Sample records for crystalline silicate zeolite

  1. Catalytic dewaxing of oils containing ammonia over highly siliceous porous crystalline materials of the zeolite ZSM-5 type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. Dwyer; W. E. Garwood

    1984-01-01

    Straight-chain hydrocarbons and slightly branched chain hydrocarbons are selectively converted utilizing highly siliceous porous crystalline materials of the zeolite type having SiOâ\\/AlâOâ ratio of greater than 200, unique molecular sieving properties and superior resistance to ammonia deactivation. The catalyst preferably contains acidic cations and can also contain a component having a hydrogenation\\/dehydrogenation function. The process of this invention is particularly

  2. Zeolite synthesis in hydrated silicate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    van Tendeloo, Leen; Haouas, Mohamed; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, C E A; Breynaert, Eric; Taulelle, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Hydrated alkali silicate ionic liquids (HSIL) were prepared by hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in alkali hydroxide-water mixtures, inducing coacervation and phase separation. The resulting optically clear, homogenous silicate ionic liquid offers exceptional potential for monitoring zeolite crystallisation. This enhanced synthesis route provides access to analysis of speciation, mechanistic details of zeolite formation, and brings organic-template-free zeolite synthesis by design within reach. PMID:25886652

  3. Co-development of crystalline and mesoscopic order in mesostructured zeolite nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Robert J; Na, Kyungsu; Seo, Yongbeom; Ryoo, Ryong; Chmelka, Bradley F

    2015-01-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are a new and technologically important class of materials that exhibit improved diffusion and catalytic reaction properties compared to conventional zeolites with sub-nanometer pore dimensions. During their syntheses, the transient developments of crystalline and mesoscopic order are closely coupled and challenging to control. Correlated solid-state NMR, X-ray, and electron microscopy analyses yield new molecular-level insights on the interactions and distributions of complicated organic structure-directing agents with respect to crystallizing zeolite frameworks. The analyses reveal the formation of an intermediate layered silicate phase, which subsequently transforms into zeolite nanosheets with uniform nano- and mesoscale porosities. Such materials result from coupled surfactant self-assembly and inorganic crystallization processes, the interplay between which governs the onset and development of framework structural order on different length and time scales. PMID:25412768

  4. Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars. III. A correlations study of crystalline silicate features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Molster; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. G. G. M. Tielens; C. Koike; H. Chihara

    2002-01-01

    We have carried out a quantitative trend analysis of the crystalline\\u000asilicates observed in the ISO spectra of a sample of 14 stars with different\\u000aevolutionary backgrounds. We have modeled the spectra using a simple dust\\u000aradiative transfer model and have correlated the results with other known\\u000aparameters. We confirm the abundance difference of the crystalline silicates in\\u000adisk and

  5. Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars III. A correlations study of crystalline silicate features

    E-print Network

    F. J. Molster; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. G. G. M. Tielens; C. Koike; H. Chihara

    2002-01-18

    We have carried out a quantitative trend analysis of the crystalline silicates observed in the ISO spectra of a sample of 14 stars with different evolutionary backgrounds. We have modeled the spectra using a simple dust radiative transfer model and have correlated the results with other known parameters. We confirm the abundance difference of the crystalline silicates in disk and in outflow sources, as found by Molster et al. (1999, Nature 401, 563). We found some indication that the enstatite over forsterite abundance ratio differs, it is slightly higher in the outflow sources with respect to the disk sources. It is clear that more data is required to fully test this hypothesis. We show that the 69.0 micron feature, attributed to forsterite, may be a very suitable temperature indicator. We found that the enstatite is more abundant than forsterite in almost all sources. The temperature of the enstatite grains is about equal to that of the forsterite grains in the disk sources but slightly lower in the outflow sources. Crystalline silicates are on average colder than amorphous silicates. This may be due to the difference in Fe content of both materials. Finally we find an indication that the ratio of ortho to clino enstatite, which is about 1:1 in disk sources, shifts towards ortho enstatite in the high luminosity (outflow) sources.

  6. Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars II. The crystalline silicate complexes

    E-print Network

    F. J. Molster; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2002-01-18

    This is the second paper in a series of three in which we present an exhaustive inventory of the 49 solid state emission bands observed in a sample of 17 oxygen-rich dust shells surrounding evolved stars. Most of these emission bands are concentrated in well defined spectral regions (called complexes). We define 7 of these complexes; the 10, 18, 23, 28, 33, 40 and 60 micron complex. We derive average properties of the individual bands. Comparison with laboratory data suggests that both olivines (Mg(2x)Fe(2-2x)SiO(4)) and pyroxenes (Mg(x)Fe(1-x)SiO(3)) are present, with x close to 1, i.e. the minerals are very Mg-rich and Fe-poor. This composition is similar to that seen in disks surrounding young stars and in the solar system comet Hale-Bopp. A significant fraction of the emission bands cannot be identified with either olivines or pyroxenes. Possible other materials that may be the carriers of these unidentified bands are briefly discussed. There is a natural division into objects that show a disk-like geometry (strong crystalline silicate bands), and objects whose dust shell is characteristic of an outflow (weak crystalline silicate bands). In particular, stars with the 33.5 micron olivine band stronger than about 20 percent over continuum are invariably disk sources. Likewise, the 60 micron region is dominated by crystalline silicates in the disk sources, while it is dominated by crystalline H(2)O ice in the outflow sources. We show that the disk and outflow sources have significant differences in the shape of the emission bands. This difference must be related to the composition or grain shapes of the dust particles. The incredible richness of the crystalline silicate spectra observed by ISO allows detailed studies of the mineralogy of these dust shells, and is the origin and history of the dust.

  7. Multiple episodes of zeolite deposition in fractured silicic tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Snow, M.G.

    1995-04-01

    Fractures in silicic tuffs above the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA contain two morphologies of heulandite with different compositions. Tabular heulandite is zoned, with Sr-rich cores and Mg-rich rims. Later prismatic heulandite is nearly the same composition as the more magnesian rims. Heulandite and stellerite may occur between layers of calcite, and calcite occurs locally between generations of heulandite. Thermodynamic modeling, using estimated thermodynamic data and observed chemical compositions for heulandite and stellerite, shows that stellerite is the favored zeolite unless Ca concentrations are reduced or Mg and/or Sr concentrations are significantly elevated above current Yucca Mountain waters.

  8. Development of a dissolved oxygen sensor using tris(bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) complexes entrapped in highly siliceous zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramatha Payra; Prabir K. Dutta

    2003-01-01

    Defect-free highly siliceous zeolites were prepared by dealumination of zeolite Y using silicon tetrachloride. Tris(bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) complex, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, was synthesized inside the supercages of the highly siliceous faujasitic zeolites using neutral Ru(bpy)Cl3 as the starting material. The conventional procedure using ion-exchange of hexammine ruthenium could not be used because of the lack of ion-exchange sites in the siliceous zeolites.

  9. Amphiphilic organosilane-directed synthesis of crystalline zeolite with tunable mesoporosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minkee Choi; Hae Sung Cho; Rajendra Srivastava; Chithravel Venkatesan; Dae-Heung Choi; Ryong Ryoo

    2006-01-01

    Zeolites are a family of crystalline aluminosilicate materials widely used as shape-selective catalysts, ion exchange materials, and adsorbents for organic compounds. In the present work, zeolites were synthesized by adding a rationally designed amphiphilic organosilane surfactant to conventional alkaline zeolite synthesis mixtures. The zeolite products were characterized by a complementary combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy

  10. The identification of crystalline olivine in cometary silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campins, H.; Ryan, E. V.

    1989-06-01

    An intermediate-resolution spectrum of the 8-13 micron region in comet Halley is obtained which shows a prominent silicate emission feature with structure not observed before in other comets or in interstellar silicates. The presence of a strong 11.3 micron peak reported by Bregman and coworkers is confirmed, and evidence is found for additional structure in the band. By comparison with spectra of interplanetary dust particles and laboratory silicates, it is concluded that small crystalline olivine particles are a major component of the silicates in this comet; other silicates (e.g., amorphous or hydrated) must also be present. The identification of crystalline olivine in this part of the spectrum is supported by the observation of four peaks in 20-50 micron airborne spectra of this comet which have also been attributed to olivine.

  11. Crystalline silicate dust around evolved stars I. The sample stars

    E-print Network

    F. J. Molster; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. G. G. M. Tielens; M. J. Barlow

    2002-01-18

    This is the first paper in a series of three where we present the first comprehensive inventory of solid state emission bands observed in a sample of 17 oxygen-rich circumstellar dust shells surrounding evolved stars. The data were taken with the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrographs on board of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and cover the 2.4 to 195 micron wavelength range. The spectra show the presence of broad 10 and 18 micron bands that can be attributed to amorphous silicates. In addition, at least 49 narrow bands are found whose position and width indicate they can be attributed to crystalline silicates. Almost all of these bands were not known before ISO. We have measured the peak positions, widths and strengths of the individual, continuum subtracted bands. Based on these measurements, we were able to order the spectra in sequence of decreasing crystalline silicate band strength. We found that the strength of the emission bands correlates with the geometry of the circumstellar shell, as derived from direct imaging or inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution. This naturally divides the sample into objects that show a disk-like geometry (strong crystalline silicate bands), and objects whose dust shell is characteristic of an outflow (weak crystalline silicate bands). All stars with the 33.6 micron forsterite band stronger than 20 percent over continuum are disk sources. We define spectral regions (called complexes) where a concentration of emission bands is evident, at 10, 18, 23, 28, 33, 40 and 60 micron. We derive average shapes for these complexes and compare these to the individual band shapes of the programme stars.

  12. Crystalline silicates and hydrocarbon-conversion processes employing same

    SciTech Connect

    Kouwenhoven, H.W.; Stork, W.H.

    1980-12-09

    Novel crystalline silicates which in dehydrated form have the composition in terms of moles of the oxides: (1.0 +- 3)(R)2/no.(AFe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.BAl/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . CGa/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . Y(DSiO/sub 2/ . EGeO/sub 2/)), wherein R one or more mono- or bivalent cations and A, B, C, D, E, Y and N are as defined hereinafter are disclosed. The thermally stable silicates are suitably employed as extracting agents, drying agents, ion exchange agents, catalysts and catalyst carriers.

  13. Synthesis of crystalline silicate ZSM-11

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.S.; Schlenker, J.D.

    1993-05-25

    A method for synthesizing crystalline material exhibiting a characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern including d-spacing maxima values is described, in Angstroms, as follows: 11.2 [plus minus] 0.2, 10.1 [plus minus] 0.2; 6.73 [plus minus] 0.2; 5.61 [plus minus] 0.1; 5.03 [plus minus] 0.1; 4.62 [plus minus] 0.1; 4.39 [plus minus] 0.08; 3.86 [plus minus] 0.07; 3.73 [plus minus] 0.07; 3.49 [plus minus] 0.07; (3.07, 3.00 [plus minus] 0.05); 2.01 [plus minus] 0.02; which comprises (i) preparing a mixture capable of forming said material, said mixture comprising sources of alkali or alkaline earth metal (M), an oxide of trivalent element (X), an oxide of tetravalent element (Y), water and C[sub n]N[sup +](CH[sub 3])[sub 3], wherein n = 9, 10, 11 or 12, directing agent (R), and having a composition in terms of mole ratios within the following ranges: X[sub 2]O[sub 3]/YO[sub 2] - 0 to .05; H[sub 2]O/YO[sub 2] - 10 to 200; OH[sup [minus

  14. ?-? interaction of aromatic groups in amphiphilic molecules directing for single-crystalline mesostructured zeolite nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongdong; Ma, Yanhang; Jing, Zhifeng; Han, Lu; Singh, Bhupendra; Feng, Ji; Shen, Xuefeng; Cao, Fenglei; Oleynikov, Peter; Sun, Huai; Terasaki, Osamu; Che, Shunai

    2014-06-01

    One of the challenges in material science has been to prepare macro- or mesoporous zeolite. Although examples of their synthesis exist, there is a need for a facile yet versatile approach to such hierarchical structures. Here we report a concept for designing a single quaternary ammonium head amphiphilic template with strong ordered self-assembling ability through ?-? stacking in hydrophobic side, which stabilizes the mesostructure to form single-crystalline mesostructured zeolite nanosheets. The concept is demonstrated for the formation of a new type of MFI (zeolite framework code by International Zeolite Association) nanosheets joined with a 90° rotational boundary, which results in a mesoporous zeolite with highly specific surface area even after calcination. Low binding energies for this self-assembling system are supported by a theoretical analysis. A geometrical matching between the arrangement of aromatic groups and the zeolitic framework is speculated for the formation of single-crystalline MFI nanosheets.

  15. Topotactic conversion of ?-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-10

    AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (?-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1)?hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2)?dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. PMID:24431158

  16. CVD Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Catalylsts Supported on Zeolite and Layered Silicate Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    this by employing zeolites and layered silicates as catalyst support materials. Since the dimensions CVD Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Catalylsts Supported on Zeolite and Layered, the diameter of catalyst metal particles is known to have a close correlation with that of grown SWNTs

  17. PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12

    E-print Network

    Zijlstra, Albert

    PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12 M. Matsuura1 , A. Koike8 , L.P. Keller10 ABSTRACT IRAS 16279-4757 belongs to a group of post-AGB stars showing both PAH with PAHs and crystalline silicates. A two-component model and images suggest a dense oxygen-rich torus

  18. Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V.; Bortolozzi, G.

    2010-06-01

    Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strätlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

  19. A SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Poteet, Charles A.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Fischer, William J.; Bjorkman, Jon E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Watson, Dan M.; Remming, Ian S.; McClure, Melissa K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin A.; Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 264723, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ali, Babar, E-mail: charles.poteet@gmail.com [NHSC/IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We present the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of the Orion A protostar HOPS-68. The mid-infrared spectrum reveals crystalline substructure at 11.1, 16.1, 18.8, 23.6, 27.9, and 33.6 {mu}m superimposed on the broad 9.7 and 18 {mu}m amorphous silicate features; the substructure is well matched by the presence of the olivine end-member forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). Crystalline silicates are often observed as infrared emission features around the circumstellar disks of Herbig Ae/Be stars and T Tauri stars. However, this is the first unambiguous detection of crystalline silicate absorption in a cold, infalling, protostellar envelope. We estimate the crystalline mass fraction along the line of sight by first assuming that the crystalline silicates are located in a cold absorbing screen and secondly by utilizing radiative transfer models. The resulting crystalline mass fractions of 0.14 and 0.17, respectively, are significantly greater than the upper limit found in the interstellar medium ({approx}<0.02-0.05). We propose that the amorphous silicates were annealed within the hot inner disk and/or envelope regions and subsequently transported outward into the envelope by entrainment in a protostellar outflow.

  20. Cooked GEMS - Insights into the Hot Origins of Crystalline Silicates in Circumstellar Disks and the Cold Origins of GEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Matrajt, G.; Wooden, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    The comparison of interstellar, circumstellar and primitive solar nebula silicates has led to a significant conundrum in the understanding of the nature of solid materials that begin the planet forming processes. Crystalline silicates are found in circumstellar regions around young stars and also evolved stars ejecting particles into the interstellar medium (ISM) but they are not seen in the interstellar medium itself, the source material for star and planet formation. Crystalline silicates are minor to major components of all known early solar system materials that have been examined as meteorites or interplanetary dust samples. The strong presence of Mg-rich crystalline silicates in Oort cloud comets and their minor presence in some Kuiper belt comets is also indicated by 11.2 m peak in approx. 10 microns "silicate" infrared feature. This evidence strongly indicates that Mg-rich crystalline silicates were abundant components of the solar nebula disk out to at least 10 AU, and present out to 30 AU.

