.30 cm3 g-1) comparable to their conventional counterparts (micrometre-sized crystals), Si/Al ratios adjustable between 1.1 and 2.1 (zeolites X or Y) and excellent thermal stability leading to superior catalytic performance in the dealkylation of a bulky molecule, 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, probing sites mostly located on the external surface of the nanosized crystals. Another important feature is their excellent colloidal stability, which facilitates a uniform dispersion on supports for applications in catalysis, sorption and thin-to-thick coatings.

  9. Clinoptilolite zeolitized tuff from Central Alborz Range, North Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghipour, Batoul

    2010-05-01

    Zeolites are hydrated alumino-silicates of the alkaline and alkaline earth cations, principally sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (Iijima 1980; Hay 1981). Zeolites occur principally in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and are particularly widespread in volcani-clastic strata (Hay, 1978). Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite of the heulandite group with the simplified formula of (Na, K)6 Si30 Al6 O72 .nH2. It is the most common natural zeolite found mainly in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin. Alborz zone is one of the important geological divisions in Iran. This zone is restricted to Kopeh dagh zone in North & Central Iranian zone in South and is a region of active deformation within the broad Arabian-Eurasia collision zone (Allen et al. 2003). The zeolitized green tuff belt from Central Alborz which introduce here are made of volcanoclastic sequence of Karaj Formation. This belt is about 40 km long along Alborz Range and is Eocene in age. Zeolites and associated minerals of this altered vitric tuff studied. Zeolitization took place in some beds of Karaj Formations, with average range of 3 to 300 meters thickness. There are several gypsum lenses which interbed with a widespread green tuff succession in the studied area. On the basis of chemical composition these tuffs are in the range of acid to intermediate volcanic rocks. Also magmatic affinity is calc-alkaline and geological setting of the area belongs to volcanic arc granitoid. Petrographic data has shown that various shape and size of shard glass are the main component of tuffs. Based on the field studies, detail microscopy, XRD and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), the following main minerals are determined: Clinoptilolite+montmorillonite+crystobalite. Clinoptilolite and smectite are predominant minerals in all altered samples. Concerning the Si/Al ratio of 40 point analyses of glass shards the Alborz tuff has clinoptilolite composition. Otherwise the chemical composition of altered shard glass is very similar to clinoptilolite structural formula. By using medium results of chemical data the structural formula for Firuzkuh clinoptilolite is as follow: Si 29.91 Al 6.01 Fe2+ 951 Mg2+ 0.393 Ca 0.222 Na 3.162 K 1.422 Paleogeographic conditions have provided a marginal shallow seawater environment which has been filled by volcanoclastics sequence. In Eocene the zeolitization occur as layers which are confined stratigraphically, it seems this process that took place only in preferred tuffaceous horizons which enriched by shard glass. So the term staratabound can be used for this type zeolitization. In altered tuffs there are a close relationship between clinoptiloite and montmorilonite in some deposits. Alborz range, there was an occasionally marine environment (existence of marine microfossils) with humid climate (remnants of plants in some points). Transformation process (glass zeolite + smectite) provides a further silica contribution to the system, which finally in supersaturation and decreasing pH favors the precipitation of silica in altered tuff. This may have occurred when ground water flow become to mix with saline water to lowering the pH.

  10. Ultrastrong Alkali-Resisting Lanthanide-Zeolites Assembled by [Ln60] Nanocages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Cui, Ping; Shi, Peng-Fei; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2015-12-30

    Zeolites, as one of the most important porous materials, are most widely utilized in sorbents, catalysis, and ion-exchange fields. However, the multi-functional lanthanide-zeolites constructed exclusively by lanthanide ions and oxygen linkers are to our knowledge unknown hitherto. Herein, we, for the first time, report the unique structure and multifunctions of lanthanide zeolites (1·Gd, 1·Tb, 1·Dy), featuring 60 nuclear [Ln60] nanocages as building blocks and ultrastrong alkali-resisting. These compounds possess extremely high stability and still retain single crystallinity after treatment in boiling water, 0.1 M HCl, and 20 M NaOH aqueous solutions. Magnetic studies revealed 1·Gd has large magnetocaloric effect with -?Sm(max) = 66.5 J kg(-1) K(-1), falling among the largest values known to date. Importantly, these lanthanide-zeolites themselves can efficiently catalyze the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides under mild conditions. Our finding extends the conventional zeolites to lanthanide counterparts, opening a new space for seeking novel and/or multifunctional zeolites. PMID:26653619

  11. The growth of zeolites A, X and mordenite in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, N.; Coker, E. N.; Dixon, A. G.; Warzywoda, J.; Thompson, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate materials that form the backbone of the chemical process industry worldwide. They are used primarily as adsorbents and catalysts and support to a significant extent the positive balance of trade realized by the chemical industry in the United States (around $19 billion in 1991). The magnitude of their efforts can be appreciated when one realizes that since their introduction as 'cracking catalysts' in the early 1960's, they have saved the equivalent of 60 percent of the total oil production from Alaska's North Slope. Thus the performance of zeolite catalysts can have a profound effect on the U.S. economy. It is estimated that a 1 percent increase in yield of the gasoline fraction per barrel of oil would represent a savings of 22 million barrels of crude oil per year, representing a reduction of $400 million in the United States' balance of payments. Thus any activity that results in improvement in zeolite catalyst performance is of significant scientific and industrial interest. In addition, due to their 'stability,' uniformity, and, within limits, their 'engineerable' structures, zeolites are being tested as potential adsorbents to purify gases and liquids at the parts-per-billion levels needed in today's electronic, biomedical, and biotechnology industries and for the environment. Other exotic applications, such as host materials for quantum-confined semiconductor atomic arrays, are also being investigated. Because of the importance of this class of material, extensive efforts have been made to characterize their structures and to understand their nucleation and growth mechanisms, so as to be able to custom-make zeolites for a desired application. To date, both the nucleation mechanics and chemistry (such as what are the 'key' nutrients) are, as yet, still unknown for many, if not all, systems. The problem is compounded because there is usually a 'gel' phase present that is assumed to control the degree of supersaturation, and this gel undergoes a continuous 'polymerization' type reaction during nucleation and growth. Generally, for structure characterization and diffusion studies, which are useful in evaluating zeolites for improving yield in petroleum refining as well as for many of the proposed new applications (e.g., catalytic membranes, molecular electronics, chemical sensors) large zeolites (greater than 100 to 1000 times normal size) with minimum lattice defects are desired. Presently, the lack of understanding of zeolite nucleation and growth precludes the custom design of zeolites for these or other uses. It was hypothesized that the microgravity levels achieved in an orbiting spacecraft could help to isolate the possible effects of natural convection (which affects defect formation) and minimize sedimentation, which occurs since zeolites are twice as dense as the solution from which they are formed. This was expected to promote larger crystals by allowing growing crystals a longer residence time in a high-concentration nutrient field. Thus it was hypothesized that the microgravity environment of Earth orbit would allow the growth of large, more defect-free zeolite crystals in high yield.

  12. Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen-

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiqu

    Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen- sional 12-Ring Channel for the synthesis of transition-metal-silicate open-framework and microporous compounds that uses a common building principle. The structures in this family of compounds are formed by linking isolated transition

  13. The Cosmic Crystallinity Conundrum: Clues from IRAS 17495-2534

    E-print Network

    Angela K. Speck; Alan G. Whittington; Josh B. Tartar

    2008-09-18

    Since their discovery, cosmic crystalline silicates have presented several challenges to understanding dust formation and evolution. The mid-infrared spectrum of IRAS 17495$-$2534, a highly obscured oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, is the only source observed to date which exhibits a clear crystalline silicate absorption feature. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to test competing hypotheses for dust formation. Observed spectral features suggest that both amorphous and crystalline dust is dominated by forsterite (Mg\\_2 SiO\\_4) rather than enstatite (MgSiO\\_3) or other silicate compositions. We confirm that high mass-loss rates should produce more crystalline material, and show why this should be dominated by forsterite. The presence of Mg\\_2 SiO\\_4 glass suggests that another factor (possibly C/O) is critical in determining astromineralogy. Correlation between crystallinity, mass-loss rate and initial stellar mass suggests that only the most massive AGB stars contribute significant quantities of crystalline material to the interstellar medium, resolving the conundrum of its low crystallinity.

  14. IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2005-03-21

    The objectives of this project are to synthesis nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates and evaluate the ''zeolite Y/Nanoporous host'' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. Our results to date are summarized as follows. The synthesis of high surface ordered nanoporous silica of expanded pore diameter of 25 nm (larger than the standard size of 8.4 nm) using trimethylbenzene as a pore size expander was accomplished. The synthesis of zeolite Y nanoparticles with median pore size of approximately 50 nm (smaller than the 80 nm typically obtained with TMAOH) using combined TMABr/TMAOH as organic additives was also accomplished. The successful synthesis of zeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite materials by sequential combination of zeolite precursors and nanoporous material precursor mixtures was implied based on results from various characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectra, thermal analysis, porosimetry data. The resulting materials showed pore sizes up to 11 nm, and infrared band at 570 cm{sup -1} suggesting the presence of both phases. Work in the immediate future will be focused on the following three areas: (1) Further characterization of all-silica and aluminosilicate mesoporous materials with expanded pore sizes up to 30 nm will continue; (2) Research efforts to reduce the average particle size of zeolite nanoparticles down to 35-30 nm will continue; (3) Further synthesis of polymer-SBA15 nanocomposites will be conducted by changing the amount and chemistry of the zeolitic precursors added; and (4) Investigation on the catalytic properties of the materials using probe catalytic reactions (such as cumene cracking), followed by catalytic testing for heavy oil conversion.

  15. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  16. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  17. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  18. Selective preparation of zeolite X and A from flyash and its use as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Volli, Vikranth; Purkait, M K

    2015-10-30

    This work discusses the utilization of flyash for synthesis of heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification. Different types of zeolites were synthesized from alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment of coal flyash as source material. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain highly crystalline zeolite based on degree of crystallinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The effect of CEC, acid treatment, Si/Al ratio and calcination temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C) on zeolite formation was also studied. Pure, single phase and highly crystalline zeolite was obtained at flyash/NaOH ratio (1:1.2), fusion temperature (550 °C), fusion time (1 h), hydrothermal temperature (110 °C) and hydrothermal time (12h). The synthesized zeolite was ion-exchanged with potassium and was used as catalyst for transesterification of mustard oil to obtain a maximum conversion of 84.6% with 5 wt% catalyst concentration, 12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time of 7 h at 65 °C. The catalyst was reused for 3 times with marginal reduction in activity. PMID:25956640

  19. The Mineralogy of Circumstellar Silicates Preserved in Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2010-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain a record of the building blocks of the solar system including presolar grains, molecular cloud material, and materials formed in the early solar nebula. Cometary IDPs have remained relatively unaltered since their accretion because of the lack of parent body thermal and aqueous alteration. We are using coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion microprobe studies to establish the origins of the various components within cometary IDPs. Of particular interest is the nature and abundance of presolar silicates in these particles because astronomical observations suggest that crystalline and amorphous silicates are the dominant grain types produced in young main sequence stars and evolved O-rich stars. Five circumstellar grains have been identified including three amorphous silicate grains and two polycrystalline aggregates. All of these grains are between 0.2 and 0.5 micrometers in size. The isotopic compositions of all five presolar silicate grains fall within the range of presolar oxides and silicates, having large (17)O-enrichments and normal (18)O/(16)O ratios (Group 1 grains from AGB and RG stars). The amorphous silicates are chemically heterogeneous and contain nanophase FeNi metal and FeS grains in a Mg-silicate matrix. Two of the amorphous silicate grains are aggregates with subgrains showing variable Mg/Si ratios in chemical maps. The polycrystalline grains show annealed textures (equilibrium grains boundaries, uniform Mg/Fe ratios), and consist of 50-100 nm enstatite and pyrrhotite grains with lesser forsterite. One of the polycrystalline aggregates contains a subgrain of diopside. The polycrystalline aggregates form by subsolidus annealing of amorphous precursors. The bulk compositions of the five grains span a wide range in Mg/Si ratios from 0.4 to 1.2 (avg. 0.86). The average Fe/Si (0.40) and S/Si (0.21) ratios show a much narrower range of values and are approximately 50% of their solar abundances. The latter observation may indicate a decoupling of the silicate and sulfide components in grains that condense in stellar outflows. The amorphous silicate grains described here were not extensively affected by irradiation, sputtering, or thermal processing and may represent relatively pristine circumstellar grains. They are strong candidates for the "dirty silicates" in astronomical observations of circumstellar dust shells. The polycrystalline grains were originally amorphous silicate grains that were likely annealed in the early solar nebula but the processing was not sufficient to erase their anomalous oxygen isotopic compositions.

  20. Core-shell strain structure of zeolite microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Wonsuk; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Song, Sanghoon; Park, Hyun-Jun; Thanh Pham, Tung Cao; Harder, Ross; Lim, Bobae; Xiong, Gang; Ahn, Docheon; McNulty, Ian; Kim, Jungho; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Robinson, Ian K.; Kim, Hyunjung

    2013-08-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicate minerals featuring a network of 0.3-1.5-nm-wide pores, used in industry as catalysts for hydrocarbon interconversion, ion exchangers, molecular sieves and adsorbents. For improved applications, it is highly useful to study the distribution of internal local strains because they sensitively affect the rates of adsorption and diffusion of guest molecules within zeolites. Here, we report the observation of an unusual triangular deformation field distribution in ZSM-5 zeolites by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, showing the presence of a strain within the crystal arising from the heterogeneous core-shell structure, which is supported by finite element model calculation and confirmed by fluorescence measurement. The shell is composed of H-ZSM-5 with intrinsic negative thermal expansion whereas the core exhibits a different thermal expansion behaviour due to the presence of organic template residues, which usually remain when the starting materials are insufficiently calcined. Engineering such strain effects could have a major impact on the design of future catalysts.

  1. Experimental proof for resonant diffusion of normal alkanes in LTL and ZSM-12 zeolites

    E-print Network

    Yoo, K; Smirniotis, P G

    2015-01-01

    The intra-crystalline diffusion of normal alkanes in LTL and ZSM-12 zeolite was experimentally studied via gravimetric measurements performed at different temperatures. A periodic dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the number of carbon atoms in alkane was detected, which is an experimental proof for resonant diffusion. The present observations were described on the base of the existing theory of the resonant diffusion and several important parameters of the alkane-zeolite interaction and zeolite vibrations were obtained. In the considered temperature region the diffusion coefficient follows the Arrhenius law with periodic dependences of the pre-exponential factor and activation energy on the number of carbon atoms in alkanes. A compensation effect of simultaneous increases of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was also established.

  2. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  3. Formation of cobalt hydrotalcite by cation exchange of Co2+-substitued zeolite X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    Zeolite has been utilized to sequester heavy metals and nuclides due to the high cation exchange capacity. However, once-immobilized cations by zeolite tend to be re-exchanged by other cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, etc) present in groundwater. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanism associated with re-exchange reactions to predict the environmental fate and behavior of the metal cations sequestered by zeolite. In this study, we performed a series of cation exchange experiments using Co2+-substituted zeolite X (Co-X) in concentrated CaCl2 solutions. The radioactive isotope of cobalt (60Co2+), commonly found in low-to-intermediate level nuclear wastes, undergoes radioactive decay, likely altering the physicochemical properties of zeolite by generating heat and irradiation. To simulate such effects, Co-X was thermally treated at 400 and 600oC before re-exchange experiments. At the higher treatment temperature, the re-exchanged amount of Co2+ in Co-X by Ca2+ was found to decrease. According to X-ray diffraction, the re-exchange led to little change in the zeolite crystallinity for thermally untreated samples, but the significantly decreased crystallinity was noted for re-exchanged, thermally treated samples. Nonetheless, 27Al MAS NMR spectra of all re-exchanged samples revealed that the peaks corresponding to 4-fold coordinated Al became broader with their position shifting as a result of the re-exchange, suggesting that the re-exchange caused a short-range order structural distortion for both thermally untreated and treated samples. Also, Co-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to examine the mechanism(s) involved in the re-exchange. By comparison of XAS spectra between re-exchanged samples and model compounds, Co2+ was likely to be either present as an extraframwork cation within zeolite or incorporated into a cobalt hydrotalcite (Co6Al2(OH)16(An-)2/n where An- is an interlayer anion) phase. The relative contribution of an extraframwork Co2+ versus cobalt hydrotalcite in re-exchanged samples was determined using the least squares fitting of EXAFS spectra. Formation of cobalt hydrotalcite became greater with the increasing treatment temperature. Taken together, thermally-induced structural distortion of zeolite enhanced the dealumination of zeolite and the subsequent formation of cobalt hydrotalcite.

  4. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  5. Metal-supported aluminosilicate ultrathin films as a versatile tool for studying the surface chemistry of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-14

    The application of a variety of "surface-science" techniques to elucidate surface structures and mechanisms of chemical reactions at zeolite surfaces has long been considered as almost impossible because of the poor electrical and thermal conductivity of those materials. Here, we show that the growth of a thin aluminosilicate film on a metal single crystal under controlled conditions results in adequate and well-defined model systems for zeolite surfaces. In principle, silicate films that contain metals other than Al (e.g. Ti, Fe, etc) may be prepared in a similar way. We believe that this approach opens up a new playground for experimental and theoretical modeling of zeolites, aimed at a fundamental understanding of structure-reactivity relationships in such materials. PMID:23143912

  6. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach-Zehnder system.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material's viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach-Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network. PMID:26184722

  7. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach–Zehnder system

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material’s viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach–Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network. PMID:26184722

  8. IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2005-03-31

    The objectives of this project are to synthesis nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates and evaluate the ''zeolite Y/Nanoporous host'' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. Our results to date are summarized as follows. The synthesis of high surface ordered nanoporous silica of expanded pore diameter of 25 nm (larger than the standard size of 8.4 nm) using trimethylbenzene as a pore size expander was accomplished. The synthesis of zeolite Y nanoparticles with median pore size of approximately 50 nm (smaller than the 80 nm typically obtained with TMAOH) using combined TMABr/TMAOH as organic additives was also accomplished. The successful synthesis of zeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite materials by sequential combination of zeolite precursors and nanoporous material precursor mixtures was implied based on results from various characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectra, thermal analysis, porosimetry data. The resulting materials showed pore sizes up to 11 nm, and infrared band at 570 cm{sup -1} suggesting the presence of both phases. New results indicated that good quality highly ordered nanoporous silica host can be synthesized in the presence of zeolite Y seed precursor depending on the amount of precursor added. Preliminary research on the catalytic performance of the materials is underway. Probe acid catalyzed reactions, such as the cracking of cumene is currently being conducted. Work in the immediate future will be focused on the following three areas: (1) Further characterization of all-silica and aluminosilicate mesoporous materials with expanded pore sizes up to 30 nm will continue; (2) Research efforts to reduce the average particle size of zeolite nanoparticles down to 35-30 nm will continue; (3) Further synthesis of ZeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite catalysts of improved structural and physicochemical characteristics will be conducted by changing the amount and chemistry of the zeolitic precursors added; and (4) Investigation on the catalytic properties of the materials using probe catalytic reactions (such as cumene cracking), followed by catalytic testing for heavy oil conversion.

  9. Selective Chlorination of Toluene to p-Chlorotoluene Catalyzed by Nanosized Zeolite K-L Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Yujun; Yin, Hengbo; Feng, Yonghai; Shen, Lingqin; Wang, Aili; Li, Jitai; Ni, Wenxiu; Xie, Xulan

    2015-08-01

    Nanosized zeolite K-L catalysts were synthesized by the hydrothermal method starting from silica sol and potassium aluminate. The crystallinities of the zeolite K-L catalysts increased with increasing the SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of reaction solution and prolonging the autoclaving time. Nanosized and well-dispersed zeolite K-L catalysts were synthesized when the SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio was more than 26:1. Well-crystallized and nanosized zeolite K-L catalysts showed high catalytic activity for the chlorination of toluene to p-chlorotoluene. When the nanosized zeolite K-L catalyst was synthesized with the SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of 31:1 at the autoclaving temperature of 150 °C for 96 h, the selectivities of p-chlorotoluene and o-chlorotoluene were 76.2% and 20.0%, respectively, at the complete conversion of toluene. PMID:26369216

  10. Investigation of structure formation mechanism of a mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite by mesoscopic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yanqun; Liu, Baoyu; Kiryutina, Tatyana; Xi, Hongxia; Qian, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Amphiphilic surfactant molecules have a profound influence in directing zeolite crystallization, while the self-assembly process between the functionalized surfactant and aluminosilicate species is the key factor in determining the structure of zeolites. However, such a complex process is extremely difficult to be characterized experimentally. A novel mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite with hexagonal mesostructures and crystalline microporous frameworks has been synthesized in our previous work. In present research, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a mesoscopic simulation method, has been used to investigate the self-assembly process of a surfactant/tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)/water system in order to explore the structure formation mechanism of a mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite. The simulation results show that under a certain composition, the specially designed bifunctional triquaternary ammonium-type surfactant and TEOS can form spherical core-shell micelles. The core (inner section) of a spherical micelle is occupied by hydrophobic beads, while the shell (outer section) is formed by hydrophilic beads. Besides, an ordered, uniform mesophase can be formed under a constant shear rate and transformed into mesoscale structure. The simulation results are consistent with the corresponding experimental results. Overall, the DPD simulation is a valuable tool to investigate the porogenic mechanism of surfactants. The present approach may open a window for investigating the formation mechanism of mesoporous zeolites that involves the surfactant-driven synthesis process.

  11. A novel magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent synthesised from kaolinite type pyrite cinder (KTPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqing; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Guofan; Liu, Jing; Huang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    As a solid waste, kaolinite type pyrite cinder (KTPC) is a special pyrite cinder, its mineral components include metakaolin and magnetite, and the chemical compositions of these minerals include SiO2, Al2O3, FeO and Fe2O3. In this study, a novel magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent was synthesised from KTPC using the hydrothermal method, and the optimum hydrothermal synthesis conditions were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by determining the specific surface area (SSA) and the saturated cation exchange adsorption capacity (SCEAC) to Cs+. Under the optimum hydrothermal synthesis conditions, the magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent can be synthesised with high crystallinity, and the SSA and SCEAC to Cs+ are 24.49 m2/g and 106.63 mg/g, respectively. The further characterisations of pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were performed. The results revealed that magnetic particles are coated onto the zeolite surface and further form magnetic aggregates, and the existing magnetic particles in KTPC do not change their crystal structure and do not affect the synthesis of the 4A zeolite. In addition, the synthesised 4A zeolite adsorbent can be used as a magnetic adsorbent in wastewater treatment with high magnetic sensitivity and is thermally stable up to approximately 900 °C.

  12. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  13. 2.5 Zeolites 2.5.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    58 2.5 Zeolites 2.5.1 Introduction Zeolites are a well-established technology used in a range of processes and industries. Zeolites are not new materials--they have been investigated for over two in agriculture (St. Cloud 2007, BRZ Zeolite 2007, Zeolite Australia 2007), horticulture (ZeoPro 2007), gas

  14. Surfactants as Promising Media for the Preparation of Crystalline Inorganic Materials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-09-28

    Given that surfactants can control the shape and size of micro-/nanoparticles, they should be able to direct the growth of bulk crystals. This Minireview summarizes recent developments in the application of surfactants for the preparation of new crystalline inorganic materials, including chalcogenides, metal-organic frameworks, and zeolite analogues. The roles of surfactants in different reaction systems are discussed. PMID:26266458

  15. Structural, compositional and acidic characteristics of nanosized amorphous or partially crystalline

    E-print Network

    Trikalitis, Pantelis N.

    -ray amorphous aluminosilicates possessed tetrahedral aluminum atoms which were more zeolitic in character; received in revised form 23 June 2004; accepted 13 July 2004 Available online 11 September 2004 Abstract. The particle/crystal size and microporosity of the partially crystalline materials increased with increasing

  16. Multiple-quantum NMR studies of spin clusters in liquid crystals and zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, J. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1991-07-01

    This work will describe the use of MQ NMR to study spin clusters in anisotropic materials. A technique known as multiple-quantum spin counting was used to determine average spin cluster sizes liquid crystalline materials and in faujacitic zeolites containing aromatic hydrocarbons. The first half of the thesis will describe MQ NMR and the MQ spin counting technique, and the second half of the thesis will describe the actual experiments and their results.

  17. DIRECT LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SILICATE STARDUST FROM RED GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Christian; Hoppe, Peter; Brenker, Frank E.

    2009-07-20

    We performed combined focused ion beam/transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate the chemistry and structure of eight presolar silicate grains that were previously detected by NanoSIMS oxygen isotope mapping of the carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. The analyzed presolar silicates belong to the O isotope Groups I/II ({sup 17}O-enriched and {sup 18}O-depleted) and therefore come from 1-2.5 M{sub sun} asymptotic giant branch stars of close-to-solar or slightly lower-than-solar metallicity. Three grains are amorphous, Mg-rich, and show a variable, but more pyroxene-like composition. Most probably, these grains have formed under circumstellar low-temperature conditions below the crystallization temperature. Three grains are Fe-bearing glasses similar to the 'glass with embedded metal and sulfides' (GEMS) grains found in interplanetary dust particles. However, two of the meteorite GEMS grains from this study lack comparatively large ({approx}>20 nm) Fe-rich inclusions and have sulfur contents <1 at.%, which is different than observed for the majority of GEMS grains. These grains likely condensed under strong non-equilibrium conditions from an Si-enriched gas. One olivine is characterized by a crystalline core and an amorphous, more Fe-rich rim, which is probably the result of interstellar medium sputtering combined with Mg removal. The detection of another olivine with a relatively high Fe content (Mg no. 0.9) shows that circumstellar crystalline silicates are more Fe-rich than astrophysical models usually suggest. The overall predominance of olivine among the crystalline silicate stardust population compared to pyroxene indicates preferential formation or survival of this type of mineral. As pyroxene is indeed detected in circumstellar outflows, it remains to be seen how this result is compatible with astrophysical observations and experimental data.

  18. Subaru/COMICS Study on Silicate Dust Processing around Young Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kataza, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Yamashita, Takuya; Min, Michiel; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi

    2006-08-01

    We have obtained 8-13 ?m spectra of 30 young (1-10 Myr) low-mass pre-main-sequence stars using COMICS on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope to examine dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. Most spectra show silicate emission features of various strengths and shapes, indicative of dust processing during the different stages of protoplanetary disk evolution. We have analyzed the observed silicate emission features using a simple model previously applied to the more massive and luminous Herbig Ae/Be systems. We determined the feature strength and shape and derived the composition and typical size of the silicate dust grains. We confirm the previously reported dependency of the silicate feature strength and shape on the grain size of the amorphous silicate dust. We examine the relation between the derived dust properties and stellar and circumstellar disk parameters, such as systemic age, luminosity of H? (LH?), disk mass, and opacity power-law index ? at radio wavelengths. A possible relation is found between silicate feature strength (grain size indicator) and the LH?, which may be an indicator of accretion activity. It implies that the turbulence induced by accretion activity may be important for grain size evolution in the disk. No clear correlation between the crystallinity and the stellar/disk parameters is found. We find that on average 5%-20% in mass of the silicate dust grains is in crystalline form, irrespective of systemic age. This latter finding supports the idea that crystalline silicate is formed at an early evolutionary phase, probably at the protostellar phase, and is remaining during the later stages. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. Synthesis, Structure, and Carbon Dioxide Capture Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Anh; Doonan, Christian J; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Knobler, Carolyn B; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

    2010-01-19

    Zeolites are one of humanity’s most important synthetic products. These aluminosilicate-based materials represent a large segment of the global economy. Indeed, the value of zeolites used in petroleum refining as catalysts and in detergents as water softeners is estimated at $350 billion per year. A major current goal in zeolite chemistry is to create a structure in which metal ions and functionalizable organic units make up an integral part of the framework. Such a structure, by virtue of the flexibility with which metal ions and organic moieties can be varied, is viewed as a key to further improving zeolite properties and accessing new applications. Recently, it was recognized that the Si?O?Si preferred angle in zeolites (145°) is coincident with that of the bridging angle in the M?Im?M fragment (where M is Zn or Co and Im is imidazolate), and therefore it should be possible to make new zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with topologies based on those of tetrahedral zeolites. This idea was successful and proved to be quite fruitful; within the last 5 years over 90 new ZIF structures have been reported. The recent application of high-throughput synthesis and characterization of ZIFs has expanded this structure space significantly: it is now possible to make ZIFs with topologies previously unknown in zeolites, in addition to mimicking known structures. In this Account, we describe the general preparation of crystalline ZIFs, discussing the methods that have been developed to create and analyze the variety of materials afforded. We include a comprehensive list of all known ZIFs, including structure, topology, and pore metrics. We also examine how complexity might be introduced into new structures, highlighting how link?link interactions might be exploited to effect particular cage sizes, create polarity variations between pores, or adjust framework robustness, for example. The chemical and thermal stability of ZIFs permit many applications, such as the capture of CO{sub 2} and its selective separation from industrially relevant gas mixtures. Currently, ZIFs are the best porous materials for the selective capture of CO{sub 2}; furthermore, they show exceptionally high capacity for CO{sub 2} among adsorbents operating by physisorption. The stability of ZIFs has also enabled organic transformations to be carried out on the crystals, yielding covalently functionalized isoreticular structures wherein the topology, crystallinity, and porosity of the ZIF structure are maintained throughout the reaction process. These reactions, being carried out on macroscopic crystals that behave as single molecules, have enabled the realization of the chemist’s dream of using “crystals as molecules”, opening the way for the application of the extensive library of organic reactions to the functionalization of useful extended porous structures.

  20. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN HAZARDOUS METAL REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature by using synthetic zeolites. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants including arseni...