  1. THE DETECTION OF CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES H. W. W. Spoon,1,2

    E-print Network

    Spoon, Henrik

    of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), the magnesium- richend member of the olivines. Previously, crystallinesilicates have only been observed in circumstellar environments. The derived fraction of forsterite to amorphous.g., pyrox- ene [MgSiO3] and forsterite [Mg2SiO4]). Crystalline silicates are also known to be ubiquitous

  2. Discrete dipole approximation models of chrystalline forsterite: Applications to cometary crystalline silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Sean Stephen

    The shape, size, and composition of crystalline silicates observed in comet comae and external proto-planetary disks are indicative of the formation and evolution of the dust grains during the processes of planetary formation. In this dissertation, I present the 3 -- 40 mum absorption efficiencies( Qabs) of irregularly shaped forsterite crystals computed with the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT developed by Draine and Flatau and run on the NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility Pleiades. An investigation of grain shapes ranging from spheroidal to irregular indicate that the strong spectral features from forsterite are sensitive to grain shape and are potentially degenerate with the effects of crystal solid state composition (Mg-content). The 10, 11, 18, 23, and 33.5 mum features are found to be the most crystal shape sensitive and should be avoided in determining Mg-content. The distinct spectral features for the three shape classes are connected with crystal formation environment using a condensation experiment by (Kobatake et al., 2008). The condensation experiment demonstrates that condensed forsterite crystal shapes are dependent on the condensation environmental temperature. I generate DDSCAT target analog shapes to the condensed crystal shapes. These analog shapes are represented by the three shape classes: 1) equant, 2) a, c-columns, and 3) b-shortened platelets. Each of these shape classes exhibit distinct spectral features that can be used to interpret grain shape characteristics from 8 --- 40 mum spectroscopy of astronomical objects containing crystalline silicates. Synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the coma of Hale-Bopp at rh = 2.8 AU are generated by thermally modeling the flux contributions of 5 mineral species present in comets. The synthetic SEDs are constrained using a chi2- minimization technique. The mineral species are amorphous carbon, amorphous pyroxene, amorphous olivine, crystalline enstatite, and crystalline forsterite. Using the DDSCAT computed absorption efficiencies for a large variety of forsterite crystal shapes, which are computed for 66 grain sizes between 0.1 -- 5.0 mum, the flux contribution of irregularly shaped forsterite is computed. The forsterite flux contribution is then summed with the amorphous and crystalline enstatite contributions to generate the total synthetic SED. The DDSCAT forsterite grain shape synthetic SEDs reveal that the crystalline silicates in the coma of Hale-Bopp are irregular in shape with two distinct shape characteristics related to specific formation mechanisms: 1) equant grains with sharp ( ? 90°) angles between the faces, edges, and vertices that formed as high temperature condensates in the inner 1 -- 3 AU radial region of the Solar System's protoplanetary disk; and 2) c-shortened platelet shapes that likely formed from collisional processing of the crystals. The 8 -- 40 mum silicate spectral features of Hale-Bopp's coma are compared to the silicate spectral features of the comae of 17P/Holmes during 2007 outburst and 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact experiment to show that the silicate features with crystalline resonances are remarkably similar. The similarity in silicate spectral features suggests that the grain populations in the comae of these comets are similar in shape, size, and compositon. However, Hale-Bopp is a nearly isotropic comet (NIC) that dynamically came from the Oort cloud, and 17P and 9P are ecliptic comets (ECs) that dynamically came from the Scattered Disk. The different dynamical source regions yet similar silicate (amorphous and crystalline) grain populations suggest that ECs and NICs innately have similar grains and that the typically weaker silicate features of ECs are an effect of the surface grains becoming compacted with numerous perihelion passages. Hence, the differences in silicate between ECs and NICs are the result of grain structure and not grain composition. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Infrared spectra of crystalline phase ices condensed on silicate smokes at T less than 20 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Ferrante, Robert F.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Donn, Bertram

    1994-01-01

    Infrared spectra of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 condensed at T less than 20 K on amorphous silicate smokes reveal that predominantly crystalline phase ice forms directly on deposit. Spectra of these molecules condensed on aluminum substrates at T less than 20 K indicate that amorphous phase ice forms. On aluminum, crystalline phase H2O and CH3OH are formed by annealing amorphous deposits to 155 K and 130 K, respectively (or by direct deposit at these temperatures); crystalline NH3 is formed by direct deposit at 88 K. Silicate smokes are deposited onto aluminum substrates by evaporation of SiO solid or by combustion of SiH4 with O2 in flowing H2 followed by vapor phase nucleation and growth. Silicate smokes which are oxygen-deficient may contain active surface sites which facilitate the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition during condensation. Detailed experiments to understand the mechanism are currently in progress. The assumption that amorphous phase ice forms routinely on grains at T less than 80 K is often used in models describing the volatile content of comets or in interpretations of interstellar cloud temperatures. This assumption needs to be reexamined in view of these results.

  4. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Wodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approximately 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) greater than 1000K at r(sub h) less than 5AU, 10(exp -6) -10(exp -5) solar mass per year, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-toamorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  5. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Woodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approx. 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10 AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) > 1000 K at r(sub h) < 5 AU, 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -5) M(sub O)/yr, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-to-amorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  6. Dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous transition metal oxides and silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignanese, Gian-Marco

    2004-03-01

    Until recently, silicon dioxide has been the dielectric of choice in integrated MOS devices. By 2004, the thickness of this insulating layer is expected to decrease to 1.0 nm to 1.5 nm (about five silicon atoms deep) precluding its effective use due to severe leakage problems. An alternative high-permittivity (high-k) gate dielectric is required. In this framework, transition metal oxides and silicates have attracted considerable attention as possible substitutes. Their dielectric properties constitute an issue of great practical relevance. In particular, it is highly desirable to develop a better understanding of how the permittivity is related to the underlying microstructure. This is the aim of the present work. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the dielectric properties of group IVB transition metal (Ti, Zr, and Hf) oxides and silicates. We first study various crystalline phases for the oxides (cubic, tetragonal, and rutile) and the silicates (zircon). Then, the amorphous silicates are considered. We introduce a scheme which relates the dielectric constants to the local bonding of silicon and metal atoms. This scheme is based on the definition of parameters characteristic of the basic structural units formed by silicon and metal atoms and their nearest neighbors, and allows us to avoid heavy large-scale calculations, which are beyond current computational capabilities. Applied to amorphous Zr silicates, our scheme provides a good description of the measured dielectric constants, and highlights the role of sixfold coordinated metal atoms.

  7. Infrared spectra of crystalline and glassy silicates and application to interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, John R.; Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, Sergio; Bussoletti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared spectra of crystalline minerals predicted in theoretical condensation sequences do not match the astronomical observations. Since the astronomical spectra are a closer match to glassy silicates, the authors undertook a study to measure the infrared spectra of glassy silicates that have compositions similar to silicate minerals predicted in theoretical condensation sequences. The data should support observations aimed at elucidating condensation chemistry in dust forming regions. The authors measured the mass absorption coefficients, from 2.5 to 25 microns, of ground samples of olivine, diopside, and serpentine and also smoke samples that were prepared from these minerals. The smoke samples prepared in this way are predominantly glassy with nearly the same composition as the parent minerals. The crystalline samples consisted of pure olivine ((Fe(0.1)Mg(0.9))(2)SiO(4)), serpentine, diopside. Sample purity was confirmed by x ray diffraction. Each mineral was ground for 10 hours and a measured mass of the powder was mixed with KBr powder for absorption measurements using the method of Borghesi et a. (1985). The smoke samples were prepared from the same samples used for grinding by vaporizing the minerals using pulsed laser radiation in air. The smoke samples formed by condensation of the resulting vapor. The smoke settled onto infrared transparent KRS-5 substrates and onto a quartz crystal microbalance used to obtain mass measurements. A description of the preparation method is given in Stephens (1980). The glassy diopside showed only diffuse electron diffraction peaks and hence was nearly amorphous, while the serpentine smoke showed a weak diffraction pattern corresponding to MgO. The smoke from olivine showed a weak diffraction pattern corresponding to Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4. The mass absorption coefficients, from 2.5 to 25 microns, of crystalline diopside, olivine, and serpentine and their corresponding smoke samples are shown in figures.

  8. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of /sup 29/Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 1300/sup 0/C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for /sup 23/Na and /sup 29/Si.

  9. PAHs and crystalline silicates in the post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757

    E-print Network

    M. Matsuura; A. A. Zijlstra; F. J. Molster; S. Hony; L. B. F. M. Waters; F. Kemper; J. E. Bowey; H. Chihara; C. Koike; L. P. Keller

    2004-02-02

    IRAS 16279-4757 belongs to a group of post-AGB stars showing both PAH bands and crystalline silicates. We present mid-infrared images, that resolve the object for the first time. The morphology is similar to that of the `Red Rectangle' (HD 44179), the prototype object with PAHs and crystalline silicates. A two-component model and images suggest a dense oxygen-rich torus, an inner, low-density carbon-rich region and a carbon-rich bipolar outflow. The PAH bands are enhanced at the outflow, while the continuum emission is concentrated towards the center. Our findings support the suggestion that mixed chemistry and morphology are closely related. We discuss the ISO/SWS spectra of IRAS 16279-4757. Several bands in the ISO/SWS spectrum show a match with anorthite: this would be the first detection of this mineral outside the solar system. Compared to HD 44179, the shapes of PAH bands are closer to those of planetary nebulae, possibly related to a population of small PAHs present HD 44179, but absent around IRAS 16279-4757. Detailed examination of the spectra shows the individual character of these two objects. The comparison suggests that the torus found in IRAS 16279-4757 may have formed more recently than that in HD 44179.

  10. Crystalline Silicates in Comets: Modeling Irregularly-Shaped Forsterite Crystals and Its Implications on Condensation Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline silicates in comets are a product of the condensation in the hot inner regions (T > or approx. equals 1400 K [1]) of our proto-planetary disk or annealing at somewhat lower temperatures (T > or approx. equals 1000-1200 K) [2, 3, 4] in shocks coupled with disk evolutionary processes that include radial transport of crystals from their formation locations out to the cold outer regions where comet nuclei formed. The grain shape of forsterite (crystals) could be indicative of their formation pathways at high temperatures through vapor-solid condensation or at lower temperatures through vapor-liquid-solid formation and growth [5, 6, 7]. Experiments demonstrate that crystals that formed from a rapidly cooled highly supersaturated silicate vapor are characterized by bulky, platy, columnar/needle and droplet shapes for values of temperature and supersaturation, T and sigma, of 1000-1450 C and < 97, 700-1000 C and 97-161, 580-820 C and 131-230, and <500 C and > 230, respectively [7]. The experimental columnar/needle shapes, which form by vapor-liquid-solid at lower temperatures (<820 C), are extended stacks of plates, where the extension is not correlated with an axial direction: columnar/needles may be extended in the c-axis or a-axis direction, can change directions, and/or are off-kilter or a bit askew extending in a combination of the a- and c-axis direction.

  11. A spectroscopic study distinguishing between chemical phase separation with different degrees of crystallinity in Zr(Hf) silicate alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, G.; Rayner, G. B.; Kang, D.; Hinkle, C. L.; Hong, J. G.

    2004-09-01

    Chemical phase separation at device processing temperatures is an important issue for integration of Zr and Hf silicates alloys into advanced CMOS devices. Chemical phase separation into ZrO 2 and SiO 2 has been detected by different spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier transform infra red, X-ray photoelectron, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging as well. Comparisons between these techniques for Zr silicates identify an unambiguous approach to distinguishing between chemical phase separation with different degrees of micro- and nano-crystallinity.

  12. A spectroscopic study distinguishing between chemical phase separation with different degrees of crystallinity in Hf(Zr) silicate alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, G.; Rayner, G. B.; Kang, D.; Hinkle, C. L.; Hong, J. G.

    2004-07-01

    Chemical phase separation at device processing temperatures is an important issue for integration of Zr and Hf silicates alloys into advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. Chemical phase separation into ZrO 2 and SiO 2 has been detected by different spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging as well. Comparisons between these techniques for Zr silicates identify an unambiguous approach to distinguishing between chemical phase separation with different degrees of micro- and nano-crystallinity.

  13. Pure, single phase, high crystalline, chamfered-edge zeolite 4A synthesized from coal fly ash for use as a builder in detergents.

    PubMed

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2006-09-01

    Single phase chamfered-edge zeolite 4A samples in pure form with a high crystallinity were synthesized by applying step-change of synthesis temperature during hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash. The calcium binding capacity of these zeolite 4A samples (prepared from coal fly ash) and the commercial detergent grade zeolite 4A were tested for usage as a detergent builder. The results show that these zeolite 4A samples behaved similarly as the commercial one in removing calcium ions during the washing cycle. Moreover, from the leaching tests (evaluation of toxicological safety), the results show that these zeolite 4A samples leached the same elements (Sb, As, Se and Tl) as the commercial one with the concentrations in the same order of magnitude. This shows that the toxicological effect of the coal fly ash converted zeolite 4A was not worse than that of the commercial sample. Finally, economic and environmental aspects of converting coal fly ash to useful products were discussed. PMID:16621273

  14. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1-University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-001 (United States); Nuth, Joseph A., E-mail: fransjmr@unm.edu [Astrochemistry Laboratory, Solar System Exploration Division, Code 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  15. Elucidation of the role of potassium fluoride in the chemical and physical nature of ZSM-5 zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-An Ke; Ikai Wang

    2001-01-01

    This investigation synthesized the ZSM-5 zeolite using sodium silicate, aluminum sulfate and tetrapropylammonium bromide. In addition to examining how the KF additive affected the crystal structure, crystallinity, crystal size and crystal morphology by XRPD and SEM measurements, this work investigated how the KF additive affected the specific surface area, Al contents and zeolite framework through BET, ICP-MS, SIMS, 29Si, 27Al-MAS

  16. Methyl rotational tunneling dynamics of p-xylene confined in a crystalline zeolite host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Sankar; Dimeo, Robert M.; Neumann, Dan A.; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The methyl rotational tunneling spectrum of p-xylene confined in nanoporous zeolite crystals has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and analyzed to extract the rotational potential energy surfaces characteristic of the methyl groups in the host-guest complex. The number and relative intensities of the tunneling peaks observed by INS indicate the presence of methyl-methyl coupling interactions in addition to the methyl-zeolite interactions. The INS tunneling spectra from the crystals (space group P212121 with four crystallographically inequivalent methyl rotors) are quantitatively interpreted as a combination of transitions involving two coupled methyl rotors as well as a transition involving single-particle tunneling of a third inequivalent rotor, in a manner consistent with the observed tunneling energies and relative intensities. Together, the crystal structure and the absence of additional peaks in the INS spectra suggest that the tunneling of the fourth inequivalent rotor is strongly hindered and inaccessible to INS measurements. This is verified by proton NMR measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation time which reveal the tunneling characteristics of the fourth inequivalent rotor.

  17. Synthesis of zeolite Li-ABW from fly ash by fusion method.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z T; Xia, M S; Ye, Y; Zhang, L

    2009-10-30

    The zeolite Li-ABW was synthesized by fusion method using fly ash as raw material. It comprised alkaline fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment in LiOH x H2O medium. Crystallinity of zeolite as high as 97.8% was attained under the following conditions: LiOH x H2O concentration, 3M; hydrothermal temperature, 180 degrees C; the corresponding aging time, 12 h. The content of Li-ABW increased at the expense of lithium aluminum silicate or quartz with an increase of LiOH x H2O concentration. With increasing hydrothermal temperature and aging time, the soluble species re-crystallized and crystalline phase transformation between different zeolites was observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation revealed that the obtained zeolite Li-ABW was a rod-like crystal. The pore size distribution curve indicated the presence of mesopores. PMID:19493616

  18. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Sodium Silicate, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite1 This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous transition metal oxides and silicates as potential high-? candidates: the contribution of density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignanese, G.-M.

    2005-02-01

    A review is given of various first-principles studies of the dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous transition metal oxides and silicates, which have drawn considerable attention as potential high-? materials. After a brief summary of the principal equations of density-functional theory related to the dielectric properties of solids, the results obtained for group IVb M = (Hf,Zr,Ti) and IIIb M = (Y,La,Lu) transition metals crystalline oxides and/or silicates are discussed. For the group IVb transition metals, four crystalline phases (cubic, tetragonal, monoclinic and rutile) of dioxide MO2 with M = (Hf,Zr,Ti) have been considered in the literature. The results of density-functional theory calculations of the dielectric properties of three crystalline transition metal silicates (hafnon HfSiO4, zircon ZrSiO4 and a hypothetical TiSiO4 structure) are also presented. For the group IIIb transition metals, two crystalline phases (cubic and hexagonal) of sesquioxides M2O3 with M = Lu have been investigated within density-functional theory. Finally, the first-principles results that have been obtained for the amorphous silicates are discussed. A presentation is given of a scheme recently introduced which relates the dielectric constants to the local bonding of Si and metal atoms. It is based on the definition of parameters characteristic of the basic structural units centred on Si and metals atoms and including their nearest O neighbours. Applied to amorphous Zr silicates, it provides a good description of the measured dielectric constants, both of the optical and the static ones.

  20. Crystalline and electronic structures of lithium silicates: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng; Luo, Wenhua; Luo, Deli; Wang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Lithium silicates, such as Li 2SiO 3 and Li 4SiO 4, are considered as favorable candidates for the tritium breeding materials of a deuterium-tritium type nuclear fusion reactor. Their bulk structural and electronic properties are investigated using pseudopotential plane wave (PPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). The optimized crystal structure parameters are well consistent with the experimental results. The results indicate that Li 2SiO 3 and Li 4SiO 4 are insulators with band gaps of about 5.36 and 5.53 eV, respectively. The valence electrons density of state reveal the covalency properties mainly resulting from the overlapping of O 2p and Si 3p orbital electrons in both lithium silicates. The nonbridging O (NBO) atoms and bridging O (BO) atoms of Li 2SiO 3 exhibit significantly different electron distributions. The Si 3s and 3p hybridization is observed in Li 2SiO 3, but not in Li 4SiO 4. The mechanical elastic constants reflected Li 4SiO 4 might be unstable in some degrees.

  1. Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate “cement” phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Stoppa; Fernando Scordari; Ernesto Mesto; Victor V. Sharygin; Giorgio Bortolozzi

    2010-01-01

    Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite\\u000a metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization\\u000a several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate\\u000a (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — “cement” phases - i.e., thaumasite,

  2. Zeolite Beta nanosized assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Majano; S. Mintova; O. Ovsitser; B. Mihailova; T. Bein

    2005-01-01

    Nanosized zeolite Beta assemblies are prepared by a steam assisted conversion (SAC) method from micron-sized porous amorphous silica grains soaked in clear solutions containing the alumina source and organic template. The zeolite Beta assemblies are built of closely packed uniform nanocrystals (100nm) and retain the size and morphological features of the primary silica grains. The crystallinity and the phase purity

  3. Dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous transition metal oxides and silicates as potential high-? candidates: the contribution of density-functional theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G-M Rignanese

    2005-01-01

    A review is given of various first-principles studies of the dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous transition metal oxides and silicates, which have drawn considerable attention as potential high-? materials. After a brief summary of the principal equations of density-functional theory related to the dielectric properties of solids, the results obtained for group IVb M = (Hf,Zr,Ti) and IIIb M

  4. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Osamu Tochiyama [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

  5. A simple and general route for the preparation of pure and high crystalline nanosized lanthanide silicates with the structure of apatite at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdov, Stanislav [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Physics, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Physics, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Rauwel, Protima [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lin, Zhi, E-mail: zlin@ua.p [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, Rute A. Sa [Department of Physics, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lopes, Augusto [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    Rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite are attracting considerable interest since they show oxygen ion conductivities higher than that of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) at moderate temperature. Based on the hydrothermal synthesis we presented a simple one step process for the direct preparation of the pure and the high crystalline nanosized rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite under a mild condition (230 {sup o}C). Since the preparation of the high crystalline silicon based rare earth apatites is performed at high temperature previously and accompanied by subsequent process of grinding, results of this work provide a promising alternative of the existing methodology. Furthermore, due to the relatively low temperature of the preparation of these materials, high doping of monovalent cation can be done, which was not achieved before. -- Graphical abstract: A simple one step process for the preparation of the rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite under a mild condition (230 {sup o}C) is presented. The process is based on the hydrothermal synthesis and the obtained powder materials are pure, high crystalline and with nanosize. Display Omitted

  6. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, Mari L. (West Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  7. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - a natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-12-10

    We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe(2+) and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125cm(-1). The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119cm(-1). These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484cm(-1) is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608cm(-1). The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime. PMID:24983920

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering from tetramethylammonium cations occluded within zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, T.O.; Curtiss, L.A.; Iton, L.E.; Kleb, R.; Newsam, J.M.; Beyerlein, R.A.; Vaughan, D.E.W.

    1987-06-24

    The use of organic bases, for example, tetraalklylammonium hydroxides, and other organic reagents has greatly enhanced the scope of gel/solution synthesis routes to crystalline microporous materials such as zeolites. The role of these organic components, however, continues to be the topic of considerable debate. The organic components first modify the gel structural chemistry. The presence of tetramethylammonium (TMA) hydroxide, for example, promotes the formation of double four-ring units in silicate solutions. Occlusion of organic gel components in zeolite crystal structures, however, leads also to the concept of a templating effect in which the organic component provides a basis around which the developing zeolite cages form. The mechanism of this templating process remains somewhat ill defined and must, at least, be of variable specificity. The authors describe here the use of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure TMA template torsional vibrations, vibrations that provide to be sensitive to the strength of the interaction between the template cation and the enclosing zeolite cage.

  9. Thermal desorption characteristics of CO, O2 and CO2 on non-porous water, crystalline water and silicate surfaces at sub-monolayer and multilayer coverages

    E-print Network

    Noble, J A; Dulieu, F; Fraser, H J

    2011-01-01

    The desorption characteristics of molecules on interstellar dust grains are important for modelling the behaviour of molecules in icy mantles and, critically, in describing the solid-gas interface. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments exploring the desorption of three small molecules from three astrophysically relevant surfaces are presented. The desorption of CO, O2 and CO2 at both sub-monolayer and multilayer coverages was investigated from non-porous water, crystalline water and silicate surfaces. Experimental data was modelled using the Polanyi-Wigner equation to produce a mathematical description of the desorption of each molecular species from each type of surface, uniquely describing both the monolayer and multilayer desorption in a single combined model. The implications of desorption behaviour over astrophysically relevant timescales are discussed.

  10. Influence of starting zeolite on synthesis of RUT type zeolite by interzeolite conversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itakura, Masaya; Ota, Kai; Shibata, Shohei; Inoue, Takayuki; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermal conversions of *BEA and FAU type zeolites using various structure-directing agents were carried out. Highly crystalline and pure RUT type zeolites were obtained from both zeolites in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. There were no major differences between the characteristics of the RUT type zeolites obtained from the two starting zeolites. However, the Si/Al ratio and the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolites were strongly dependent on both the framework structure and the Si/Al ratio of the starting zeolite. That is, the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the *BEA type zeolite did not depend on the Si/Al ratio of the starting *BEA type zeolite, whereas the crystallization rate of the RUT type zeolite from the FAU type zeolite was dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU type zeolite. This suggests that the chemical structure and the concentration of locally ordered aluminosilicate species produced by the decomposition/dissolution of the starting zeolite can be altered by changing the framework structure of the zeolite.

  11. Effect of HNO 3 on crystalline phase evolution in lithium silicate powders prepared by sol–gel processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zhang; Allan J. Easteal

    2008-01-01

    An interesting observation is reported on the dramatic effect of HNO3 on crystalline phase evolution in the 33.3 mol% Li2O–SiO2 glass–ceramic (stoichiometric composition of lithium disilicate Li2Si2O5, LS2) prepared by sol–gel processes from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and lithium ethoxide precursors. Nitric acid (65%), in\\u000a molar ratio HNO3\\/TEOS = 0.1, was added either to the precursor sol or to 95 °C dried gel. The product, which

  12. Comparative investigation of the catalytic properties of crystalline aluminosilicates of various types. Communication 3. Selectivity of the conversion of methanol on zeolites of various types

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, V.G.; Gonyshev, A.P.; Ione, K.G.

    1983-02-10

    Zeolites of types A, X, and Y are used as catalysts for the dehydration of alochols to olefins. In view of the interest in the synthesis of fuel from nonpetroleum raw material, the process of high-temperature conversion of alcohol is considered as a promising method for obtaining gasolines. In particular, a method has been developed for obtaining high-octane fuels from methanol using silica-rich zeolites of the ZSM type. In the present investigation a comparative study has been made of the selectivity of the action of zeolites of the type of mordenite and erionite and of silica-rich zeolites (TsVK) in reactions of methanol at various contact times.

  13. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  14. Crystallinity-vesicularity interrelation in silicic pyroclasts - Implications for permeability as inferred from Neutron and X-Ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmaier, S.; Scheu, B.; Hess, K.; Mühlbauer, M.; Schillinger, B.; Flaws, A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    The permeability of magma controls gas escape during magma ascent and thus may trigger shifts in eruption behaviour from quiet degassing towards explosive fragmentation (Mueller et al., 2008). Yet, the spatial distribution of connected vs. isolated vesicle structures in magma remains poorly constrained. Additionally, the role of the crystal distribution can be expected to influence magma permeability: a) fractures in crystals may provide additional pathways to melt-based volatile migration, and b) low surface tension crystal faces may act as catalyst to bubble nucleation and growth. In felsic pyroclasts, the highly variable size, shape and interconnectivity of vesicles and phenocrysts results in a complex structure, best quantified by 3D tomography. We applied high resolution neutron computed tomography (NCT; 50 ?m pixel/voxel-size) to investigate the 3D structure of vesicular (? = 0.45-0.72), silica-rich pyroclastic material from various explosive eruptions. Samples are of the 2004 vulcanian and the 1783 plinian eruption of Asama (Japan), the 1997 eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and the June 1991 vulcanian event of Unzen (Japan). For large samples (15-50 cm3), Neutron Computed Tomography provides the first non-destructive method to analyse this complex 3D structure. The NCT experiments were performed at the ANTARES beamline of the neutron source at the reactor FRM II at Technische Universität München (Germany). X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) at 5-10 ?m resolution was performed at IMETUM (Germany) to scrutinize features of one order of magnitude smaller than NCT. Our custom-made software Tomoview permits interpolated slicing and thus a voxel-to-voxel comparison of both XCT and NCT datasets. This allows for differential datasets of hydrous versus non-hydrous phases and their relation to the fabric. Volume reconstructions of the pore space and different crystal phases were calculated with Tomoview. The reconstructed volumes showed an interrelation between vesicle and crystal distribution, as well influencing the formation of connected pathways. Furthermore, crystal fragmentation appears to provide an additional mechanism for generating pore space. The evolution of a permeable network may thus be affected by the crystal content, which ultimately biases the eruptive behaviour of silicic magma.

  15. The geopolymerisation of alumino-silicate minerals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xu; J. S. J. Van Deventer

    2000-01-01

    Geopolymers are similar to zeolites in chemical composition, but they reveal an amorphous microstructure. They form by the co-polymerisation of individual alumino and silicate species, which originate from the dissolution of silicon and aluminium containing source materials at a high pH in the presence of soluble alkali metal silicates. It has been shown before that geopolymerisation can transform a wide

  16. Synthesis of hierarchical micro/mesoporous structures via solid-aqueous interface growth: zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 on siliceous mesocellular foams for enhanced pervaporation of water/ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sue, Yu-Chain; Wu, Jhe-Wei; Chung, Shao-En; Kang, Chao-Hsiang; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wu, Kevin C-W; Shieh, Fa-Kuen

    2014-04-01

    A new hierarchical micro/mesoporous composite is synthesized via direct growth of microporous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) on siliceous mesocellular foams (MCF). Depending on different synthetic conditions, ZIF-8 with two different particle sizes, i.e., ZIF-8 microparticles and ZIF-8 nanoparticles, were successfully formed on the external surface of amine-functionalized MCF (denoted as microZIF-8@MCF and nanoZIF-8@MCF, respectively). The synthesized hierarchical micro/mesoporous ZIF-8@MCF structures were characterized with several spectroscopic techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state NMR, and FT-IR and electron microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscope, SEM, and transmission electron microscopy, TEM). In addition, the pervaporation measurements of the liquid water/ethanol mixture show that nanoZIF-8@MCF/PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol) mixed-matrix membrane exhibits enhanced performance both on the permeability and separation factor. Compared to conventional routes for chemical etching, this study demonstrates a promising and simple strategy for synthesizing novel hierarchical porous composites exhibiting both advantages of mesoporous materials and microporous materials, which is expected to be useful for gas adsorption, separation, and catalysis. PMID:24625412

  17. Vapor Phase Transport Synthesis of Zeolites from Sol-Gel Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    THOMA,STEVEN G.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-07-14

    A study of zeolite crystallization from sol-gel precursors using the vapor phase transport synthesis method has been performed. Zeolites (ZSM-5, ZSM-48, Zeolite P, and Sodalite) were crystallized by contacting vapor phase organic or organic-water mixtures with dried sodium silicate and dried sodium alumino-silicate gels. For each precursor gel, a ternary phase system of vapor phase organic reactant molecules was explored. The vapor phase reactant mixtures ranged from pure ethylene diamene, triethylamine, or water, to an equimolar mixture of each. In addition, a series of gels with varied physical and chemical properties were crystallized using the same vapor phase solvent mixture for each gel. The precursor gels and the crystalline products were analyzed via Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray mapping, X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen surface area, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and thermal analyses. The product phase and purity as a function of the solvent mixture, precursor gel structure, and precursor gel chemistry is discussed.

  18. Early age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in natural zeolite blended cements: Reaction kinetics and products by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, R., E-mail: ruben.snellings@ees.kuleuven.b [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Mertens, G. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Cizer, O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Elsen, J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    The in situ early-age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in cements blended with natural zeolites were investigated by time-resolved synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. Chabazite and Na-, K-, and Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite materials were mixed with Portland cement in a 3:7 weight ratio and hydrated in situ at 40 {sup o}C. The evolution of phase contents showed that the addition of natural zeolites accelerates the onset of C{sub 3}S hydration and precipitation of CH and AFt. Kinetic analysis of the consumption of C{sub 3}S indicates that the enveloping C-S-H layer is thinner and/or less dense in the presence of alkali-exchanged clinoptilolite pozzolans. The zeolite pozzolanic activity is interpreted to depend on the zeolite exchangeable cation content and on the crystallinity. The addition of natural zeolites alters the structural evolution of the C-S-H product. Longer silicate chains and a lower C/S ratio are deduced from the evolution of the C-S-H b-cell parameter.