  1. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  2. Replica exchange reactive molecular dynamics simulations of initial reactions in zeolite synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhifeng; Xin, Liang; Sun, Huai

    2015-10-14

    Molecular simulation is a promising tool for the study of zeolite formation. However, sufficient sampling remains a grand challenge for the practical use of molecular simulation for this purpose. Here, we investigate the initial stage of zeolite synthesis under realistic conditions by using the replica-exchange method and the ReaxFF reactive force field. After a total simulation time of 480 ns, both energetic and structural properties approach convergence. Analyses of data collected at 600 K show that the inorganic structure directing agent NaOH promotes the aggregation of silicate, the formation of branched Si atoms and the formation of 5-membered rings. With the trajectories collected simultaneously at different temperatures, the effect of temperature is discussed. PMID:26365615

  3. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  4. Analyses of Cometary Silicate Crystals: DDA Spectral Modeling of Forsterite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Comets are the Solar System's deep freezers of gases, ices, and particulates that were present in the outer protoplanetary disk. Where comet nuclei accreted was so cold that CO ice (approximately 50K) and other supervolatile ices like ethane (C2H2) were preserved. However, comets also accreted high temperature minerals: silicate crystals that either condensed (greater than or equal to 1400 K) or that were annealed from amorphous (glassy) silicates (greater than 850-1000 K). By their rarity in the interstellar medium, cometary crystalline silicates are thought to be grains that formed in the inner disk and were then radially transported out to the cold and ice-rich regimes near Neptune. The questions that comets can potentially address are: How fast, how far, and over what duration were crystals that formed in the inner disk transported out to the comet-forming region(s)? In comets, the mass fractions of silicates that are crystalline, f_cryst, translate to benchmarks for protoplanetary disk radial transport models. The infamous comet Hale-Bopp has crystalline fractions of over 55%. The values for cometary crystalline mass fractions, however, are derived assuming that the mineralogy assessed for the submicron to micron-sized portion of the size distribution represents the compositional makeup of all larger grains in the coma. Models for fitting cometary SEDs make this assumption because models can only fit the observed features with submicron to micron-sized discrete crystals. On the other hand, larger (0.1-100 micrometer radii) porous grains composed of amorphous silicates and amorphous carbon can be easily computed with mixed medium theory wherein vacuum mixed into a spherical particle mimics a porous aggregate. If crystalline silicates are mixed in, the models completely fail to match the observations. Moreover, models for a size distribution of discrete crystalline forsterite grains commonly employs the CDE computational method for ellipsoidal platelets (c:a:b=8.14x8.14xl in shape with geometrical factors of x:y:z=1:1:10, Fabian et al. 2001; Harker et al. 2007). Alternatively, models for forsterite employ statistical methods like the Distribution of Hollow Spheres (Min et al. 2008; Oliveira et al. 2011) or Gaussian Random Spheres (GRS) or RGF (Gielen et al. 200S). Pancakes, hollow spheres, or GRS shapes similar to wheat sheaf crystal habit (e.g., Volten et al. 2001; Veihelmann et al. 2006), however, do not have the sharp edges, flat faces, and vertices seen in images of cometary crystals in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) or in Stardust samples. Cometary forsterite crystals often have equant or tabular crystal habit (J. Bradley). To simulate cometary crystals, we have computed absorption efficiencies of forsterite using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) DDSCAT code on NAS supercomputers. We compute thermal models that employ a size distribution of discrete irregularly shaped forsterite crystals (nonspherical shapes with faces and vertices) to explore how crystal shape affects the shape and wavelength positions of the forsterite spectral features and to explore whether cometary crystal shapes support either condensation or annealing scenarios (Lindsay et al. 2012a, b). We find forsterite crystal shapes that best-fit comet Hale-Bopp are tetrahedron, bricks or brick platelets, essentially equant or tabular (Lindsay et al. 2012a,b), commensurate with high temperature condensation experiments (Kobatake et al. 2008). We also have computed porous aggregates with crystal monomers and find that the crystal resonances are amplified. i.e., the crystalline fraction is lower in the aggregate than is derived by fitting a linear mix of spectral features from discrete subcomponents, and the crystal resonances 'appear' to be from larger crystals (Wooden et al. 2012). These results may indicate that the crystalline mass fraction in comets with comae dominated by aggregates may be lower than deduced by popular methods that only emoy ensembles of discrete crystals.

  5. Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework on adsorption

    E-print Network

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework industrially important reactions, namely the polymerization and hydrocarbon cracking processes [9 as a starting point for a more comprehensive study on hydrocarbon cracking and ethylene epoxidation reactions

  6. Effect of metal loading processes on the stability and thermal transformation of Co{sup 2+}- and Cu{sup 2+}-zeolite Y prepared from Egyptian kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    EL-Mekkawi, Doaa M. Selim, Mohamed M.

    2012-07-15

    This paper aims to assess the effect of the transition metals (TM) loading procedure on the incorporation of Co{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} in zeolite Y, and their relevance to stability of the zeolite, particularly with respect to the thermal transformation to the spinel phases. In this work, zeolite Y prepared from Egyptian kaolin was used. XRF, XRD, TEM, UV/visible absorption measurements, and atomic absorption analyses in addition to the visual observations are recorded. XRF has been used to investigate the materials composition. TEM and XRD indicate the presence of nanoparticle spinel upon the calcination of the TM-zeolites at 1000 Degree-Sign C. In addition to spinel particles, XRD shows the formation of metal oxides, SiO{sub 2} and alumino-silicate phases. According to the transition metal and the cation loading process, different phases were detected. UV/visible absorption measurements and the visual observations are used to determine the experimental condition of the highest spinel content. It has been noticed that the experimental conditions of the metal sorption processes greatly affect the phase transformation. Stability and thermal transformation of zeolite depend on the initial concentration of the transition cation solutions and the number of loading cycles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effects of loading procedure in the incorporation of TM in zeolite Y. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthetic zeolite Y prepared from Egyptian kaolin has been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The type of TM affects the stability and thermal transformation of zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loading processes affect the stability and thermal transformation of zeolite.

  7. The impact of aqueous medium on zeolite framework integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Burton, Sarah D.; Arslan, Ilke; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the zeolite framework stability in aqueous phase is crucial to develop stable catalysts. Al K–edge, extended X–ray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations have been used to monitor both qualitative and quantitative structural changes of two well–characterized samples with BEA structure. The effects of various properties on stability were explored, including Al concentration, Al distribution, particle size and structural defects. As the samples were degraded by treatment in hot liquid water, the local structure about the Al T–site remained mostly intact, including the Al–O–Si angles and bond distances, while the nano–scale crystalline structure as measured by XRD and TEM was disrupted. The combined data suggest a three–step mechanism in which, initially, the HBEA framework crystallinity decreases via hydrolysis of T–O bonds along polymorph stacking faults and inter–grain boundaries in a mode similar to crack propagation in glass. With prolonged exposure, amorphization occurs via hydrolysis of surface Si–OH groups propagating inward through the zeolite lattice. In parallel, cracks propagate within the crystalline micro–domains along paths through specific T–O–T groups. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland) and M. Y. Hu (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and Physical Science Laboratory both located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi–program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under Contract No. DE–AC05–76RL01830.

  8. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-06-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs+ and/or Sr2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs+ and/or Sr2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900-1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs+ and/or Sr2+ are glass-crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite-nepheline, Sr-feldspar-nepheline and Sr-feldspar-pollucite composites including ˜60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10-20 wt.% of glass. The 137Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10-7 g cm-2 day-1 was determined for the pollucite glass-ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water).

  9. Phonolite-hosted zeolite deposits in the Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, Tobias; Spürgin, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Several subvolcanic phonolitic intrusions occur within the Miocene Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex (KVC) located in the central-southern segment of the Upper Rhine Graben, which is part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. Hydrothermally altered phonolitic rocks are of economic interest, due to the high (>40 wt%) zeolite content, which accounts for the remarkable zeolitic physicochemical properties of the ground rock. These properties have widespread industrial application in water softening, catalysis, remediation of soils and soil quality, wastewater treatment, and as additive in the cement industry. Currently the largest phonolite intrusion Fohberg is active in mining, located in the eastern part of the KVC. The Endhale phonolite, approximately 1.5 km to the north marks a further deposit currently under exploration. Both phonolites are hosted in Tertiary sedimentary units. The aim of this study is to carry out a new mineralogical and geochemical data a) to evaluate the manifestation of hydrothermal alteration of the Fohberg and Endhale phonolitic intrusions, and b) to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the fluids, which promoted hydrothermal replacement of primary igneous minerals. The high degree of alteration is in contrast to the only slightly altered Kirchberg phonolite in the western KVC. The alkaline intrusive bodies are characterized by the primary mineralogy: feldspathoid mineral, K-feldspar, aegirine-augite, wollastonite, and andradite, with additional REE-minerals (e.g. götzenite). Fluid-induced re-equilibration of feldspathoid minerals and wollastonite caused breakdown to a set of secondary phases. Feldspathoid minerals are totally replaced by secondary phases including various zeolite species, calcite, and barite. Wollastonite breakdown results in the formation of various zeolites, calcite, pectolite, sepiolite, and quartz. The large variability of secondary minerals indicates a heterogenic fluid composition throughout the phonolitic intrusions and through time. Zeolites formed during sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration under alkaline conditions and completely replace feldspathoid minerals in the matrix of the rock. A sequence of Ca-Na dominated zeolite species (gonnardite, thomsonite, mesolite) is followed by pure sodium endmember species (analcime, natrolite). These sequence reflects an increase in log[aNa+)/(aH+)] of the precipitating fluid. In contrast to the Fohberg phonolitc the Endhale phonolite contains analcime in addition to natrolite as pure Na zeolite species. The appearance of analcime is caused by higher silica activity during fluid rock interaction, which favors the formation of analcime over natrolite. The Fohberg phonolite is cut by fractures, which are totally or partially sealed with secondary minerals. Secondary minerals contain zeolites, followed by calcite and a variety of other silicates, carbonates, and sulphates as younger generations. Stable isotope analyses of late fracture calcite indicate the late circulation of meteoric fluids and mobilization of organic matter from surrounding sedimentary units.

  10. Early Silicate Earth Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of small 142Nd anomalies in early Archean rocks has brought about a revolution in our understanding of early planetary differentiation processes. 142Nd is a radiogenic isotope produced by the decay of now-extinct 146Sm in crustal and mantle reservoirs. Given that 142Nd heterogeneities can be produced only prior to 4.2 Gya, this short-lived chronometer provides selective information on the very early evolution of primordial silicate reservoirs. This information is particularly crucial for Earth, where the fingerprints of the earliest crustal formation processes have been almost entirely erased from the geological record. This article reviews the history of the field, from the pioneering applications of the 147Sm-143Nd and 146Sm-142Nd systems to ancient crustal rocks, to the more recent insights gained from application of 146Sm-142Nd to meteorites and lunar samples.

  11. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  12. A Site-Isolated Iridium Diethylene Complex Supported on Highly Dealuminated Y Zeolite: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun,A.; Bhirud, V.; Kletnieks, P.; Haw, J.; Gates, B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly dealuminated Y zeolite-supported mononuclear iridium complexes with reactive ethylene ligands were synthesized by chemisorption of Ir(C2H4)2(C5H7O2). The resultant structure and its treatment in He, CO, ethylene, and H2 were investigated with infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. The IR spectra show that Ir(C2H4)2(C5H7O2) reacted readily with surface OH groups of the zeolite, leading to the removal of C5H7O2 ligands and the formation of supported mononuclear iridium complexes, confirmed by the lack of Ir-Ir contributions in the EXAFS spectra. The EXAFS data show that each Ir atom was bonded to four carbon atoms at an average distance of 2.10 Angstroms, consistent with the presence of two ethylene ligands per Ir atom and in agreement with the IR spectra indicating p-bonded ethylene ligands. The EXAFS data also indicate that each Ir atom was bonded to two oxygen atoms of the zeolite at a distance of 2.15 Angstroms . The supported iridium-ethylene complex reacted with H2 to give ethane, and it also catalyzed ethylene hydrogenation at atmospheric pressure and 294 K. Treatment of the sample in CO led to the formation of Ir(CO)2 complexes bonded to the zeolite. The sharpness of the ?CO bands indicates a high degree of uniformity of these complexes on the support. The iridium-ethylene complex on the crystalline zeolite support is inferred to be one of the most nearly uniform supported metal complex catalysts. The results indicate that it is isostructural with a previously reported rhodium complex on the same zeolite; thus, the results are a start to a family of analogous, structurally well-defined supported metal complex catalysts.

  13. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2005-06-27

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to {approx}700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''.

  14. Synthesis and Properties of Nanoparticle Forms Saponite Clay, Cancrinite Zeolite and Phase Mixtures Thereof

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hua

    2010-01-01

    The low-temperature synthesis (90°C) of nanoparticle forms of a pure phase smectic clay (saponite) and zeolite (cancrinite) is reported, along with phase mixtures thereof. A synthesis gel corresponding to the Si:Al:Mg unit cell composition of saponite (3.6:0.40:3.0) and a NaOH/Si ratio of 1.39 affords the pure phase clay with disordered nanolayer stacking. Progressive increases in the NaOH/Si ratio up to a value of 8.33 results in the co-crystallization of first garronite and then cancrinite zeolites with nanolath morphology. The resulting phase mixtures exhibit a compound particulate structure of intertwined saponite nanolayers and cancrinite nanolaths that cannot be formed through physical mixing of the pure phase end members. Under magnesium-free conditions, pure phase cancrinite nanocrystals are formed. The Si/Al ratio of the reaction mixture affects the particle morphology as well as the chemical composition of the cancrinite zeolite. Ordinarily, cancrinite crystallizes with a Si/Al ratio of 1.0, but a silicon-rich form of the zeolite (Si/Al=1.25) is crystallized at low temperature from a silica rich synthesis gel, as evidenced by 29Si NMR spectroscopy and XEDS-TEM. Owing to the exceptionally high external surface areas of the pure phase clay (875 m2/g) and zeolite end members (8.9 - 40 m2/g), as well as their unique mixed phase composites (124 - 329 m2/g), these synthetic derivatives are promising model nanoparticles for studies of the bioavailability of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons immobilized in silicate bearing sediments and soils. PMID:21709774

  15. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  16. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  17. Synthesis and crystal structure of a layered silicate HUS-1 with a halved sodalite-cage topology.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takuji; Oumi, Yasunori; Honda, Koutaro; Sano, Tsuneji; Momma, Koichi; Izumi, Fujio

    2011-03-21

    A new layered silicate, HUS-1, was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis using decomposed FAU- and *BEA-type zeolites as nanosized silica parts. Structural analyses by X-ray powder diffractometry and solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy revealed that HUS-1 has a layered structure containing a silicate layer per unit cell along a stacking direction. Its framework topology is similar to that of SOD-type zeolites and consists of a halved sodalite cage, which includes four- and six-membered Si rings. Structure refinement by the Rietveld method showed that tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions used as a structure-directing agent (SDA) were incorporated into the interlayer. The four methyl groups of the TMA molecule were located orderly in a hemispherical cage in the silicate layer, which suggests restraint of molecular motion. The interlayer distance is estimated at about 0.15 nm, which is unusually short in comparison with that in other layered silicates (e.g., ?-HLS or RUB-15) with similar framework topologies. The presence of hydrogen bonding between adjacent terminal O atoms was clearly revealed by the (1)H MAS NMR spectroscopy and by electron-density distribution obtained by the maximum entropy method. PMID:21294579

  18. Characteristic Low-Temperature Crystallization of Amorphous Mg-bearing Silicate Grains under Electron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Miyazaki, Yu; Kumamoto, Akihito; Saito, Midori; Kaito, Chihiro

    2008-06-01

    Amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grains, which were produced by the coalescence between MgO and SiOx smoke particles, were crystallized to forsterite (Mg2SiO4) by electron-beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscope at room temperature. The crystallization induced by electron beams was accelerated by the presence of CH4 adsorbed on the surface and incorporated interior of the grains. This experimental result implies the possibility of low-temperature crystallization in a silicate carbon star. In the case of binary stars, since the materials that flow from the stars stationarily exist around the star, the formed amorphous silicate grains will be irradiated by electrons from the star for a long duration. As a result, a significant amount of crystalline silicates can be produced.

  19. Polymer precursors to silicate ceramics: Studies of ceramic formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.K.; Martin, M.H.E.; Beecroft, L.

    1993-12-31

    A route to silicate ceramics based on the pyrolysis of polymer precursors was investigated using high temperature X-ray diffraction. The methacrylate precursors under study have been optimized to produce forsterite, a ceramic which when doped with chromium has been shown to lase in the near infrared at wavelengths suitable for optical communication. Greatest yields occur when monomers capable of producing silicate crosslinks are introduced into the precursor compositions. The formation of forsterite occurs at those temperatures (600-800{degrees}C) producing the greatest rate of mass loss. A transient crystalline phase prior to forsterite formation was revealed by the X-ray studies. The concentration of carbon present in the sample was also observed to delay forsterite formation until higher temperatures. The effect of chromium dopant on ceramic formation will be described.

  20. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  1. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

  2. Durability of Hydrophilic and Antimicrobial Zeolite Coatings under Water Immersion

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Durability of Hydrophilic and Antimicrobial Zeolite Coatings under Water Immersion Cory O-exchanged zeolite A (Ag-ZA) coatings have been shown to have excellent hydrophilicity and are highly antimicrobial Keywords: zeolite coating, zeolite A, hydrophilic, antimicrobial, gravity Introduction Condensing heat

  3. SEQUESTERING MANURE N WITH SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural zeolites have a long and successful history of agricultural use in Japan and more recently in the U.S. However the price (often > $US500 Mg -1) limits their use in agriculture. Zeolites can be synthesized from fly ash by reaction with sodium hydroxide solutions and low temperature. The proje...

  4. Visible emission from Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Imakita, K.; Fujii, M.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Gordina, N. E.; Saïd, B.; Galarneau, A.

    2015-09-01

    Broad visible emissions dominant at green or red have been observed for the thermally-treated Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites, determined by the Ag+ loading contents and the excitation wavelengths. Contrary to the notable reversible green/red dominant emission evolution in the Ag+ exchanged LTA zeolites upon hydration/dehydration in air (or water vapor)/vacuum, emission spectra of the Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites are insensitive to the environmental change. This is most probably due to the difficult H2O permeation in SOD zeolites in comparison with LTA zeolites. By combining the environment dependent emission spectra of the Ag+ exchanged LTA and SOD zeolites, we proposed the following emission mechanisms for Ag+ exchanged LTA and SOD zeolites: the green emission is due to the transition from ligand-to-metal (framework O2- --> Ag+) charge transfer state to the ground state and the red emission is due to the transition from the metal-metal (Ag+-Ag+) charge transfer state to the ground state. The insensitive environment dependent emission characteristics of Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites may have potential applications as robust phosphors.

  5. Visible emission from Ag(+) exchanged SOD zeolites.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Imakita, K; Fujii, M; Prokof'ev, V Yu; Gordina, N E; Saïd, B; Galarneau, A

    2015-10-14

    Broad visible emissions dominant at green or red have been observed for the thermally-treated Ag(+) exchanged SOD zeolites, determined by the Ag(+) loading contents and the excitation wavelengths. Contrary to the notable reversible green/red dominant emission evolution in the Ag(+) exchanged LTA zeolites upon hydration/dehydration in air (or water vapor)/vacuum, emission spectra of the Ag(+) exchanged SOD zeolites are insensitive to the environmental change. This is most probably due to the difficult H2O permeation in SOD zeolites in comparison with LTA zeolites. By combining the environment dependent emission spectra of the Ag(+) exchanged LTA and SOD zeolites, we proposed the following emission mechanisms for Ag(+) exchanged LTA and SOD zeolites: the green emission is due to the transition from ligand-to-metal (framework O(2-)? Ag(+)) charge transfer state to the ground state and the red emission is due to the transition from the metal-metal (Ag(+)-Ag(+)) charge transfer state to the ground state. The insensitive environment dependent emission characteristics of Ag(+) exchanged SOD zeolites may have potential applications as robust phosphors. PMID:26349525

  6. Connecting the Silicate Dust and Gas Properties of Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; Morrison, Sean

    2016-01-01

    We present recent results from our program investigating the silicate dust properties in distant galaxies using quasar absorption systems. The dust and gas properties of distant galaxies can be characterized by studying the absorption features produced by them along the sightlines to luminous background quasars. Based on our prior finding that silicate dust absorption in z<1.5 quasar absorption systems exhibits a range of optical depths and absorption feature substructures, suggestive of silicate grain property variations, we are investigating silicate dust absorption in quasar absorption systems toward quasars with archival Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra. We present our measurements of the 10 and/or 18 micron silicate dust absorption feature(s) in these systems, and discuss constraints on the grain properties, such as composition and crystallinity, based on the shape and substructure present in these features. We also investigate the correlations between the silicate dust properties and the reddening. Connections between the silicate dust and gas phase metal absorption properties can also be probed for some of our targets with archival ground-based spectra. These relationships will yield valuable insights into the star formation history and evolution of metals and dust. This work is supported by NASA through ADAP grant NNX14AG74G and by an award issued by JPL/Caltech, and from US-NSF grant AST-1108830 to the University of South Carolina.

  7. Post-synthetic preparation of Sn-, Ti- and Zr-beta: a facile route to water tolerant, highly active Lewis acidic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Patrick; Hammond, Ceri; Conrad, Sabrina; Hermans, Ive

    2014-03-21

    A two-step procedure for the post-synthetic preparation of Lewis acidic Sn-, Zr- and Ti-zeolite ? is reported. Dealumination of a commercially available Al-? zeolite leads to the formation of highly siliceous material containing silanol nests, which can be filled in a second step via the solid-state ion-exchange or impregnation of an appropriate metal precursor. Spectroscopic studies indicate that each metal is subsequently coordinated within the zeolite framework, and that little or no bulk oxides are formed--despite the high metal loadings. The synthesised catalysts demonstrate excellent activity for the isomerisation of glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone, a key model reaction for the upgrading of bio-renewable feedstocks, and the epoxidation of bulky olefins. PMID:24407516

  8. sup 29 Si and sup 27 Al NMR study of zeolite formation from alkali-leached kaolinites. Influence of thermal preactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, A.; Aznar, A.; Sanz, J.; Serratosa, J.M. )

    1990-01-25

    The alkali treatment of kaolinites heated between 400 and 1,000{degree}C has been studied by NMR ({sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al signals), IR, and x-ray diffraction techniques. The dissolution of kaolinite samples produces Al(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and SiO{sub 4}{sup 4{minus}} species which participate in the zeolite germ formation. The nature of zeolites generated (hydroxysodalite, Na-A, and tetragonal P{sub t}) varies with thermal activation of the starting silicates, but the prolonged leaching of the samples favors the transformation of initially formed phases into the most stable P{sub t} zeolite. The synthesis of this compound (Si/Al > 1) requires the previous polymerization of dissolved silica species, and the amount of incorporated Si depends on the temperature of pretreatment of kaolinite.

  9. CuO nanoparticles incorporated in hierarchical MFI zeolite as highly active electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junping; Tian, Taolei; Ren, Linxiao; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Cheng, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical MFI zeolite, with typical micro/meso bimodal pore structures, was prepared by desilication method. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were incorporated into the hierarchical MFI zeolite by impregnation method. CuO/hierarchical zeolite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption. It is shown that the CuO nanoparticles are mostly dispersed in the mesopores with remaining of the crystallinity and morphology of the host zeolite. CuO nanoparticles located in hierarchical zeolite exhibit the excellent electrocatalytic performances to oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The electrocatalytic activity enhances with increasing the loading content of CuO from 5% to 15%. The composites were fabricated for nonenzyme glucose sensing. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor shows a wide linear range from 5×10(-7) to 1.84×10(-2) M with a low detection limit of 3.7×10(-7) M. The sensor also exhibits good repeatability, long-term stability as well as high selectivity against interfering species. PMID:25499226

  10. Hiding Silicates in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mark C.; Stewart, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of numerical simulations are presented that look at the impact of replacing some of the ice particles in Saturn's rings with silicate particles. All particles are modeled as perfect spheres with no tangential friction. Collisions and particle self-gravity are considered and regions in both the A and B rings have been explored. The particles that represent silicates are given a density of 3 g/cm3 while the icy particles have a density of 0.5 g/cm3. Simulations were done using particles of a single size as well as size distributions and parameters were picked to roughly match measured surface densities. The primary conclusion of this work is that silicate material is well hidden from observations as it collapses down to form core-like structures in the ephemeral gravity wakes. When 4% of the particles are silicates, less than 1% of the reflected light is reflected from the silicate bodies. The light reflected from silicates preferentially comes from particles that are not currently in gravity wakes. Higher percentages of high density material can also be very effectively hidden. Hence, direct observation of spectra does not serve as a strong bound on ring composition. However, having even 4% silicate material does change the pitch angle and structure of gravity wakes and this might serve as an indirect diagnostic of the presence of higher density material. This is especially relevant in the A ring where gravity wake pitch angle affects the azimuthal brightness asymmetry. This work supported by NASA PG&G.

  11. Studies on sorption properties of zeolite derived from Indian fly ash.

    PubMed

    Mishra, T; Tiwari, S K

    2006-09-01

    Indian fly ash has been completely converted to crystalline porous 13X zeolite by NaOH fusion at 600 degrees C followed by hydrothermal treatment at 105 degrees C for 20 h. Obtained materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and surface area measurement. Prepared material was used for the sorption study of different metal ions (Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) at different pH, temperature. Thermodynamic data (DeltaS, DeltaH and DeltaG) corresponding to different metal ion uptake were evaluated from Langmuir equation. In all the experiment sorption capacity of prepared zeolite was found to be quite high than that of fly ash at acidic pH. However, the uptake selectivity order for both the materials is Cu(2+)>Co(2+)>Ni(2+). PMID:16563613

  12. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2015-01-01

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping is achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. Application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0?nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8?nm average surface roughness. PMID:25958985

  13. Framework-incorporated Mn and Co analcime zeolites: Synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Ehsani Tilami, Salma

    2013-02-15

    The framework-substituted cobalt and manganese analcime zeolites were synthesized via a direct hydrothermal approach. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD powder, SEM-EDX, nitrogen physical adsorption, Raman microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy which complementarily demonstrated the incorporation of cobalt and manganese into the zeolites framework. The results showed that substitution of Mn and Co could be placed in two synthesis gels with same compositions containing Al/Mn=5 and Al/Co=4 mol ratios, respectively. In addition, with replacing Al with Mn and synthesis of Mn-modified analcime, zeolite with higher surface area and pore volume could be achieved than the Co modified analcime. - Graphical abstract: The images and adsorption-desorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K for (a) Co (b) Mn modified analcime. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Co and Mn modified analcime for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Framework-incorporation of Co and Mn using the same silicate gel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applying several techniques to provide proofs for the characterization.

  14. Comparative pathology of silicate pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, C.; Abraham, J.; Brambilla, E.; Benirschke, K.; Bloor, C.

    1979-01-01

    A simple pneumoconiosis with lamellar birefringent crystals was observed in animals dying in the San Diego Zoo. We studied 100 autopsies from 11 mammalian and eight avian species. In mammals, mild pulmonary lesions comprised crystal-laden macrophages in alveoli and lymphatics. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 20% of cases. There were no nodules. In birds, dust retention produced large granulomas around tertiary bronchi without fibrosis. Mineralogic analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed most of the crystals to be silicates. Ninety percent were complex silicates, with aluminum-potassium silicates comprising 70% of the analyzed particles. Electron and x-ray diffraction showed the silicates to be muscovite mica and its hydrothermal degradation product, ie, illite clay. This mica was also present on filtration membranes of atmospheric air samples obtained from the San Diego Zoo. The amount of dust retention was related to the animal's age, anatomic or ecologic variances, and length of stay in the San Diego Zoo. Its semidesert atmosphere is rich in silicates, which are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Similar mica-induced lesions are found in humans living in this region or the Southwest of the USA. This simple pneumoconiosis is likely to be widespread in human populations living in desert or semidesert climates. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:223447

  15. Zeolites on Mars: Prospects for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, E. S.; Singer, R. B.; Kunkle, T. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Martian surface composition measured by Viking can be represented by several combinations of minerals incorporating major fractions of zeolites known to occur in altered mafic rocks and polar soils on Earth. The abundant occurrence of zeolites on Mars is consistent with what is known about both the physical and chemical environment of that planet. The laboratory reflectance spectra (0.65 to 2.55 microns) of a number of relatively pure zeolite minerals and some naturally occurring zeolite-clay soils were measured. All of the spectra measured are dominated by strong absorption near 1.4 and 1.9 microns and a steep reflectance drop longward of about 2.2 microns, all of which are due to abundant H2O. Weaker water overtone bands are also apparent, and in most cases there is spectral evidence for minor Fe(3+). In these features the zeolite spectra are similar to spectra of smectite clays which have abundant interlayer water. The most diagnostic difference between clay and zeolite spectra is the total absence in the zeolites of the weak structural OH absorption.

  16. Water nanodroplets confined in zeolite pores.

    PubMed

    Coudert, François-Xavier; Cailliez, Fabien; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Fuchs, Alain H; Boutin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive depiction of the behaviour of a nanodroplet of approximately equal to 20 water molecules confined in the pores of a series of 3D-connected isostructural zeolites with varying acidity, by means of molecular simulations. Both grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations using classical interatomic forcefields and first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics were used in order to characterise the behaviour of confined water by computing a range of properties, from thermodynamic quantities to electronic properties such as dipole moment, including structural and dynamical information. From the thermodynamic point of view, we have identified the all-silica zeolite as hydrophobic, and the cationic zeolites as hydrophilic; the condensation transition in the first case was demonstrated to be of first order. Furthermore, in-depth analysis of the dynamical and electronic properties of water showed that water in the hydrophobic zeolite behaves as a nanodroplet trying to close its hydrogen-bond network onto itself, with a few short-lived dangling OH groups, while water in hydrophilic zeolites "opens up" to form weak hydrogen bonds with the zeolite oxygen atoms. Finally, the dipole moment of confined water is studied and the contributions of water self-polarisation and the zeolite electric field are discussed. PMID:19227366

  17. Effect of vanadium contamination on the framework and micropore structure of ultra stable Y-zeolite.

    PubMed

    Etim, U J; Xu, B; Ullah, Rooh; Yan, Z

    2016-02-01

    Y-zeolites are the main component of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst for conversion of crude petroleum to products of high demand including transportation fuel. We investigated effects of vanadium which is present as one of the impurities in FCC feedstock on the framework and micropore structure of ultra-stable (US) Y-zeolite. The zeolite samples were prepared and characterized using standard techniques including: (1) X-ray diffraction, (2) N2 adsorption employing non local density functional theory method, NLDFT, (3) Transmittance and Pyridine FTIR, (4) Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), and (5) (27)Al and (29)Si MAS-NMR. Results revealed that in the presence of steam, vanadium caused excessive evolution of non inter-crystalline mesopores and structural damage. The evolved mesopore size averaged about 25.0nm at 0.5wt.% vanadium loading, far larger than mesopore size in zeolitic materials with improved hydrothermal stability and performance for FCC catalyst. A mechanism of mesopore formation based on accelerated dealumination has been proposed and discussed. Vanadium immobilization experiments conducted to mitigate vanadium migration into the framework clearly showed vanadium is mobile at reaction conditions. From the results, interaction of vanadium with the passivator limits and decreases mobility and activity of vanadium into inner cavities of the zeolite capable of causing huge structure breakdown and acid sites destruction. This study therefore deepens insight into the causes of alteration in activity and selectivity of vanadium contaminated catalyst and hints on a possible mechanism of passivation in vanadium passivated FCC catalyst. PMID:26520826

  18. The unusual silicate dust around HV 2310, an evolved star in the LMC

    E-print Network

    Sloan, G C; Bernard-Salas, J; Wood, P R; Houck, J R

    2006-01-01

    The spectrum of HV 2310, an evolved star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope reveals the presence of an optically thin shell of silicate dust with unusual spectral structure in the 10 um feature, with an emission peak at 9.7 um, a saddle at 10.4 um, and an extended shoulder to 11.2 um. This structure is similar to spectra from crystalline silicate grains, and of the available optical constants, forsterite provides the best fit. The spectrum also shows structure at 14 um which may arise from an unidentified dust feature.

  19. Copper-Exchanged Zeolite L Traps Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Seshan, Panchalam K.

    1991-01-01

    Brief series of simple chemical treatments found to enhance ability of zeolite to remove oxygen from mixture of gases. Thermally stable up to 700 degrees C and has high specific surface area which provides high capacity for adsorption of gases. To increase ability to adsorb oxygen selectively, copper added by ion exchange, and copper-exchanged zeolite reduced with hydrogen. As result, copper dispersed atomically on inner surfaces of zeolite, making it highly reactive to oxygen, even at room temperature. Reactivity to oxygen even greater at higher temperatures.

  20. FORMATION OF COSMIC CRYSTALS IN HIGHLY SUPERSATURATED SILICATE VAPOR PRODUCED BY PLANETESIMAL BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, H.; Yamada, J.; Tsukamoto, K.; Nozawa, J.; Tanaka, K. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    2010-08-10

    Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of {mu}m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {mu}m-sized particles evaporate almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; for instance, the cooling rate is estimated to be as high as 2000 K s{sup -1} for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures much lower than those expected from the equilibrium condensation. It was found that the condensation temperatures are lower by a few hundred K or more than the equilibrium temperatures. This explains the results of the recent experimental studies of condensation from a silicate vapor that condensation in such large supercooling reproduces morphologies similar to those of silicate crystals found in meteorites. Our results strongly suggest that the planetesimal bow shock is one of the plausible sites for formation of not only chondrules but also other cosmic crystals in the early solar system.

  1. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF Al-RICH SILICATE STARDUST FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmer, Christian; Hoppe, Peter; Brenker, Frank E.

    2013-05-20

    We report on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations of two mineralogically unusual stardust silicates to constrain their circumstellar condensation conditions. Both grains were identified by high spatial resolution nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) in the Acfer 094 meteorite, one of the most pristine carbonaceous chondrites available for study. One grain is a highly crystalline, highly refractory (Fe content < 0.5 at%), structurally undisturbed orthopyroxene (MgSiO{sub 3}) with an unusually high Al content (1.8 {+-} 0.5 at%). This is the first TEM documentation of a single crystal pyroxene within the complete stardust silicate data set. We interpret the microstructure and chemistry of this grain as being a direct condensate from a gas of locally non-solar composition (i.e., with a higher-than-solar Al content and most likely also a lower-than-solar Mg/Si ratio) at (near)-equilibrium conditions. From the overabundance of crystalline olivine (six reported grains to date) compared to crystalline pyroxene (only documented as a single crystal in this work) we infer that formation of olivine over pyroxene is favored in circumstellar environments, in agreement with expectations from condensation theory and experiments. The second stardust silicate consists of an amorphous Ca-Si rich material which lacks any crystallinity based on TEM observations in which tiny (<20 nm) hibonite nanocrystallites are embedded. This complex assemblage therefore attests to the fast cooling and rapidly changing chemical environments under which dust grains in circumstellar shells form.

  2. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM); Odinek, Judy G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  3. Lithologic mapping of silicate rocks using TIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Common rock-forming minerals have thermal infrared spectral features that are measured in the laboratory to infer composition. An airborne Daedalus scanner (TIMS) that collects six channels of thermal infrared radiance data (8 to 12 microns), may be used to measure these same features for rock identification. Previously, false-color composite pictures made from channels 1, 3, and 5 and emittance spectra for small areas on these images were used to make lithologic maps. Central wavelength, standard deviation, and amplitude of normal curves regressed on the emittance spectra are related to compositional information for crystalline igneous silicate rocks. As expected, the central wavelength varies systematically with silica content and with modal quartz content. Standard deviation is less sensitive to compositional changes, but large values may result from mixed admixture of vegetation. Compression of the six TIMS channels to three image channels made from the regressed parameters may be effective in improving geologic mapping from TIMS data, and these synthetic images may form a basis for the remote assessment of rock composition.

  4. Complexation of porphyrins with nanoparticles of zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulkhandanyan, Anna G.; Zakoyan, Anna A.; Sargsyan, Hakob H.; Ghazaryan, Robert K.; Sheyranyan, Marina A.; Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor V.

    2015-06-01

    The binding of nanoparticles zeolite with a number of cationic porphyrins are studied. Previously, it was established that the main mechanism of binding the zeolite nanoparticles with cationic porphyrins is an ionic bond. Since binding of porphyrins as ligands to nanoparticles at the initial stage of interaction is determined by the Brownian motion of porphyrins, it is obvious that the interaction of porphyrins with nanoparticles may depend on the temperature. In the present paper by methods of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy was studied the complexation of porphyrins with zeolite nanoparticles at different temperature conditions. It was established that there is a clear temperature dependence of the complexation of cationic metalloporphyrins with zeolite naonoparticles, and for correct determination of the percentage of binding must be strict thermostating of the experimental conditions.

  5. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  7. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  8. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  14. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where fly ash is sold as a by-product.

  15. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals 

    E-print Network

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22

    -1 Selective Anisotropic Growth of Zeolite Crystals A Senior Honors Thesis by TASHA APRIL DESAI Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY... UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS Apri I 2003 Group: Engineering & Physics 3 Selective Anisotropic Growth of Zeolite Crystals A Senior Honors Thesis by TASFIA APRIL DESAI Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs k Academic Scholarships Texas A...

  16. Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

  17. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  18. Probing zeolites by vibrational spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Bordiga, Silvia; Lamberti, Carlo; Bonino, Francesca; Travert, Arnaud; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-10-21

    This review addresses the most relevant aspects of vibrational spectroscopies (IR, Raman and INS) applied to zeolites and zeotype materials. Surface Brønsted and Lewis acidity and surface basicity are treated in detail. The role of probe molecules and the relevance of tuning both the proton affinity and the steric hindrance of the probe to fully understand and map the complex site population present inside microporous materials are critically discussed. A detailed description of the methods needed to precisely determine the IR absorption coefficients is given, making IR a quantitative technique. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process that can be extracted from a variable-temperature IR study are described. Finally, cutting-edge space- and time-resolved experiments are reviewed. All aspects are discussed by reporting relevant examples. When available, the theoretical literature related to the reviewed experimental results is reported to support the interpretation of the vibrational spectra on an atomic level. PMID:26435467

  19. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. PMID:24106151

  20. Improved epitaxy of ultrathin praseodymia films on chlorine passivated Si(111) reducing silicate interface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gevers, S.; Bruns, D.; Weisemoeller, T.; Wollschlaeger, J.; Flege, J. I.; Kaemena, B.; Falta, J.

    2010-12-13

    Ultrathin praseodymia films have been deposited on both Cl-passivated and nonpassivated Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Comparative studies on the crystallinity and stoichiometry are performed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray standing waves, and x-ray reflectometry. On nonpassivated Si(111) an amorphous silicate film is formed. In contrast, praseodymia deposited on Cl-passivated Si(111) form a well-ordered crystalline film with cubic-Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (bixbyite) structure. The vertical lattice constant of the praseodymia film is increased by 1.4% compared to the bulk value. Furthermore, the formation of an extended amorphous silicate interface layers is suppressed and confined to only one monolayer.

  1. 11. EASTERN END OF ZEOLITE BUILDING. NOTE DIAL TO LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EASTERN END OF ZEOLITE BUILDING. NOTE DIAL TO LEFT OF CLOCK GAUGING TOTAL ZEOLITE INFLUENT IN MILLIONS OF GALLONS PER DAY. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces, the co-ion exchange strengthens the polymer/silicate interface and ensures irreversible separation of the silicate layers. One way in which it does this is to essentially tether one amine of each diamine molecule to a silicate surface, leaving the second amine free for reaction with monomers during the synthesis of a polymer. In addition, the incorporation of alkyl ammonium ions into the galleries at low concentration helps to keep low the melt viscosity of the oligomer formed during synthesis of the polymer and associated processing - a consideration that is particularly important in the case of a highly cross-linked, thermosetting polymer. Because of the chemical bonding between the surface-modifying amines and the monomers, even when the alkyl ammonium ions become degraded at high processing temperature, the silicate layers do not aggregate and, hence, nanometer-level dispersion is maintained.

  3. The asteroid albedo scale. II - Laboratory polarimetry of dark carbon-bearing silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B.; Lebertre, T.; Day, K.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory reflection polarimetry is presented for eight samples of artificial, poorly crystalline magnesian silicates with varying admixtures of carbon black. The polarimetric slope-albedo law saturates for geometric albedos lower than about 0.05, and good agreement with the telescopic polarization-phase curves of C-type asteroids is found for albedos as low as 0.02. Thus the conclusion from thermal radiometry is confirmed that the C objects are very dark, darker than any known carbonaceous chondrite.

  4. Fly ash zeolite catalyst support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campen, Adam

    This dissertation research aimed at evaluating a fly ash zeolite (FAZ) catalyst support for use in heterogeneous catalytic processes. Gas phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) over a fixed-bed of the prepared catalyst/FAZ support was identified as an appropriate process for evaluation, by comparison with commercial catalyst supports (silica, alumina, and 13X). Fly ash, obtained from the Wabash River Generating Station, was first characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, particle size, and nitrogen sorption techniques. Then, a parametric study of a two-step alkali fusion/hydrothermal treatment process for converting fly ash to zeolite frameworks was performed by varying the alkali fusion agent, agent:flyash ratio, fusion temperature, fused ash/water solution, aging time, and crystallization time. The optimal conditions for each were determined to be NaOH, 1.4 g NaOH: 1 g fly ash, 550 °C, 200 g/L, 12 hours, and 48 hours. This robust process was applied to the fly ash to obtain a faujasitic zeolite structure with increased crystallinity (40 %) and surface area (434 m2/g). Following the modification of fly ash to FAZ, ion exchange of H+ for Na+ and cobalt incipient wetness impregnation were used to prepare a FTS catalyst. FTS was performed on the catalysts at 250--300 °C, 300 psi, and with a syngas ratio H2:CO = 2. The HFAZ catalyst support loaded with 11 wt% cobalt resulted in a 75 % carbon selectivity for C5 -- C18 hydrocarbons, while methane and carbon dioxide were limited to 13 and 1 %, respectively. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD, N2 sorption, TPR, and oxygen pulse titration to provide insight to the behavior of each catalyst. Overall, the HFAZ compared well with silica and 13X supports, and far exceeded the performance of the alumina support under the tested conditions. The successful completion of this research could add value to an underutilized waste product of coal combustion, in the form of catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  5. Hydrogen isotope separation using molecular sieve of synthetic zeolite 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoh, K.; Kimura, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kudo, K.

    2008-07-15

    It is known that hydrogen isotope molecules can be adsorbed easily onto synthetic zeolite 4A, 5A, and 13X at the liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77.4 K. We show here that hydrogen and deuterium are not adsorptive onto zeolite 3A at the same temperature. This phenomenon is explained by assuming the molecular sieve function in zeolite-3A-crystalline lattice structure. From a series of pseudo-isobaric experiments, it is also shown that the sieving phenomenon appears in a range above 77.4 K. This behavior is interpreted as resulting on the dependence of sieve's mesh size on temperature, where the sieving effect is considered to appear at a certain temperature. In this interpretation, an isotopic difference between hydrogen and deuterium is suggested to exist in the sieving effect appearance temperatures. This is endorsed in the result of pseudo-isobaric experiments. This temperature deference is very significant because that indicates the possibility of an effective method of hydrogen isotope separation. This possibility is verified through an experimental series of adsorption-desorption with a mixture of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, where the gas samples adsorbed through the sieve operated at intentionally selected temperatures are isolated and then analyzed. The result demonstrates remarkable values of isotope separation factor. (authors)

  6. Mesoporous templated silicates: an overview of their synthesis, catalytic activation and evaluation of the stability.

    PubMed

    Linssen, T; Cassiers, K; Cool, P; Vansant, E F

    2003-04-25

    The most recent developments in the formation of new mesoporous templated zeolitic materials, characterized by surfaces of more than 1000 m(2)/g, are discussed in this paper. By adapting the synthesis parameters, such as type of silicium source, type of template, pH, temperature, em leader different materials can be synthesized with varying porosity and crystallinity. Besides the synthesis, much attention is focused on the activation of their surfaces by incorporation methods or deposition processes towards catalytic applications. Finally, the stability of the different materials, one of the critical parameters to potential industrial applications, is compared and evaluated. PMID:12706552

  7. The formation of molecular hydrogen on silicate dust analogs: The rotational distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G.; Sabri, T.; Jæger, C.

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory experiments continue to explore how the formation of molecular hydrogen is influenced by dust and how dust thereby affects hydrogen molecules adsorbed on its surface. In Sabri et al., we present the preparation of nanometer-sized silicate grain analogs via laser ablation. These analogs illustrate extremes in structure (fully crystalline or fully amorphous grains), and stoichiometry (the forsterite and fayalite end-members of the olivine family). These were inserted in FORMOLISM, an ultra-high vacuum setup where they can be cooled down to ?5 K. Atomic beams are directed at these surfaces and the formation of new molecules is studied via REMPI(2+1) spectroscopy. We explored the rotational distribution (0 ? J'' ? 5) of v'' = 0 of the ground electronic state of H{sub 2}. The results of these measurements are reported here. Surprisingly, molecules formed and ejected from crystalline silicates have a cold (T {sub rot} ? 120 K) rotational energy distribution, while for molecules formed on and ejected from amorphous silicate films, the rotational temperature is ?310 K. These results are compared to previous experiments on metallic surfaces and theoretical simulations. Solid-state surface analysis suggests that flatter grains could hinder the 'cartwheel' rotation mode. A search for hot hydrogen, predicted as a result of H{sub 2} formation, hints at its production. For the first time, the rotational distribution of hydrogen molecules formed on silicate dust is reported. These results are essential to understanding the chemistry of astrophysical media containing bare dust grains.

  8. Silicate Dust in RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, M. T.; Woodward, C. E.; Helton, L. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Evans, A.; Kaminsky, B.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Maxwell, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present Spitzer IRS spectra of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi obtained between 2006 and 2009. The data show emission lines due to HI, [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne VI] and [O IV] and the well known silicate features at 10 ?m and 18 ?m, whose behaviour are reported here. The silicate features are variable in the period covered by the observations, appearing strongest in our 2007 data. Interestingly, the central wavelength of the 18 ?m band is shorter than observed in other symbiotic systems and other circumstellar environments, suggesting unusual grain properties in RS Oph. We report changes that have taken place in the dusty environment in RS Oph and investigate the properties of the dust grains.

  9. Longevity of silicate ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    The demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of dental ceramics as a biocompatible and functionally sufficient alternative to conventional restorative materials. Silicate ceramic restorations are widely used for veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns in dentistry. Long-term data are of crucial importance to optimize clinical practice. The purpose of the present article is to summarize data of the Innsbruck ceramic evaluation up to 261 months with the focus on longevity and failure characteristics. PMID:25126640

  10. Probing Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Quasar Absorption Systems at Redshifts z<1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, M.; Kulkarni, V. P.; York, D. G.; Welty, D. E.; Vladilo, G.; Som, D.

    Absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars whose sightlines serendipitously pass through foreground galaxies provide a valuable tool to simultaneously probe the dust and gas compositions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. In particular, the damped and sub-damped Lyman- ? (DLA/sub-DLA) absorbers trace gas-rich galaxies, independent of the intrinsic luminosities or star-formation rates of the associated galaxy stellar populations. The first evidence of silicate dust in a quasar absorption system was provided through our detection of the 10 µ m silicate feature in the z=0.52 DLA absorber toward the quasar AO 0235+164. We present results from 2 follow-up programs using archival Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectra to study the interstellar silicate dust grain properties in a total of 13 quasar absorption systems at 0.1 < z < 1.4. We find clear detections of the 10 µ m silicate feature in the quasar absorption systems studied. In addition, we also detect the 18 µ m silicate feature in the sources with adequate spectral coverage. We find variations in the breadth, peak wavelength, and substructure of the 10 µ m interstellar silicate absorption features among the absorbers. This suggests that the silicate dust grain properties in these distant galaxies may differ relative to one another, and relative to those in the Milky Way. We also find suggestions in several sources, based on comparisons with laboratory-derived profiles from the literature, that the silicate dust grains may be significantly more crystalline than those in the amorphous Milky Way ISM. This is particularly evident in the z=0.89 absorber toward the quasar PKS 1830-211, where substructure near 10 µ m is consistent with a crystalline olivine composition. If confirmed, these grain property variations may have implications for both dust and galaxy evolution over the past 9 Gyrs, and for the commonly-made assumption that highredshift dust is similar to local dust. We also discuss indications of trends between silicate dust absorption strength and both carbonaceous dust properties and gas-phase metal properties, such as the gas velocity spread, determined from UV/optical spectra.

  11. Preparation, Processing, and Characterization of Oriented Polycrystalline Zeolite and Aluminophosphate Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeger, Jared Andrew

    Since the advent of zeolite membranes, speculation on their industrial applicability has been closely monitored, although widespread commercialization has been hampered by limitations in fabrication and post-synthesis processing. Economical, energy-efficient technology breakthroughs require an evaluation of a range of material candidates which show robustness and reliability. Straightforward manufacturing techniques should be devised to generate thousands of square meters of membrane area; however, this demands control of structural characteristics on the scale of nanometers. As described in this dissertation, the path forward will be forged by exploiting the intrinsic crystalline properties of zeolites or aluminophosphates for the next advancement in membrane technology. A facile method is described for the preparation of silicalite-1 (MFI zeolite type) membranes using the secondary growth technique on symmetric porous stainless steel tubes. Activation through rapid thermal processing (RTP), a lamp-based heat-treatment process used as a critical fabrication step in silicon integrated circuit manufacturing, is proven to reduce the density of non-zeolitic transport pathways which are detrimental to high-resolution molecular sieving. RTP-treated membranes are shown to have enhanced performance in the binary separation of vapor-phase isomers (p-/o-xylene), gas-phase isomers (n-/i-butane), and alcohol/water when compared to membranes activated at a much slower heating rate but otherwise similarly-prepared. The performance is discussed in the context of the market potential for industrially-attractive separations: the recovery of p-xylene from an isomeric mixture or alcohol biofuels from aqueous post-fermentation streams. Hydrothermal growth techniques for the preparation and characterization of continuous aluminophosphate (AFI zeolite type) membranes with a preferential crystallographic alignment on porous alpha-Al2O3 disc supports are demonstrated. A mechanism is proposed for flake-like crystal formation in the early stages of in-plane crystalline intergrowth between oriented columnar crystals by electric heating. It is shown that elevated temperatures induce a phase transformation to a densified aluminophosphate phase despite framework metal substitution or alternative heat-treatment conditions. Additionally, stability and membrane characteristics following in situ microwave growth using a TiO2-coated support are examined. Indications of improved quality validate the candidacy of the microwave-grown membranes with regard to the potential for carbon nanotube synthesis in the aligned one-dimensional channels for high flux, high separation factor membrane fabrication.

  12. Catalytic crystallization of ices by small silicate smokes at temperatures less than 20K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M.; Ferrante, R.; Hudson, R.; Tanabe, T.; Nuth, J.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of methanol and water ices condensed from the vapor onto aluminum substrates at low temperatures (below approximately 80 K) form amorphous ices; annealing at temperatures in excess of 140-155 K is usually required to convert such amorphous samples to crystalline ices. However, we have found that when either methanol or water vapor is deposited on to aluminum substrates that have been coated with a thin (0.1-0.5 mm) layer of amorphous silicate smoke, the ices condense in crystalline form. We believe that crystalline ice forms as the result of energy liberated at the ice/silicate interface perhaps due to weak bonding of the ice at defect sites on the grains and the very high surface to volume ratio and defect density of these smokes. Annealing of amorphous water ice mixed with more volatile components such as methane, carbon monoxide, etc., has been suggested as an efficient way to produce clatherates in the outer solar nebula and thus explain the volatile content of comets and icy satellites of the outer planets. This hypothesis may need to be re-examined if amorphous ice does not form on cold silicate grains.

  13. Crystalline color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-04-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena.

  14. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staff- Branch of Industrial Minerals

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  15. Synthesis of novel perfluoroalkylglucosides on zeolite and non-zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Janusz; Mokrzycki, ?ukasz; Sulikowski, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylglucosides comprise a very important class of fluorine-containing surfactants. These compounds can be synthesized by using the Fisher reaction, starting directly from glucose and the required perfluoroalcohols. We wish to report on the use of zeolite catalysts of different structure and composition for the synthesis of perfluoroalkylglucosides when using glucose and 1-octafluoropentanol as substrates. Zeolites of different pore architecture have been chosen (ZSM-5, ZSM-12, MCM-22 and Beta). Zeolites were characterized by XRD, nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-state 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The activity of the zeolite catalysts in the glycosidation reaction was studied in a batch reactor at 100 °C below atmospheric pressure. The performance of zeolites was compared to other catalysts, an ion-exchange resin (Purolite) and a montmorillonite-type layered aluminosilicate. The catalytic performance of zeolite Beta was the highest among the zeolites studied and the results were comparable to those obtained over Purolite and montmorillonite type catalysts. PMID:25856063

  16. Molecular recognition in cation-exchanged zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidko, Evgeny A.; van Santen, Rutger A.

    The concepts of confinement- and molecular recognition-driven chemical reactivity of cation-exchanged zeolites is illustrated by our recent results from periodic and cluster density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The reactivity of alkali-earth- and alkaline-exchanged low-silica zeolites for selective photo-oxidation of alkenes with molecular oxygen and for N2O4 disproportionation is shown to be mainly due to the specific arrangement and the size of the cations in the zeolite cage. An attempt is made to separate the effects of basicity of the framework, the Lewis acidity of the extra-framework cations and the electrostatic field in the zeolite cage as well as its geometrical properties for the respective reactions. The importance of the favorable adsorption fashion of the reagents controlled by noncovalent interactions with the microporous matrix is shown. The role of the weak interactions with the zeolite walls and the factors, which determine the preference for a particular adsorption mode, are discussed by the example of light alkanes adsorption to Mg- and Ca-exchanged faujasites.

  17. Italian zeolitized rocks of technological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de'Gennaro, M.; Langella, A.

    1996-09-01

    Large areas of Italian territory are covered by thick and widespread deposits of zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic products. The main zeolites are phillipsite and chabazite spread over the whole peninsula, and clinoptilolite recorded only in Sardinia. A trachytic to phonolitic glassy precursor accounts for the formation of the former zeolites characterized by low Si/Al ratios (?3.00), while clinoptilolite is related to more acidic volcanism. The genesis of most of these zeolitized deposits is linked to pyroclastic flow emplacement mechanisms characterized by quite high temperatures and by the presence of abundant fluids. The main utilization of these materials has been and still is as dimension stones in the building industry. Currently, limited amounts are also employed in animal farming (dietary supplement, pet litter and manure deodorizer) and in agriculture as soil improvement and slow-release fertilizers. New fields of application have been proposed for these products on account of their easy availability, very low cost, their high-grade zeolites (50 70%), and good technological features such as high cation exchange capacities and adsorption properties.

  18. Zeolite-templated Pt/C electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric N.; Steen, William A.; Miller, James E.

    2008-06-16

    In an effort to reduce the amount of platinum required in low temperature fuel cells, we have prepared electrocatalysts of platinum nanoparticles-on-carbon through zeolite-templating methods. Several different zeolite structure-types, as well as clays and mesoporous silicas were investigated as hosts for the preparation of small Pt clusters through thermal decomposition of ion exchanged (NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pt{sup 2+}. Several factors relating to cluster confinement and mobility influence cluster size, and clusters below 1 nm with narrow size distribution have been prepared. To enable electrochemical application, the pores of the Pt cluster-containing zeolite were filled with electrically conductive carbon via infiltration with carbon precursors, polymerization, and pyrolysis. The zeolite host was then removed by acid digestion, to leave a micro-/mesoporous Pt/C electrocatalyst possessing Pt clusters of controlled size. Preliminary electrochemical evaluation of these catalysts is reported. The energetics of thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pt{sup 2+} to form Pt clusters in zeolite X have been investigated through Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and apparent activation energies calculated. The relationship between (NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pt{sup 2+} decomposition and conditions of calcination has been explored in an effort to better control Pt cluster sizes.

  19. A Site-Isolated Iridium Diethylene Complex Supported on Highly Dealuminated Y Zeolite: Synthesis And Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun, A.; Bhirud, V.A.; Kletnieks, P.W.; Haw, J.F.; Gates, B.C.

    2009-06-04

    Highly dealuminated Y zeolite-supported mononuclear iridium complexes with reactive ethylene ligands were synthesized by chemisorption of Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}). The resultant structure and its treatment in He, CO, ethylene, and H2 were investigated with infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. The IR spectra show that Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}) reacted readily with surface OH groups of the zeolite, leading to the removal of C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2} ligands and the formation of supported mononuclear iridium complexes, confirmed by the lack of Ir-Ir contributions in the EXAFS spectra. The EXAFS data show that each Ir atom was bonded to four carbon atoms at an average distance of 2.10 {angstrom}, consistent with the presence of two ethylene ligands per Ir atom and in agreement with the IR spectra indicating {pi}-bonded ethylene ligands. The EXAFS data also indicate that each Ir atom was bonded to two oxygen atoms of the zeolite at a distance of 2.15 {angstrom}. The supported iridium-ethylene complex reacted with H{sub 2} to give ethane, and it also catalyzed ethylene hydrogenation at atmospheric pressure and 294 K. Treatment of the sample in CO led to the formation of Ir(CO){sub 2} complexes bonded to the zeolite. The sharpness of the V{sub CO} bands indicates a high degree of uniformity of these complexes on the support. The iridium-ethylene complex on the crystalline zeolite support is inferred to be one of the most nearly uniform supported metal complex catalysts. The results indicate that it is isostructural with a previously reported rhodium complex on the same zeolite; thus, the results are a start to a family of analogous, structurally well-defined supported metal complex catalysts.

  20. Zeolite, a versatile air pollutant adsorber. Technical bulletin (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to make people aware of zeolite, what it is, and what other used it has had. Zeolite is a relatively new medium for adsorption, but has a long history in other uses. Synthetic zeolite has an important role to play in controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. This document describes what synthetic zeolite is, and what it can do. Also shown are a number of other instances in which the unique properties of zeolite have been used to advantage.

  1. Dielectric Property of Silicate-Doped CaBi4Ti4O15 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shota; Kondoh, Yohta; Kimura, Junichi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Thin films of silicate-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 were fabricated to enhance the insulating property of one-axis-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films under an applied electric field. The crystalline phase of CaBi4Ti4O15, a type of bismuth layer-structured dielectric (BLSD) compound, was successfully grown on (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si with the preferential orientation of the (001) plane by the addition of bismuth silicate with a nominal composition of Bi12SiO20 up to 1.00%. The crystallographic orientation of the (001)BLSD plane normal to the substrate surface was degraded by excessive bismuth silicate addition above 1.50%. The breakdown electric field was increased by bismuth silicate addition up to 2.00% without the degraded relative dielectric permittivity (?r) of approximately 230. The bismuth silicate could precipitate between the grain boundaries in the CaBi4Ti4O15 films without an interface reaction or a solid solution that enhances the insulating behavior of the BLSD films.

  2. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of undoped and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2}-supported zeolite for humic acid degradation and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Lazau, C.; Ratiu, C.; National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 Bucharest ; Orha, C.; Pode, R.; Manea, F.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Hybrid materials based on natural zeolite and TiO{sub 2} obtained by solid-state reaction. {yields} XRD proved the presence of anatase form of undoped and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} onto zeolite. {yields} FT-IR spectra evidenced the presence on TiO{sub 2} bounded at the zeolite network. {yields} Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} onto zeolitic matrix exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: The hybrid materials based on natural zeolite and undoped and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2}, i.e., Z-Na-TiO{sub 2} and Z-Na-TiO{sub 2}-Ag, were successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction in microwave-assisted hydrothermal conditions. Undoped TiO{sub 2} and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were previously synthesized by sol-gel method. The surface characterization of undoped TiO{sub 2}/Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} and natural zeolite hybrid materials has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, DRUV-VIS spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, BET analysis, SEM microscopy and EDX analysis. The results indicated that anatase TiO{sub 2} is the dominant crystalline type as spherical form onto zeolitic matrix. The presence of Ag into Z-Na-TiO{sub 2}-Ag was confirmed by EDX analysis. The DRUV-VIS spectra showed that Z-Na-TiO{sub 2}-Ag exhibited absorption within the range of 400-500 nm in comparison with Z-Na-TiO{sub 2} catalyst. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Z-Na-TiO{sub 2}-Ag catalyst is proved through the degradation and mineralization of humic acid under ultraviolet and visible irradiation.

  4. Hydrogen Purification Using Natural Zeolite Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelValle, William

    2003-01-01

    The School of Science at Universidad del Turabo (UT) have a long-lasting investigation plan to study the hydrogen cleaning and purification technologies. We proposed a research project for the synthesis, phase analysis and porosity characterization of zeolite based ceramic perm-selective membranes for hydrogen cleaning to support NASA's commitment to achieving a broad-based research capability focusing on aerospace-related issues. The present study will focus on technology transfer by utilizing inorganic membranes for production of ultra-clean hydrogen for application in combustion. We tested three different natural zeolite membranes (different particle size at different temperatures and time of exposure). Our results show that the membranes exposured at 900 C for 1Hr has the most higher permeation capacity, indicated that our zeolite membranes has the capacity to permeate hydrogen.

  5. The Influence of Suspended Metal in Silicate Liquid on Metal/Silicate Partitioning: A Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, A.; Jones, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    We peformed a series of metal/silicate partitioning thought experiments where contamination of the silicate by metal increases as the size of the charge decreases. Unfortunately, regression of this entirely artificial dataset leads to very reasonable result.