  19. Coal rank and illite crystallinity associated with the zeolite facies of Southland and the pumpellyite-bearing facies of Otago, southern New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanan J. Kisch

    1981-01-01

    Coal rank (vitrinite reflectance) and clay mineralogy from the North Range Group of the Southland Syncline, and illite crystallinity in pumpellyite- and lawsonite-bearing terranes in the textural zone I of the Caples and Torlesse terranes were studied.Vitrinite reflectances range from 0.60 to 1.33% R (high-volatile C to medium-volatile bituminous coal ranks) in 31 out of 34 samples studied; in the

  20. Characteristic of fly ash derived-zeolite and its catalytic performance for fast pyrolysis of Jatropha waste.

    PubMed

    Vichaphund, S; Aht-Ong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V; Atong, D

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash from pulp and paper industries was used as a raw material for synthesizing zeolite catalyst. Main compositions of fly ash consisted of 41 wt%SiO2, 20 wt%Al2O3, 14 wt%CaO, and 8 wt% Fe2O3. High content of silica and alumina indicated that this fly ash has potential uses for zeolite synthesis. Fly ash was mixed with 1-3 M NaOH solution. Sodium silicate acting as silica source was added into the solution to obtain the initial SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 23.9. The mixtures were then crystallized at 160 degrees C for 24 and 72 h. Zeolites synthesized after a long synthesis time of 72 h showed superior properties in terms of high crystallinity, less impurity, and small particle size. The catalytic activities of fly ash-derived zeolites were investigated via fast pyrolysis of Jatropha wastes using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature was set at 500 degrees C with Jatropha wastes to catalyst ratio of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10. Results showed that higher amounts of catalyst have a positive effect on enhancing aromatic hydrocarbons as well as decreasing in the oxygenated and N-containing compounds. Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) treated with 3 M NaOH at 72 h showed the highest hydrocarbon yield of 97.4%. The formation of hydrocarbon led to the high heating value of bio-oils. In addition, the presence of ZSM-5 derived from fly ash contributed to reduce the undesirable oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes, acids, and ketones which cause poor quality of bio-oil to only 0.8% while suppressed N-compounds to 1.7%. Overall, the ZSM-5 synthesized from fly ash proved to be an effective catalyst for catalytic fast pyrolysis application. PMID:25145178

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of natural zeolite stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    Zeolites occur in a variety of geologic environments and are used in numerous agricultural, commercial, and environmental applications. It is desirable to understand their stability both to predict future stability and to evaluate the geochemical conditions resulting in their formation. The use of estimated thermodynamic data for measured zeolite compositions allows thermodynamic modeling of stability relationships among zeolites in different geologic environments (diagenetic, saline and alkaline lakes, acid rock hydrothermal, basic rock, deep sea sediments). This modeling shows that the relative cation abundances in both the aqueous and solid phases, the aqueous silica activity, and temperature are important factors in determining the stable zeolite species. Siliceous zeolites (e.g., clinoptilolite, mordenite, erionite) present in saline and alkaline lakes or diagenetic deposits formed at elevated silica activities. Aluminous zeolites (e.g., natrolite, mesolite/scolecite, thomsonite) formed in basic rocks in association with reduced silica activities. Likewise, phillipsite formation is favored by reduced aqueous silica activities. The presence of erionite, chabazite, and phillipsite are indicative of environments with elevated potassium concentrations. Elevated temperature, calcic water conditions, and reduced silica activity help to enhance the laumontite and wairakite stability fields. Analcime stability increases with increased temperature and aqueous Na concentration, and/or with decreased silica activity.

  2. Zeolites: Structural Properties and Benchmarks of Feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Colby

    Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit a flexibility window, and it is thus proposed that this simple geometric property, the existence of a flexibility window, provides a reliable benchmark for distinguishing potentially realizable hypothetical structures from their infeasible counterparts. As a first approximation of the behavior of real zeolite materials, the flexibility window provides additional useful insights into structure and composition. In this thesis, various methods for locating and exploring the flexibility window are discussed. Also examined is the assumption that the tetrahedral corners are force-free. This is a reasonable approximation in silicates for Si-O-Si angles above ˜135°. However, the approximation is poor for germanates, where Ge-O-Ge angles are constrained to the range ˜120°-145°. Lastly, a class of interesting low-density hypothetical zeolites is evaluated based on the feasibility criteria introduced.

  3. Environmental Applications of Natural Zeolitic Materials Based on Their Ion Exchange Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Colella; Piazza Ie; V. Tecchio

    \\u000a Present and potential use of natural zeolites as cation exchangers in environmental protection is reviewed. Siliceous zeolites,\\u000a such as chabazite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and phillipsite, exhibit good selectivities for cations with low charge density,\\u000a e.g., Cs+ and NH4\\u000a +, and for cations with low hydration energy, such as Pb2+. Zeolitised tuffs, containing the mentioned zeolites, may therefore be utilised for removing

  4. Carbonatization effect on basaltic glass and silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmann, G. J.; Wolff-Boenisch, D.; Gislason, S.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Combined silicate dissolution and carbonatization experiments were conducted on basaltic glass and five different silicate minerals (augite, diopside, enstatite, labradorite, olivine) using mixed-flow reactors at 25 and 70°C. The aim of the study was to see if a) dissolving silicates acting as the Ca-source lead to calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of a carbonate-bearing aqueous solution, b) whether different crystallographical properties of the silicates play a role for how much calcite is precipitating, and finally c) whether carbonate coatings affect the silicate dissolution rates. All experiments were conducted within the context of ';CarbFix', an international CO2 sequestration project in Iceland with the aim to trap CO2 through mineral carbonatization in basaltic rocks. A substantial part of the Icelandic lithology comprises basaltic glass. This glass is rich in divalent cations and easily dissolved compared to basaltic silicate minerals, which makes it interesting for CO2 mineralization efforts. In the crystalline basalt, the dominant minerals are plagioclase (labradorite), clinopyroxene (augite), and Mg-rich olivine, which were therefore chosen for this study. Diopside (cpx) and enstatite (opx) were included because more literature data are available for these pyroxenes than for augite. Basaltic glass proved viable as a Ca-source to form calcium carbonates at pH 8-10 at both 25 and 70°C. However, at 70°C the formation of zeolites competed with the carbonates for the Ca. Both calcite and aragonite were forming and co-existing in the case of basaltic glass. In all other experiments, calcite was the only carbonate phase found. To maximize the effect of carbonate coatings, a mixed-reactor with two inlets was developed; a Ca-bearing and a CO3-bearing. In two different sets of experiments at 25°C the saturation index of calcite in the mixed inlet solution was 1) 0.6 and 2) ~1.8, respectively. The high-saturation experiments 2) were tested on basaltic glass and diopside. Massive calcite coatings formed on the diopside crystals, whereas the basaltic glass surfaces were carbonate-free as all calcite-aragonite mass appeared in big separate clusters. The low-saturation experiments 1) were tested on basaltic glass, enstatite, augite, olivine, and labradorite and showed different degrees of calcite precipitation on the silicate surfaces with least on basaltic glass and most on enstatite and olivine. We attribute this to a crystallographical match effect favoring trigonal calcite precipitation on the orthorhombic minerals in our study, whereas glass with its non-ordered silicate structure turned out to be a less favorable growing substrate. For all carbonatization experiments, a dissolution experiment of the same silicate in a precipitation-free environment was conducted in order to compare dissolution rates with and without carbonates present. No effect of carbonate coatings was found to affect the silicate dissolution rates, and no passivating silicate surface layers were forming in any of the experiments.

  5. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on zeolite NaA synthesized from by-product silica.

    PubMed

    Vai?iukynien?, Danut?; Kantautas, Aras; Vaitkevi?ius, Vitoldas; Jakevi?ius, Leonas; Rudžionis, Žymantas; Paškevi?ius, Mantas

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of zeolite NaA from silica by-product was carried out in the presence of 20kHz ultrasound at room temperature. Zeolites obtained in this type of synthesis were compared to zeolites obtained by performing conventional static syntheses under similar conditions. The sonication effects on zeolite NaA synthesis were characterized by phase identification, crystallinity etc. The effects of different parameters such as crystallization time and initial materials preparation methods on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized zeolites were investigated. The final products were characterized by XRD and FT-IR. It was possible to obtain crystalline zeolite NaA from by-product silica in the presence of ultrasound. PMID:26186874

  6. Mass spectrometric investigation of small silicate polyhedra in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, K.; Eichner, T.; Woenckhaus, J.

    2005-06-01

    The hydrolysis of tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate (TMOS) or tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) in aqueous solutions at pH values of 1-2 was investigated by electrospray mass spectroscopy. In this study, small oligomer intermediates of silicates were formed and detected. Some of the structures are secondary building units as found in zeosils and zeolites. Here, we present the first H/D-exchange mass spectrometric experiments to determine the structure of silicates formed in acidic solution. Most of the observed oligomers take on polyhedral geometries. The results are compared with experiments of other groups, which have performed complementary experiments in alkaline solutions in presence of template molecules.

  7. Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei

    E-print Network

    P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

    2006-10-19

    Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

  8. Effects of solvent structure on the distribution of silicate anions in mixed aqueous/organic solutions of alkaline tetramethylammonium silicate

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, W.M.; Bell, A.T.; Radke, C.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-11-14

    Interest in the physical-chemical processes occurring during zeolite synthesis has stimulated the study of dissolved silicate oligomers in aqueous alkaline solution and their possible link to zeolite nucleation and crystal growth. Effects of solvent structure on the equilibrium distribution of silicate oligomers in mixed organic/aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) have been investigated by using {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the presence of organic molecules leads to condensation of the silicates, particularly to double-ring structures. Equilibrium calculations indicate that the observed extent of silicate condensation exceeds what would be expected from mass action. The variety of organic solvents used allowed elucidation of structure effects due to the following: carbon chain length, carbon chain morphology, functional group, and placement of the functional group. The structural effects of organic solvents can be attributed to the ordering of water around the solvent molecules.

  9. ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

  10. Pervaporation performance of PDMS-Ni 2+Y zeolite hybrid membranes in the desulfurization of gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Li; Dan Xu; Zhongyi Jiang; Xiongfei Zhang; Wanpeng Liu; Xiao Dong

    2008-01-01

    PDMS-Ni2+Y zeolite hybrid membranes were fabricated and used for the pervaporation removal of thiophene from model gasoline system. The structural morphology, mechanical stability, crystallinity, and free volume characteristics of the hybrid membranes were systematically investigated. Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to calculate the diffusion coefficients of small penetrants in the polymer matrix and the zeolite. The effect of Ni2+Y zeolite

  11. Controlling size and yield of zeolite Y nanocrystals using tetramethylammonium bromide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett A. Holmberg; Huanting Wang; Joseph M. Norbeck; Yushan Yan

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we developed an alternative synthesis technique for the production of small colloidal zeolite Y nanocrystals. By adding tetramethylammonium bromide as a second source of organic template, we were able to decouple and investigate the effect of two important synthesis parameters, tetramethylammonium concentration and anion concentration. Optimizing these two parameters allowed us to hydrothermally synthesize highly crystalline zeolite

  12. The recyclable synthesis of hierarchical zeolite SAPO-34 with excellent MTO catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongyang; Sun, Qiming; Chen, Xiaoxin; Wang, Ning; Yu, Jihong

    2015-07-14

    A facile and green route has been developed for the synthesis of hierarchical zeolite catalysts by recycling of waste mother-liquors. After three recycles of mother-liquors, the obtained hierarchical SAPO-34 zeolites retain high crystallinity, texture properties, and acidity, as well as excellent MTO catalytic performance as compared to the initially prepared catalysts. PMID:26121259

  13. Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Wang; Adrien P. Côté; Hiroyasu Furukawa; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

    2008-01-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are porous crystalline materials with tetrahedral networks that resemble those of zeolites: transition metals (Zn, Co) replace tetrahedrally coordinated atoms (for example, Si), and imidazolate links replace oxygen bridges. A striking feature of these materials is that the structure adopted by a given ZIF is determined by link-link interactions, rather than by the structure directing agents

  14. Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: susana.bernal@gmail.co [Materials Engineering Department, Composite Materials Group, CENM, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby [Materials Engineering Department, Composite Materials Group, CENM, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.a [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO{sub 2}-rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na{sup +} present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na{sup +} for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

  15. Y zeolite from kaolin taken in Yen Bai-Vietnam: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity for the cracking of n-heptane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ta Ngoc Don; Vu Dao Thang; Pham Thanh Huyen; Pham Minh Hao; Nguyen Khanh Dieu Hong

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the synthesis of Y zeolite with SiO2\\/Al2O3 ratio of 4.5 from kaolin taken in Yen Bai-Vietnam and their catalytic activity for the cracking of n-heptane. The synthesized sample (NaY1) showed the Y zeolite crystallinity of 53% and P1 zeolite crystallinity of 32%, and exhibited good thermal stability up 880°C. The activity and the stability of

  16. EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

  17. Catalytic conversion of an organic charge using new crystalline aluminosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Herbst, J.A.; Klocke, D.J.; Vartuli, J.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a process for effecting catalytic conversion of an organic charge. It comprises contacting the charge under catalytic conversion conditions with a catalyst comprising a synthetic porous crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite material having a silica to alumina molar ratio of from about 5 to about 500, the porous crystalline material in the uncalcined state being characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of transition-metal-containing zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transition metal containing zeolites (zeolite A and ZSM-5) were prepared by addition of various transition metal containing substrates to zeolite synthesis gels. Crystal growth data were recorded in order to determine the influence of the transition metal species on the rate of crystal growth. X-ray diffraction, oxygen adsorption, FTIR and SEM were utilized to evaluate crystal purity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical analysis and electron microprobe analysis were performed in order to ascertain the position (intrazeolitic versus surface) and homogeneity of the transition metal. It was concluded that intrazeolitic transition metals are produced by the novel procedure presented in this work. 1-Hexane hydroformylation by rhodium zeolite A showed intrazeolitic rhodium to migrate to the external surface of the zeolite. However, in the presence of a solution and surface rhodium poison, intrazeolitic rhodium was found to hydroformylate 1-hexene exclusively to heptanal. Ruthenium containing zeolite A was evaluated under CO-hydrogenation conditions. No migration of intrazeolitic ruthenium to the external surface of the zeolite was observed over the course of the reaction. The product distribution obtained for this catalyst did not follow a log normal behavior. Also, loss of zeolite crystallinity was observed following the reaction. Cobalt ZSM-5 was evaluated under CO-hydrogenation conditions. No migration of cobalt to the external surface of the zeolite occurred. XPS analysis of the catalyst following various stages of the reaction indicated that intrazeolitic cobalt was not reduced to the zero valent state. Consequently, the non-zero valent cobalt was not capable of hydrogenating carbon monoxide.

  19. Safe trapping of Cs in heat-treated zeolite matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, P.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.; Colella, C.

    2004-01-01

    Cesium retention performances of two different natural zeolites (an Italian phillipsite-rich tuff and a Mexican erionite-rich tuff), pre-exchanged in Cs form and heat-treated, are compared. After thermal treatment at 1000 °C both zeolites satisfactorily retain Cs during back-exchange tests with NaCl solution or by a prolonged contact with distilled water. The different mechanisms of Cs encapsulation are elucidated. The Cs-exchanged phillipsite, a less siliceous and less heat-stable zeolite, tends to form pollucite on heating. Pollucite is a naturally occurring mineral phase which contains and irreversibly traps cesium. The Cs-exchanged erionite tends to form an amorphous phase on heating and Cs is immobilized through glass formation.