  6. Crystal engineering of zeolites with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Paul; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; Ren, Zhibin; Cooke, David J.; Elliott, James A.; Eder, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    Achieving control over the morphology of zeolite crystals at the nanoscale is crucial for enhancing their performance in diverse applications including catalysis, sensors and separation. The complexity and sensitivity of zeolite synthesis processes, however, often make such control both highly empirical and difficult to implement. We demonstrate that graphene can significantly alter the morphology of titanium silicalite (TS-1) particles, in particular being able to reduce their dimensions from several hundreds to less than 10 nm. Through electron microscopy and molecular mechanics simulations we propose a mechanism for this change based on the preferential interaction of specific TS-1 surfaces with benzyl-alcohol-mediated graphene. These findings suggest a facile new means of controlling the zeolite morphology and thereby also further demonstrate the potential of graphene in hybrid materials. Moreover, the generality of the mechanism points the way to a new avenue of research in using two-dimensional materials to engineer functional inorganic crystals.Achieving control over the morphology of zeolite crystals at the nanoscale is crucial for enhancing their performance in diverse applications including catalysis, sensors and separation. The complexity and sensitivity of zeolite synthesis processes, however, often make such control both highly empirical and difficult to implement. We demonstrate that graphene can significantly alter the morphology of titanium silicalite (TS-1) particles, in particular being able to reduce their dimensions from several hundreds to less than 10 nm. Through electron microscopy and molecular mechanics simulations we propose a mechanism for this change based on the preferential interaction of specific TS-1 surfaces with benzyl-alcohol-mediated graphene. These findings suggest a facile new means of controlling the zeolite morphology and thereby also further demonstrate the potential of graphene in hybrid materials. Moreover, the generality of the mechanism points the way to a new avenue of research in using two-dimensional materials to engineer functional inorganic crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00320a

  7. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. PMID:25002191

  8. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  9. Epitaxial Growth of ZSM-5@Silicalite-1: A Core-Shell Zeolite Designed with Passivated Surface Acidity.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanpour, Arian; Gumidyala, Abhishek; Grabow, Lars C; Crossley, Steven P; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2015-04-28

    The design of materials with spatially controlled chemical composition has potential advantages for wide-reaching applications that span energy to medicine. Here, we present a method for preparing a core-shell aluminosilicate zeolite with continuous translational symmetry of nanopores and an epitaxial shell of tunable thickness that passivates Brønsted acid sites associated with framework Al on exterior surfaces. For this study, we selected the commercially relevant MFI framework type and prepared core-shell particles consisting of an aluminosilicate core (ZSM-5) and a siliceous shell (silicalite-1). Transmission electron microscopy and gas adsorption studies confirmed that silicalite-1 forms an epitaxial layer on ZSM-5 crystals without blocking pore openings. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used in combination to confirm that the shell thickness can be tailored with nanometer resolution (e.g., 5-20 nm). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption measurements revealed the presence of a siliceous shell, while probe reactions using molecules that were either too large or adequately sized to access MFI pores confirmed the uniform shell coverage. The synthesis of ZSM-5@silicalite-1 offers a pathway for tailoring the physicochemical properties of MFI-type materials, notably in the area of catalysis, where surface passivation can enhance product selectivity without sacrificing catalyst activity. The method described herein may prove to be a general platform for zeolite core-shell design with potentially broader applicability to other porous materials. PMID:25824422

  10. One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets using a rationally designed organic structure-directing agent

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Helen Y.; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Hodges, Sydney; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    A new material MIT-1 comprised of delaminated MWW zeolite nanosheets is synthesized in one-pot using a rationally designed organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). The OSDA is comprised of a hydrophilic head segment that resembles the OSDA used to synthesize the zeolite precursor MCM22(P), a hydrophobic tail segment that resembles the swelling agent used to swell MCM22(P), and a di-quaternary ammonium linker that connects both segments. MIT-1 features high crystallinity and surface areas exceeding 500 m2g?1, and can be synthesized over a wide synthesis window that includes Si/Al ratios ranging from 13 to 67. Characterization data reveal high mesoporosity and acid strength with no detectable amorphous silica phases. Compared to MCM-22 and MCM-56, MIT-1 shows a three-fold increase in catalytic activity for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with benzyl alcohol. PMID:26478803

  11. THE EFFECT OF HEAVY COSMIC-RAY IONS ON SILICATE GRAINS IN THE INTERSTELLAR DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Szenes, G.; Kovacs, V. K.; Pecz, B.; Skuratov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Electronmicroscopic samples of crystalline Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} forsterite were irradiated by energetic Ar, Fe, Kr, and Xe ions at room temperature. Tracks with a mean radius R{sub e} = 1.36 nm were observed after irradiation by 56 MeV Fe ions, while no tracks were induced by a 48 MeV Ar beam. Amorphization of forsterite grains by cosmic-ray (CR) Fe ions are discussed, including the effects of low temperature, ion velocity, and ion-induced crystallization. CR Fe ions induce amorphous tracks in crystalline forsterite only in the range 40-140 MeV, and the period of time for complete amorphization is tau{sub cr} approx 13,400 Myr. Our estimate is tau{sub cr} approx 1300 Myr for enstatite. Thus, heavy CR particles do not reduce the crystallinity of silicate grains within a reasonable time, as supposed previously. However, energetic ions can induce crystallization in amorphous solids, and this may be partially or fully responsible for the estimated 0.2% crystallinity of silicates in the interstellar medium.

  12. Structural studies of ?-crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Waley, S. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. ?-Crystallin has been isolated from the cortex of ox lens by isoelectric precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The amino acid composition is in agreement with that reported for ?-crystallin prepared by a different method. There is one thiol group/20000g. of protein (20000 is the order of magnitude of the sub-unit molecular weight), and disulphide bonds are absent. 2. The thiol group has been alkylated with radioactive iodoacetate in the presence of urea. 3. Partial acid hydrolysis of the alkylated protein gives, according to the conditions, mainly three radioactive peptides or nearly exclusively one radioactive dipeptide. The dipeptide is N-seryl-(S-carboxymethyl)cysteine, Ser-CMCys. The two other peptides are probably the tripeptides related to Ser-CMCys. 4. The simplest interpretation of these results is that the sequence around the cysteine residue is a common structural feature of the sub-units of ?-crystallin. PMID:5862412

  13. IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2005-11-15

    Composite materials of SBA-15/zeolite Y were synthesized from zeolite Y precursor and a synthesis mixture of mesoporous silicate SBA-15 via a hydrothermal process in the presence of a slightly acidic media of pH 4-6 with 2M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The SBA-15/ZY composites showed Type IV adsorption isotherms, narrow BJH average pore size distribution of 4.9 nm, surface areas up to 800 m{sup 2}2/g and pore volumes 1.03 cm{sup 3}, all comparable to pure SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Chemical analysis revealed Si/Al ratio down to 8.5 in the most aluminated sample, and {sup 27}AlSS MAS NMR confirmed aluminum was in tetrahedral coordination. This method of introduction of Al in pure T{sub d} coordination is effective in comparison to other direct and post synthesis alumination methods. Bronsted acid sites were evident from a pyridinium peak at 1544 cm-1 in the FTIR spectrum after pyridine adsorption, and from NH{sub 3} -TPD experiments. SBA-15/ZY composites showed significant catalytic activities for the dealkylation of isopropylbenzene to benzene and propene, similar to those of commercial zeolite Y. It was observed that higher conversion for catalysts synthesized with high amount of ZY precursor mixture added to the SBA-15. Over all the composites has shown good catalytic activity. Further studies will be focused on gaining a better understand the nature of the precursor, and to characterize and to locate the acid sites in the composite material. The composite will also be evaluated for heavy oil conversion to naphtha and middle distillates.

  14. Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization on internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1998-01-01

    Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars. PMID:9520372

  15. 3-d Orientation and Properties of Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafna, Ayush; Beaucage, Gregory; Mirabella, Francis; Kohl, Bryce

    2002-03-01

    3-d Orientation and Properties of Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites (PLSN) containing silicate (clay) layers dispersed in a polymer matrix were studied. Exfoliation of the clay platelets enhances barrier property of the nanocomposites. 3-d orientation of these clay platelets in nanocomposites plays a major role in determining final properties. Depending on the processing technique and the tensor cumulative shear the clay platelets orient in different directions. The effect of clay orientation on barrier properties is presented in this study. The effect of clay dispersion on the degree of crystallinity and crystal thickness is also presented. A relation between cumulative shear and clay orientation is proposed Polymer-Clay nanocomposite films were produced in a film blower. The effect of shear on the 3-dimensional orientation of clay platelets was studied small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Effects of this platelet orientation on the barrier properties were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the exfoliation and dispersion of the clay platelets in the nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with DSC, SAXS and TEM was used to study the effect of clay dispersion on the crystallization behavior of polymer in the nanocomposite.

  16. Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiOxC4-x tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiOxC4-x tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10–100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle. PMID:24043830

  17. Intrinsic flexibility of porous materials; theory, modelling and the flexibility window of the EMT zeolite framework

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Rachel E.; Wells, Stephen A.; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P.; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2015-01-01

    Framework materials have structures containing strongly bonded polyhedral groups of atoms connected through their vertices. Typically the energy cost for variations of the inter-polyhedral geometry is much less than the cost of distortions of the polyhedra themselves – as in the case of silicates, where the geometry of the SiO4 tetrahedral group is much more strongly constrained than the Si—O—Si bridging angle. As a result, framework materials frequently display intrinsic flexibility, and their dynamic and static properties are strongly influenced by low-energy collective motions of the polyhedra. Insight into these motions can be obtained in reciprocal space through the ‘rigid unit mode’ (RUM) model, and in real-space through template-based geometric simulations. We briefly review the framework flexibility phenomena in energy-relevant materials, including ionic conductors, perovskites and zeolites. In particular we examine the ‘flexibility window’ phenomenon in zeolites and present novel results on the flexibility window of the EMT framework, which shed light on the role of structure-directing agents. Our key finding is that the crown ether, despite its steric bulk, does not limit the geometric flexibility of the framework. PMID:26634720

  18. Intrinsic flexibility of porous materials; theory, modelling and the flexibility window of the EMT zeolite framework.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rachel E; Wells, Stephen A; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2015-12-01

    Framework materials have structures containing strongly bonded polyhedral groups of atoms connected through their vertices. Typically the energy cost for variations of the inter-polyhedral geometry is much less than the cost of distortions of the polyhedra themselves - as in the case of silicates, where the geometry of the SiO4 tetrahedral group is much more strongly constrained than the Si-O-Si bridging angle. As a result, framework materials frequently display intrinsic flexibility, and their dynamic and static properties are strongly influenced by low-energy collective motions of the polyhedra. Insight into these motions can be obtained in reciprocal space through the `rigid unit mode' (RUM) model, and in real-space through template-based geometric simulations. We briefly review the framework flexibility phenomena in energy-relevant materials, including ionic conductors, perovskites and zeolites. In particular we examine the `flexibility window' phenomenon in zeolites and present novel results on the flexibility window of the EMT framework, which shed light on the role of structure-directing agents. Our key finding is that the crown ether, despite its steric bulk, does not limit the geometric flexibility of the framework. PMID:26634720

  19. A Shock Wave Model for the Processing of Silicates in Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Sterzik, M.

    2006-06-01

    Shock waves seems to be the mechanism able to explain the existence of crystalline silicates found in chondrites, long-period comets and disks around YSOs (Scott & Krot 2005, ApJ, 623, 571). We propose a new energy source of gas dynamics shocks based on gravitational perturbations excited by a companion object, i.e., a giant planet or a companion star. We carry out a parameterization of the wave dynamics and of the dust heating in the shock front that predicts the melting of silicates in a bound orbital range determined by the orbital semiaxis of the companion object. We obtain that the gravitational perturbations of the companion would generate shock waves able to process dust particles at ˜ 0.5-5 AU depending on the central star and disk physical parameters as well as on the companion orbital semiaxis. The recent detection of crystalline silicates in young binary systems (e.g. Meeus et al. 2003, A&A, 409, L25) might be understood within this scenario. For the Solar Nebula, we obtain that dust processing could have taken place by Jupiter-driven waves at a minimum distance of ˜ 1-2 AU. Our main result is that density waves excited by a companion object are an efficient mechanism to account for the in situ crystallization and melting of silicates at a large distance from the central star in contrast with the well known difficulty that the observed crystalline dust in YSOs appears to be much colder than the minimum temperature required for crystallization to take place.

  20. Silicate Glass Corrosion Mechanism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Lenting, Christoph; Dohmen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) of aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste borosilicate glasses is essential to predict their long-term aqueous durability in a geologic repository. Several observations have been made with compositionally different silicate glasses that cannot be explained by any of the established glass corrosion models. These models are based on diffusion-controlled ion exchange and subsequent structural reorganisation of a leached, hydrated residual glass, leaving behind a so-called gel layer. In fact, the common observation of lamellar to more complex pattern formation observed in experiment and nature, the porous structure of the corrosion layer, an atomically sharp boundary between the corrosion zone and the underlying pristine glass, as well as results of novel isotope tracer and in situ, real time experiments rather support an interface-coupled glass dissolution-silica reprecipitation model. In this model, the congruent dissolution of the glass is coupled in space and time to the precipitation and growth of amorphous silica at an inwardly moving reaction front. We suggest that these coupled processes have to be considered to realistically model the long-term performance of silicate glasses in aqueous environments.

  1. Impact of Zeolite Aging in Hot Liquid Water on Activity for Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A; Fulton, John L; Camaioni, Donald M; Lercher, Johannes A

    2015-08-19

    The location and stability of Brønsted acid sites catalytically active in zeolites during aqueous phase dehydration of alcohols were studied on the example of cyclohexanol. The catalytically active hydronium ions originate from Brønsted acid sites (BAS) of the zeolite that are formed by framework tetrahedral Si atom substitution by Al. Al K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and (27)Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites (Al T-sites) both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and HBEA catalysts aged in water prior to catalytic testing. The aging procedure leads to partial degradation of the zeolite framework evidenced from the decrease of material crystallinity (XRD) as well as sorption capacity (BET). With the exception of one commercial zeolite sample, which had the highest concentration of framework silanol-defects, there is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The catalyst weight-normalized dehydration rate correlated best with the sum of strong and weak Brønsted acidic protons both able to generate the hydrated hydronium ions. All hydronium ions were equally active for the acid-catalyzed reactions in water. Zeolite aging in hot water prior to catalysis decreased the weight normalized dehydration reaction rate compared to that of the parent HBEA, which is attributed to the reduced concentration of accessible Brønsted acid sites. Sites are hypothesized to be blocked due to reprecipitation of silica dissolved during framework hydrolysis in the aging procedure. PMID:26237038

  2. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  8. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  9. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  11. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  12. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  13. SODIUM ZEOLITE A SUPPLEMENTATION TO DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium zeolite A (SZA), an aluminosilicate, has been used in a number of animal studies, but alterations in mineral metabolism and tissue composition have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of SZA on mineral metabolism and tissue mineral composition...

  14. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water. The presence of arsenic in water supplies has been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer . Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange capacities. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of ...

  15. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Tzou, Ming-Shin (Evanston, IL); Jiang, Hui-Jong (Evanston, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  16. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES: SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01134 Shevade, S, Ford*, R., and Puls*, R.W. "Arsenic Separation from Water Using Zeolites." In: 222nd ACS National Meeting, ACS Environmental Chemistry Division Symposia, Chicago, IL, 08/26-30/2001. 2001. 04/23/2001 This...

  17. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  18. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent.

  19. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  20. Framework Al zoning in zeolite ECR-1.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Sung June; Ren, Limin; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-02-25

    Rietveld analyses of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for various cation forms of zeolite ECR-1 have demonstrated framework Al zoning, which parallels the alternation of Al-rich maz and Al-poor mor layers. This can be further supported by notable differences in the average bond valence of its 10 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites. PMID:24409461

  1. Hydrothermal stability of high silica zeolites 

    E-print Network

    Young, David

    1988-01-01

    This thesis concerns the hydrothermal stability of two zeolite molecular sieves with the MFI structure, ZSM-5 and its 'aluminium free' form silicalite. Silicalite was synthesised from low pH alkali metal free aqueous gels at 95°C and characterised...

  2. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product....

  3. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, M; Ng, E-P; Bakhtiari, K; Vinciguerra, M; Ahmad, H Ali; Awala, H; Mintova, S; Daghighi, M; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F; de Vries, M; Motazacker, M M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Mahmoudi, M; Rezaee, F

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12?nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy. PMID:26616161

  4. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-12-15

    This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

  5. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8–12?nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy. PMID:26616161

  6. Dynamic crystallization of silicate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of furnaces with differing temperature range capabilities were used to provide variations in melt temperatures and cooling rates in a study of the effects of heterogeneous nucleation on crystallization. Materials of chondrule composition were used to further understanding of how the disequilibrium features displayed by minerals in rocks are formed. Results show that the textures of natural chondrules were duplicated. It is concluded that the melt history is dominant over cooling rate and composition in controlling texture. The importance of nuclei, which are most readily derived from preexisting crystalline material, support an origin for natural chondrules based on remelting of crystalline material. This would be compatible with a simple, uniform chondrule forming process having only slight variations in thermal histories resulting in the wide range of textures.

  7. Study on the order degree and geochemical characteristics of major elements of siliceous rock in eastern Qinling area, China.

    PubMed

    Ming, Lü; Li, Hong-Zhong; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Ma, Ming-wu; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Siliceous rocks were extensively distributed in the marine volcanic sedimentary formation of Erlangping Group in the Early Paleozoic in eastern Qinling area. These siliceous rocks formed in the same age, but had differences in the degree of crystallization and order because of the late diagenetic evolution. In the present study, the major elements and order degree of the siliceous rocks were studied, which were from the Erlangping Group in Xixia area, Songxian area and Nanzhao area of eartern Qinling orogenic belt. As shown in the results, the siliceous rocks contained SiO2 with percentage between 84.75% and 94.12% and average of 89.09%. The SiO2/(K2O+Na2O) values were from 26.69 to 114.78 with 65.67 as its average, and the values of SiO2/Al2O3 were from 10.48 to 61.52 with average of 30.58. These above characteristics excellently agreed with the geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal siliceous rocks, which deposited in the continental margin environment. In the Raman analytical results, the quartz contributed to the characteristic Raman shifts at 394, 464, 465 and 467 cm(-1). In the results of Gaussian fitting the degrees of order increased with the order of siliceous rocks of Songxian area, Nanzhao area and Xixia area, which were witnessed by the descending in FWHM values of quartz in the siliceous rocks of Songxian area, Nanzhao area and Xixia area orderly. Disagreeing with the FWHM values of Gaussian fitting, the silica contents of the siliceous rocks had a rising trend of Songxian (87.36%), Nanzhao (89.57%), Xixia area (90.35%), which meant a descending in impurity elements with the order of Songxian area, Nanzhao area and Xixia areas. According to this, there was high agreement between lower crystallinity degree and higher purity of silica, and this denoted that the rising in order degree of silica would result in lower impurity in siliceous rocks. Although the crystallinity degrees could change with the influences of temperature, pressure and its natural property, the impurity elements decreased with the rising in crystallinity degrees of silica. Although there was excluding of impurity elements during the increase in degrees of crystallinity and order, the key factor for the diversities of major elements in siliceous rocks was not likely to be the excluding of impurity elements during the increase in the crystallinity degrees in silica In this study, the Raman analysis exhibited to be an effective way to understand the degree of order for the silica of the siliceous rocks, which would be a potential way to study the subsequent diagenetic evolution of siliceous rocks. PMID:25752047

  8. Studying the effect of zeolite inclusion in aluminum alloy on measurement of its surface hardness using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Osama Mostafa; Mingareev, Ilya; Bonhoff, Tobias; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Richardson, Martin C.; Harith, Mohamed Abdel

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study the surface hardness of special aluminum alloys containing zeolite. The aluminum alloy has acquired pronounced changes in its metallurgical properties due to the zeolite inclusion. The surface hardness of the samples under investigation is determined by measuring the spectral intensity ratios of the ionic to atomic spectral lines in the LIBS spectra of samples having different surface hardness values that have been conventionally measured before for comparison. The presence of aluminum silicate mineral in the studied alloys enabled material volume to expand under compression. This feature gave new results in the measurement of hardness via LIBS. It has been proven that the trend of the alloy density change complies with the increase of ionic to atomic spectral line intensity ratio.

  9. First Principles Simulations of Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes in Functionalized Zeolitic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar, Mark Nickolaus

    With increasing demand for chemicals and fuels, and finite traditional crude oil resources, there is a growing need to invent, establish, or optimize chemical processes that convert gasifiable carbon-based feedstocks (e.g., coal, natural gas, oil sands, or biomass) into the needed final products. Catalysis is central to almost every industrial chemical process, including alkane metathesis (AM) and the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process, which represent final steps in a sequence of hydrocarbon conversion reactions. An in depth understanding of AM and MTH is essential to the selective production of the desired end products. In this dissertation, ab initio density functional theory simulations provide unique mechanistic and thermodynamic insight of specific elementary steps involved in AM and MTH as performed on zeolite supports. Zeolites have been employed throughout the petroleum industry because of their ability to perform acid-catalyzed reactions (e.g., cracking or MTH). The crystalline structure of zeolites imparts regular microporous networks and, in turn, the selective passage of molecules based on shape and functionality. Many different elements can be grafted onto or substituted into zeolites, resulting in a broad range of catalytic behavior. However, due to the variety of competing and secondary reactions that occur at experimental conditions, it is often difficult to extract quantitative information regarding individual elementary steps. ab initio calculations can be particularly useful for this purpose. Alkane metathesis (i.e., the molecular redistribution or chain length averaging of alkanes) is typically performed by transition metal hydrides on amorphous alumina or silica supports. In Chapter 3, the feasibility of AM in zeolites is assessed by using a grafted Ta-hydride complex to explore the full catalytic cycle in the self-metathesis of ethane. The decomposition of a Ta-metallacyclobutane reaction intermediate that forms during olefin metathesis is responsible for the largest activation energy of the catalytic cycle. This assessment is similar to the findings of alkane metathesis studies on alumina/silica supports and indicates that the entire AM cycle can be performed in zeolites by isolated single-atom transition metal hydrides. Performed over acid form zeolites, MTH is used in the conversion of methanol into a broad range of hydrocarbons, including alkenes, alkanes, and aromatics. For reasons that are not yet rigorously quantified, product selectivities vary dramatically based on the choice of catalyst and reaction conditions. The methylation of species containing double bonds (i.e., co-catalysts) is central to the overall process. Distinct structure-function relationships were found with respect to the elementary steps in the methylation and beta-scission of olefins. In Chapter 4, the role of zeolite topology in the step-wise methylation of ethene by surface methoxides is investigated. Elementary steps are studied across multiple frameworks (i.e., BEA, CHA, FER, MFI, and MOR) constituting a wide variety of confinement environments. The reaction of surface methoxides with ethene is found to require a transition state containing a primary carbocation. The barrier height is found to decrease nearly monotonically with respect to the degree of dispersion interactions stabilizing the primary carbocationic species in the transition state. In addition, quantification of the ``local'' dispersion energy indicates that confinement effects can not be simply correlated to pore size. The beta-scission of olefins plays an important role in the product selectivities of many important chemical processes, including MTH. In Chapter 5, beta-scission modes involving C6 and C8 isomers are investigated at a single, isolated Bronsted acid site within H-ZSM-5. We find that the relative enthalpic barriers of beta-scission elementary steps can be rationalized by the substitution order of the two different carbocationic carbon atoms that are present in the reactant (C+) and transition states (betaC). In fact, the increase in c

  10. CO2 SEPARATIONS USING ZEOLITE MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2001-06-30

    Zeolite and other inorganic molecular sieve membranes have shown potential for separations based on molecular size and shape because of their small pore sized, typically less than 1 nm, and their narrow pore size distribution. The high thermal and chemical stability of these inorganic crystals make them ideal materials for use in high temperature applications such as catalytic membrane reactors. Most of the progress with zeolite membranes has been with MFI zeolites prepared on porous disks and tubes. The MFI zeolite is a medium pore size structure having nearly circular pores with diameters between .53 and .56 nm. Separation experiments through MFI membranes indicate that competitive adsorption separates light gas mixtures. Light gas selectivities are typically small, however, owing to small differences in adsorption strengths and their small sizes relative to the MFI pore opening. Furthermore, competitive adsorption does not work well at high temperature where zeolite membranes are stable and have potential application. Separation by differences in size has a greater potential to work at high temperature than competitive adsorption, but pores smaller than those in MFI zeolites are required. Therefore, some studies focused on the synthesis of a small, 8-membered-pore structures such as zeolite A (0.41-nm pore diameter) and SAPO-34, a chabazite (about .4-nm pore diameter with about 1.4 nm cages) analog. The small pore size of the zeolite A and SAPO-34 structures made the separation of smaller molecules by differences in size possible. Zeolite MFI and SAPO-34 membranes were prepared on the inside surface of porous alumina tubes by hydrothermal synthesis, and single gas and binary mixture permeances were measured to characterize the membrane's performance. A mathematical diffusion model was developed to determine the relative quantities of zeolite and non-zeolite pores in different membranes by modeling the permeation date of CO{sub 2}. This model expresses the total flux through the membrane as the sum of surface diffusion through zeolite pores and viscous flow and Knudsen diffusion through non-zeolite pores. As predicted by the model, the permeance of CO{sub 2} decrease with increasing pressure at constant pressure drop for membranes with few non-zeolite pores, but the permeance increased through viscous flow pores and was constant through pores allowing Knudsen diffusion. Membranes having more non-zeolite pores had lower CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities. The SAPO-34 membranes were characterized for light gas separation applications, and the separation mechanisms were identified. Single gas permeances of CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} decreased with increasing kinetic diameter. For the best membrane at 300K, the He and H{sub 2} permeances were less than that of CO{sub 2}, because He, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were small compared to the SAPO-34 pore, and differences in the heat of adsorption determined the permeance order. The small component permeated the fastest in CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures between 300 and 470 K. For H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures, which were separated by competitive adsorption at room temperature, the larger component permeated faster below 400K. The room temperature CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity was 36 and decreased with temperature. The H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixture selectivity was 8 and constant with temperature up to 480 K. Calcination, slow temperature cycles, and exposure to water vapor had no permanent effect on membrane performance, but temperature changes of approximately 30 K/min decreased the membrane's effectiveness. The effects of humidity on gas permeation were studied with SAPO-34 membranes of different qualities. Membranes with high CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities (greater than 20) were stable in water vapor under controlled conditions, but degradation was seen for some membranes. The degradation opened non-SAPO-34 pores that were larger than SAPO-34 pores as shown by the IC{sub 4}H{sub 10} permeance, C

  11. Seeding of Porous Alumina Substrate with MFI Zeolite Nanocrystals using Spin-coating Technique

    E-print Network

    Baroud, T.

    Zeolite membranes offer a great potential for applications in many challenging separation processes. Controlled thickness of zeolite membrane allows high flux and excellent selectivity commercially available; producing ...

  12. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Melde, Brian J.; Johnson, Brandy J.; Charles, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through co-condensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  13. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations. PMID:23949184

  14. Advanced zeolites used in FCC catalysts boost motor octane number

    SciTech Connect

    Letzsch, W.S.; Magee, J.S.; Upson, L.L.; Valeri, F. )

    1988-10-31

    Fluid catalytic cracking catalysts that contain an advanced zeolite called LZ-210, have been shown, by commercial trials, to increase the motor octane number (MON) of the FCC gasoline produced. The zeolite crystal utilizes lower unit cell size, lower sodium in the zeolite, less alumina debris in the zeolite structure, and silica reinsertion into the zeolite structure to accomplish the MON increase. Data from commercial trials are presented to support the MON increases, along with some explanations of how the advanced zeolite accomplishes them. A strong gasoline market and the removal of lead have combined to place a premium on clear gasoline octanes. Because gasoline from fluid catalytic cracking units is the largest segment of the refinery pool (up to 40%), its octane numbers are particularly important. Traditional emphasis has been on the research octance number (RON) but motor octanes frequently limit the blending process.

  15. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  16. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as (137)Cs(+) from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs(+) ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs(+) ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations. PMID:23949184

  17. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-08-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations.

  18. Elution of cesium from zeolite IE-96 using oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, J.A.; Russell, R.L.; Patello, G.K.

    1996-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to begin vitrification at the site in West Valley, NY. The wastes to be vitrified include high-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated as a result of the former reprocessing operations and cesium-loaded zeolite, a high-activity waste, generated from WVDP pretreatment operations. These pretreatment operations used zeolite in an ion-exchange process designed to remove radioactive cesium from liquid HLW. Zeolite transfer operations, in which the majority of the cesium-loaded zeolite is transferred to a tank containing HLW, are currently being performed in preparation for vitrification. Due to operating constraints and tank design, a portion of the zeolite will remain in the tank after the transfer occurs. The use of oxalic acid to elute the radioactive cesium from the zeolite to decrease the radioactivity remaining in the tank is being evaluated.

  19. The ADOR mechanism for the synthesis of new zeolites.

    PubMed

    Eliášová, Pavla; Opanasenko, Maksym; Wheatley, Paul S; Shamzhy, Mariya; Mazur, Michal; Nachtigall, Petr; Roth, Wieslaw J; Morris, Russell E; ?ejka, Ji?í

    2015-10-21

    A novel methodology, called ADOR (assembly-disassembly-organisation-reassembly), for the synthesis of zeolites is reviewed here in detail. The ADOR mechanism stems from the fact that certain chemical weakness against a stimulus may be present in a zeolite framework, which can then be utilized for the preparation of new solids through successive manipulation of the material. In this review, we discuss the critical factors of germanosilicate zeolites required for application of the ADOR protocol and describe the mechanism of hydrolysis, organisation and condensation to form new zeolites starting from zeolite UTL. Last but not least, we discuss the potential of this methodology to form other zeolites and the prospects for future investigations. PMID:25946705

  20. Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.

    1994-02-01

    The authors have studied the kinetics of oxylose/xylulose isomerization in significant detail over a variety of zeolites and obtained the pseudo-first order reaction rate constants. The authors have found that HY zeolite is still the best material and zeolites are more selective than homogeneous acid catalysts where decomposition of the sugar compounds is much faster. They have completed, as described in the Year 2 Work Plan, the study of cellobiose hydrolysis with an ion exchange resin. The kinetics of the solid-catalyzed reaction is qualitatively similar to that for catalysis by homogeneous acids. The planned program of NMR studies has revealed the dynamics of sugar molecules within the zeolite cavities. Two chemisorbed and a physisorbed state have been identified in HY zeolite. A new state, accounting for as much as a half of the sugar, has been found in ZSM-5 zeolite.

  1. Preparation of Robust, Thin Zeolite Membrane Sheet for Molecular Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Canfield, Nathan L.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2011-10-19

    This paper reports a feasibility study on the preparation of zeolite membrane films on a thin, porous metal support sheet (50-{micro}m thick). Zeolite sodium A (NaA) and silicalite zeolite frameworks are chosen to represent synthesis of respective hydrophilic-type and hydrophobic-type zeolite membranes on this new support. It is found that a dense, continuous inter-grown zeolite crystal layer at a thickness less than 2 {micro}m can be directly deposited on such a support by using direct and secondary growth techniques. The resulting membrane shows excellent adhesion on the metal sheet. Molecular-sieving functions of the prepared membranes are characterized with ethanol/water separation, CO2 separation, and air dehumidification. The results show great potential to make flexible metal-foil-like zeolite membranes for a range of energy conversion and environmental applications.