  20. Formulation of cracking catalyst based on zeolite and natural clays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Aliev; M. I. Lupina

    1995-01-01

    Domestically manufactured cracking catalysts are based on a synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate matrix and Y zeolite. A multistage {open_quotes}gel{close_quotes} technology is used in manufacturing the catalysts. The process includes mixing solutions of sodium silicate and acidic aluminum sulfate, forming, syneresis, and activation of the beaded gel. In the manufacture of bead catalysts, the next steps in the process are washing, drying,

  1. Influence of silica-containing raw material on technology of NaY zeolite manufacture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Sokolov; T. N. Shabalina; B. K. Nefedov

    1987-01-01

    In addition, the new solutions are more alkaline (SiOa:Na20 = 1.4-2, in contrast to 2.8-3.2 for the sodium silicate). Consequently, in order to obtain the original alkaline alumina--sillca gel, in the crystallization of the NaY zeolite it is necessary to introduce a larger quantity of aluminum sulfate than in the precipitation of the alumlna--silica gel when using sodium silicate. This

  2. Reactivity and applications of layered silicates and layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Inayat, Alexandra; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-07-21

    Layered materials, such as layered sodium silicates and layered double hydroxides (LDHs), are well-known for their remarkable adsorption, intercalation and swelling properties. Their tunable interlayers offer an interesting avenue for the fabrication of pillared nanoporous materials, organic-inorganic hybrid materials and catalysts or catalyst supports. This perspective article provides a summary of the reactivity and applications of layered materials including aluminium-free layered sodium silicates (kanemite, ilerite (RUB-18 or octosilicate) and magadiite) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Recent developments in the use of layered sodium silicates as precursors for the preparation of various porous, functional and catalytic materials including zeolites, mesoporous materials, pillared layered silicates, organic-inorganic nanocomposites and synthesis of highly dispersed nanoparticles supported on silica are reviewed in detail. Along this perspective, we have attempted to illustrate the reactivity and transformational potential of LDHs in order to deduce the main differences and similarities between these two types of layered materials. PMID:24841986

  3. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons up to C9, a performance attesting the hierarchal pore structure. The preliminary techno-economic feasibility assessment demonstrates a net energy saving of 75% and cost saving of 63% compared to the commercial zeolite manufacturing process.

  4. The effect of Si\\/Al ratio of ZSM-5 zeolite on its morphology, acidity and crystal size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Shirazi; E. Jamshidi; M. R. Ghasemi

    2008-01-01

    ZSM-5 zeolite crystal with different Si\\/Al molar ratios in the range of 10-50 was synthesized using sodium silicate, aluminum sulfate and tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPA-Br) as the organic template. The produced samples were characterized using XRD, FT-IR, SEM and EDX techniques. All synthesized samples were found to be ZSM-5 zeolite as confirmed by XRD and supported by FT-IR. SEM results showed

  5. Sorption effects in zeolite catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.O.

    1996-10-01

    Catalysis by zeolites and other microcrystalline materials is characterized by an unusually high degree of fundamental understanding. In acid catalysis, the active sites are part of the zeolite structure, not surface defects, and their nature and number can often be accurately determined. The dynamics of adsorption and desorption of reactant and product molecules, i.e. diffusion in zeolites, has also been extensively studied. Much less emphasis has been placed on a quantitative understanding of thermodynamic equilibrium sorption phenomena in zeolite catalyzed reactions. This talk will briefly discuss the principles and experimental data for hydrocarbon sorption in a variety of zeolites. It will then describe the application of these principles to a variety of zeolite catalyzed reactions. These include rate enhancements by non-acidic zeolites in thermal Diels-Alder reactions and paraffin cracking, the effect of carbon number and of zeolite structure on the observed activation energy of catalytic cracking, and the observation of very strong rate inhibition in ethylbenzene disproportionation.

  6. Dietary supplementation with the tribomechanically activated zeolite clinoptilolite in immunodeficiency: Effects on the immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slavko Ivkovic; Ulrich Deutsch; Angelika Silberbach; Erwin Walraph; Marcus Mannel

    2004-01-01

    Natural zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with unique adsorption, cationexchange, and catalytic properties that have\\u000a multiple uses in industry and agriculture. TMAZ®, a natural zeolite clinoptilolite with enhanced physicochemical properties,\\u000a is the basis of the dietary supplements Megamin® and Lycopenomin®, which have demonstrated antioxidant activity in humans.\\u000a The aim of this prospective, open, and controlled parallel-group study was to investigate the

  7. The importance of zeolites in the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    Zeolitic rocks play an important role in retarding the migration of radionuclides that occur in solution as simple cations (Cs, Sr, Ba). However, the interaction of zeolites with complex transuranic species in solution provides little if any advantage over other common silicate minerals. The most important consequences of zeolite occurrences near a high-level radioactive waste repository environment are likely to be their response to thermal loading and their impact on site hydrology. Partial zeolite dehydration during the early thermal pulse from the repository and rehydration as the repository slowly cools can have an important impact on the water budget of a repository in unsaturated rocks, provided that the long-term heating does not result in zeolite destabilization.

  8. Hypothetical binodal zeolitic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Simperler, Alexandra; Foster, Martin D; Delgado Friedrichs, Olaf; Bell, Robert G; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Klinowski, Jacek

    2005-06-01

    Hypothetical binodal zeolitic structures (structures containing two kinds of tetrahedral sites) were systematically enumerated using tiling theory and characterized by computational chemistry methods. Each of the 109 refineable topologies based on "simple tilings" was converted into a silica polymorph and its energy minimized using the GULP program with the Sanders-Catlow silica potential. Optimized structural parameters, framework energies relative to alpha-quartz and volumes accessible to sorption have been calculated. Eleven of the 30 known binodal topologies listed in the Atlas of Zeolite Framework Types were found, leaving 98 topologies that were unknown previously. The chemical feasibility of each structure as a zeolite was evaluated by means of a feasibility factor derived from the correlation between lattice energy and framework density. Structures are divided into 15 families, based on common structural features. Many "feasible" structures contain only small pores. Several very open structures were also enumerated, although they contain three-membered rings which are thermodynamically disfavoured and not found in conventional zeolites. We believe that such topologies may be realizable as framework materials, but with different elemental compositions to those normally associated with zeolites. PMID:15914891

  9. A high acid mesoporous USY zeolite prepared by alumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinghong; Kang, Yuhong; Ma, Ning; Hao, Wenming; Wang, Yan; Li, Ruifeng

    2013-01-01

    A high-acidity HUSY zeolite with mesoporous structure was prepared by alumination with a dilute aqueous NaAlO2 solution and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, IR framework vibration and 29Si MAS NMR methods. The results indicated the extra-framework aluminum was reinserted into the tetrahedral framework through isomorphic substitution of framework Si (0Al) sites by Al ions, whereas the crystal and micropore structure were unaltered. FTIR spectra of hydroxyl vibrations and pyridine adsorbed on realuminated zeolites showed that the number of Brønsted acid sites and strong Lewis acid sites increased whereas weak Lewis acid sites decreased twice. The mesoporous structure composed of inter-and intra-crystalline pores in the aluminated HUSY increased the external surface area of the zeolite, improving accessibility of molecules to the active sites and enhancing its catalytic ability. The realuminated HUSY zeolite supported with Ru catalyst exhibited a higher catalytic activity for benzene hydrogenation than the parent HUSY zeolite; the reaction rate in comparison to the mesozeolite increased by 5.5 times.

  10. Mg/Fe FRACTIONATION IN CIRCUMSTELLAR SILICATE DUST INVOLVED IN CRYSTALLIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.; Takakura, T.; Chihara, H.; Koike, C.; Tsuchiyama, A. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)], E-mail: keisuke@astroboy.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-10

    Infrared astronomical observations of oxygen-rich young and evolved stars show that only magnesium-rich crystalline silicates exist in circumstellar regions, and iron, one of the most important dust-forming elements, is extremely depleted. The compositional characteristic of circumstellar crystalline silicates is fundamentally different from that of primitive extraterrestrial materials in our solar system, such as chondritic meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Amorphous silicates are ubiquitous and abundant in space, and are a promising carrier of iron. However, since the first detection of crystalline silicates, there has been an unsolved inconsistency due to differing compositions of coexisting crystalline and amorphous phases, considering that amorphous silicates have been expected to be precursors of these crystals. Here we show the first experimental evidence that Fe-depleted olivine can be formed by crystallization via thermal heating of FeO-bearing amorphous silicates under subsolidus conditions. Mg/Fe fractionation involved in crystallization makes possible to coexist Mg-rich crystalline silicates with Fe-bearing amorphous silicates around stars.

  11. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  12. Silicate dust evolution in the low-mass YSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kataza, H.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Yamashita, T.; Miyata, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Sako, S.; Onaka, T.

    We have carried out mid-infrared N-band R ˜250 spectroscopic survey of relatively old (5-10 Myr old) low-mass YSOs (mostly Classical T Tauri stars) with the COMICS (COoled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer) mounted on the 8.2m Subaru Telescope, and detected crystalline silicates features in some of them (e.g. Honda et al. 2003, ApJ, 585, L59). Our detection of crystalline silicates in old T Tauri stars indicates that the crystalization process does occur even in a protoplanetary disk of low-mass YSOs in T Tauri phase. Such crystallization processes may be analogous to those occured in the early epoch of the solar system, and may be related to the crystalline silicates observed in the cometary dust.

  13. Monodispersed Ultrafine Zeolite Crystal Particles by Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Harris, Michael Tyrone [ORNL; Khatri, Lubna [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites is reviewed. Monodispersed ultrafine crystal particles of zeolite (Silicalite-1) have been synthesized in batch reactor vessels by microwave irradiation heating of aqueous basic silicate precursor solutions with tetra propyl ammonium hydroxide as the templating molecule. The effects of major process parameters (such as synthesis temperature, microwave heating rate, volume ratio (i.e., the volume of the initial synthesis solution over the total volume of the reactor vessel), and synthesis time on the zeolite particle characteristics are studied using a computer-controlled microwave reactor system that allows real-time monitoring and control of reaction medium temperature. The changes in the morphology, size and crystal structure of the particles are investigated using scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and BET surface analysis. We have found that the synthesis temperature, volume ratio, and heating rate play a significant role in controlling the particle size, uniformity, and morphology. Microwave processing has generated new morphologies of zeolite particles (i.e., uniform block-shaped particles that contain mixed gel-nanocrystallites and agglomerated crystal particles) that could not be made by a conventional hydrothermal process. At higher synthesis temperature and lower volume ratio, irregular block-shaped particles were produced, whereas increasing the volume ratio promoted the formation of monodispersed single-crystal particles with uniform shape. Our results clearly demonstrate that faster microwave heating is advantageous to enhance the zeolite crystallization kinetics and produces larger-size crystal particles in shorter time. In addition, zeolite crystallization mechanisms, depending on the microwave heating rate, were also discussed.

  14. Zeolite-based catalysts for chemicals synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Davis

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the types of active sites and reaction chemistries possible with zeolite-based catalyst systems is presented. Several trends in zeolite catalysis for chemicals synthesis are enumerated and suggestions for work provided. Two emerging areas of zeolite catalysis for fine chemicals preparation, namely, extra-large pore zeolite catalysts and chiral zeolite catalysis, are described.

  15. Topotactic condensation of layer silicates with ferrierite-type layers forming porous tectosilicates.

    PubMed

    Marler, B; Wang, Y; Song, J; Gies, H

    2014-07-21

    Five different hydrous layer silicates (HLSs) containing fer layers (ferrierite-type layers) were obtained by hydrothermal syntheses from mixtures of silicic acid, water and tetraalkylammonium/tetraalkylphosphonium hydroxides. The organic cations had been added as structure directing agents (SDA). A characteristic feature of the structures is the presence of strong to medium strong hydrogen bonds between the terminal silanol/siloxy groups of neighbouring layers. The five-layered silicates differ chemically only with respect to the organic cations. Structurally, they differ with respect to the arrangement of the fer layers relative to each other, which is distinct for every SDA-fer-layer system. RUB-20 (containing tetramethylammonium) and RUB-40 (tetramethylphosphonium) are monoclinic with stacking sequence AAA and shift vectors between successive layers 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.19c0 and 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.24c0, respectively. RUB-36 (diethyldimethylammonium), RUB-38 (methyltriethylammonium) and RUB-48 (trimethylisopropylammonium) are orthorhombic with stacking sequence ABAB and shift vectors 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.36c0, 0.5a0 + 0b0 + 0.5c0 and 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.39c0, respectively. Unprecedented among the HLSs, two monoclinic materials are made up of fer layers which possess a significant amount of ordered defects within the layer. The ordered defects involve one particular Si-O-Si bridge which is, to a fraction of ca. 50%, hydrolyzed to form nests of two ?Si-OH groups. When heated to 500-600 °C in air, the HLSs condense to form framework silicates. Although all layered precursors were moderately to well ordered, the resulting framework structures were of quite different crystallinity. The orthorhombic materials RUB-36, -38 and -48, general formula SDA4Si36O72(OH)4, which possess very strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ? 2.4 Å), transform into a fairly or well ordered CDO-type silica zeolite RUB-37. The monoclinic materials RUB-20 and -40, general formula SDA2Si18O36(OH)2OH, possessing medium strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ? 2.65 Å) are transformed into poorly ordered framework silicates. Some rules of thumb can be established concerning the successful zeolite synthesis via a topotactic condensation of layered precursors. Favourably, the precursor (i) possesses already a well ordered structure without defects, (ii) contains strong inter-layer hydrogen bonds and does not contain strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds and (iii) contains a suitable cation. The nature of the organic cation (size, geometry, flexibility, thermal stability) plays a key role in the formation of a microporous tectosilicate with well ordered structure. RUB-36 which meets these criteria yields a well ordered condensation product (RUB-37). PMID:24875843

  16. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The data also indicate that DXVliQP2O5 decrease in the same order, but DOVLiQP2O5 and DOpx/LiQP205 are likely constant, respectively equal to 0.08(3) and 0.007(4), in contrast, DG1ILiQP205 increases from 0.15(3) to 0.36(10) as garnet becomes majoritic, thus silica-enriched, and may also depend on liquid composition (SiO2, P2O5 and Na2O wt%).

  17. A potential with low point charges for pure siliceous zeolites.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sudhir K; Nair, Nisanth N

    2015-07-30

    A modified CHARMM force-field (ZHB potential) with low point charges for silica was previously proposed by Zimmerman et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 1695). The ZHB potential is advantageous for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations as it minimizes the electron spill-out problems. In the same spirit, here we propose a modified ZHB potential (MZHB) by reformulating its bonding potential, while retaining the nonbonding potential as in the ZHB force-field. We show that several structural and dynamic properties of silica, like the IR spectrum, distribution functions, mechanical properties, and negative thermal expansion computed using the MZHB potential agree well with experimental data. Further, transferability of MZHB is also tested for reproducing the crystallographic structures of several polymorphs of silica. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26073460

  18. The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains

    E-print Network

    M. Min; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. de Koter; J. W. Hovenier; L. P. Keller; F. Markwick-Kemper

    2006-11-10

    We investigate the composition and shape distribution of silicate dust grains in the interstellar medium. The effect of the amount of magnesium in the silicate lattice is studied. We fit the spectral shape of the interstellar 10 mu extinction feature as observed towards the galactic center. We use very irregularly shaped coated and non-coated porous Gaussian Random Field particles as well as a statistical approach to model shape effects. For the dust materials we use amorphous and crystalline silicates with various composition and SiC. The results of our analysis of the 10 mu feature are used to compute the shape of the 20 mu silicate feature and to compare this with observations. By using realistic particle shapes we are, for the first time, able to derive the magnesium fraction in interstellar silicates. We find that the interstellar silicates are highly magnesium rich (Mg/(Fe+Mg)>0.9) and that the stoichiometry lies between pyroxene and olivine type silicates. This composition is not consistent with that of the glassy material found in GEMS in interplanetary dust particles indicating that these are, in general, not unprocessed remnants from the interstellar medium. Also, we find a significant fraction of SiC (~3%). We discuss the implications of our results for the formation and evolutionary history of cometary and circumstellar dust. We argue that the fact that crystalline silicates in cometary and circumstellar grains are almost purely magnesium silicates is a natural consequence of our findings that the amorphous silicates from which they were formed were already magnesium rich.