  2. Order and disorder in calcium–silicate–hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Bauchy, M.; Qomi, M. J. Abdolhosseini; Ulm, F.-J.; Pellenq, R. J.-M.

    2014-06-07

    Despite advances in the characterization and modeling of cement hydrates, the atomic order in Calcium–Silicate–Hydrate (C–S–H), the binding phase of cement, remains an open question. Indeed, in contrast to the former crystalline model, recent molecular models suggest that the nanoscale structure of C–S–H is amorphous. To elucidate this issue, we analyzed the structure of a realistic simulated model of C–S–H, and compared the latter to crystalline tobermorite, a natural analogue of C–S–H, and to an artificial ideal glass. The results clearly indicate that C–S–H appears as amorphous, when averaged on all atoms. However, an analysis of the order around each atomic species reveals that its structure shows an intermediate degree of order, retaining some characteristics of the crystal while acquiring an overall glass-like disorder. Thanks to a detailed quantification of order and disorder, we show that, while C–S–H retains some signatures of a tobermorite-like layered structure, hydrated species are completely amorphous.

  3. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  4. Chemical Interactions in Multimetal/Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.

    2004-04-16

    This two-year project has led to a significant improvement in the fundamental understanding of the catalytic action of zeolite-supported redox catalysts. It turned out to be essential that we could combine four strategies for the preparation of catalysts containing transition metal (TM) ions in zeolite cavities: (1) ion exchange from aqueous solution; (2) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a volatile halide onto a zeolite in its acidic form; (3) solid state ion exchange; and (4) hydrothermal synthesis of a zeolite having TM ions in its lattice, followed by a treatment transporting these ions to ''guest positions''. Technique (2) enables us to position more TM ions into cavities than permitted by the conventional technique (1).viz one positive charge per Al centered tetrahedron in the zeolite lattice. The additional charge is compensated by ligands to the TM ions, for instance in oxo-ions such as (GaO){sup +} or dinuclear [Cu-O-Cu]{sup 2+}. While technique (3) is preferred over CVD where volatile halides are not available, technique (4) leads to rather isolated ''ex lattice'' oxo-ions. Such oxo-ions tend to be mono-nuclear, in contrast to technique (2) which preferentially creates dinuclear oxo-ions of the same TM element. A favorable element for the present research was that the PI is also actively engaged in a project on the reduction of nitrogen oxides, sponsored by EMSI program of the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy, Office of Science. This combination created a unique opportunity to test and analyze catalysts for the one step oxidation of benzene to phenol and compare them with catalysts for the reduction of nitrogen oxides, using hydrocarbons as the reductant. In both projects catalysts have been used which contain Fe ions or oxo-ions in the cavities the zeolite MFI, often called ZSM-5. With Fe as the TM-element and MFI as the host zeolite we found that catalysts with high Fe content, prepared by technique (2) were optimal for the De-NO{sub x} reaction, but extremely unselective for benzene oxidation to phenol. Conversely, the catalysts prepared with (4) had the highest turnover frequency for benzene oxidation, but performed very poorly for NO{sub x} reduction with so-butane. In fact the Fe concentration in the former catalysts were so low that it was necessary to design a special experimental program for the sole purpose of showing that it is really the Fe which catalyzes the benzene oxidation, not some acid center as has been proposed by other authors. For this purpose we used hydrogen sulfide to selectively poison the Fe sites, without deactivating the acidic sites. In addition we could show that the hydrothermal treatment of catalysts prepared by technique (4) is essential to transform iron ions in the zeolite lattice to ''ex lattice ions'' in guest positions. That line of the work required very careful experimentation, because a hydrothermal treatment of a zeolite containing Fe ions in its cavities can also lead to agglomeration of such ions to nano-particles of iron oxide which lowers the selectivity for the desired formation of phenol. This part of the program showed convincingly that indeed Fe is responsible for the benzene oxidation catalysis. The results and conclusion of this work, including the comparison of different catalysts, was published in a number of papers in the scientific literature, listed in the attached list. In these papers also our analysis of the reaction orders and the possible mechanism of the used test reaction are given.

  5. Zeolite membranes - a review and comparison with MOFs.

    PubMed

    Rangnekar, N; Mittal, N; Elyassi, B; Caro, J; Tsapatsis, M

    2015-10-21

    The latest developments in zeolite membranes are reviewed, with an emphasis on the synthesis techniques, including seed assembly and secondary growth methods. This review also discusses the current industrial applications of zeolite membranes, the feasibility of their use in membrane reactors and their hydrothermal stability. Finally, zeolite membranes are compared with metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes and the latest advancements in MOF and mixed matrix membranes are highlighted. PMID:26155855

  6. Large zeolites - Why and how to grow in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of zeolite crystals which are considered to be the most valuable catalytic and adsorbent materials of the chemical processing industry are discussed. It is proposed to use triethanolamine as a nucleation control agent to control the time release of Al in a zeolite A solution and to increase the average and maximum crystal size by 25-50 times. Large zeolites could be utilized to make membranes for reactors/separators which will substantially increase their efficiency.

  7. Zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive to reduce manure mineral content.

    PubMed

    Leung, S; Barrington, S; Wan, Y; Zhao, X; El-Husseini, B

    2007-12-01

    Clinoptilolite (a species of zeolite) as grower hog feed additive can potentially improve nutrient ingestion and lower manure nutrient levels. A first objective was to establish the optimal particle size of the zeolite powder, as a fine size increases the adsorption surface while a coarse size can facilitate handling. The second objective tested the effect of feeding zeolite on manure nutrient levels. For the first objective, three zeolite powders (250-500 microm; 50-250 microm, and 50-500 microm) were exposed to an NH(4)(+) solution under a pH of either 7.0 or 2.0. The resulting solutions were tested for cation exchange. A commercial zeolite was also tested for the pH of 2.0 to evaluate zeolite stability. At 0%, 5% and 10% humidity, the same three particle size powders were subjected to shear tests to determine the zeolite's angle of friction. For the second objective using metabolic cages, female hogs were subjected to one of four rations (a control and three with zeolite) while collecting and analyzing their manures. For the first objective, the coarse particle zeolite performed best, adsorbing 158 and 123 Cmol(+)/kg of NH(4)(+) under neutral and acid pH, respectively, and releasing an equivalent amount of minerals only under neutral pH. The commercial zeolite with less clinoptilolite released more Al, Fe, Cu and Pb, showing less stability. The high internal angle of friction of zeolite did not vary with particle size and moisture, indicating funnel flow under gravity. For the second objective, hogs fed a zeolite diet produced manure with 15% and 22% less N and P, respectively, and demonstrated a better feed conversion, although not statistically significant (P>0.05). These results show that there is some potential in using high quality clinoptilolite in the ration of grower hogs. PMID:16905313

  8. Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernev, D. I.

    1981-07-01

    The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchanges, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with double glazing, aluminum frame and insulation. Preliminary testing indicates close agreement with theoretical predictions of its performance.

  9. Layered Topological Crystalline Insulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkuk; Kane, C L; Mele, E J; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-08-21

    Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are insulating materials whose topological property relies on generic crystalline symmetries. Based on first-principles calculations, we study a three-dimensional (3D) crystal constructed by stacking two-dimensional TCI layers. Depending on the interlayer interaction, the layered crystal can realize diverse 3D topological phases characterized by two mirror Chern numbers (MCNs) (?1,?2) defined on inequivalent mirror-invariant planes in the Brillouin zone. As an example, we demonstrate that new TCI phases can be realized in layered materials such as a PbSe (001) monolayer/h-BN heterostructure and can be tuned by mechanical strain. Our results shed light on the role of the MCNs on inequivalent mirror-symmetric planes in reciprocal space and open new possibilities for finding new topological materials. PMID:26340198

  10. Layered Topological Crystalline Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkuk; Kane, C. L.; Mele, E. J.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2015-08-01

    Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are insulating materials whose topological property relies on generic crystalline symmetries. Based on first-principles calculations, we study a three-dimensional (3D) crystal constructed by stacking two-dimensional TCI layers. Depending on the interlayer interaction, the layered crystal can realize diverse 3D topological phases characterized by two mirror Chern numbers (MCNs) (?1,?2 ) defined on inequivalent mirror-invariant planes in the Brillouin zone. As an example, we demonstrate that new TCI phases can be realized in layered materials such as a PbSe (001) monolayer/h -BN heterostructure and can be tuned by mechanical strain. Our results shed light on the role of the MCNs on inequivalent mirror-symmetric planes in reciprocal space and open new possibilities for finding new topological materials.

  11. Comparing gas separation performance between all known zeolites and their zeolitic imidazolate framework counterparts.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Álvarez, Paula; Hamad, Said; Haranczyk, Maciej; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2015-12-14

    To find optimal porous materials for adsorption-based separations is a challenging task due to the extremely large number of possible pore topologies and compositions. New porous material classes such as Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are emerging, and hope to replace traditionally used materials such as zeolites. Computational screening offers relatively fast searching for candidate structures as well as side-by-side comparisons between material families. This work is pioneering at examining the families comprised by the experimentally known zeolites and their respective Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIF) counterparts in the context of a number of environmental and industrial separations involving carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, oxygen, and argon. Additionally, unlike related published work, here all the targeted structures have been previously relaxed through energy minimization. On the first level of characterization, we considered a detailed pore characterization, identifying 24 zeolites as promising candidates for gas separation based on adsorbate sizes. The second level involved interatomic potential-based calculations to assess the adsorption performance of the materials. We found no correlation in the values of heat of adsorption between zeolites and ZIFs sharing the same topology. A number of structures were identified as potential experimental targets for CO2/N2, and CO2/CH4 affinity-based separations. PMID:26600432

  12. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  13. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  14. Zeolite Crystal Growth in Microgravity and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP), a NASA-sponsored Research Partnership Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Shown here are zeolite crystals (top) grown in a ground control experiment and grown in microgravity on the USML-2 mission (bottom). Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  15. Polyamide 6/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D?bowska, M.; Rudzi?ska-Girulska, J.; Pig?owski, J.; Do??ga, J.

    2008-05-01

    Polyamide 6 (PA6) and its two exfoliated nanocomposites (PA6/Nf919 and PA6/BZ-COCO), with bentonite (2.5 wt.%) organophilically treated with different cations, were studied. Improved mechanical properties, changes in crystallinity and morphology as well as higher glass transition temperature values were observed for the nanocomposites in comparison to the neat PA6. For the nanocomposite PA6/BZ-COCO, of better surface modification of platelets and better interaction between the polymeric matrix and the organobentonite, higher values of Young's modulus and yielding point together with higher contribution of larger free volume holes to free volume distributions occurred.

  16. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G. (Bryan, TX); Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  17. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  18. Interaction of hydrogen with surfaces of silicates: single crystal vs. amorphous.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Frank, Paul; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2011-09-21

    We have studied how the formation of molecular hydrogen on silicates at low temperature is influenced by surface morphology. At low temperature (<30 K), the formation of molecular hydrogen occurs chiefly through weak physical adsorption processes. Morphology then plays a role in facilitating or hindering the formation of molecular hydrogen. We studied the formation of molecular hydrogen on a single crystal forsterite and on thin films of amorphous silicate of general composition (Fe(x)Mg((x-1)))(2)SiO(4), 0 < x < 1. The samples were studied ex situ by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM), and in situ using Thermal Programmed Desorption (TPD). The data were analysed using a rate equation model. The main outcome of the experiments is that TPD features of HD desorbing from an amorphous silicate after its formation are much wider than the ones from a single crystal; correspondingly typical energy barriers for diffusion and desorption of H, H(2) are larger as well. The results of our model can be used in chemical evolution codes of space environments, where both amorphous and crystalline silicates have been detected. PMID:21808801

  19. Preliminary results of sulfide melt/silicate wetting experiments in a partially melted ordinary chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, mechanisms for core formation in planetary bodies have received considerable attention. Most current theories emphasize the need for large degrees of silicate partial melting to facilitate the coalescence and sinking of sulfide-metal liquid blebs through a low strength semi-crystalline silicate mush. This scenario is based upon observations that sulfide-metal liquid tends to form circular blebs in partially molten meteorites during laboratory experiments. However, recent experimental work by Herpfer and Larimer indicates that some sulfide-Fe liquids have wetting angles at and slightly below 60 deg in an olivine aggregate, implying an interconnected melt structure at any melt fraction. Such melt interconnectivity provides a means for gravitational compaction and extraction of the majority of a sulfide liquid phase in small planetary bodies without invoking large degrees of silicate partial melting. Because of the important ramifications of these results, we conducted a series of experiments using H-chondrite starting material in order to evaluate sulfide-liquid/silicate wetting behavior in a more complex natural system.

  20. COLLIDING CRYSTALLINE BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    1998-06-26

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then overlapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong cooling, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.

  1. Colliding crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. The authors study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. They initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then overlapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, they find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong cooling, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.

  2. Structural and diffusion characterizations of steam-stable mesostructured zeolitic UL-ZSM-5 materials.

    PubMed

    Vinh-Thang, Hoang; Huang, Qinglin; Ungureanu, Adrian; Ei?, Mladen; Trong-On, Do; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2006-05-01

    A series of mesoporous UL-ZSM-5 materials (Si/Al = 50) with different micro- and mesoporosity as well as crystallinity was prepared following the procedure proposed in one of our recent studies (Trong-On, D.; Kaliaguine, S. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 3248-3251. Trong-On, D.; Kaliaguine, S. U.S. Patent 6,669,924, B1, 2003). These materials have zeolitic structure in the form of nanoparticles intergrown in the walls of the amorphous wormhole-like aluminosilicate mesopores of Al-Meso-50, which was used as a precursor in the synthesis. The structure, crystallinity, and textural properties of the synthesized materials, as well as a reference ZSM-5 zeolite sample, were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning electron microscoy (SEM) analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 27Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption techniques. The acid properties were examined by FTIR of adsorbed pyridine. UL-ZSM-5 materials were shown to be highly hydrothermally stable. The diffusion of two C7 hydrocarbons, i.e., n-heptane and toluene, in four UL-ZSM-5 materials with different microporosities, related acidities, and crystallinities were investigated using the zero-length column (ZLC) method. Furthermore, the wormhole-like mesostructured aluminosilicate precursor (Al-Meso-50) and a reference MFI zeolite sample were also investigated using the same technique. A theoretical model considering a combination of mesopore diffusion (with surface slip in the main channels) with an activated, mainly surface diffusion mechanism in the intrawall biporous structure, was proposed and employed to interpret the experimental ZLC results. A classical Knudsen type of diffusion was replaced by an activated surface slip type of diffusion mechanism in the mesopores. The transport of n-heptane in UL-ZSM-5 materials was found to be mainly controlled by mesopore diffusion in the main-channel structure, while that of toluene was dominated by the intrawall diffusion process. Diffusion activation energies of n-heptane are about 2 times higher in comparison to toluene, which has a larger kinetic diameter. The main mesopore channel structure seems to appreciably contribute to the overall mass transport. Furthermore, the effect of hydrothermal treatment (20% steam at 800 degrees C for 24 h) on the diffusion of these two sorbates on UL-ZSM-5 materials was also evaluated. PMID:16649795

  3. Silicate Abundance and its Significance in the Hooghly-Matla Estuary, India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Akhand, A.

    2010-12-01

    Sea water contains in suspension a wide spectrum of siliceous materials. The surface water abounds with organisms such as diatoms and radiolarians having skeletons composed of non-crystalline form of hydrated silica. A very high level of silicate (130-140 ?M) noticed in the Bay of Bengal nearer the confluence of the rivers, where nutrient levels are appreciably higher during southwest monsoon period (March-October) in contrast to other seasons (CSMCRI, 2007). The relatively high (>5 µg) silicate values at the Ganges head (Bay of Bengal) is attributable to river runoff during the same period (CSMCRI, 2007). In general, the concentration of inorganic phosphate, nitrate and silicate increased in the direction of Antarctic Sea, particularly around 40° S latitude, in the proximity of sub-tropical convergence. In comparison to Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the concentration of nutrients in the Indian Ocean is almost twice (Venkataramana, 2007). The mean value of 102.9±43.2 ?M for silicate in Hooghly estuary is found lower than worldwide average river water concentration of 147.8±93.6 ?M (Gems, 2002). Seasonal variation of river runoff of silicate shows maximum value of 12.6×109 mol during monsoon; thereafter, its value decreased to 2.54 and 1.33×109 mol during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon, respectively. The net residual flows of 4.91, 1.47 and 0.5×109 mol and the exchange flux of 6.95, 0.94 and 0.51×109 mol is found at the estuary during monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon, respectively. The annual flux of silicate out of the estuary is estimated to be 15.28×109 mol (428×103 t), about 93% of the total fluvial flux. The non-conservative flux of silicate removed from the water column is found to be 1.12 × 109 mol (31.0×103 t), which is about 5% in the global scale (0.6×106 t year-1) (Tregguer et al.,1995). Nitrate, Phosphate and Silicate, have been studied in the Hooghly-Matla estuarine complex and compared with selected previous studies. It is observed that both nitrate and phosphate concentrations remained almost stable varied (between 19.28 and 19.4?M for DIN and between 1.61and 1.99?M for DRP) during the period between 1975 and 2001, but silicate shows a distinct increasing trend from 35.6 to 102.9?M (Nandy et al., 1983; NIO, 1986; Ghosh et al., 1992). These also conforms our study, with the concentration of silicate from 19.97 µ M to 72.73 µ M during pre-monsoon and 48.26 µ M to 103.19 µ M during the monsoon in the Hooghly-Matla estuarine complex. High concentrations of biogenic silica in tidal marshes are necessary for maximum benthic diatom production which in turn helps high secondary production of commercial fish and crustaceans (Courtney, 2007). The Gross Primary Productivity is found to be increased in three stations of these estuaries (27.32±5.06 mg/m3/ hr in 1990, 33.58±14 mg/m3/ hr in 2000 and 44.36±5.91 mg/m3/ hr in 2007) (Biswas et. al., 2009), with the increasing trend of silicate within this estuarine complex. The increasing trend of total catches in the Eastern and Western Indian Ocean (FAO, 1998), of which the Bay of Bengal is an important part (Islam, 2003), justify the interrelation. Thus, these findings are ascertaining the interrelation between the increasing trend of silicate concentration with the enhanced primary productivity, which in turn increase the fish yield in the Hooghly-Matla estuarine complex on the Bay of Bengal.

  4. Acidity of two-dimensional zeolites.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Marcin; Sauer, Joachim

    2015-10-14

    Hybrid quantum mechanics:molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations of absolute deprotonation energies are performed with periodic boundary conditions for Brønsted sites of aluminosilicate bilayers with various Al/Si ratios (two-dimensional zeolite). The supercell method is applied and density functional theory is used. Much lower values are obtained (1042, 1069 and 1091 kJ mol(-1) for Al/Si = 1/63, 1/7 and 1/3, respectively) than those for bulk zeolites (1233 kJ mol(-1) for H-chabazite with Al/Si = 1/11). We ascribe the much lower deprotonation energy to the smaller effective dielectric constant (1.6-1.9) of an ultra-thin dielectric in a vacuum compared to that of the corresponding bulk systems (3.0 for H-chabazite), which leads to a better stabilization of the charge created upon deprotonation. PMID:26437870

  5. Computational studies of water adsorption in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Zygmunt, S.A.; Curtiss, L.A.; Iton, L.E.

    1995-05-01

    We have performed high-level ab initio calculations using Hartree-Fock (HF) theory, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and density-functional theory (DFT) to study the geometry and energetics of the adsorption complex involving H{sub 2}O and the Bronsted acid site in the zeolite H-ZSM-5. These calculations use aluminosilicate cluster models for the zeolite framework with as many as 28 T atoms (T=Si, Al). We included geometry optimization in the local vicinity of the acid site at the MP2 and DFT levels of theory for the smallest cluster, while in the larger clusters this was done at the HF/6-31G(d) level of theory. We have also calculated corrections for zero-point energies, extensions to higher basis sets, and higher levels of electron correlation. Results for the adsorption energy and geometry of this complex are reported and compared with previous theoretical and experimental values.

  6. Borosilicate and lead silicate glass matrix composites containing pyrochlore phases for nuclear waste encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Bernardo, E.; Blain, L.; Boccaccini, D. N.

    2004-05-01

    Glass matrix composites intended for the immobilisation of plutonium bearing nuclear legacy waste have been manufactured. Two different matrices, a soda borosilicate glass and a lead silicate glass, are proposed for encapsulating lanthanum and gadolinium zirconates having pyrochlore crystalline structure. The fabrication of the composites involves powder mixing followed by cold pressing and pressureless sintering or hot-pressing at relatively low temperatures (<620 °C). The hot-pressing route is found to be the most convenient, since it leads to relatively high densification even with substantial loading of pyrochlore phase (40 vol.%). The absence of microcracks, due to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficients of the composite constituents, together with the strong pyrochlore particle/glass matrix interfacial bonding, suggests that the composites have good mechanical properties. The innovative introduction of gadolinium zirconate in a lead silicate matrix represents an attractive approach, since the composites reach reasonably high densities both by pressureless sintering and hot-pressing.

  7. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral pectolite - NaCa?Si?O?(OH).

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The mineral pectolite NaCa?Si?O?(OH) is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and in other industrial applications. Raman bands at 974 and 1026 cm(-1) are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of linked units of Si?O? units. Raman bands at 974 and 998 cm(-1) serve to identify Si?O? units. The broad Raman band at around 936 cm(-1) is attributed to hydroxyl deformation modes. Intense Raman band at 653 cm(-1) is assigned to OSiO bending vibration. Intense Raman bands in the 2700-3000 cm(-1) spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of the OH units in pectolite. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterisation of the silicate mineral pectolite. PMID:25004896

  8. Characterization of silicate/Si(001) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copel, M.; Cartier, E.; Narayanan, V.; Reuter, M. C.; Guha, S.; Bojarczuk, N.

    2002-11-01

    Many of the proposed high permittivity gate dielectrics for silicon-based microelectronics rely on a stack configuration, with an SiO2 buffer layer to provide an interface. We describe a means for creating gate dielectrics with a direct yttrium silicate-silicon interface through the solid-state reaction of yttria and silicon oxynitride, avoiding the preparation of an oxide-free silicon surface. Characterization by medium-energy ion scattering indicates complete consumption of the underlying oxide through silicate formation during high-temperature annealing. Furthermore, the silicate dielectric exhibits small flat-band voltage shifts, indicating low quantities of charge, without passivation steps. Creation of a silicate-silicon interfaces by a simple route may enable the study of an alternate class of dielectrics.

  9. Crystalline rocks of the Spinatizha area, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, R. D.; Yeats, R. S.; Khan, S. H.; Subhani, A. M.; Bonelli, D.

    During the Cretaceous an andesitic arc developed across south Asia facing the Tethys Ocean. Remnants of this arc are preserved in Iran, Afghanistan, and the Chagai Hills and Kohistan, Pakistan. West of the Chaman fault near Spinatizha, Pakistan (33° 33'N, 66° 23'E) a terrain of crystalline rocks is exposed that links the Chagai Hills portion of this arc with the Kandahar portion of it in Afghanistan. Four units are present. (1) The Spinatizha Metamorphic Complex includes orthogneiss, greenschist, amphibolite, metavolcanics, marble and foliated muscovite granite. Extreme variation in rock type and degree of metamorphism characterises the entire complex. It is the oldest unit west of the Chaman fault in Pakistan. (2) The Bazai Ghar Volcanics consist of weakly deformed tuffs, flow breccias, and other coarse-grained pyroclastics of andesitic-arc type. Andesite flows and at least one silicic welded tuff are also present. The Bazai Ghar Volcanics are everywhere separated from the Spinatizha Metamorphic unit by granitic intrusions and a major fault. (3) Both the above units are intruded by a series of calc-alkaline granitic plutons ranging from diorite to granite. The silicic plutons generally intrude the more mafic ones. The Bazai Ghar Volcanics and related intrusions are probably equivalent to the Cretaceous (?) Sinjrani volcanics and the Cretaceous and younger intrusions of the Chagai Hills. (4) Along the fault zone between the volcanic and metamorphic rocks is a small area of previously unknown clastic sedimentary rocks: conglomerates and slates. The unit is of Palaeogene age but cannot yet be correlated with known units. The Spinatizha crystalline terrain extends south along the Chaman fault into Afghanistan and is covered by the Helmund desert to the west. It is the eastern continuation of the calc-alkaline arc terrain of the Chagai Hills dragged by oroclinal flexing into the Chaman transform zone. To the north it connects with the Kandahar volcanic arc. The metamorphic complex may represent the basement on which the arc terrain rests, only exposed due to strong vertical uplift near the Chaman fault.

  10. Influence of Silicate Melt Composition on Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletary, S. J.; Domanik, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The depletion of the siderophile elements in the Earth's upper mantle relative to the chondritic meteorites is a geochemical imprint of core segregation. Therefore, metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle. The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. Several recent studies have shown the importance of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of siderophile elements between silicate and metallic liquids. It has been demonstrated that many elements display increased solubility in less polymerized (mafic) melts. However, the importance of silicate melt composition was believed to be minor compared to the influence of oxygen fugacity until studies showed that melt composition is an important factor at high pressures and temperatures. It was found that melt composition is also important for partitioning of high valency siderophile elements. Atmospheric experiments were conducted, varying only silicate melt composition, to assess the importance of silicate melt composition for the partitioning of W, Co and Ga and found that the valence of the dissolving species plays an important role in determining the effect of composition on solubility. In this study, we extend the data set to higher pressures and investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid.

  11. Controlled Stark shifts in Er 3+-doped crystalline and amorphous waveguides for quantum state storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings-Simon, Sara R.; Staudt, Matthias U.; Afzelius, Mikael; Baldi, Pascal; Jaccard, Didier; Tittel, Wolfgang; Gisin, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    We present measurements of the linear Stark effect on the 4I15/2 ? 4I13/2 transition in an Er3+-doped proton-exchanged LiNbO3 crystalline waveguide and an Er3+-doped silicate fiber. The measurements were made using spectral hole burning techniques at temperatures below 4 K. We measured an effective Stark coefficient (??e?)/(h) = 25 ± 1 kHz/V cm-1 in the crystalline waveguide and (??e bar ?) / (h) = 15 ± 1 kHz/V cm-1 in the silicate fiber. These results confirm the potential of erbium-doped waveguides for quantum state storage based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening.

  12. [Staghorn silicate calculi: a case report].

    PubMed

    Toba, Tomotaka; Koike, Hiroshi; Nobushita, Tomohiro

    2012-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman complaining of fever and left flank pain was referred to our hospital. She had no history of taking any silicate-containing antiacids. She was diagnosed with left staghorn renal stone and repeated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was performed. Analysis of the stones revealed silica calculi. Forty-nine cases of silica calculi have been reported in Japan, but this is the first case of nearly pure staghorn silicate calculi. PMID:22895127

  13. Peroxide-assisted syntheses of metal silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Burlitch, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    Peroxide-containing intermediates have played pivotal roles in new synthesis of several magnesium silicates including olivine, forsterite, transition metal-doped forsterite, and enstatite. The involvement of a little-known hydroperoxide of magnesium will be discussed. Elaboration of the synthesis methodology has produced layered silicates such as the fluoro-mica, potassium fluorophlogopite, and a fluoro-talc that has a higher level of substitution of hydroxide by fluoride than any previously reported.

  14. Peralkaline silicic volcanic rocks in northwestern nevada.

    PubMed

    Noble, D C; Chipman, D W; Giles, D L

    1968-06-21

    Late Tertiary silicic ashflow tuffs and lavas peralkaline in chemical character (atomic Na + K greater than Al), mainly comendites, occur over wide areas in northwestern Nevada and appear to be widespread in southeastern Oregon. Such peralkaline rocks-which are not uncommon in the western United States-and other chemically unusual silicic rocks are found near the margins rather than toward the center of the Great Basin. PMID:17800671

  15. Compositional effects on Si–OH bond length in hydrous silicates with implications for trends in the SiOH acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubin, Dmitri P.

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical calculations of the structure and Brønsted acidity of SiOH groups in silica clusters have never addressed the question if these vary with the degree of SiOH deprotonation. In this connection, a statistical analysis is presented of Si–OH bond lengths in crystalline hydrogen silicates with well-determined structures with a special emphasis placed on effects of the silicate composition. It is found that among hydrogen silicates of large cations with low charges the Si–OH bonds are always longer than terminal Si–O bonds in the same anion and correlate in length with the anionic charge per tetrahedron. The findings are explained by steric limitations on charge balancing at oxygen atoms by hydrogen bonds and/or cations. It is suggested that similar limitations and imbalances may underlie the well-known trends in the Brønsted acidity of silicic acids and silicas in aqueous media: decreased acidity with increased SiOH deprotonation and increased acidity with increased tetrahedra connectivity. - Graphical abstract: Si–OH bonds in crystalline silicates lengthen with the anionic charge per tetrahedron, which is in parallel with the well-known trend of decreased acidity of silicic acids and silicas in solution with increased degree of deprotonation. - Highlights: • Si–OH bonds in alkali hydrogen silicates are always longer than terminal Si–O bonds. • Si–OH bonds in silicates lengthen with the anionic charge per tetrahedron. • The Si–OH bond elongation results from inherent underbonding of terminal O atoms. • The longer the Si–OH bond, the less acidic the OH group is.