  19. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL GRUTZECK

    1998-10-31

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO2 from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO2 from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150°C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO2 adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. _100°C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with other fly ashes, ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO2 adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the country.

  20. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Grutzeck

    1999-04-30

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO{sub 2} from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO{sub 2} from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150 C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO{sub 2} adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. 100 C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO{sub 2} adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the US.

  1. Hydrogen storage enhanced in Li-doped carbon replica of zeolites: a possible route to achieve fuel cell demand.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Thomas; Bichara, Christophe; Gubbins, Keith E; Pellenq, Roland J-M

    2009-05-01

    We first report the atomistic grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the synthesis of two realistic ordered microporous carbon replica in two siliceous forms of faujasite zeolite (cubic Y-FAU and hexagonal EMT). Atomistic simulations of hydrogen adsorption isotherms in these two carbon structures and their Li-doped composites were carried out to determine their storage capacities at 77 and 298 K. We found that these new forms of carbon solids and their Li-doped versions show very attractive hydrogen storage capacities at 77 and 298 K, respectively. However, for a filling pressure of 300 bars and at room temperature, bare carbons do not show advantageous performances compared to a classical gas cylinder despite of their crystalline micropore network. In comparison, Li-doped nanostructures provide reversible gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities twice larger (3.75 wt % and 33.7 kg/m(3)). The extreme lattice stiffness of their skeleton will prevent them from collapsing under large external applied pressure, an interesting skill compared to bundle of carbon nanotubes, and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These new ordered composites are thus very promising materials for hydrogen storage issues by contrast with MOFs. PMID:19425808

  2. Rapid fabrication of highly b-oriented zeolite MFI thin films using ammonium salts as crystallization-mediating agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofei; Peng, Yong; Wang, Zhengbao; Yan, Yushan

    2015-06-25

    A new route to the synthesis of highly b-oriented zeolite MFI films is demonstrated for the first time using ammonium salts as crystallization-mediating agents in secondary growth. The ammonium salts tailor the crystallization process and silicate-NH4(+) interactions dominate over TPA-NH4(+) interactions so that nucleation was effectively suppressed during secondary growth. PMID:26067912

  3. Solvent-free syntheses of hierarchically porous aluminophosphate-based zeolites with AEL and AFI structures.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinying; Chen, Xian; Sun, Qi; Sheng, Na; Liu, Yan; Bian, Chaoqun; Chen, Fang; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-12-22

    Development of sustainable routes for synthesizing aluminophosphate-based zeolites are very important because of their wide applications. As a typical sustainable route, solvent-free synthesis of zeolites not only decreases polluted wastes but also increases product yields. Systematic solvent-free syntheses of hierarchically porous aluminophosphate-based zeolites with AEL and AFI structures is presented. XRD patterns and SEM images show that these samples have high crystallinity. N2 sorption isotherm tests show that these samples are hierarchically porous, and their surface areas are comparable with those of corresponding zeolites from hydrothermal route. Chosen as an example, catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with O2 shows that cobalt substituted APO-11 from the solvent-free route (S-CoAPO-11) is more active than conventional CoAPO-11 from hydrothermal route owing to the sample hierarchical porosity. PMID:25348837

  4. Removal of Ammonium from Wastewater by Pure Form Low-Silica Zeolite Y Synthesized from Halloysite Mineral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yafei Zhao; Bing Zhang; Yanwu Zhang; Jinhua Wang; Jindun Liu; Rongfeng Chen

    2010-01-01

    Pure form, single phase, and highly crystalline low-silica zeolite Y was synthesized from natural nanotubular halloysite mineral by the hydrothermal method. In the synthesis process, the halloysite consisted of SiO2 and Al2O3 was used as starting material with adding supplementary silica and alumina sources. Ammonium adsorption properties of the as-synthesized zeolite Y were studied using batch experiments and the results

  5. Direct Probe Fourier Transform Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Metal Atoms, Metal Ions, and Metal Clusters in Zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Baker; Geoffrey A. Ozin; John Godber

    1985-01-01

    A class of crystalline aluminosilicates, known as the zeolites, are widely used as effective heterogeneous catalysts in the chemical industry. They possess excellent stability, activity and selectivity patterns for a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations [1–10]. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that zeolites are giant macromolecules formed by AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra joined by shared oxygens, and the structures of

  6. Ni–Pt\\/H–Y Zeolite Catalysts for Disproportionation of Toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Geetha Bhavani; D. Karthekayen; A. Sreenivasa Rao; N. Lingappan

    2005-01-01

    Ni–Pt\\/H–Y zeolite catalysts with different Ni contents were prepared and applied to the disproportionation of toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene in the temperature range 250–400 °C. The line broadening XRD analysis indicates that the increasing Ni addition decreases the crystallinity of zeolites. ESCA studies show the complete reduction of Ni species up to 0.3 wt.% Ni addition over 0.1 wt.% Pt\\/H-Y and further

  7. Quick Activation of Optimized Zeolites with Microwave Heating and Utilization of Zeolites for Reusable Desiccant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Ohgushi; Mayumi Nagae

    2003-01-01

    Effectiveness of microwave heating in an activation treatment of zeolites was studied and utilization of zeolites for reusable desiccant was examined. X zeolite was chosen as a target material for its large adsorption capacity. Na-X zeolite easily caused a thermal runaway by microwave radiation of 500 W but Ca contained X zeolite merely reached ca. 573 K under the same

  8. A spectral difference between silicates in Comet Halley and interstellar silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, Humberto; Ryan, Eileen V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors obtained an intermediate resolution (1 percent) spectrum of the 8 to 13 micron region in Comet Halley which shows a prominent silicate emission feature with structure not observed before in other comets or in interstellar silicates. They confirm the presence of a strong 11.3 micron peak reported by Bregman et al. (1987) and find evidence for additional structure in the band. The 11.3 micron peak represents the main difference between the Halley Spectrum and that of Comet Kohoutek. The Kohoutek Spectrum is similar to that of the circumstellar shell around mu Ceph. Based on a comparison with the spectra of Interplanetary Dust Particles (Sandford and Walker 1985), most of which are believed to be of cometary origin, the authors attribute the 11.3 micron peak to small crystalline olivine particles, although other minerals cannot be ruled out. Their interpretation is supported by the airborne observation of four emission peaks near 24, 28, 35 and 45 microns which can also be matched with iron-magnesium silicates including crystalline olivine. Other types of silicates (such as hydrated or amorphous) are necessary to explain the width and the 9.7 micron peak of the emission observed in Comet Halley.

  9. Microstructural aspects of zeolite formation in alkali activated cements containing high levels of fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Kruger; A. R. Brough; A. Katz; T. Bakharev; G. K. Sun; R. J. Kirkpatrick; L. J. Struble; J. F. Young

    1995-01-01

    Wasteforms made by reaction at elevated temperature of a highly e simulated low level nuclear waste solution, having high sodium ion concentration, with a cementitious blend high in fly ash have been studied. Significant formation of Na-P1 zeolite (gismondine framework) and of a sodalite occurred. The time evolution of the crystalline phases over the first 28 days is reported for

  10. Solid-state radioluminescent zeolite-containing composition and light sources

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1992-01-01

    A new type of RL light source consisting of a zeolite crystalline material, the intralattice spaces of which a tritiated compound and a luminophore are sorbed, and which material is optionally further dispersed in a refractive index-matched polymer matrix.

  11. Synthesis of Foam-Shaped Nanoporous Zeolite Material: A Simple Template-Based Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saini, Vipin K.; Pires, Joao

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous zeolite foam is an interesting crystalline material with an open-cell microcellular structure, similar to polyurethane foam (PUF). The aluminosilicate structure of this material has a large surface area, extended porosity, and mechanical strength. Owing to these properties, this material is suitable for industrial applications such as…

  12. Calibration analysis of zeolites by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor?á?ková, M.; Grolmusová, Z.; Hor?á?ek, M.; Rakovský, J.; Hudec, P.; Veis, P.

    2012-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was used for calibration analysis of different types of microporous crystalline aluminosilicates with exactly ordered structure — zeolites. The LIBS plasma was generated using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm and providing laser pulses of 4 ns duration. Plasma emission was analysed by echelle type emission spectrometer, providing wide spectral range 200-950 nm. The spectrometer was equipped with intensified CCD camera providing rapid spectral acquisition (gating time from 5 ns). The optimum experimental conditions (time delay, gate width and laser pulse energy) have been determined for reliable use of LIBS for quantitative analysis. Samples of different molar ratios of Si/Al were used to create the calibration curves. Calibration curves for different types of zeolites (mordenite, type Y and ZSM-5) were constructed. Molar ratios of Si/Al for samples used for calibration were determined by classical wet chemical analysis and were in the range 5.3-51.8 for mordenite, 2.3-12.8 for type Y and 14-600 for ZSM-5. Zeolites with these molar ratios of Si/Al are usually used as catalysts in alkylation reactions. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a suitable method for analysis of molar ratio Si/Al in zeolites, because it is simple, fast, and does not require sample preparation compared with classical wet chemical analysis which are time consuming, require difficult sample preparation and manipulation with strong acids and bases.

  13. A theoretical study of Cu clusters in siliceous erionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antúnez-García, Joel; Galván, D. H.; Posada-Amarillas, A.; Petranovskii, Vitalii

    2014-02-01

    In terms of periodic density functional theory method, we present a theoretical study of the structure and electronic properties of different composites, obtained by the inclusion of distinct Cux (x=2,4,6,8) clusters within the C1 cage of siliceous erionite-zeolite. Results shows that for a periodic distribution of Cux clusters on zeolite, the hosting of those is trough electrostatic confinement which is governed by framework oxygen atoms located at particular equivalent sites. However, when the permanency of a cluster in a C1 cage is compromised, the cluster-cluster long range Coulomb interactions could rise to keep it inside. In addition, results also show that the electronic properties of free Cux clusters are largely transferred to the formed composite.

  14. Zeolite modification II - direct fluorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Lok; F. P. Gortsena; P. J. Izod; C. A. Messina; H. Rastelli

    1982-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, zeolite science has grown into a major branch of chemistry. A large number of new zeolite materials have been made by both direct hydrothermal synthesis and by post-synthesis modification. This has led to a large number of new applications in such diverse fields as catalysis, adsorption and ion exchange. In synthesis alone, over one hundred

  15. Thermal behavior of natural zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    Thermal behavior of natural zeolites impacts their application and identification and varies significantly from zeolite to zeolite. Zeolites evolve H{sub 2}0 upon heating, but recent data show that distinct ``types`` of water (e.g., loosely bound or tightly bound zeolitic water) do not exist. Rather water is bound primarily to extra-framework cations with a continuum of energies, giving rise to pseudocontinuous loss of water accompanied by a dynamic interaction between remaining H{sub 2}0 molecules and extra-framework cations. These interactions in the channels of zeolites give rise to dehydration dependent on the extra-framework cation, in addition to temperature and water vapor pressure. The dehydration reaction and the extra-framework cation also affect the thermal expansion/contraction. Most zeolites undergo dehydration-induced contractions that may be anisotropic, although minor thermal expansion can be seen with some zeolites. Such contractions can be partially or completely irreversible if they involve modifications of the tetrahedral framework and/or if rehydration is sluggish. Thermally induced structural modifications are also driven initially by dehydration and the concomitant contraction and migration of extra-framework cations. Contraction is accommodated by rotations of structural units and tetrahedral cation-oxygen linkages may break. Thermal reactions that involve breaking of tetrahedral cation-oxygen bonds markedly irreversible and may be kinetically limited, producing large differences between short- and long-term heating.

  16. Ruthenium on Beta Zeolite in Cinnamaldehyde Hydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lashdaf; M. Tiitta; T. Venäläinen; H. Österholm; A. O. I. Krause

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of ruthenium was studied in relation to the acidity of beta zeolite. The impregnation of beta zeolite with ruthenium chloride decreased the crystallite size of beta zeolite. The acidity of the beta zeolite influenced the particle size of ruthenium. The particle size of ruthenium increased with decreasing acidity. Even catalysts with large particle size of ruthenium were selective

  17. Dispersion and orientation of zeolite ZSM-5 crystallites within a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst particle.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Christoph; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2014-03-24

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was employed to selectively visualize the dispersion and orientation of zeolite ZSM-5 domains inside a single industrially applied fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst particle. Large ZSM-5 crystals served as a model system together with the acid-catalyzed fluorostyrene oligomerization reaction to study the interaction of plane-polarized light with these anisotropic zeolite crystals. The distinction between zeolite and binder material, such as alumina, silica, and clay, within an individual FCC particle was achieved by utilizing the anisotropic nature of emitted fluorescence light arising from the entrapped fluorostyrene-derived carbocations inside the zeolite channels. This characterization approach provides a non-invasive way for post-synthesis characterization of an individual FCC catalyst particle in which the size, distribution, orientation, and amount of zeolite ZSM-5 aggregates can be determined. It was found that the amount of detected fluorescence light originating from the stained ZSM-5 aggregates corresponds to about 15?wt?%. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of the emitted fluorescence light indicated that a large number of the ZSM-5 domains appeared in small sizes of about 0.015-0.25??m(2), representing single zeolite crystallites or small aggregates thereof. This observation illustrated a fairly high degree of zeolite dispersion within the FCC binder material. However, the highest amount of crystalline material was aggregated into larger domains (ca. 1-5??m(2)) with more or less similarly oriented zeolite crystallites. It is clear that this visualization approach may serve as a post-synthesis quality control on the dispersion of zeolite ZSM-5 crystallites within FCC particles. PMID:24616006

  18. Stable single-unit-cell nanosheets of zeolite MFI as active and long-lived catalysts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkee; Na, Kyungsu; Kim, Jeongnam; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Osamu; Ryoo, Ryong

    2009-09-10

    Zeolites-microporous crystalline aluminosilicates-are widely used in petrochemistry and fine-chemical synthesis because strong acid sites within their uniform micropores enable size- and shape-selective catalysis. But the very presence of the micropores, with aperture diameters below 1 nm, often goes hand-in-hand with diffusion limitations that adversely affect catalytic activity. The problem can be overcome by reducing the thickness of the zeolite crystals, which reduces diffusion path lengths and thus improves molecular diffusion. This has been realized by synthesizing zeolite nanocrystals, by exfoliating layered zeolites, and by introducing mesopores in the microporous material through templating strategies or demetallation processes. But except for the exfoliation, none of these strategies has produced 'ultrathin' zeolites with thicknesses below 5 nm. Here we show that appropriately designed bifunctional surfactants can direct the formation of zeolite structures on the mesoporous and microporous length scales simultaneously and thus yield MFI (ZSM-5, one of the most important catalysts in the petrochemical industry) zeolite nanosheets that are only 2 nm thick, which corresponds to the b-axis dimension of a single MFI unit cell. The large number of acid sites on the external surface of these zeolites renders them highly active for the catalytic conversion of large organic molecules, and the reduced crystal thickness facilitates diffusion and thereby dramatically suppresses catalyst deactivation through coke deposition during methanol-to-gasoline conversion. We expect that our synthesis approach could be applied to other zeolites to improve their performance in a range of important catalytic applications. PMID:19741706