  16. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  17. The catalytic diversity of zeolites: confinement and solvation effects within voids of molecular dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Rajamani; Iglesia, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    The ability of molecular sieves to control the access and egress of certain reactants and products and to preferentially contain certain transition states while excluding others based on size were captured as shape selectivity concepts early in the history of zeolite catalysis. The marked consequences for reactivity and selectivity, specifically in acid catalysis, have since inspired and sustained many discoveries of novel silicate frameworks and driven the engineering of hierarchical structures and void size to influence catalysis. The catalytic diversity of microporous voids is explored and extended here in the context of their solvating environments, wherein voids act as hosts and stabilize guests, whether reactive intermediates or transition states, by van der Waals forces. We use specific examples from acid catalysis, including activation of C-C and C-H bonds in alkanes, alkylation and hydrogenation of alkenes, carbonylation of dimethyl ether, and elimination and homologation reactions of alkanols and ethers, which involve transition states and adsorbed precursors of varying size and composition. Mechanistic interpretations of measured turnover rates enable us to assign precise chemical origins to kinetic and thermodynamic constants in rate equations and, in turn, to identify specific steps and intermediates that determine the free energy differences responsible for chemical reactivity and selectivity. These free energy differences reflect the stabilization of transition states and their relevant precursors via electrostatic interactions that depend on acid strength and van der Waals interactions that depend on confinement within voids. Their respective contributions to activation free energies are examined by Born-Haber thermochemical cycles by considering plausible transition states and the relevant precursors. These examples show that zeolite voids solvate transition states and precursors differently, and markedly so for guest moieties of different size and chemical composition, thus enabling voids of a given size and shape to provide the "right fit" for a given elementary step, defined as that which minimizes Gibbs free energies of activation. Tighter confinement is preferred at low temperatures because enthalpic gains prevail over concomitant entropic losses, while looser fits are favored at high temperatures because entropy gains offset losses in enthalpic stabilization. Confinement and solvation by van der Waals forces are not directly involved in the making or breaking of strong chemical bonds; yet, they confer remarkable diversity to zeolites, in spite of their structural rigidity and their common aluminosilicate composition. A single zeolite can itself contain a range of local void environments, each with distinct reactivity and selectivity; as a result, varying the distribution of protons among these locations within a given framework or modifying a given location by partial occlusion of the void space can extend the range of catalytic opportunities for zeolites. Taken together with theoretical tools that accurately describe van der Waals interactions between zeolite voids and confined guests and with synthetic protocols that place protons or space-filling moieties at specific locations, these concepts promise to broaden the significant impact and catalytic diversity already shown by microporous solids. PMID:23507832

  18. Design of composite photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-zeolite for degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (? > 420 nm) irradiation. PMID:25314607

  19. Design of Lewis-acid centres in zeolitic matrices for the conversion of renewables.

    PubMed

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-10-21

    The catalytic conversion of renewable feedstocks into chemicals is pursued as a means to sustainably fulfil future societal needs. Due to the oxygen-rich nature of bio-derived substrates, isomerisation, transfer-hydrogenation and retro-aldol reactions have emerged as relevant transformations to produce commodity chemicals and polymer building blocks. In this context, porous materials containing Lewis-acid metals (e.g., Al, Ga, Sn, Ti, Zr) play an important role. Among these, tin-containing zeolites have demonstrated superior catalytic properties which have mainly been attributed to their hydrophobicity and crystallinity. This review evaluates the versatility and the scalability of bottom-up and top-down approaches to introduce Lewis-acid functionalities in zeolitic matrices. A precise characterisation is shown to be crucial to determine the structure, acidity and environment of the sites introduced. In this regard, we highlight the limitations of conventional techniques and the advantages of analytical and modelling tools recently applied to gain an improved understanding of these solids. Thereafter, property-performance relations and important aspects for the industrial amenability of new synthetic routes are exemplified through case studies. Finally, we put forward the need for gathering deeper knowledge of the site location, surface properties and stability to aid the design of next-generation Lewis-acid catalysts. PMID:25917850

  20. Dietary supplementation with the tribomechanically activated zeolite clinoptilolite in immunodeficiency: effects on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Ivkovic, Slavko; Deutsch, Ulrich; Silberbach, Angelika; Walraph, Erwin; Mannel, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Natural zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with unique adsorption, cation-exchange, and catalytic properties that have multiple uses in industry and agriculture. TMAZ, a natural zeolite clinoptilolite with enhanced physicochemical properties, is the basis of the dietary supplements Megamin and Lycopenomin, which have demonstrated antioxidant activity in humans. The aim of this prospective, open, and controlled parallel-group study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with TMAZ on the cellular immune system in patients undergoing treatment for immunodeficiency disorder. A total of 61 patients were administered daily TMAZ doses of 1.2 g (Lycopenomin) and 3.6 g (Megamin) for 6 to 8 weeks, during which the patients' primary medical therapy was continued unchanged. Blood and lymphocyte counts were performed at baseline and at the end of the study. Blood count parameters were not relevantly affected in either of the two treatment groups. Megamin administration resulted in significantly increased CD4+, CD19+, and HLA-DR+ lymphocyte counts and a significantly decreased CD56+ cell count. Lycopenomin was associated with an increased CD3+ cell count and a decreased CD56+ lymphocyte count. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed. PMID:15310086

  1. Some observations on the synthesis of fully-dispersible nanocrystalline zeolite ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Rosilda; Chiang, Anthony S T

    2014-09-01

    A facile method for the rapid synthesis of fully-dispersible ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 100) of about 30 nm size in high yield (about 91%) is described. The method comprises three steps, viz., concentration of an initial clear solution, low-temperature (80 degrees C) ageing of concentrated sol, and high-temperature (175 degrees C) hydrothermal treatment or microwave heating (175 degrees C) of aged concentrated sol. A simple vacuum-concentration method was used for the extraction of pure NPs of ZSM-5 in solution. XRD, FT-IR, TGA and ASAP characterizations showed that the NPs were partially crystalline. The concentration step accelerated the aggregation of primary units, which helps in the production of a large number of nucleation centers protected by TPA+ ions against aggregation. During low-temperature ageing, the number of critical sized nuclei increases, growing into zeolite. The high-temperature heating results in the complete growth of unreacted silica, giving high yields. A key factor for generating small non-aggregated zeolite crystals is the amount of water in the synthesis sol. The three-step method presented here produces a target material of small and uniform sized, non-aggregated ZSM-5 of about 30 nm in a short reaction time. The results are significant, as the synthesis method adopted here produces much uniform, non-aggregated nanocrystalline ZSM-5 in a shorter time with high yield. PMID:25924414

  2. In Situ SAXS/WAXS of Zeolite Microwave Synthesis: NaY, NaA, and Beta Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Panzarella,B.; Tompsett, G.; Conner, W.; Jones, K.

    2007-01-01

    A custom waveguide apparatus is constructed to study the microwave synthesis of zeolites by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The WR-284 waveguide is used to heat precursor solutions using microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The reaction vessels are designed to include sections of thin-walled glass, which permit X-rays to pass through the precursor solutions with minimal attenuation. Slots were machined into the waveguide to provide windows for X-ray energy to enter and scatter from solutions during microwave heating. The synthesis of zeolites with conventional heating is also studied using X-ray scattering in the same reactor. SAXS studies show that the crystallization of beta zeolite and NaY zeolite is preceded by a reorganization of nanosized particles in their precursor solutions or gels. The evolution of these particles during the nucleation and crystallization stages of zeolite formation depends on the properties of the precursor solution. The synthesis of NaA and NaX zeolites and sodalite from a single zeolite precursor is studied by microwave and conventional heating. Microwave heating shifts the selectivity of this synthesis in favor of NaA and NaX over sodalite; conventional heating leads to the formation of sodalite for synthesis from the same precursor. The use of microwave heating also led to a more rapid onset of NaA zeolite product crystallization compared to conventional heating. Pulsed and continuous microwave heating are compared for zeolite synthesis. The resulting rates of formation of the zeolite products, and the relative amounts of the products determined from the WAXS spectra, are similar when either pulsed or continuous microwave heating is applied in the reactor while maintaining the same synthesis temperature. The consequences of these results in terms of zeolite synthesis are discussed.

  3. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading. PMID:26652350

  4. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Staples, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence. Although the zeolite assemblages are similar to those found in other major zeolite occurrences in basaltic pillow lavas, regional zoning of the zeolite assemblages is not apparent. The formation of the different assemblages is discussed.-D.F.B.

  5. Oxygen transport in zeolite Y measured by quenching of encapsulated tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    Oxygen transport in zeolite Y measured by quenching of encapsulated tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium Abstract This study deals with emission quenching of zeolite encapsulated trisbipyridyl ruthenium (II) (Ru the migration of O2 within zeolites using the emis- sion quenching of zeolite encapsulated ruthenium

  6. Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone treatment

    E-print Network

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV of thin films of microporous or zeolite materials. We prepared thin-films of a high silica zeolite leads to complete removal of template (structure-direc- ting-agent) from zeolite films comparable

  7. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  8. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  9. CATION CONTROLLED SINGLET OXYGEN MEDIATED OXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITHIN ZEOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of trialkyl olefins has been performed within zeolites employing thionin as the singlet oxygen sensitizer. Unusual selectivity in favor of secondary hydroperoxides is observed within zeolites. In light of the fact that in solution such a selectivity is never observed the selectivity report...

  10. Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

  11. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS OF PERVAPORATION THROUGH ZEOLITE MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolite membranes are well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation because of their molecular-sized pores and their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organics [1]. Because of ...

  12. Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

    1982-01-01

    Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

  13. Preferential orientations of structure directing agents in zeolites.

    PubMed

    Dib, Eddy; Gimenez, Antoine; Mineva, Tzonka; Alonso, Bruno

    2015-10-14

    The local structure of as-synthesised silicalite-1 zeolites is modified using asymmetric R(Pr)3N(+) structure directing agents. Using multi-nuclear NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (14)N, (19)F, (29)Si), we show for the first time the ability of these cations to adopt preferential orientations at the zeolite channels' crossing. PMID:26346931

  14. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  15. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C.

    1997-07-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

  16. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  17. Steps toward interstellar silicate dust mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.; Henning, TH.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most certain facts on interstellar dust is that it contains grains with silicon oxygen tetrahedra (SOT), the internal vibrations of which cause the well known silicate bands at 10 and 18 microns. The broad and almost structureless appearance of them demonstrates lack of translation symmetry in these solids that must be considered amorphous or glassy silicates. There is no direct information on the cations in these interstellar silicates and on the number of bridging oxygens per tetrahedron (NBO). Comparing experimental results gained on amorphous silicates, e.g., silicate glasses, of cosmically most abundant metals (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al) with the observations is the only way to investigate interstellar silicate dust mineralogy (cf, Dorschner and Henning, 1986). At Jena University Observatory IR spectra of submicrometer-sized grains of pyroxene glasses (SSG) were studied. Pyroxenes are common minerals in asteroids, meteorites, interplanetary, and supposedly also cometary dust particles. Pyroxenes consist of linearly connected SOT (NBO=2). In the vitreous state reached by quenching melted minerals, the SOT remain nearly undistorted (Si-O bond length unchanged); the Si-O-Si angles at the bridging oxygens of pyroxenes, however, scatter statistically. Therefore, the original cation oxygen symmetry of the crystal (octahedral and hexahedral coordination by O) is completely lost. The blended bands at 10 and 18 microns lose their diagnostic differences and become broad and structureless. This illustrates best the basic problem of interstellar silicate mineral diagnostics. Optical data of glasses of enstatite, bronzite, hypersthene, diopside, salite, and hedenbergite have been derived. Results of enstatite (E), bronzite (B), and hypersthene (H) show very good agreement with the observed silicate features in the IR spectra of evolutionarily young objects that show P-type silicate signature according to the classification by Gurtler and Henning (1986). Compositional parameters and main characteristics of experimental SSG spectra in IR for the glasses E, B, and H are shown in tabular form. Results fit excellently the relations derived by Koike and Hasegawa (1987) and suggest that the band ratio of the astronomical silicate by Draine and Lee (1984) is too low.

  18. Mineralogy Of Silicate Dust Particles For Comet 17P/Holmes By Subaru/COMICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Ootsubo, T.; Watanabe, J.; Honda, M.; Sakon, I.; Ishiguro, M.; Sarugaku, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Kawakita, H.

    2011-10-01

    Dust grains and icy materials in comets have been used to investigate the formation conditions of the solar system. It is considered that the existence of crystalline silicate in comets indicates the radial mixing of materials in the early solar nebula. The outburst of comet 17P/Holmes showed on late October, 2007. We carried out low-dispersion spectroscopic observations of 17P/Holmes in midinfrared region with Subaru/COMICS. We show results of our model fitting analysis by using a thermal emission model for this comet. We discuss about the mineral composition for dust grains of 17P/Holmes.

  19. An Observational Test for Shock-induced Crystallization of Cometary Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline silicates have been observed in comets and in protostellar nebulae, and there are currently at least two explanations for their formation: thermal annealing in the inner nebula, followed by transport to the regions of cometary formation and in-situ shock processing of amorphous grains at 5 - 10 AU in the Solar Nebula. The tests suggested to date to validate these models have not yet been carried out: some of these tests require a longterm commitment to observe both the dust and gas compositions in a large number of comets. Here we suggest a simpler test.

  20. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL EVOLUTIION OF ZEOLITE-CONTAINING WASTE FORMS PRODUCED FROM METAKAOLINITE AND CALCINED SODUIM BEARING WASTE (HLW AND/OR LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2004-06-10

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not new, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made precursors. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (thermally dehydroxylated kaolin a mixture of kaolinite and smaller amounts of quartz and mica that has been heated to {approx}700 C) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and water and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick paste and then the paste is cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture forms a concrete-like ceramic material made up of distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its vitreous character we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''. Similar to zeolite powders, a hydroceramic is able to sequester cations in both lattice positions and within the channels and voids present in its tectosilicate framework structure. It can also accommodate a wide range of salt molecules (e.g., sodium nitrate) within these same openings thus rendering them insoluble. Due to its fine crystallite size and cementing character, the matrix develops significant physical strength. The obvious similarities between a hydroceramic waste form and a waste form based on solidified Portland cement grout are only superficial because their chemistries are entirely different. In addition to being vastly superior to conventional Portland cement grouts with respect to salt retention, standard radwaste leach protocols (PCT, TCLP, etc.) have shown that hydroceramics also do a better job of immobilizing the RCRA-toxic and radioactive components of ''sodium bearing wastes'' (SBWs).

  1. Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

  2. Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.

    2008-01-01

    Robert Virta, mineral commodity specialist for the U.S. Geological Survey, prepared the following information about the zeolite industry. Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

  3. Potential and actual uses of zeolites in crop protection.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Caroline; Someus, Edward; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-10-01

    In this review, it is demonstrated that zeolites have a potential to be used as crop protection agents. Similarly to kaolin, zeolites can be applied as particle films against pests and diseases. Their honeycomb framework, together with their carbon dioxide sorption capacity and their heat stress reduction capacity, makes them suitable as a leaf coating product. Furthermore, their water sorption capacity and their smaller particle sizes make them effective against fungal diseases and insect pests. Finally, these properties also ensure that zeolites can act as carriers of different active substances, which makes it possible to use zeolites for slow-release applications. Based on the literature, a general overview is provided of the different basic properties of zeolites as promising products in crop protection. PMID:25727795

  4. Antimony and silicon environments in antimony silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, M.; Davies, B.C.; Orman, R.G.; Thomas, M.F.; Holland, D.

    2010-09-15

    Antimony silicate glasses, of general formula xSb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1-x)SiO{sub 2} (0.1{<=}x{<=}0.78), have been prepared by melt-quenching and their structures studied using {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Oxidation during melting gives rise to Sb{sup 5+} in concentrations, which increase linearly with x to give a value of {approx}10% when x=0.78. {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra show Moessbauer shifts and quadrupole splittings consistent with Sb{sup 3+} in a [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid, similar to that in crystalline Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A broad band in the Raman spectrum at {approx}410 cm{sup -1} is due to the vibrations of such a unit. The dependence of the silicon Q{sup n} speciation on x can be interpreted by the formation of Sb-O-Sb links possibly to form rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite. - Graphical abstract: Antimony silicate glasses have been shown to contain Sb{sup 3+} in [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid units using {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. {sup 29}Si magic-angle-spinning NMR has shown silicon Q{sup n} speciation which can be interpreted as formation of rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite.

  5. A silicate disk in the heart of the Ant

    E-print Network

    Olivier Chesneau; Foteini Lykou; Bruce Balick; Eric Lagadec; Mikako Matsuura; Nathan Smith; Alain Spang; Sebastian Wolf; Albert A. Zijlstra

    2007-10-02

    We aim at getting high spatial resolution information on the dusty core of bipolar planetary nebulae to directly constrain the shaping process. Methods: We present observations of the dusty core of the extreme bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3, Hen 2-154, the Ant) taken with the mid-infrared interferometer MIDI/VLTI and the adaptive optics NACO/VLT. The core of Mz 3 is clearly resolved with MIDI in the interferometric mode, whereas it is unresolved from the Ks to the N bands with single dish 8.2 m observations on a scale ranging from 60 to 250 mas. A striking dependence of the dust core size with the PA angle of the baselines is observed, that is highly suggestive of an edge-on disk whose major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the bipolar lobes. The MIDI spectrum and the visibilities of Mz 3 exhibit a clear signature of amorphous silicate, in contrast to the signatures of crystalline silicates detected in binary post-AGB systems, suggesting that the disk might be relatively young. We used radiative-transfer Monte Carlo simulations of a passive disk to constrain its geometrical and physical parameters. Its inclination (74 degrees $\\pm$ 3 degrees) and position angle (5 degrees $\\pm$ 5 degrees) are in accordance with the values derived from the study of the lobes. The inner radius is 9$\\pm$ 1 AU and the disk is relatively flat. The dust mass stored in the disk, estimated as 1 x 10-5Msun, represents only a small fraction of the dust mass found in the lobes and might be a kind of relic of an essentially polar ejection process.

  6. [Infrared Spectra Characteristics of the Silicate Nickel Ores: A Comparison Study on Different Ore Samples from Indonesia and China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-li; Fu, Wei; Wang, Bao-hua; Zhang, Ya-qian; Huang, Xiao-rong; Niu, Hu-jie

    2015-03-01

    The silicate nickel ores developed in the lateritic nickel deposit, from Kolonodale, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and Yuanjiang, Yunnan province, China, were selected for the present study. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier infrared spectra were used to analyze the mineralogical attribute of laterite nickel ores from two different places. The results show that these two different silicate nickel ores have unique infrared spectra characteristics individually, which contributes to the ore classification. The silicate nickel ores from Kolonodale deposit, Indonesia, can be classified as the serpentine type, the montmorillonite + serpentine type, and the garnierite type. While, the silicate nickel ores from Yuanjiang deposit, China, can be classified as the serpentine type and the talc + serpentine type. Moreover, the mineral crystallinity of Yuanjiang nickel ores is generally better than Kolonodale nickel ores. According to the advantage of infrared absorption spectra in distinguishing mineral polytypes, it can be determined that lizardite is the main mineral type in the silicate nickel ores of the two deposits, and there is no obvious evidence of chrysotile and antigorite's existence. The characteristic of infrared absorption spectra also shows that frequency change of OH libration indicates Ni (Fe) replacing Mg in the serpentine type nickel-bearing mineral, that is, OH libration of serpentine moves to higher frequency, with the proportion of Ni (Fe) replacing Mg increasing. PMID:26117869

  7. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. PMID:24794812

  8. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  9. Probing zeolites with organic molecules: Supercages of X and Y zeolites are superpolar

    SciTech Connect

    Uppili, S.; Thomas, K.J.; Crompton, E.M.; Ramamurthy, V.

    2000-01-11

    Supercages of Li{sup +}- and Na{sup +}-exchanged X and Y zeolites are much more polar than even water. The extent of polarity depends on the nature and the number of cations present within a supercage. The polarity of Li{sup +}- and Na{sup +}-exchanged X and Y zeolites decreases in the presence of water. In presence of water the contribution of cations toward polarity is much smaller than water itself. In this study polarity has been monitored with organic probe molecules, Nile red, pyrene 1-carboxaldehyde and coumarin-500. A connection between polarity and electric field within a cage has also been established. Since the supercages are much more polar than all organic solvents, they can be characterized as superpolar. Because of this one may be able to achieve excited-state switching of carbonyl compounds within a zeolite while such may not be possible in organic solvents. The n{pi}*-{pi}{pi}* state switching of acetophenones is easily achieved within a zeolite while such does not occur in polar solvent methanol-ethanol mixture.

  10. Preparation and screening of crystalline zeolite and hydrothermally-synthesized materials

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2005-03-08

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  11. Fault zone architecture and fluid flow in interlayered basaltic volcaniclastic-crystalline sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Imber, J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Armitage, P. J.

    2013-06-01

    Faults in continental flood basalt sequences potentially control subsurface fluid flow. We present field and microstructural observations from fault zones cutting interlayered basaltic volcaniclastic-crystalline sequences within the North Atlantic Igneous Province. Fractures likely initiate within lava units, before linking through the volcaniclastic units. Through-going faults show refraction, with subvertical faults in the lavas joined to variably inclined faults in the volcaniclastic layers. At >1.0 m displacement, volcaniclastic units are progressively dragged into the fault plane forming a smear. Volcaniclastic sandstones deform by flow. Claystones fracture, and are incorporated into smears as breccia. Experimentally measured host and fault rock sample permeabilities, at aquifer to reservoir pressures (i.e., 10-90 MPa; ˜0.3-3.0 km depth) show fault rocks from low displacement faults have relatively low permeability (10-17-10-20 m2); fault rocks from higher displacement structures have comparatively high permeability (10-15-10-17 m2). Our observations suggest that permeability is determined by the opposing influences of clay mineralization, which decreases permeability, versus the development of interconnected, higher permeability zeolite veins. Brecciation and the formation of zeolite vein networks within claystone smears results in high permeability. Zeolite veins in volcaniclastic units form poorly-connected, spaced sets, parallel to the slip plane, hence sequence permeability remains low.

  12. Liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have led to the use of these materials in structural applications where weight savings are critical. Advances in processing of LCPs could permit the incorporation of these polymers into other than uniaxial designs and extend their utility into new areas such as nonlinear optical devices. However, the unique feature of LCPs (intrinsic orientation order) is itself problematic, and current understanding of processing with control of orientation falls short of allowing manipulation of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers). The current and desirable characteristics of LCPs are reviewed and specific problems are identified along with issues that must be addressed so that advances in the use of these unique polymers can be expedited.

  13. Crystalline amorphous semiconductor superlattice.

    PubMed

    Chong, T C; Shi, L P; Wei, X Q; Zhao, R; Lee, H K; Yang, P; Du, A Y

    2008-04-01

    A new class of superlattice, crystalline amorphous superlattice (CASL), by alternatively depositing two semiconductor materials, is proposed. CASL displays three states depending on the component materials' phase: both polycrystalline phases, both amorphous phases, and one polycrystalline phase while another amorphous phase. Using materials capable of reversible phase transition, CASL can demonstrate reversibility among three states. GeTe/Sb(2)Te(3) CASL has been synthesized and proved by x-ray reflectometry and TEM results. The reversible transition among three states induced by electrical and laser pulse was observed. The changes in the optical absorption edge, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and crystallization temperature as a function of layer thickness are interpreted as quantum or nanoeffects. The unique properties of CASL enable the design of materials with specific properties. PMID:18517969

  14. High pressure synthesis of novel, zeolite based nano-composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Meso/micro-porous solids such as zeolites are complex materials exhibiting an impressive range of applications, including molecular sieve, gas storage, catalysis, electronics and photonics. We used these materials, particularly non catalytic zeolites in an entirely different fashion. In fact, we performed high pressure (0.5-30 GPa) chemical reactions of simple molecules on a sub-nanometer scale in the channels of a pure SiO2 zeolite, silicalite to obtain unique nano-composite materials with drastically modified physical and chemical properties. Our material investigations are based on a combination of X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques in the diamond anvil cell. I will first briefly show how silicalite can be easily filled by simple molecules such as Ar, CO2 and C2H4 among others from the fluid phase at high pressures, and how this efficient filling removes the well known pressure induced amorphization of the silica framework (Haines et al., JACS 2010). I will then present on a silicon carbonate crystalline phase synthesized by reacting silicalite and molecular CO2 that fills the nano-pores, at 18-26 GPa and 600-980 K; after the synthesis the compound is temperature quenched and it results to be slightly metastable at room conditions (Santoro et al., PNAS 2011). On the other hand, a stable at room condition spectacular crystalline nano-composite is obtained by photo-polymerizing ethylene at 0.5-1.5 GPa under UV (351-364 nm) irradiation in the channels of silicalite (Santoro et al., Nat. Commun, in press 2013). For this composite we obtained a structure with single polyethylene chains adapting very well to the confining channels, which results in significant increases in bulk modulus and density, and the thermal expansion coefficient changes sign from negative to positive with respect to the original silicalite host. Mechanical properties may thus be tuned by varying the amount of polymerized ethylene. We then think our findings could allow the high pressure, catalyst free synthesis of a unique generation of technological, functional materials based on simple hydrocarbons polymerized in confining meso/micro-porous solids.

  15. One-step DGC assembly and structural characterization of a hairy particle zeolite-like organic-inorganic hybrid as an efficient modifiable catalytic material.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Xu, Jun; Deng, Jiejie; Wei, Xianlong; Lu, Xinhuan; Chu, Xing; Deng, Feng; Xia, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid microporous crystalline molecular sieves, extending the application of conventional zeolites in the fields of selective catalysis and adsorption, have aroused great interest in chemists. However, the complicated and difficult synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid microporous molecular sieves by using a conventional hydrothermal method has hindered the rapid development of this field. The present work describes the recent progress in the synthesis of a hairy particle zeolite-like organic-inorganic hybrid with the high organic group content by one-step dry-gel conversion (DGC) assembly of organic Si, inorganic Si and other inorganic species without any organic template, which is proven to be efficient, economical, simple, and controllable. Thus-synthesized hybrid materials, as we know, with the highest organic group content reported in the literature, can be bestowed with modifiable catalytic activities by different treatments. This study will be applicable for the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic materials. PMID:26218297

  16. [Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.

    1992-12-31

    To transform biomass into fermentable substrate for yeast, we are using zeolites instead of enzymes to catalyze the two bottleneck reactions in biomass conversion, xylose isomerization and ceuobiose hydrolysis. The experimental results on these reactions carried out over various zeolites and other catalysts are presented herein. The advantages and disadvantages of using these catalysts over enzymes are also discussed. Heterogeneous solid catalysts other than zeolites has been employed for cellobiose-to-glucose hydrolysis. The size and shape selectivity that makes zeoutes unique for some reactions can add diffusional hindrance. We have spent some time screening various known solid acidic catalysts. We report that a class of cationic ion exchange resins in the acidified form (e.g. Amberlite) has worked well as an acidic catalyst in hydrolyzing cellobiose to glucose. Our experimental results, together with those obtained from a homogeneous acid catalyst (e.g. sulfuric acid) for comparison are provided. Having succeeded in finding an alternative solid acid catalyst for hydrolysis, we explored other solid resin or other homogeneous but non-enzyme catalyst to carry out the xylose-to-xylulose isomerization. A fairly extensive search has been made. We explored the use of sodium aluminates in the homogeneous phase isomerization of glucose to fructose and obtained a very high conversion of glucose to fructose with the final mixture containing 85% of fructose instead of the common 45%. Fructose apparently complexes with aluminates, and its equilibrium concentration is shifted to considerably higher values than permitted by simple glucose/fructose equilibrium. We have recently found a number of catalysts capable of promoting isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. One solid resin, known as polyvinyl pyridine (PVP), is able to convert xylose to xylulose at a pH below 7. Our usage of alternative isomerization catalysts, including PVP, are described.

  17. [Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    To transform biomass into fermentable substrate for yeast, we are using zeolites instead of enzymes to catalyze the two bottleneck reactions in biomass conversion, xylose isomerization and ceuobiose hydrolysis. The experimental results on these reactions carried out over various zeolites and other catalysts are presented herein. The advantages and disadvantages of using these catalysts over enzymes are also discussed. Heterogeneous solid catalysts other than zeolites has been employed for cellobiose-to-glucose hydrolysis. The size and shape selectivity that makes zeoutes unique for some reactions can add diffusional hindrance. We have spent some time screening various known solid acidic catalysts. We report that a class of cationic ion exchange resins in the acidified form (e.g. Amberlite) has worked well as an acidic catalyst in hydrolyzing cellobiose to glucose. Our experimental results, together with those obtained from a homogeneous acid catalyst (e.g. sulfuric acid) for comparison are provided. Having succeeded in finding an alternative solid acid catalyst for hydrolysis, we explored other solid resin or other homogeneous but non-enzyme catalyst to carry out the xylose-to-xylulose isomerization. A fairly extensive search has been made. We explored the use of sodium aluminates in the homogeneous phase isomerization of glucose to fructose and obtained a very high conversion of glucose to fructose with the final mixture containing 85% of fructose instead of the common 45%. Fructose apparently complexes with aluminates, and its equilibrium concentration is shifted to considerably higher values than permitted by simple glucose/fructose equilibrium. We have recently found a number of catalysts capable of promoting isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. One solid resin, known as polyvinyl pyridine (PVP), is able to convert xylose to xylulose at a pH below 7. Our usage of alternative isomerization catalysts, including PVP, are described.

  18. Polymer Structure and Dynamics in Polymer / Layered-Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites are of particular interest among different nanohybrids because of their anticipated superior properties. Mixing polymers with layered inorganic materials can lead to three different types of structure, depending on the interactions between the constituents: phase separated, intercalated and exfoliated. Intercalated hybrids, where the polymer is confined within the inorganic galleries, can serve as model systems for the study of the static and dynamic properties of macromolecules in nano-confinement. We describe our recent efforts to elucidate the effects of severe confinement utilizing hydrophilic nanohybrids of PEO or hyperbranched polymers mixed with Na+-MMT. Intercalated hybrids with mono-, bi- and tri-layers of chains are obtained for all compositions covering the complete range from pure polymer to pure clay. Severe confinement influences significantly the structure of the polymer: the PEO chains intercalated within the inorganic galleries as well as those in close proximity to the outside walls are purely amorphous; it is only when there is significant excess polymer outside the completely filled galleries that the bulk polymer crystallinity is abruptly recovered. In contrast, when the inorganic is incorporated as silica nanoparticles, the crystallinity varies smoothly with composition whereas a population with a lower melting temperature near the inorganic surfaces is observed under strong confinement. The dynamics of the polymers confined within the galleries is probed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. The very local dynamics of the confined chains show similarities with those in bulk, whereas the segmental dynamics depend very strongly on the polymer/inorganic interactions varying from much faster to much slower or even frozen dynamics as the strength of the interactions increases. Part of this research was sponsored by the European Union (POLYCAT; grant agreement CP-IP 246095-2).

  19. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  20. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  1. Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Flight on USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Guray, Ipek; Marceau, Michelle; Sacco, Teran L.; Whalen, Leah M.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of zeolites and their impact on the world's economy has resulted in many efforts to characterize their structure, and improve the knowledge base for nucleation and growth of these crystals. The zeolite crystal growth (ZCG) experiment on USML-2 aimed to enhance the understanding of nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals, while attempting to provide a means of controlling the defect concentration in microgravity. Zeolites A, X, Beta, and Silicalite were grown during the 16 day - USML-2 mission. The solutions where the nucleation event was controlled yielded larger and more uniform crystals of better morphology and purity than their terrestrial/control counterparts. The external surfaces of zeolite A, X, and Silicalite crystals grown in microgravity were smoother (lower surface roughness) than their terrestrial controls. Catalytic studies with zeolite Beta indicate that crystals grown in space exhibit a lower number of Lewis acid sites located in micropores. This suggests fewer structural defects for crystals grown in microgravity. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of zeolite Beta crystals also show that crystals grown in microgravity were free of line defects while terrestrial/controls had substantial defects.