  19. Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition of a Presolar Silicate from the Queen Elizabeth Range 99177 Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral characterization of presolar silicate grains, the most abundant stardust phase, has provided valuable information about the formation conditions in circumstellar environments and in super-nova (SN) outflows. Spectroscopic observations of dust around evolved stars suggest a majority of amor-phous, Mg-rich olivine grains, but crystalline silicates, most of which are pyroxene, have also been observed [1]. The chemical compositions of hundreds of presolar silicates have been determined by Auger spectroscopy and reveal high Fe contents and nonstoichiometric compositions intermediate to olivine and pyroxene [2-6]. The unexpectedly high Fe contents can partly be attributed to secondary alteration on the meteorite parent bodies, as some grains have Fe isotopic anomalies from their parent stellar source [7]. Only about 35 presolar silicates have been studied for their mineral structures and chemical compositions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains display a wide range of compositions and structures, including crystalline forsterite, crystalline pyroxene, nanocrystalline grains, and a majority of amorphous nonstoichiometric grains. Most of these grains were identified in the primitive Acfer 094 meteorite. Presolar silicates from this meteorite show a wide range of Fe-contents, suggestive of secondary processing on the meteorite parent body. The CR chondrite QUE 99177 has not suffered as much alteration [8] and displays the highest presolar silicate abundance to date among carbonaceous chondrites [3, 6]. However, no mineralogical studies of presolar silicates from this meteorite have been performed. Here we examine the mineralogy of a presolar silicate from QUE 99177.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of ZSM-5 zeolites having variable silicon-to-aluminum ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Ali; B Brisdon; W. J Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogel prepared from sodium silicate and aluminum sulfate with silicon-to-aluminum molar ratios (Si\\/Al) in the range 15–100 were readily transformed into ZSM-5 zeolite when subjected to heating by a rapid crystallization method using tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPA·Br) template at pH 10. The crystallization of gel having Si\\/Al molar ratio of 10 was achieved with difficulty and represented the lower limit of

  1. Synthesis, Ion-exchange, Structural Characterization and Adsorption of K, Na-FER Type Zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingcai Long; Minghua Ma; Yaojun Sun; Huiwen Jiang

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis of K, Na -FER type zeolite wasstudied in the reactant system ofK 2O-–Na 2O-–Al 2O 3-–SiO 2-–CO 3-–HCO 3-ndash;H 2O.Sodium silicate, silica sol andfumed silica were tested as the silica source, andsolid aluminum sulfate, aluminum hydroxide andmeta-kaolinite as the alumina source. The startingmaterials, the composition of the reactant, and thesynthesis temperature greatly influence the phasescrystallized. A pure phase of

  2. The safety of synthetic zeolites used in detergents.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. They may partially decompose under acidic conditions such as in the stomach releasing sodium ions, silicic acid and aluminum salts. The intact molecule is not bioavailable after oral intake or exposure through the dermal and inhalational routes. Under current conditions of manufacture and use, no systemic toxicity is to be expected from neither the intact molecule nor the degradation products; a significant effect on the bioavailability of other compounds is not likely. Zeolites may cause local irritation. It is, therefore, important to minimise occupational exposure. The co-operation of detergent manufacturers with the manufacturers of washing machines is necessary to find the right balance between environmental aspects such as energy and water savings and the occurrence of detergent residues on textiles due to insufficient rinsing. PMID:18563391

  3. Interstellar Silicate Analogs for Grain-surface Reaction Experiments: Gas-phase Condensation and Characterization of the Silicate Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, T.; Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg2SiO4 and Fe2SiO4, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H2 formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg2SiO4 and Fe2SiO4 described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  4. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G. [Observatoire de Paris/Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mutschke, H. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Astrophysical Institute and University Observatory, Friedrich Schiller University Jena Schillergässchen 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, T., E-mail: tolou.sabri@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  5. Crystallinity versus mass-loss rate in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars

    E-print Network

    F. Kemper; L. B. F. M. Waters; A. de Koter; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2001-01-16

    Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations have shown that O-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars exhibit crystalline silicate features in their spectra only if their mass-loss rate is higher than a certain threshold value. Usually, this is interpreted as evidence that crystalline silicates are not present in the dust shells of low mass-loss rate objects. In this study, radiative transfer calculations have been performed to search for an alternative explanation to the lack of crystalline silicate features in the spectrum of low mass-loss rate AGB stars. It is shown that due to a temperature difference between amorphous and crystalline silicates it is possible to include up to 40% of crystalline silicate material in the circumstellar dust shell, without the spectra showing the characteristic spectral features. Since this implies that low mass-loss rate AGB stars might also form crystalline silicates and deposit them into the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the described observational selection effect may put the process of dust formation around AGB stars and the composition of the predominantly amorphous dust in the Interstellar Medium in a different light. Our model calculations result in a diagnostic tool to determine the crystallinity of an AGB star with a known mass-loss rate.

  6. Removal of radionuclides using zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R.G.; Cai, Z. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Adsorption of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions on natural zeolites, i.e., chabazite, clinoptilolite, erionite and mordenite, was investigated. The influence of time and pH of the solution were studied. The results showed that uranium(VI) species are strongly adsorbed on the zeolites between pH 6 to 9. The amount of uranium adsorption is strongly dependent on pH and, to some extent, on the type of zeolites. For pH {ge} 6 and at 25 C, more than 92% of uranium from solution was removed in 10 minutes. Adsorption mechanism of uranium is discussed.

  7. Preliminary study of natural zeolite as catalyst for decreasing the viscosity of heavy oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merissa, Shanti; Fitriani, Pipit; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2013-09-01

    Natural zeolite such as heulandite and clipnotilolite are found in abundant quantities in many regions in the world, particularly in Indonesia. The catalytic ability of natural zeolites were investigated in aquathermolysis in order to decreasing the viscosity of heavy oil. Prior to test the ability, a milling treatment of natural zeolite was carried out on variation of time 4, 6 and 8 hrs and subsequently followed by activation with a simple heating at 300°C. The physical and chemical properties of zeolites before and after of milling as well as the activation were characterized using XRD, SEM and EDS. XRD results indicated the decreasing crystallinity of the treated zeolite. SEM results showed that the particle size was from 0.5 to 2 ?m, indicating the reducing of particle size after the treatment. The catalytic test showed that the addition of natural zeolite (0.5 wt.%) on the mixed of heavy oil and water in an autoclave at temperature 200°C during 6 hrs can reduce the viscosity of heavy oil up to 65%.

  8. Silicate Dust Evolution around the Low-Mass YSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kataza, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Miyata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Sako, Shigeyuki; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi

    We have carried out mid-infrared N-band R˜ 250 spectroscopic survey of low-mass YSOs with the COMICS (COoled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer) mounted on the 8.2m Subaru Telescope. Our targets were mainly the classical T Tauri stars at Taurus TWA MBM12 and some isolated T Tauri stars focusing on the relatively old (5-10 Myr old) low-mass T Tauri stars. We detected crystalline silicates features in some of them (e.g. Honda et al. 2003 ApJ 585 L59). Our detection of crystalline silicates in the old T Tauri stars indicates that the crystalization process occurs even in a protoplanetary disk of low-mass YSOs in T Tauri phase and revealed the silicate dust evolution in the low-mass YSOs. Such crystallization processes may be analogous to those occurred in the early epoch of the solar system and may be related to the crystalline silicates observed in the cometary dust.

  9. Activity of zeolite-containing catalysts in the pyrolysis of low-quality gasolines

    SciTech Connect

    Tagiev, D.B.; Sharifova, E.B.; Zeinalova, F.A.; Zul'fugarov, Z.G.; Minachev, Kh.M.

    1981-02-01

    The effect of the composition and structure of the zeolite component on the activity of zeolite-containing catalysts in the production of small olefins by the pyrolysis of low-quality gasoline. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory flow system with a fixed catalyst bed. The catalysts had a magnesium silicate carrier containing different cationic forms of y-type synthetic zeolites, chabazite, erionite, and mordenite, as well as a natural clinoptilolite zeolite obtained from the Aidag deposit in the Azerbaidzhan SSR. The hydrocarbon raw material was a low-quality Karachukhur gasoline with an octane rating of 42. The experiments were carried out in the range 550/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C and volumetric flow rate of the liquid raw material of from 1 to 5 h/sup -1/. The gaseous reaction products were analyzed chromatographically. The major factors affecting olefin formation in the presence of zeolite-containing catalysts are the temperature of the pyrolysis of the liquid hydrocarbons and volumetric flow rate of the raw material. 2 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  10. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  11. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  12. Electron microscopy study of zeolite ZK-14; a synthetic chabazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, S.; Wessicken, R.; Nissen, H.-U.

    1983-03-01

    The defect structure of zeolite (K+, TMA+) — ZK-14, a synthetic chabazite, has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM together with TEM bright field (BF) and dark field (DF) micrographs indicate that the hexagonal, platelet ZK-14 crystals are built up of crystalline blocks joined by twinning along (00.1). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals faulting of the ideal AABBCC single 6-ring stacking sequence of ZK-14. This is consistent with an observed line broadening in its X-ray powder diffraction profile. Channel apertures are imaged, even for thick specimens.

  13. Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen-

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiqu

    Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen- sional 12-Ring Channel arrays of nanometer sizes, are important because of their applications as catalysts and molecular sieves to copper­oxygen polyhedra is suggested by the known structures of several dense copper silicate phases

  14. Mechanism of Microwave Heating of Zeolite A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Ohgushi; Sridhar Komarneni; Amar S. Bhalla

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of microwave heating of A zeolite was studied by comparing the heating properties, cation distributions and dielectric properties of 3A, 4A and 5A zeolites. It was easy to heat hydrated 4A zeolite to a glowing (melting) temperature by microwave (2.45 GHz) radiation from room temperature but was difficult to heat the same zeolite with little hydration. When 4A

  15. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite

    E-print Network

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01

    of experiments, increasing the amount of base increased the amount of cation deposited on the zeolite. In D'Aniello's experiments, increasing the amount of acid increased the amount of anion deposited on the alumina. However, alumina and zeolite Y... products with lower hydrogen to carbon atomic ratios. The zeolite based catalyst also exhibited a strong non-hydrogenative cracking function. The ability to control the ion exchange of zeolites by adjusting the pH of the exchanging slurry proved useful...

  16. An emulsion-based droplet hydrothermal synthesis method for the production of uniform sized zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl Hee

    2014-05-15

    A droplet based new hydrothermal synthesis method for nano-zeolite synthesis in bulk amount with uniform size, shape and morphology is presented. The proposed process addresses the limitation and shortcomings of droplet based microfluidic reactors and conventional hydrothermal methods. The process has been designed on the concept of mixing two immiscible solutions at high speed which then produces nano/submicron size droplets. Confinement within the droplet provides uniform heat transfer, enhanced mass transfer to growing crystal, chaotic advection within droplet facilitate rapid mixing, prevent the contact between growing crystals etc. Fine-tuned nano-cubic LTA zeolite crystals of size ?100 nm with uniform morphology and size distribution were prepared. Just within 4h of reaction time (aging+crystallization) well shaped cubic crystals with high crystallinity and size uniformity can be synthesized by the proposed synthesis process. Diffraction and electron microscopic studies reveal the high phase purity and size uniformity of as-synthesized LTA zeolite particles. PMID:24655827

  17. Experimental proof for resonant diffusion of normal alkanes in LTL and ZSM-12 zeolites

    E-print Network

    Yoo, K; Smirniotis, P G

    2015-01-01

    The intra-crystalline diffusion of normal alkanes in LTL and ZSM-12 zeolite was experimentally studied via gravimetric measurements performed at different temperatures. A periodic dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the number of carbon atoms in alkane was detected, which is an experimental proof for resonant diffusion. The present observations were described on the base of the existing theory of the resonant diffusion and several important parameters of the alkane-zeolite interaction and zeolite vibrations were obtained. In the considered temperature region the diffusion coefficient follows the Arrhenius law with periodic dependences of the pre-exponential factor and activation energy on the number of carbon atoms in alkanes. A compensation effect of simultaneous increases of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was also established.

  18. Entrapping of Cs and Sr in heat-treated zeolite matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, B.; Caputo, D.; Iucolano, F.; Aprea, P.; de Gennaro, B.

    2013-04-01

    A solidification-stabilization procedure aiming at immobilizing Cs+ and Sr2+, two of the radioactive species more frequently present in nuclear power plant wastewaters, was successfully tested. Both cations were simultaneously exchanged by a blend of two zeolites, a phillipsite-rich tuff, selective for Cs+, and a synthetic zeolite Linde-type A, selective for Sr2+. The contaminated material was then heat treated up to 1200 °C with the result of safely immobilizing both cations, as demonstrated by leaching estimation with three different procedures. X-ray studies of the single cation-loaded zeolites or mixture of them helped to interpret the immobilization mechanism, involving cation trapping in chemically stable crystalline/amorphous matrices formed as a result of firing.

  19. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  20. Formation of cobalt hydrotalcite by cation exchange of Co2+-substitued zeolite X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    Zeolite has been utilized to sequester heavy metals and nuclides due to the high cation exchange capacity. However, once-immobilized cations by zeolite tend to be re-exchanged by other cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, etc) present in groundwater. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanism associated with re-exchange reactions to predict the environmental fate and behavior of the metal cations sequestered by zeolite. In this study, we performed a series of cation exchange experiments using Co2+-substituted zeolite X (Co-X) in concentrated CaCl2 solutions. The radioactive isotope of cobalt (60Co2+), commonly found in low-to-intermediate level nuclear wastes, undergoes radioactive decay, likely altering the physicochemical properties of zeolite by generating heat and irradiation. To simulate such effects, Co-X was thermally treated at 400 and 600oC before re-exchange experiments. At the higher treatment temperature, the re-exchanged amount of Co2+ in Co-X by Ca2+ was found to decrease. According to X-ray diffraction, the re-exchange led to little change in the zeolite crystallinity for thermally untreated samples, but the significantly decreased crystallinity was noted for re-exchanged, thermally treated samples. Nonetheless, 27Al MAS NMR spectra of all re-exchanged samples revealed that the peaks corresponding to 4-fold coordinated Al became broader with their position shifting as a result of the re-exchange, suggesting that the re-exchange caused a short-range order structural distortion for both thermally untreated and treated samples. Also, Co-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to examine the mechanism(s) involved in the re-exchange. By comparison of XAS spectra between re-exchanged samples and model compounds, Co2+ was likely to be either present as an extraframwork cation within zeolite or incorporated into a cobalt hydrotalcite (Co6Al2(OH)16(An-)2/n where An- is an interlayer anion) phase. The relative contribution of an extraframwork Co2+ versus cobalt hydrotalcite in re-exchanged samples was determined using the least squares fitting of EXAFS spectra. Formation of cobalt hydrotalcite became greater with the increasing treatment temperature. Taken together, thermally-induced structural distortion of zeolite enhanced the dealumination of zeolite and the subsequent formation of cobalt hydrotalcite.

  1. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels ({tilde} 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm ? 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles.