  2. Structure and properties of metal-exchanged zeolites studied using gradient-corrected and hybrid functionals. I. Structure and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göltl, Florian; Hafner, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    The structural and energetic properties of purely siliceous, proton-, and Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite have been studied using periodic density-functional (DFT) calculations with both conventional gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals and hybrid functionals mixing exact (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and DFT exchange. Spin-polarized and fixed-moment calculations have been performed to determine the equilibrium and excited spin-configurations of the metal-exchanged chabazites. For the purely siliceous chabazite, hybrid functionals predict a slightly more accurate cell volume and lattice geometry. For isolated Al/Si substitution sites, gradient-corrected functionals predict that the lattice distortion induced by the substitution preserves the local tetrahedral symmetry, whereas hybrid functionals lead to a distorted Al coordination with two short and two long Al-O bonds. Hybrid functionals yield a stronger cation-framework binding that conventional functionals in metal-exchanged zeolites, they favor shorter cation-oxygen bonds and eventually also a higher coordination of the cation. Both types of functionals predict the same spin in the ground-state. The structural optimization of the excited spin-states shows that the formation of a high-spin configuration leads to a strong lattice relaxation and a weaker cation-framework bonding. For both Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite, the prediction of a preferred location of the cation in a six-membered ring of the zeolite agrees with experiment, but the energy differences between possible cation locations and the lattice distortion induced by the Al/Si substitution and the bonding of the cation depends quite significantly on the choice of the functional. All functionals predict similar energy differences for excited spin states. Spin-excitations are shown to be accompanied by significant changes in the cation coordination, which are more pronounced with hybrid functionals. The consequences of electronic spectra and chemical reactivity are analyzed in the following papers.

  3. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Jun, Ssang Sun; Choi, Sejin; Clark, Simon M.

    2010-02-15

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 deg. C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  4. Zeolite crystal growth in space - What has been learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Thompson, R. W.; Dixon, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    Three zeolite crystal growth experiments developed at WPI have been performed in space in last twelve months. One experiment, GAS-1, illustrated that to grow large, crystallographically uniform crystals in space, the precursor solutions should be mixed in microgravity. Another experiment evaluated the optimum mixing protocol for solutions that chemically interact ('gel') on contact. These results were utilized in setting the protocol for mixing nineteen zeolite solutions that were then processed and yielded zeolites A, X and mordenite. All solutions in which the nucleation event was influenced produced larger, more 'uniform' crystals than did identical solutions processed on earth.

  5. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  6. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  7. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite A

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistance sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1,000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  8. Efficient continuous wave and passively mode-locked Tm-doped crystalline silicate laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, K J; Bromberger, H; Heinecke, D; Kölbl, C; Schäfer, H; Dekorsy, T; Zhao, S Z; Zheng, L H; Xu, J; Zhao, G J

    2012-08-13

    An efficient continuous wave and passively mode-locked thulium-doped oxyorthosilicate Tm:LuYSiO5 laser is demonstrated. A maximum slope efficiency of 56.3% is obtained at 2057.4 nm in continuous wave operation regime. With an InGaAs quantum well SESAM, self-starting passively mode-locked Tm:LuYSiO5 laser is realized in the 1929 nm to 2065 nm spectral region. A maximum average output power of 130.2 mW with a pulse duration of 33.1 ps and a repetition rate of about 100 MHz is generated at 1984.1 nm. Pulses as short as 24.2 ps with an average output power of 100 mW are obtained with silicon prisms where used to manage the intracavity dispersion. The shortest pulse duration of about 19.6 ps is obtained with an average output power of 64.5 mW at 1944.3 nm. PMID:23038503

  9. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  10. Quantitatively Probing the Al Distribution in Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2014-06-11

    The degree of substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (Al T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about Al T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual Al atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the Al absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different Al-distributions. A preference of Al for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Microfabrics in Siliceous Hotsprings: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.; Westall, F.

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrics shed light on the mechanisms governing siliceous sinter precipitation, the profound effects of microorganisms, as well as a conventional facies model for siliceous hotsprings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-01-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3-HA) with ?5?wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO3-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO3-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO4-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ?1.1?wt% exists for synthesis of SiO4-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22983020

  15. Ibuprofen-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites prepared by hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kayleen T; Craig, Duncan Q M; McNally, Tony

    2010-08-01

    Ibuprofen loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) layered silicate nanocomposites were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. The morphology and extent of dispersion of ibuprofen and layered silicate was studied using a combination of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Exhaustive examination across the length scales revealed the composite to have both an intercalated and exfoliated morphology. The ibuprofen was well dispersed and distributed throughout the PCL matrix. Most significantly, the static tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of PCL can be manipulated as a function of nanoclay loading and is dependent on the aspect ratio of clay platelets. The glass transition of PCL increased by up to 16 degrees C on addition of nanoclay, as determined from dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). This behaviour was attributed to the constrained mobility of PCL chains intercalated between clay platelets and to the tethering of PCL chains by hydrogen bonding with platelet edges. As a consequence, PCL crystallisation was inhibited and confirmed from non-isothermal crystallisation experiments using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fraction of PCL that was crystalline (X(c)) decreased by 15% on addition of ibuprofen and nanoclay, although the temperature of crystallisation (T(c)) did not change significantly. The dissolution of ibuprofen from PCL can be retarded by addition of layered silicates (nanoclays) to the polymer matrix. PMID:20033261

  16. Mechanical behavior of a composite interface: Calcium-silicate-hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palkovic, Steven D.; Moeini, Sina; Yip, Sidney; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2015-07-01

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) is a conceptual procedure historically used to assess shear behavior of defect-free crystalline structures through molecular dynamics or density functional theory simulations. We apply the GSF technique to the spatially and chemically complex quasi-layered structure of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the fundamental nanoscale binder within cementitious materials. A failure plane is enforced to calculate the shear traction-displacement response along a composite interface containing highly confined water molecules, hydroxyl groups, and calcium ions. GSF simulations are compared with affine (homogeneous) shear simulations, which allow strain to localize naturally in response to the local atomic environment. Comparison of strength and deformation behavior for the two loading methods shows the composite interface controls bulk shear deformation. Both models indicate the maximum shear strength of C-S-H exhibits a normal-stress dependency typical of cohesive-frictional materials. These findings suggest the applicability of GSF techniques to inhomogeneous structures and bonding environments, including other layered systems such as biological materials containing organic and inorganic interfaces.

  17. Structural and hydration properties of amorphous tricalcium silicate

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K. . E-mail: kmori@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukunaga, T.; Shiraishi, Y.; Iwase, K.; Xu, Q.; Oishi, K.; Yatsuyanagi, K.; Yonemura, M.; Itoh, K.; Sugiyama, M.; Ishigaki, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Kawai, M.

    2006-11-15

    Mechanical milling was carried out to synthesize amorphous tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) sample, where Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} is the most principal component of Portland cement. The partial phase transformation from the crystalline to the amorphous state was observed by X-ray and neutron diffractions. Moreover, it was found that the structural distortion on the Ca-O correlation exists in the milled Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}. The hydration of the milled Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} with D{sub 2}O proceeds as follows: the formation of hydration products such as Ca(OD){sub 2} rapidly occurs in the early hydration stage, and then proceeds slowly after about 15 h. The induction time for the hydration of the milled Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} is approximately one half shorter than that for the hydration of the unmilled one. This result means that the mechanical milling brings about the chemical activity of Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} for hydration, and may be particularly useful for increasing the reactivity in the early hydration stage.

  18. Color-control of the persistent luminescence of cadmium silicate doped with transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Carolina M.; Silva, Ronaldo S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Macedo, Zélia S.

    2013-04-15

    The structural and optical characterization of cadmium silicate (CdSiO{sub 3}) doped with transition metals is reported. This crystalline system presents intrinsic luminescence and is usually studied as host matrix for rare earth ions. In this work, CdSiO{sub 3} was doped with Mn, Ni and Cr to produce multicolored luminescent materials. Single crystalline CdSiO{sub 3} was obtained via solid state synthesis at 1000 °C/8 h. The valence of the dopants inserted in the host matrix was determined via XANES as 3+ for Cr, 2+ for Ni and both 2+ and 3+ for Mn, according to XANES studies. The optical absorption spectra of the samples presented wide bands in the visible region that were associated with the internal transitions of the dopants. All the samples presented photoluminescent bands near 420 nm, 496 nm and 591 nm, with different relative intensities that yield characteristic luminescence colors ranging from blue to red. - Graphical abstract: Phosphorescence of cadmium silicate doped with transition metals: nature of defects and possible luminescent channels. Highlights: ? CdSiO{sub 3} was doped with Mn, Ni and Cr to produce multicolored phosphors. ? Valence of the dopants was determined as 3+ for Cr, 2+ for Ni and 2+ and 3+ for Mn. ? The presence of absorption bands in the visible region led to self-absorption. ? Self-absorption in some cases can decrease the light output. ? Luminescent channels were created and related to internal transitions of the dopants.

  19. Topological Crystalline Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Topological crystalline insulators (TCI) are new phases of matter in which nontrivial band topology and crystal symmetry unite to protect metallic states on the boundary. Remarkably, TCIs have been predicted and observed in the conveniently simple rocksalt SnTe class of IV-VI semiconductors. Despite the simple crystal structure, the interplay between topology and crystal symmetry in these materials have led to a rich variety of new phenomena, including the coexistence of massless and massive Dirac fermions arising from ferroelectric distortion and strain-induced flat band superconductivity. These new physical mechanisms are not only of intrinsic interest but may also find application in new transistor devices. After discussing the topological nature and potential uses of IV-VI family TCIs, I will present recent predictions of TCIs in several anti-perovskite materials. The origin of TCI in this new class of materials is strikingly different and involves the band inversion of two J = 3/2 quartets of Dirac fermions, which together form a ``Dirac octet.'' As interactions play a significant role in many anti-perovskites, this prediction serves as first step toward realizing TCIs in strongly correlated systems. This work is supported by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship No. 0645960 and DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0010526.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  6. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  7. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  8. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  9. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  10. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  11. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  12. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  13. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  14. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  17. Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction

    E-print Network

    Jochem, Frank J.

    . The biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen is further complicated by the different forms in which nitrogen can occurLab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen processes. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, on the other hand, are highly dynamic because they may

  18. Optical characterization of laser ablated silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetto, Rosario; Roush, Ted L.; Marra, Anna Cinzia; Orofino, Vincenzo

    2007-11-01

    We perform an optical characterization of UV laser ablated silicates (olivine, pyroxene), starting from their reflectance spectra in the 0.3-2.5 ?m spectral range. The goal is to provide useful tools to model space weathering effects on surfaces of asteroids and TNOs (trans-neptunian objects). We determine that the reddening and darkening spectral trend is compatible with the Hapke's space weathering model, using the optical constants of metallic iron in a silicate matrix. This result is supported by new magnetic susceptibility measurements on laser ablated orthopyroxene. We also investigate the potential contribution of formation of amorphous silicates in the process. Applying our results to silicate-rich surfaces in the Solar System, we investigate the possibility of a weathered olivine component on the surface of Centaur 5145 Pholus. Inclusion of this component slightly decreases the amount of complex organics and water ice from those previously estimated. Thus, the current Pholus spectrum is consistent with the presence of either unweathered or weathered olivine, or potentially both materials.

  19. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  20. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  1. Dynamic Fatigue of a Titanium Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly A.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate Glass in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N=23 to stress corrosion in ambient conditions).

  2. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung Y. (Westmont, IL); Lohan, Dirk (Chicago, IL); Elizabeth, Anne (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  3. Silicates in Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-print Network

    M. M. Sirocky; N. A. Levenson; M. Elitzur; H. W. W. Spoon; L. Armus

    2008-01-30

    We analyze the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. Dust emission dominates the MIR spectra of ULIRGs, and the reprocessed radiation that emerges is independent of the underlying heating spectrum. Instead, the resulting emission depends sensitively on the geometric distribution of the dust, which we diagnose with comparisons of numerical simulations of radiative transfer. Quantifying the silicate emission and absorption features that appear near 10 and 18um requires a reliable determination of the continuum, and we demonstrate that including a measurement of the continuum at intermediate wavelength (between the features) produces accurate results at all optical depths. With high-quality spectra, we successfully use the silicate features to constrain the dust chemistry. The observations of the ULIRGs and local sightlines require dust that has a relatively high 18/10um absorption ratio of the silicate features (around 0.5). Specifically, the cold dust of Ossenkopf et al. (1992) is consistent with the observations, while other dust models are not. We use the silicate feature strengths to identify two families of ULIRGs, in which the dust distributions are fundamentally different. Optical spectral classifications are related to these families. In ULIRGs that harbor an active galactic nucleus, the spectrally broad lines are detected only when the nuclear surroundings are clumpy. In contrast, the sources of lower ionization optical spectra are deeply embedded in smooth distributions of optically thick dust.

  4. Silicate Atmospheres, Clouds, and Fractional Vaporization of

    E-print Network

    ­ Jupiter's moon Io is dominated by S, and may have lost lighter volatiles such as H, C, and N due used the MAGMA code to calculate the composition of a silicate atmosphere formed by heating fractional vaporization · Results give the composition of the atmosphere and total pressure · Fractional

  5. The GRD Model for Silicate Melt Viscosity: Volcanological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, K.; Giordano, D.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    We recently published a model for predicting the non-Arrhenian Newtonian viscosity of silicate melts as a function of temperature (T) and melt composition (X), including the volatile constituents H2O and F (Giordano et al. 2008). The non-Arrhenian T-dependence is accounted for by the VFT equation [log ? = A + B/(T(K) -C)] and the model is calibrated on > 1750 measurements of melt viscosity. All compositional dependence is accommodated by 17 model coefficients embedded in the parameters B and C. The optimization assumes a common, high-T limit (A) for silicate melt viscosity and returns a value for this limit of - 4.55 (± 0.2) (e.g., log ? ~ 10-4.6 Pa s) making for a total of 18 model coefficients. The effects of pressure on the silicate melt viscosity are not accounted for in this model, however, the model has the following attributes: a) it covers over fifteen log units of viscosity [10-1 to 1014 Pa s], b) it spans most of the compositional range found in naturally-occurring volcanic rocks, c) it is computationally continuous across the entire compositional and temperature spectrum of the database, and d) it is capable of accommodating both strong (near-Arrhenian T-dependence) and fragile (non-Arrhenian T-dependence) behaviour of silicate melts. Lastly, the model for melt viscosity can be used to predict other transport properties including glass transition temperatures (Tg) and melt fragility (m). Volcanic regimes feature constantly changing T-X melt conditions and, in many instances, these small changes generate strong non- linear variations in melt viscosity. The GRD model allows for accurate, continuous prediction of melt properties as a function of temperature and melt composition and, thus, is ideal for modelling transport properties in dynamic natural systems. Below we demonstrate the utility of this model with three volcanological applications: (A) We track variations in viscosity along liquid lines of descent predicted by MELTS (Ghiorso et al. 1995) and discuss the overall implications for differentiation processes, (B) We explore the rheological (?, m, and Tg) consequences of mixing between hot, dry mafic melts and cooler, hydrous, felsic melts, whilst also accounting for issues of thermal equilibration and volatile saturation, and (C) We couple the GRD model to that of Caricchi et al.'s (2007) model for viscosity of crystal-rich melts and explore changes in magma rheology attending the 2007 eruption of Stromboli. These eruptions featured a variety of eruption styles and produced nearly isochemical eruptive products that varied in crystallinity and vesicularity (e.g., from dark holocrystalline scoria to aphyric pumice). Caricchi, L., Burlini, L., Ulmer, P., Gerya, T., Vassalli, M., Papale, P. (2007) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264 : 402-419. Giordano, D. Russell, J.K. and Dingwell, D.B. (2008) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 271: 123-134. Ghiorso, M.S., and Sack, R.O. (1995) Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 119: 197-212.

  6. Thermoset polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen

    Nanocomposites are formed when phase mixing occurs on a nanometer length scale. Due to the improved phase morphology and interfacial properties, nanocomposites exhibit mechanical properties superior to conventional composites. Toyota researchers first demonstrated that organoclay could be exfoliated in a nylon-6 matrix to greatly improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, which has resulted in a practical application in the automobile industry. A great deal of research has been conducted on organic-inorganic hybrid composites in which smectite clays are used as reinforcement agents. However, little work has been devoted to derivatives of other layered inorganic solids. In the present work, the first examples of organic polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites have been prepared by formation of a cured epoxy polymer network in the presence of organo cation exchange forms of magadiite. The exfoliation of silicate nanolayers in the epoxy matrix was achieved by in-situ intragallery polymerization during the thermosetting process. In general, the tensile properties, solvent resistance, barrier properties and chemical stability of the polymer matrix are greatly improved by the embedded silicate nanolayers when the matrix is flexible (sub-ambient Tg). The improvement of properties are dependent on the silicate loading, the degree of nanolayer separation and interfacial properties. Interestingly, the exfoliation also affects the polymer elasticity in a favorable way. The mechanism leading to nanocomposite formation is proposed. One exfoliated epoxy-magadiite nanocomposite/composition possessed unique transparent optical properties. The exfoliation chemistry was successfully extended to the other members of the layered silicic acid family. A new approach also was developed to prepare thermoset epoxy polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites in which curing agents can be directly intercalated into the intragallery without the need for alkylammonium ions on the exchange sites. This new development has resulted in a greater improvement in the overall properties of thermoset polymer-clay nanocomposites. The exfoliation chemistry was extended further to other thermoset silicone polymer systems. The new polysiloxane-layered silicic acid nanocomposites were prepared with promising mechanical properties. Some fundamental chemistry and physics issues regarding nanocomposite formation were elucidated by this research work, particularly with regard to the relationship of microstructure and interfacial factors to the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.

  7. Investigation of Zeolite Nucleation and Growth Using NMR Spectroscopy 

    E-print Network

    Rivas Cardona, Alejandra

    2012-02-14

    Zeolite nucleation and growth is a complex problem that has been widely investigated but still not completely understood. However, a full understanding of this process is required in order to develop predictive models for ...

  8. Oxidation of bioethanol using zeolite-encapsulated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mielby, Jerrik; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng; Kasama, Takeshi; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Kegnaes, Søren

    2014-11-10

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high activity and selectivity for the catalytic gas-phase oxidation of ethanol are demonstrated. The zeolites are modified by a recrystallization process, which creates intraparticle voids and mesopores that facilitate the formation of small and disperse nanoparticles upon simple impregnation. The individual zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3?nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50?% conversion of ethanol with 98?% selectivity toward acetaldehyde at 200?°C, which (under the given reaction conditions) corresponds to 606?mol?acetaldehyde/mol?Au?hour(-1) . PMID:25196739

  9. 12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH LOOKING WEST TO FOUNTAIN. STAIRWAY RUNS DOWN TO FILTRATION BAYS. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Iba of Zeolites Exchanged with Lithium for Co2 Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Alfaro, S.; Valenzuela, M. A.; Solis, C.; Zaval, E. P.; Rocha, M. F.; Cruz, J.; Pfeiffer, H.; Bosch, P.; Contreras, C.; Baptiste, J.

    2009-03-01

    A great concern on the global climatic change, partially due to industry CO2 expelled to the atmosphere, has motivated the search of new materials able to retain this gas. Clays, perovskites, zeolites and membranes have been utilized to trap the CO2. Zeolites are widely used as molecular sieves in different industrial processes related to gas purification or gas separation. Synthetic zeolites exchanged with lithium were prepared as potential material for CO2 retention. A NRA method using the 7Li (p,?)4He was performed in order to measure the the Li contents. With SEM-EDS the atomic concentrations of elements as C, Na, Si, Al, K, Ca, Fe, etc. were determined. Zeolites were also characterized by XRD.

  11. Preparation and characterization of TiO2/silicate hierarchical coating on titanium surface for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-03-01

    In the current work, TiO2/silicate hierarchical coatings with various nanostructure morphologies were successfully prepared on titanium substrates through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequent hydrothermal treatment (HT). Moreover, the nucleation mechanism and growth behavior of the nanostructures, hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and apatite-inducing ability of various coatings were also explored. The novel TiO2/silicate hierarchical coatings comprised calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) as an outer-layer and TiO2 matrix as an inner-layer. According to the morphological features, the nanostructures were classified as nanorod, nanoplate and nanoleaf. The morphology, degree of crystallinity and crystalline phases of CSH nanostructures could be controlled by optimizing the HT conditions. The nucleation of CSH nanostructures is caused by release and re-precipitation mechanism. The TiO2/CSH hierarchical coatings exhibited some enhanced physical and biological performances compared to MAO-fabricated coating. The improvement of the hydrophilicity, fibronectin adsorption and apatite-inducing ability was found to be morphological dependent according to the following trend: nanoleaf coating>nanoplate coating>nanorod coating>MAO coating. The results indicate that the tuning of physical and morphological properties of nanostructures coated on biomaterial surface could significantly influence the hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and in vitro bioactivity of biomaterial. PMID:26706535

  12. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite-type materials: Germanates and zirconogermanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rebeca

    The great importance that zeolites have in the industry accounting for 40 billion US dollars a year to the petroleum cracking industry alone has attracted the interest of synthesizing and developing new crystalline microstructures. This work presents the unique structural properties of germanates, zeolite-type materials, by first reviewing five unique structure building units (SBUs) that include: 4=1 units, D4R units and large clusters with 7-, 9-, and 10-germanium atoms. Then, the work of the syntheses and characterization of different germanate structures is presented. The synthesis and characterization of four zirconogermanates constructed from the same cluster consisting of five tetrahedral germanium atoms and one zirconium atom in octahedral coordination is presented. The structures were prepared using different amines as structure directing agents (SDA); ASU-23 (using 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl) consists of one layered structure, ASU-24 (using hexamethylenediamine) is a pillared layered structure with exceptionally low framework density (FD=8.48 metal atoms per nanometer cubed), ASU-25 and ASU-26 (using 1,3-diaminopropane and ethylenediamine respectively) have 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks. The layer germanate (ASU-22) is built from 7-germanium clusters. X-ray structural analysis [P6(3)cm, a =28.794(2), c=20.603(4), V=14793(3) (unit cell parameters are in angstroms, volume in angstroms cubed)] revealed that the framework exhibits the kagome (kgm) topology. The extensive series of syntheses demonstrated the key role played by HF in the condensation of the 7-germanium clusters (these clusters have not been synthesized without HF). The zirconogermanate, ASU-17, in the 1,4-diaminobutane-HF system, was synthesized as crystalline powder and identified in the cubic crystals system with space group Ia-3d and unit cell parameter a =51.3 (angstroms) and corresponds to the SU-M structure reported by a group in Sweden. Exploratory work leading to the discovery this 3D cubic framework built from 10-germanium clusters showing pore size reaching the mesoporous range is presented. The synthesis and characterization of ASU-21, a crystalline germanate displaying large rigid cylinders, was also synthesized in the presence of hexamethylenediamine. The single crystal X-ray analysis [Ibam, a=49.257(10), b=28.439(6), c=14.866(3), V=20825(7) (unit cell parameters in angstroms and volume in angtrom cubed)] revealed the novel open-framework built form the same 10-germanium clusters found in ASU-17.

  13. Grain Growth and Silicates in Dense Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendeleton, Yvonne J.; Chiar, J. E.; Ennico, K.; Boogert, A.; Greene, T.; Knez, C.; Lada, C.; Roellig, T.; Tielens, A.; Werner, M.; Whittet, D.

    2006-01-01

    Interstellar silicates are likely to be a part of all grains responsible for visual extinction (Av) in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and dense clouds. A correlation between Av and the depth of the 9.7 micron silicate feature (measured as optical depth, tau(9.7)) is expected if the dust species are well 'mixed. In the di&se ISM, such a correlation is observed for lines of sight in the solar neighborhood. A previous study of the silicate absorption feature in the Taurus dark cloud showed a tendency for the correlation to break down at high Av (Whittet et al. 1988, MNRAS, 233,321), but the scatter was large. We have acquired Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data of several lines of sight in the IC 5 146, Barnard 68, Chameleon I and Serpens dense clouds. Our data set spans an Av range between 2 and 35 magnitudes. All lines of sight show the 9.7 micron silicate feature. The Serpens data appear to follow the diffuse ISM correlation line whereas the data for the other clouds show a non-linear correlation between the depth of the silicate feature relative to Av, much like the trend observed in the Taurus data. In fact, it appears that for visual extinctions greater than about 10 mag, tau(9.7) begins to level off. This decrease in the growth of the depth of the 9.7 micron feature with increasing Av could indicate the effects of grain growth in dense clouds. In this poster, we explore the possibility that grain growth causes an increase in opacity (Av) without causing a corresponding increase in tau(9.7).

  14. The origin of crystalline residues in Stardust Al foils: Surviving cometary dust or crystallized impact melts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniakiewicz, Penelope J.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Ishii, Hope A.; Burchell, Mark J.; Bradley, John P.; Teslich, Nick; Cole, Mike J.; Price, Mark C.

    2012-04-01

    Samples returned by the Stardust mission from comet 81P/Wild 2 provide an unequaled opportunity to investigate cometary formation and evolution. Crystalline silicates have been identified in impact craters in Stardust Al foil, yet their origin is ambiguous. They may be original cometary components, or they may have grown from melt generated by impact. We have now studied experimental impacts of the calcium silicate mineral wollastonite, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to document the relationship between impact feature shape and crystal lattice orientation in impact residue. Wollastonite can have a characteristic acicular habit, forming crater shapes that indicate crystal orientation upon impact. From extracted impact residue, we determined the lattice orientation of crystalline material for comparison with the whole particle orientation. We assume that crystallization from melt, without surviving seed nuclei, should result in randomly oriented crystallite growth, with no preferred direction for individual crystals. However, we find that the majority of crystalline material in the residue retains b-axis orientation parallel to the long axis of the crater form. This, together with impact parameter calculations and lack of Al incorporation by the residue (suggesting melting did not occur), indicates that these crystals and, by analogy, the majority of Al-free crystalline silicates in Stardust foil, are surviving remnants of the impactor. Furthermore, amorphous wollastonite residue probably did not form via melting and subsequent quenching, but instead by high-pressure amorphization or degradation of unquenchable phases. Finally, one crystal studied appears to be a new high-pressure/temperature polymorph of CaSiO3, indicating that such polymorphs may be observed in Stardust residues in craters.

  15. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  16. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  17. Achievement of Bulky Homochirality in Zeolitic Imidazolate-Related Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Tang, Yu-Huan; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Before this work, adding chiral C centers into zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has never been realized. Presented here are the first examples on achieving bulky homochirality in ZIF systems, and three homochiral zeolitic imidazolate-related frameworks with sodalite and dia topologies are successfully synthesized by employing enantiopure imidazolate derivatives. The results open a new blueprint on the synthetic design of homochiral ZIFs for future applications. PMID:26558292

  18. In-situ growth of porous alumino-silicates and fabrication of nano-porous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodumuri, Pradeep

    2009-12-01

    Feasibility of depositing continuous films of nano-porous alumino-silicates, primarily zeolites and MCM-41, on metallic and non-metallic substrates was examined with an aim to develop membranes for separation of gaseous mixtures and also for application as hydrogen storage material. Mesoporous silica was deposited in-side the pores of these nano-porous disks with an aim to develop membranes for selective separations. Our study involves supported zeolite film growth on substrates using in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. Faujasite, Silicalite and Mesoporous silica have been grown on various metallic and non-metallic supports. Metallic substrates used for film growth included anodized titanium, sodium hydroxide treated Titanium, Anodized aluminum, and sintered copper. A non-metallic substrate used was nano-porous aluminum oxide. Zeolite film growth was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (AMRAY 1820) and High Resolution Transmission electron microscope. Silicalite was found to grow uniformly on all the substrates to form a uniform and closely packed film. Faujasite tends to grow in the form of individual particles which do not inter-grow like silicalite to form a continuous film. Mesoporous silica was found to grow uniformly on anodized aluminum compared to growth on sintered copper and anodized titanium. Mesoporous silica growth on AnodiscRTM was found to cover more than half the surface of the substrate. Commercially obtained AnodiscRTM was found to have cylindrical channels of the pore branching into each other and since we needed pore channels of uniform dimension for Mesoporous silica growth, we have fabricated nano-porous alumina with uniform pore channels. Nano-porous alumina membranes containing uniform distribution of through thickness cylindrical pore channels were fabricated using anodization of aluminum disks. Free-standing nano-porous alumina membranes were used as templates for electro-deposition in order to fabricate nickel and palladium nano-wire mesh with large surface area to volume ratio. Such nano-wire metallic alloy meshes have a strong potential for application as advanced hydrogen storage material. Statistical image analysis techniques were used to determine the dependence of the pore morphology and distribution on the crystal orientation by anodizing single crystal aluminum disks that were oriented with their surface normal along [111], [110] and [111] directions. The [100] oriented disks were found to have the highest tendency to anodize in oxalic acid electrolytic solutions.

  19. Characterization of Chemical Properties, Unit Cell Parameters and Particle Size Distribution of Three Zeolite Reference Materials: RM 8850 - Zeolite Y, RM 8851 - Zeolite A and RM 8852 - Ammonium ZSM-5 Zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Turner,S.; Sieber, J.; Vetter, T.; Zeisler, R.; Marlow, A.; Moreno-Ramirez, M.; Davis, M.; Kennedy, G.; Borghard, W.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites have important industrial applications including use as catalysts, molecular sieves and ion exchange materials. In this study, three zeolite materials have been characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as reference materials (RMs): zeolite Y (RM 8850), zeolite A (RM 8851) and ZSM-5 zeolite (RM 8852). They have been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical measurement methods: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gravimetry, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), calorimetry, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, laser light extinction, laser light scattering, electric sensing zone, X-ray sedimentation, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The chemical homogeneity of the materials has been characterized. Reference values are given for the major components (major elements, loss on ignition [LOI] and loss on fusion [LOF]), trace elements and Si/Al and Na/Al ratios. Information values are given for enthalpies of formation, unit cell parameters, particle size distributions, refractive indices and variation of mass with variation in relative humidity (RH). Comparisons are made to literature unit cell parameters. The RMs are expected to provide a basis for intercomparison studies of these zeolite materials.

  20. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-01

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 ?m thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit. PMID:26061093

  1. An analysis of commerical zeolite catalysts by multinuclear NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, L.

    1990-09-21

    This work involves studying two commercial hydrocracking catalysts by solid state multinuclear NMR silicon 29 and aluminum 27 with the goal of developing a method of determining the fraction zeolite in the catalysts. The zeolite fraction is known to be one of the faujasite zeolites type X or Y. The clay matrix of the catalyst is assumed to be kaolinite. Fresh, air-exposed commercial hydrocracking catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. Sample 33351-86 was known to be a physical mixture of a Y zeolite and a clay matrix. The other catalyst, 33351-20, was composed of a faujasite zeolite grown within a clay matrix. Both were suspected of being about 20 wt % zeolite. Nothing is known about the state of pretreatment or cation exchange. A portion of each catalyst was calcined in a porcelain crucible in air at 500{degree}C for two hours with a hour heating ramp preceding and a two hour cooling ramp following calcination. 64 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species. PMID:25897618

  3. Nanosized zeolites as a perspective material for conductometric biosensors creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, Ivan; Soldatkin, Oleksandr; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Soldatkin, Alexei; Lagarde, Florence; Dzyadevych, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the method of enzyme adsorption on different zeolites and mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) was investigated for the creation of conductometric biosensors. The conductometric transducers consisted of gold interdigitated electrodes were placed on the ceramic support. The transducers were modified with zeolites and MSS, and then the enzymes were adsorbed on the transducer surface. Different methods of zeolite attachment to the transducer surface were used; drop coating with heating to 200°C turned out to be the best one. Nanozeolites beta and L, zeolite L, MSS, and silicalite-1 (80 to 450 nm) were tested as the adsorbents for enzyme urease. The biosensors with all tested particles except zeolite L had good analytical characteristics. Silicalite-1 (450 nm) was also used for adsorption of glucose oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. The glucose and acetylcholine biosensors were successfully created, whereas butyrylcholinesterase was not adsorbed on silicalite-1. The enzyme adsorption on zeolites and MSS is simple, quick, well reproducible, does not require use of toxic compounds, and therefore can be recommended for the development of biosensors when these advantages are especially important.

  4. Tailoring and visualizing the pore architecture of hierarchical zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Parmentier, Tanja E; de Jong, Krijn P; Ze?evi?, Jovana

    2015-10-21

    Recently the concept of hierarchical zeolites invoked more explicit attention to enhanced accessibility of zeolites. By realizing additional meso-/macroporosity with the intrinsic microporosity of zeolites, a hierarchical pore system arises which facilitates mass transport while maintaining the zeolite shape selectivity. A great number of synthesis strategies have been developed for tailoring the pore architecture of hierarchical zeolites. In this review, we give a general overview of different synthesis methods for introduction of additional porosity. Advantages and limitations of these different synthesis approaches are addressed. The assessment of pore structure is essential to build the link between the zeolite pore structure and its functionality. A variety of 2D and 3D microscopy techniques are crucial to visualize the hierarchical pore structure, providing unique and comprehensive information that, however, should be linked to the results of bulk characterization techniques as much as possible. The microscopy techniques are classified and discussed according to the different probes used, such as optical light, X-rays and electrons. Representative work is reviewed to elucidate the capability of each technique and their drawbacks. PMID:26007224

  5. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles. PMID:26510611

  6. Solvent Evaporation Assisted Preparation of Oriented Nanocrystalline Mesoporous MFI Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Kake; Sun, Junming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Wan, Haiying; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF; Nie, Zimin

    2011-07-01

    A solvent evaporation route to produce hierarchically porous zeolites with an oriented MFI nanocrystalline structure has been developed, and the method is scalable and productive. In this method, hexadecyltrimethoxysilane is added to an ethanol solution containing zeolitic precursors. A hard gel is formed during the evaporation process. Subsequent hydrothermal treatments produce the hierarchically porous zeolite. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies suggest that misoriented zeolite nuclei are produced in the very early stages of the hydrothermal treatment, but further reactions lead to single crystal-like aggregates composed of intergrowth nanocrystals with a mean interparticle pore diameter of 12 nm. All Al atoms exist in tetrahedral sites, as confirmed by 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). Variable temperature hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR spectroscopy suggest a fast molecular diffusion process from the interconnection between micro- and mesopores. Catalytic conversion of acetone to the isobutene reactions show comparable (with respect to conventional zeolites) selectivity to isobutene. However, hierarchically porous zeolites display enhanced activity and durability because of the more accessible acidic sites in the hierarchically porous structures.

  7. Amorphous Silicates in Primitive Meteoritic Materials: Acfer 094 and IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of presolar grains is one measure of the primitive nature of meteoritic materials. Presolar silicates are abundant in meteorites whose matrices are dominated by amorphous silicates such as the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Presolar silicates are even more abundant in chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs). Amorphous silicates in the form of GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major component of CP IDPs. We are studying amorphous silicates in Acfer 094 matrix in order to determine whether they are related to the GEMS grains in CPIDPs

  8. Alkali metal crystalline polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuhong; Gamble, Stephen; Ainsworth, David; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Andreev, Yuri G.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2009-07-01

    Polymer electrolytes have been studied extensively because uniquely they combine ionic conductivity with solid yet flexible mechanical properties, rendering them important for all-solid-state devices including batteries, electrochromic displays and smart windows. For some 30 years, ionic conductivity in polymers was considered to occur only in the amorphous state above Tg. Crystalline polymers were believed to be insulators. This changed with the discovery of Li+ conductivity in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiAsF6 (refs 4, 5). However, new crystalline polymer electrolytes have proved elusive, questioning whether the 6:1 complex has particular structural features making it a unique exception to the rule that only amorphous polymers conduct. Here, we demonstrate that ionic conductivity in crystalline polymers is not unique to the 6:1 complex by reporting several new crystalline polymer electrolytes containing different alkali metal salts (Na+, K+ and Rb+), including the best conductor poly(ethylene oxide)8:NaAsF6 discovered so far, with a conductivity 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiAsF6. These are the first crystalline polymer electrolytes with a different composition and structures to that of the 6:1 Li+ complex.

  9. Identification of the man-made barium copper silicate pigments among some ancient Chinese artifacts through spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Yang, J. C.; Li, L.; Dong, J. Q.; Zhao, H. X.; Liu, S.

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the complementary application of non-invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the characterization of some ancient Chinese silicate artifacts. A total of 28 samples dated from fourth century BC to third century AD were analyzed. The results of chemical analysis showed that the vitreous PbO-BaO-SiO2 material was used to sinter these silicate artifacts. The barium copper silicate pigments including BaCuSi4O10, BaCuSi2O6 and BaCu2Si2O7 were widely identified from colorful areas of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, other crystalline phases such as Fe2O3, BaSi2O5, BaSO4, PbCO3 and quartz were also identified. The present study provides very valuable information to trace the technical evolution of man-made barium copper silicate pigments and their close relationship with the making of ancient PbO-BaO-SiO2 glaze and glass.

  10. Effect of iron particle size and volume fraction on the magnetic properties of Fe/silicate glass soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei; Jiang, Longtao; Liao, Yaqin; Song, Jiabin; Li, Bingqing; Wu, Gaohui

    2015-03-01

    Fe/silicate glass soft magnetic composites (SMC) were fabricated by powder metallurgy with 1000 MPa pressure at room temperature, and then annealed at 700 °C for 90 min. The iron particles distributed uniformly in the composites, and have been separated from each other by a continuous silicate glass insulating layer. Fe/glass interface was well bonded and a quasi-continuous layer Fe3O4 and FeO exited. Very fine crystalline phases Na12Ca3Fe2(Si6O18)2 were formed in silicate glass. Composite containing 57 vol% 75 ?m iron particles demonstrated highest resistivity of 7.8×10-3 ? m. The ?m, Bs and Bt increased while Hc of Fe/silicate glass composites decreased with the increase of average size of iron particles. The composite with highest amount (82 vol%) and largest average size (140 ?m) of iron particles demonstrated best ?m, Bs and Bt and Hc, which were 622, 1.57 T, 1.43 T, 278 A/m, respectively. The composite containing 57 vol% 75 ?m iron particles demonstrated minimum core loss of 3.5 W/kg at 50 Hz and 28.1 W/kg at 400 Hz, while the composite containing 82 vol% 140 ?m iron particles exhibited maximum core loss of 5.2 W/kg at 50 Hz and 67.7 W/kg at 400 Hz.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of hydrous silicate glasses. Progress report, June 1, 1996--May 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.

    1998-06-01

    This DOE-funded project (DE-FG03-ER13445, 6/1/96-5/31/99) emphasizes study of the behavior of volatiles in magmatic systems. The project is explicitly focused on the combined application of IR spectroscopy, experimental petrology, and stable isotope geochemistry to understanding the behavior and properties of the volatile components dissolved in silicate melts and glasses, although in recent years, our emphasis has broadened to include non-volatile aspects of stable isotope geochemistry. Results obtained during the current grant and previous grant periods confirm that when applied to study of well-chosen synthetic and natural systems, the combination of these approaches and techniques can yield insights of general petrological and volcanological value and of practical value to DOE. In particular, the results of our DOE-funded work has led to a deeper understanding of the physical chemistry of silicate melts as well as specific constraints on the thermal and chemical evolution of high-level magmatic systems of the sort being evaluated as potential geothermal and magmathermal energy sources. Moreover, our work has also contributed to understanding the behavior of H-, C-, and O-bearing species in amorphous and crystalline silicates, including the kinetics of their interactions; we believe these results will contribute to efforts to use silicates in the development of nuclear waste disposal strategies.

  12. Strong Eu2+ light emission in Eu silicate through Eu3+ reduction in Eu2O3/Si multilayer deposited on Si substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Eu2O3/Si multilayer nanostructured films are deposited on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that multicrystalline Eu silicate is homogeneously distributed in the film after high-temperature treatment in N2. The Eu2+ silicate is formed by the reaction of Eu2O3 and Si layers, showing an intense and broad room-temperature photoluminescence peak centered at 610 nm. It is found that the Si layer thickness in nanostructures has great influence on Eu ion optical behavior by forming different Eu silicate crystalline phases. These findings open a promising way to prepare efficient Eu2+ materials for photonic application. PMID:23618344

  13. Asymmetric silicate dust distribution toward the silicate carbon star BM Gem

    E-print Network

    Keiichi Ohnaka; Hideyuki Izumiura; Christoph Leinert; Thomas Driebe; Gerd Weigelt; Markus Wittkowski

    2008-07-21

    Silicate carbon stars show the 10 micron silicate emission, despite their carbon-rich photospheres. They are considered to have circumbinary or circum-companion disks, which serve as a reservoir of oxygen-rich material shed by mass loss in the past. We present N-band spectro-interferometric observations of the silicate carbon star BM Gem using MIDI at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our aim is to probe the spatial distribution of oxygen-rich dust with high spatial resolution. BM Gem was observed with VLTI/MIDI at 44--62 m baselines using the UT2-UT3 and UT3-UT4 baseline configurations. The N-band visibilities observed for BM Gem show a steep decrease from 8 to ~10 micron and a gradual increase longward of ~10 micron, reflecting the optically thin silicate emission feature emanating from sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains. The differential phases obtained at baselines of ~44--46 m show significant non-zero values (~ -70 degrees) in the central part of the silicate emission feature between ~9 and 11 micron, revealing a photocenter shift and the asymmetric nature of the silicate emitting region. The observed N-band visibilities and differential phases can be fairly explained by a simple geometrical model in which the unresolved star is surrounded by a ring with azimuthal brightness modulation. The best-fit model is characterized by a broad ring (~70 mas across at 10 micron) with a bright region which is offset from the unresolved star by ~20 mas at a position angle of ~280 degrees. This model can be interpreted as a system with a circum-companion disk and is consistent with the spectroscopic signatures of an accretion disk around an unseen companion recently discovered in the violet spectrum of BM Gem.

  14. Surface acoustic wave technique for the characterization of porous properties of microporous silicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietala, Susan Leslie

    1997-12-01

    Features of gas adsorption onto sol-gel derived microporous silicate thin films, for characterization of porous properties, are detailed using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) technique. Mass uptake and film effective modulus changes calculated from the SAW data are investigated in detail. The effects of stress and surface tension on the SAW sensor are calculated and found to be negligible in these experiments. Transient behavior recorded during nitrogen adsorption at 77 K is discussed in the context of mass uptake and effective modulus contributions. The time constant associated with the effective modulus calculation is consistent with that of diffusivity of nitrogen into a 5A zeolite. Further calculations indicate that the transient behavior is not due to thermal effects. A unique dual sensor SAW experiment to decouple the mass and effective modulus contributions to the frequency response was performed in conjunction with a Silicon beam-bending experiment. The beam-bending experiment results in a calculation of stress induced during adsorption of methanol on a microporous silicate thin film. The decoupled mass and effective modulus calculated from the SAW data have similar shaped isotherms, and are quite different from that of the stress developed in the Silicon beam. The total effective modulus change calculated from the SAW data is consistent with that calculated using Gassmann's equation. The SAW system developed for this work included unique electronics and customized hardware which is suitable for work under vacuum and at temperatures from 77K to 473K. This unique setup is suitable for running thin film samples on a Micromeritics ASAP 2000 Gas Adsorption unit in automatic mode. This setup is also general enough to be compatible with a custom gas adsorption unit and the beam bending apparatus, both using standard vacuum assemblies.

  15. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Liu, Li-ying; Xiao, Penny; Che, Shuai; Wang, He-ming

    2014-08-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  16. Study of pure-silica Zeolite Nucleation and Growth from Solution 

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang

    2011-10-21

    and direct zeolite nuclei. Unlike many studies performed analyzing the inorganic phase (silica) present in synthesis mixtures, this study quantified the organocation-silica particle interaction and its ultimate effect on zeolite growth mainly through probing...

  17. Interaction of Dimethylmethylphosphonate with Zeolite Y: Impedance-Based Sensor for Detecting Nerve Agent Simulants

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    sensors.6 At temperatures less than 110 °C, a change in the conductivity of hydrated zeolites is induced control. There are also reports on utilization of zeolites as ionic electrolytes for hydrocarbon sensors

  18. Adsorption and isothermal models of atrazine by zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Tarek S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Saleh, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of Atrazine on zeolites, prepared from Egyptian kaolin, has been studied in order to consider the application of these types of zeolites in water purification. The batch mode has been employed, using atrazine solution of concentration ranging from 2 to 10 mg /l. The adsorption capacity and distribution coefficients ( Kd) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. It was found that, under the studies concentrations, the percent of adsorbed atrazine on both zeolites match to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The constants of each model were calculated to assess the adsorption behavior of atrazine on each type of zeolite. According to the equilibrium studies, adsorption of atrazine on zeolite X at lower concentrations is much better than that on zeolite A. The application of Dublin-Kaganer-Radushkevich model revealed physisorption endothermic adsorption process for both zeolites. These results show that natural zeolites hold great potential to remove hazardous materials such as atrazine from water.

  19. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  20. Surface tension of natural silicate melts from 1,200-1,500 C and implications for melt structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Mullins, O., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The surface tension between silicate liquid and gas is measured for four lava compositions (limburgite to andesite) from 1,200 to 1,500 C. It is noted that the magnitude of surface tension (gamma) is in the range 350-370 dynes/cm. Variations found in gamma as a function of liquid composition are small and have no obvious relation to liquid composition. Gamma is also found to vary little with furnace atmosphere - air, Ar, CO2, H2, CO and their mixtures. It is found that a relaxation time of hours to days, depending on temperature, is required before reproducible results can be obtained from originally crystalline starting material. The reproducible temperature dependence of gamma for complex silicate liquid solution is found to be small, positive, and a relatively simple function of liquid composition.

  1. Halocarbon adsorption in nanoporous materials: A combined calorimetric and Monte Carlo study of trichloroethylene (TCE) in faujasite-type zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Mellot, C.F.; Cheetham, A.K.; Harms, S.; Savitz, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Myers, A.L.

    1998-11-10

    Isosteric heats of adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a series of faujasite-type zeolites, siliceous faujasite, NaY (Si:Al = 2.6), and NaX (Si:Al = 1.2), have been studied by the combination of calorimetry and (N,V,T) Monte Carlo simulations, varying the sorbate loading up to {approximately}35 molecules per unit-cell. Excellent agreement is obtained between observed and calculated heats, confirming the applicability of the force field to the realm of unsaturated halocarbons for a large range of Si:Al ratio, cation content, and sorbate loading. The relative contributions of short-range and long-range interactions to the heat of adsorption are discussed, and the host/guest pair distribution functions (PDFs) from the MC simulations are analyzed in detail. At fixed loading, TCE heats of adsorption increase in the sequence of host basicity and cation content: siliceous faujasite: {approximately}40 kJ/mol < NaY: {approximately}55 kJ/mol < NaX: {approximately}80 kJ/mol (extrapolated to zero loading). Such a correlation is further elucidated from the host/guest PDFs by the enhancement of H{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis}O{sub ZEO} hydrogen bonding and Cl{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis}Na{sub ZEO} electrostatic interactions from the siliceous faujasite to NaY and NaX. An increase in TCE loading gives rise to a systematic increase in adsorption heats (>10 kJ/mol); this is identified as of a predominantly dispersive nature arising from Cl{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis} and H{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sub TCE} intermolecular interactions.

  2. Cooling rate calculations for silicate glasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnie, D. P., III; Dyar, M. D.

    1986-03-01

    Series solution calculations of cooling rates are applied to a variety of samples with different thermal properties, including an analog of an Apollo 15 green glass and a hypothetical silicate melt. Cooling rates for the well-studied green glass and a generalized silicate melt are tabulated for different sample sizes, equilibration temperatures and quench media. Results suggest that cooling rates are heavily dependent on sample size and quench medium and are less dependent on values of physical properties. Thus cooling histories for glasses from planetary surfaces can be estimated on the basis of size distributions alone. In addition, the variation of cooling rate with sample size and quench medium can be used to control quench rate.

  3. Conductimetric determination of decomposition of silicate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C.; Lieck, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a procedure is given to detect decomposition of silicate systems in the liquid state by conductivity measurements. Onset of decomposition can be determined from the temperature curves of resistances measured on two pairs of electrodes, one above the other. Degree of decomposition can be estimated from temperature and concentration dependency of conductivity of phase boundaries. This procedure was tested with systems PbO-B2O3 and PbO-B2O3-SiO2.

  4. Neutron Diffraction Study of Silicate Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H. K.; van Orman, J.; Fei, Y.; Hemley, R. J.; Loveday, J.; Nelmes, R.; Smith, R. I.

    2002-12-01

    The oxygen deficiency and cation-site distribution of silicate perovskite control its physical and chemical properties, including density, bulk modulus, defect mobility, ionic transport, flow behavior, oxidation states, hydration, and minor-element solubility. These properties of perovskite, in turn control the geophysical and geochemical processes of the Earth. The possibility of oxygen deficiency was first recognized in perovskite with minor amounts of Al replacing Mg and Si [1, 2], and its significance is compared to the analogous defect perovskite in ceramics [3]. Basic crystallographic characteristics of the silicate perovskite, including the lattice parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell, the Pbmn space group, and atomic positions, were previously determined by x-ray diffraction [4]. The defect crystallography of silicate perovskite, however, cannot be measured by x-rays because the relevant ions (Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+ and O2-) are isoelectronic. These ions have very different neutron cross-section and can be readily resolved by neutron diffraction. Using multianvil apparatus, we synthesized perovskite samples at 1700°C and 25-28 GPa. We perform multiple runs to accumulate 3 mm3 sample each for the MgSiO3 end member and MgSiO3 plus 5 weight %\\ Al2O3 in perovskite structure. Excellent powder diffraction data were collected at the POLARIS Beamline of ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Lab, and were subjected to Rietveld analysis. Neutron derived information sheds light on the unusual effects found for Al3+ substitution on the compressibility of the silicate perovskite [1]. 1. J. Zhang and D. J. Weidner, Science 284, 782 (1999). 2. J. P. Brodholt, Nature 407, 620 (2000). 3. A. Navrotsky, Science 284, 1788 (1999). 4. N. L. Ross and R. M. Hazen, Phys. Chem. Minerals 17, 228 (1990).

  5. Solution properties of ?-crystallins: Hydration of fish and mammal ?-crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Chen, Yingwei; Rezabkova, Lenka; Wu, Zhengrong; Wistow, Graeme; Schuck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lens ? crystallins are found at the highest protein concentration of any tissue, ranging from 300 mg/mL in some mammals to over 1000 mg/mL in fish. Such high concentrations are necessary for the refraction of light, but impose extreme requirements for protein stability and solubility. ?-crystallins, small stable monomeric proteins, are particularly associated with the lowest hydration regions of the lens. Here, we examine the solvation of selected ?-crystallins from mammals (human ?D and mouse ?S) and fish (zebrafish ?M2b and ?M7). The thermodynamic water binding coefficient B1 could be probed by sucrose expulsion, and the hydrodynamic hydration shell of tightly bound water was probed by translational diffusion and structure-based hydrodynamic boundary element modeling. While the amount of tightly bound water of human ?D was consistent with that of average proteins, the water binding of mouse ?S was found to be relatively low. ?M2b and ?M7 crystallins were found to exhibit extremely low degrees hydration, consistent with their role in the fish lens. ?M crystallins have a very high methionine content, in some species up to 15%. Structure-based modeling of hydration in ?M7 crystallin suggests low hydration is associated with the large number of surface methionine residues, likely in adaptation to the extremely high concentration and low hydration environment in fish lenses. Overall, the degree of hydration appears to balance stability and tissue density requirements required to produce and maintain the optical properties of the lens in different vertebrate species. PMID:24282025

  6. Modeling of Macroscopic/Microscopic Transport and Growth Phenomena in Zeolite Crystal Solutions Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Crystals grown from liquid solutions have important industrial applications. Zeolites, for instance, a class of crystalline aluminosilicate materials, form the backbone of the chemical process industry worldwide, as they are used as adsorbents and catalysts. Many of the phenomena associated with crystal growth processes are not well understood due to complex microscopic and macroscopic interactions. Microgravity could help elucidate these phenomena and allow the control of defect locations, concentration, as well as size of crystals. Microgravity in an orbiting spacecraft could help isolate the possible effects of natural convection (which affects defect formation) and minimize sedimentation. In addition, crystals will stay essentially suspended in the nutrient pool under a diffusion-limited growth condition. This is expected to promote larger crystals by allowing a longer residence time in a high-concentration nutrient field. Among other factors, the crystal size distribution depends on the nucleation rate and crystallization. These two are also related to the "gel" polymerization/depolymerization rate. Macroscopic bulk mass and flow transport and especially gravity, force the crystals down to the bottom of the reactor, thus forming a sedimentation layer. In this layer, the growth rate of the crystals slows down as crystals compete for a limited amount of nutrients. The macroscopic transport phenomena under certain conditions can, however, enhance the nutrient supply and therefore, accelerate crystal growth. Several zeolite experiments have been performed in space with mixed results. The results from our laboratory have indicated an enhancement in size of 30 to 70 percent compared to the best ground based controls, and a reduction of lattice defects in many of the space grown crystals. Such experiments are difficult to interpret, and cannot be easily used to derive empirical or other laws since many physical parameters are simultaneously involved in the process. At the same time, however, there is increased urgency to develop such an understanding in order to more accurately quantify the process. In order to better understand the results obtained from our prior space experiments, and design future experiments, a detailed fluid dynamic model simulating the crystal growth mechanism is required. This will not only add to the fundamental knowledge on the crystallization of zeolites, but also be useful in predicting the limits of size and growth of these important industrial materials. Our objective is to develop macro/microscopic theoretical and computational models to study the effect of transport phenomena in the growth of crystals grown in solutions. Our effort has concentrated so far in the development of separate macroscopic and microscopic models. The major highlights of our accomplishments are described.

  7. Correlation of the changes in the framework and active Cu sites for typical Cu/CHA zeolites (SSZ-13 and SAPO-34) during hydrothermal aging.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenkang; Li, Zhenguo; Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua

    2015-10-28

    The relative framework stability of Cu/CHA zeolites (SAPO-34 and SSZ-13) was studied during hydrothermal aging at 800 °C, and the fundamental mechanism for the framework change was investigated. Additionally, the relationship between the variation in the framework and active SCR reaction sites was established. SAPO-34 showed stronger stability during hydrothermal aging than SSZ-13. The results showed that dealumination occurred in the SSZ-13 zeolite, leading to the loss of crystallinity and a severe decrease of the Brönsted acid sites. Simultaneously, the detached Al(OH)3 species deactivated the Cu species by the transformation of isolated Cu(2+) ions to CuAlOx species. While the vacancy in the SAPO-34 framework caused by desilication could be healed with the migration of extra-framework Al and P atoms to the defects. And the Cu species showed a certain degree of aggregation with the improved redox ability of the aged Cu/SAPO-34 zeolite and the acidic properties were well maintained. PMID:26462874

  8. Highly dispersed metal atoms in zeolites. Progress report. [Hydroformylation

    SciTech Connect

    Suib, S.L.

    1985-04-15

    Our studies this past year have involved work in the following areas: preparation of highly dispersed metal atoms in molecular sieves via microwave discharge methods, hydroformylation of l-pentene with rhodium zeolites and Rutherford backscattering studies of zeolites. The microwave discharge method has been developed by us to provide a synthetic route to produce highly dispersed iron and cobalt atom clusters in several molecular sieves such as zeolites, aluminophosphates, pillared clays and clays. We have done ferromagnetic resonance, infrared, Mossbauer and scanning electron microscopy experiments on these materials. Generalizations that can be made so far are that these particles are extremely small, reactive and their formation is governed by the type of support. They are all active in Fischer-Tropsch reactions although cobalt materials are more selective and stable than iron materials. Superparamagnetic iron clusters have been observed for the incorporation of iron into zeolites, ALPO's and pillared clays. These results are unique in that iron (0) is usually oxidized in a zeolite environment. The second project deals with Wilkinson's catalyst and the preparation of phosphine rhodium zeolite catalysts. These catalysts are selective towards aldehyde formation and the normal to branched aldehyde ratio can be controlled. EXAFS, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray powder diffraction experiments have been carried out on these catalysts. The third project deals with Rutherford backscattering studies of zeolites. We have shown that Rutherford backscattering methods can be used to distinguish metal ions on the surface of a porous support from internal metal ions exchanged into the pores of the support.

  9. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen; Wang Yanqin; Lu Guanzhong

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystal pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.

  10. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Domka, Ludwik; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay - hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1?-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d001) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH2 and CH3 groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  11. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pengfei; Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle Nic; Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald

    2015-02-09

    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1??m diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775?nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38??m (single-stem) and 48??m (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3?×?10{sup 5} (single-stem) and 7?×?10{sup 6} (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  12. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-02-01

    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1 ?m diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775 nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38 ?m (single-stem) and 48 ?m (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3 × 105 (single-stem) and 7 × 106 (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  13. Strontium complexation in aqueous solutions and silicate glasses: Insights from high energy-resolution fluorescence detection X-ray spectroscopy and ab-initio modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Manuela; Wilke, Max; Schmidt, Christian; Kvashnina, Kristina; Jahn, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Although fluid-melt partitioning of trace elements like Sr, Ba, La, and Y is known to be strongly influenced by the fluid and melt chemical composition, their speciation in silicate-saturated fluids is studied insufficiently at high temperatures and pressures. Here, high energy-resolution fluorescence detection-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS) has been applied to investigate the local environment of strontium in crystalline model compounds, silicate glasses, and aqueous solutions. Acquisition of Sr K-edge HERFD-XAS spectra of aqueous solutions of SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2, and three aqueous fluids with dissolved silicate components was done in situ at temperatures to 780 °C and pressures to ?800 MPa using hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells. Experiments were complemented by theoretical spectroscopy calculations using the finite difference method near edge structure (FDMNES) code. This approach was validated for a number of crystalline model compounds. For the silicate glasses and aqueous solutions (SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2), small clusters were examined. Either symmetric or distorted SrO6 clusters were found to describe Sr complexation in peraluminous or peralkaline glasses. However, small ‘static’ clusters seem not to be fully suited to account for the dynamically changing atomic arrangements in aqueous solutions at high temperature. Therefore, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed and used as input for modeling of X-ray absorption spectra. Analyses of these simulations indicated [SrCl(H2O)6]+ and Sr(OH)2(H2O)4 as the most likely complexes in the chloride and hydroxide solutions, respectively. Analysis of the spectra of the silicate-rich fluids shows that both melt and fluid composition strongly influence Sr complexation. For the silicate-rich fluids, formation of Sr-Cl complexes occurs at low (Na + K)/Cl and (Si + Al)/(Na + K) ratios in the fluid, whereas Sr hydroxide and possibly silicate complexes (similar to those in the silicate glass) are favored at higher ratios. Our X-ray spectroscopic results offer an explanation for the dependence of fluid-melt partitioning of Sr on melt composition measured in previous ex situ studies, and highlight the importance of components other than chloride (silicate and aluminosilicate) in controlling metal speciation in fluid-melt systems at high temperatures and pressures.

  14. Molecular composites from liquid crystalline polymers and liquid crystalline thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    We propose a new approach to molecular composites. This approach uses a mixture of a liquid crystalline polymer and a liquid crystalline thermoset to enhance the miscibility. Preliminary neutron scattering data is presented on a system of short and long rod aromatic amides. The data is interpreted using the interpenetrating phase model of Debye and Bueche. The analysis indicates that the scattering is consistent with this model and shows a characteristic length scale in the range of 70 to 80 A. The intensity of the scattering is lower than calculated for the strong segregation limit, suggesting that there is some intermixing of the components.

  15. Lens Aging: Effects of Crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, K. Krishna; Santhoshkumar, Puttur

    2009-01-01

    The primary function of the eye lens is to focus light on the retina. The major proteins in the lens—a, b, and g-crystallins—are constantly subjected to age-related changes such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation, glycation, and methylation. Such age-related modifications are cumulative and affect crystallin structure and function. With time, the modified crystallins aggregate, causing the lens to increasingly scatter light on the retina instead of focusing light on it and causing the lens to lose its transparency gradually and become opaque. Age-related lens opacity, or cataract, is the major cause of blindness worldwide. We review deamidation, and glycation that occur in the lenses during aging keeping in mind the structural and functional changes that these modifications bring about in the proteins. In addition, we review proteolysis and discuss recent observations on how crystallin fragments generated in vivo, through their anti-chaperone activity may cause crystallin aggregation in aging lenses. We also review hyperbaric oxygen treatment induced guinea pig and ‘humanized’ ascorbate transporting mouse models as suitable options for studies on age-related changes in lens proteins. PMID:19463898

  16. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie; Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M.; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1995-11-27

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ``crystal balls`` bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions.

  17. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semirigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers. This paper will also highlight the interactions between academia and small businesses in developing new products and processes.

  18. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Stevenson, Paige; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers advantages of low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semi-rigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers.

  19. Toward a Database of Hypothetical Zeolite Structures David J. Earl, and Michael W. Deem*,

    E-print Network

    Earl, David J.

    Toward a Database of Hypothetical Zeolite Structures David J. Earl, and Michael W. Deem the sampling. We discuss construction of a database of hypothetical zeolite frameworks with this approach and discuss how the database may be used to search for new zeolite structures with specific material

  20. Ion exchange of zeolite membranes by a vacuum `flow-through' Seok-Jhin Kim a

    E-print Network

    Nair, Sankar

    Ion exchange of zeolite membranes by a vacuum `flow-through' technique Seok-Jhin Kim October 2014 Keywords: Ion exchange Zeolite membrane Flow-through technique Separation Catalysis a b s t r a c t Ion exchange of nanoporous (e.g., zeolite) membranes is of increasing importance