  2. Spectroscopic signatures of nitrogen-substituted zeolites.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Karl D; Dogan, Fulya; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Agarwal, Vishal; Conner, W Curtis; Grey, Clare P; Auerbach, Scott M

    2008-11-12

    Nanoporous acid catalysts such as zeolites form the backbone of catalytic technologies for refining petroleum. With the promise of a biomass economy, new catalyst systems will have to be discovered, making shape-selective base catalysts especially important because of the high oxygen content in biomass-derived feedstocks. Strongly basic zeolites are attractive candidates, but such materials are notoriously difficult to make due to the strong inherent acidity of aluminosilicates. Several research groups have endeavored to produce strongly basic zeolites by treating zeolites with amines, but to date there is no compelling evidence that nitrogen is incorporated into zeolite frameworks. In this communication, we detail synthesis, NMR spectroscopy, and quantum mechanical calculations showing that nitrogen adds onto both surface and interior sites while preserving the framework structure of zeolites. This finding is crucial for the rational design of new biomass-refinement catalysts, allowing 50 years of zeolite science to be brought to bear on the catalytic synthesis of biofuels. PMID:18855470

  3. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  4. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach–Zehnder system

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material’s viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach–Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network. PMID:26184722

  5. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach-Zehnder system.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material's viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach-Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network. PMID:26184722

  6. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  7. Unraveling the perplexing structure of the zeolite SSZ-57.

    PubMed

    Baerlocher, Christian; Weber, Thomas; McCusker, Lynne B; Palatinus, Lukas; Zones, Stacey I

    2011-08-26

    Previous high-resolution x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies of the zeolite SSZ-57 could not fully elucidate the structural basis for its puzzling adsorption behavior, which appears to be intermediate between that of a medium- (10-ring) and a large-pore (12-ring) zeolite. Now by applying advanced crystallographic techniques (structure solution in four-dimensional space and interpretation of three-dimensional diffuse scattering by Monte Carlo simulation) and crystal chemistry considerations to high-quality single-crystal x-ray diffraction data collected on a microcrystal (about 2 micrometers by 2 micrometers by 8 micrometers), we have been able to derive a comprehensive description of its silicate framework structure. The framework is related to that of ZSM-11 but is commensurately modulated along the c axis (P4m2, a = b = 20.091 Å, c = 110.056 Å) to yield a structure with a 12-ring:10-ring ratio of 1:15. Disorder of the 12-rings results in a three-dimensional 10-ring channel system with large isolated pockets. The structure helps to clarify the material's catalytic activity. PMID:21868674

  8. New insights into the complex architecture of siliceous copepod teeth.

    PubMed

    Michels, Jan; Vogt, Jürgen; Simon, Paul; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-06-01

    Copepods belong to the dominant marine zooplankton taxa and play an important role in particle and energy fluxes of the marine water column. Their mandibular gnathobases possess tooth-like structures, so-called teeth. In species feeding on large proportions of diatoms these teeth often contain silica, which is very probably the result of a coevolution with the siliceous diatom frustules. Detailed knowledge of the morphology and composition of the siliceous teeth is essential for understanding their functioning and their significance in the context of feeding interactions between copepods and diatoms. Based on analyses of the gnathobases of the Antarctic copepod Rhincalanus gigas, the present study clearly shows, for the first time, that the silica in the siliceous teeth features large proportions of crystalline silica that is consistent with the mineral ?-cristobalite and is doped with aluminium. The siliceous structures have internal chitinous fibre networks, which are assumed to serve as scaffolds during the silicification process. The compact siliceous teeth of R. gigas are accompanied by structures with large proportions of the elastic protein resilin, likely reducing the mechanical damage of the teeth when the copepods feed on diatoms with very stable frustules. The results indicate that the coevolution with diatom frustules has resulted in gnathobases exhibiting highly sophisticated composite structures. PMID:25622509

  9. Calorimetric determination of the acidic character of amorphous and crystalline aluminosilicates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brindusa Dragoi; Antonella Gervasini; Emil Dumitriu; Aline Auroux

    2004-01-01

    Aluminosilicates can present different structures such as crystalline true zeolite molecular sieves or amorphous silica–aluminas. With a large surface area available, both can be involved as catalysts, adsorbents or catalyst supports, and the determination of their surface acidic properties is an important parameter in the study of such materials.The number, strength and strength distribution of the acidic sites were determined

  10. Hydrodewaxing with mixed zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, A.W.; McHale, W.D.; Yen, J.H.

    1986-03-11

    A process is described for catalytically dewaxing a hydrocarbon lubricating oil feedstock comprising contacting the feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst, the dewaxing catalyst comprising, in combination: (a) a zeolite catalyst having a Constraint Index not less than 1, (b) an acidic catalytic material selected from the group consisting of Mordenite, TEA Mordenite, Dealuminized Y, Ultrastable Y, Rare Earth Y, amorphous silica-alumina chlorinated alumina, ZSM-4 and ZSM-20, and (c) a hydrogenation component, and recovering a dewaxed product. A process is also described for catalytically dewaxing a hydrocarbon lubricating oil feedstock comprising contacting the feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst, the dewaxing catalyst comprising, in combinations: (a) a first zeolite catalyst selected from the group consisting of ZSM-5, ZMS-11, ZSM-12, ZSM-22, ZSM-23, ZSM-34, ZSM-35, ZSM-38, ZSM-48, TMA Offretite and Erionite, (b) a second catalyst selected from the group consisting of ZSM-12, ZSM-22, ZSM-38 and ZSM-48, the second zeolite catalyst being different from the first zeolite catalyst, and (c) a hydrogenation component, and recovering a dewaxed product.

  11. Zeolite Mineralogy and Cappadocian Erionite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Umran Dogan

    2003-01-01

    The discovery some 30 years ago that erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral, induced mesotheliomas in those living in certain villages in Cappadocia engendered a vast amount of both geological\\/mineralogical and clinical\\/epidemiological work. Studies initially concentrated on three villages where the incidence of this normally rare tumour correlated with the presence of erionite, and has extended to some new villages also

  12. Preprint typeset using L A T E X style emulateapj v. 6/22/04 THE UNUSUAL SILICATE DUST AROUND HV 2310, AN EVOLVED STAR IN THE LMC

    E-print Network

    Sloan, Gregory C.

    from crystalline silicate grains, and of the available optical constants, forsterite provides the best forsterite, can explain this structure. 2. OBSERVATIONS AND REDUCTIONS Spitzer observed HV 2310 on 2004 April

  13. Silicate matrix for actinide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smelova, T.V.; Krylova, N.V.; Yudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.

    2000-07-01

    Secure immobilization of actinide wastes of complex compositions from the weapons-related program is a very real and difficult problem emerging both in Russia and the United States. Prospective materials to incorporate the wastes are ceramics and glass-ceramics consisting of durable crystalline actinide-containing phases. This paper focuses on the chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of two silicate-based garnet-britholite forms. The samples were produced by inductive melting in a cold crucible. Their compositions in weight percent were as follows: 27.1/29.2 CaO; 25.8/15.4 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 29.1/31.4 SiO{sub 2}; {minus}/3.0 La{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 8.0/5.0 Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3}; {minus}/8.0 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}; {minus}/2.0 EuO; 10.0/{minus}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and {minus}/6.0 ZrO{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray research shows that the first sample is composed of synthetic garnet (70 vol%), britholite (15%), pyroxene-wollastonite (10%), and spinel (5%). A specific feature of the second sample is the existence of glass, which reached up to 90%. The results allow one to conclude that garnet with stoichiometry A{sub 3}{sup VIII}B{sub 2}{sup VI}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}, A = (Ca, Fe{sup 2+}, REE{sup 3+}), B = Fe{sup 3+}, Zr{sup 4+} and britholite {minus}(Ca{sup 2+}, REE{sup 3+}){sub 5}Is{sub 3}O{sub 12.5} have great isomorphic capacities with respect to various species of waste streams.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and carbon dioxide capture properties of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Phan, Anh; Doonan, Christian J; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Knobler, Carolyn B; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

    2010-01-19

    Zeolites are one of humanity's most important synthetic products. These aluminosilicate-based materials represent a large segment of the global economy. Indeed, the value of zeolites used in petroleum refining as catalysts and in detergents as water softeners is estimated at $350 billion per year. A major current goal in zeolite chemistry is to create a structure in which metal ions and functionalizable organic units make up an integral part of the framework. Such a structure, by virtue of the flexibility with which metal ions and organic moieties can be varied, is viewed as a key to further improving zeolite properties and accessing new applications. Recently, it was recognized that the Si-O-Si preferred angle in zeolites (145 degrees ) is coincident with that of the bridging angle in the M-Im-M fragment (where M is Zn or Co and Im is imidazolate), and therefore it should be possible to make new zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with topologies based on those of tetrahedral zeolites. This idea was successful and proved to be quite fruitful; within the last 5 years over 90 new ZIF structures have been reported. The recent application of high-throughput synthesis and characterization of ZIFs has expanded this structure space significantly: it is now possible to make ZIFs with topologies previously unknown in zeolites, in addition to mimicking known structures. In this Account, we describe the general preparation of crystalline ZIFs, discussing the methods that have been developed to create and analyze the variety of materials afforded. We include a comprehensive list of all known ZIFs, including structure, topology, and pore metrics. We also examine how complexity might be introduced into new structures, highlighting how link-link interactions might be exploited to effect particular cage sizes, create polarity variations between pores, or adjust framework robustness, for example. The chemical and thermal stability of ZIFs permit many applications, such as the capture of CO(2) and its selective separation from industrially relevant gas mixtures. Currently, ZIFs are the best porous materials for the selective capture of CO(2); furthermore, they show exceptionally high capacity for CO(2) among adsorbents operating by physisorption. The stability of ZIFs has also enabled organic transformations to be carried out on the crystals, yielding covalently functionalized isoreticular structures wherein the topology, crystallinity, and porosity of the ZIF structure are maintained throughout the reaction process. These reactions, being carried out on macroscopic crystals that behave as single molecules, have enabled the realization of the chemist's dream of using "crystals as molecules", opening the way for the application of the extensive library of organic reactions to the functionalization of useful extended porous structures. PMID:19877580

  15. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 oC and 600 oC) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  16. Resonant diffusion of normal alkanes in zeolites: Effect of the zeolite structure and alkane molecule vibrations

    E-print Network

    Tsekov, R

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion of normal alkanes in one-dimensional zeolites is theoretically studied on the basis of the stochastic equation formalism. The calculated diffusion coefficient accounts for the vibrations of the diffusing molecule and zeolite framework, molecule-zeolite interaction, and specific structure of the zeolite. It is shown that when the interaction potential is predominantly determined by the zeolite pore structure, the diffusion coefficient varies periodically with the number of carbon atoms of the alkane molecule, a phenomenon called resonant diffusion. A criterion for observable resonance is obtained from the balance between the interaction potentials of the molecule due to the atomic and pore structures of the zeolite. It shows that the diffusion is not resonant in zeolites without pore structure, such as ZSM-12. Moreover, even in zeolites with developed pore structure no resonant dependence of the diffusion constant can be detected if the pore structure energy barriers are not at least three times high...

  17. Process for producing zeolite adsorbent and process for treating radioactive liquid waste with the zeolite adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Motojima, K.; Kawamura, F.

    1984-05-15

    Zeolite is contacted with an aqueous solution containing at least one of copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc salts, preferably copper and nickel salts, particularly preferably copper salt, in such a form as sulfate, nitrate, or chloride, thereby adsorbing the metal on the zeolite in its pores by ion exchange, then the zeolite is treated with a water-soluble ferrocyanide compound, for example, potassium ferrocyanide, thereby forming metal ferrocyanide on the zeolite in its pores. Then, the zeolite is subjected to ageing treatment, thereby producing a zeolite adsorbent impregnated with metal ferrocyanide in the pores of zeolite. The adsorbent can selectively recover cesium with a high percent cesium removal from a radioactive liquid waste containing at least radioactive cesium, for example, a radioactive liquid waste containing cesium and such coexisting ions as sodium, magnesium, calcium and carbonate ions at the same time at a high concentration. The zeolite adsorbent has a stable adsorbability for a prolonged time.

  18. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-06-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs+ and/or Sr2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs+ and/or Sr2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900-1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs+ and/or Sr2+ are glass-crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite-nepheline, Sr-feldspar-nepheline and Sr-feldspar-pollucite composites including ˜60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10-20 wt.% of glass. The 137Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10-7 g cm-2 day-1 was determined for the pollucite glass-ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water).

  19. Spin probes of chemistry in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Werst, D.W.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Electron spin resonance (EPR) studies in zeolites are reviewed in which radiolysis was used to ionize the zeolite lattice, create reactive intermediates, spin label reaction products and to provide a window onto chemistry and transport of adsorbates and matrix control of chemistry. The review examines reactions of radical cations and the influence of the geometry constraints inside the zeolite, explores how zeolite model systems can be used to learn about energy and charge transfer in solids and illustrates the use of radiolysis and EPR for in situ spectroscopic studies of solid-acid catalysis. The various spin probes created inside the zeolite pores report on properties of the zeolites as well as shed light on radiolytic processes.

  20. Attempts to Synthesize Zeolitic Composites from Stellerite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Bo Yue; Li Huang; Xin Dong; Jia Hui Xu; Jian Hua Zhu

    2007-01-01

    A feasible method to synthesize NaA and NaY zeolite from stellerite, the very cheap raw material found in China, was reported in this article to reduce the cost of zeolite synthesis for the first time. After stellerite is calcined above 973 K with sodium carbonate, this natural zeolite can be slowly dissolved in alkali solution and partly forms the gels, then

  1. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric C. Moloy

    2004-01-01

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result,

  2. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  3. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  5. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  6. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  7. A Site-Isolated Iridium Diethylene Complex Supported on Highly Dealuminated Y Zeolite: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun,A.; Bhirud, V.; Kletnieks, P.; Haw, J.; Gates, B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly dealuminated Y zeolite-supported mononuclear iridium complexes with reactive ethylene ligands were synthesized by chemisorption of Ir(C2H4)2(C5H7O2). The resultant structure and its treatment in He, CO, ethylene, and H2 were investigated with infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. The IR spectra show that Ir(C2H4)2(C5H7O2) reacted readily with surface OH groups of the zeolite, leading to the removal of C5H7O2 ligands and the formation of supported mononuclear iridium complexes, confirmed by the lack of Ir-Ir contributions in the EXAFS spectra. The EXAFS data show that each Ir atom was bonded to four carbon atoms at an average distance of 2.10 Angstroms, consistent with the presence of two ethylene ligands per Ir atom and in agreement with the IR spectra indicating p-bonded ethylene ligands. The EXAFS data also indicate that each Ir atom was bonded to two oxygen atoms of the zeolite at a distance of 2.15 Angstroms . The supported iridium-ethylene complex reacted with H2 to give ethane, and it also catalyzed ethylene hydrogenation at atmospheric pressure and 294 K. Treatment of the sample in CO led to the formation of Ir(CO)2 complexes bonded to the zeolite. The sharpness of the ?CO bands indicates a high degree of uniformity of these complexes on the support. The iridium-ethylene complex on the crystalline zeolite support is inferred to be one of the most nearly uniform supported metal complex catalysts. The results indicate that it is isostructural with a previously reported rhodium complex on the same zeolite; thus, the results are a start to a family of analogous, structurally well-defined supported metal complex catalysts.

  8. Crystalline inorganic frameworks with 56-ring, 64-ring, and 72-ring channels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yau; Chin, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Hui-Lin; Huang, Wen-Yen; Sie, Ming-Jhe; Huang, Li-Hsun; Lee, Yuan-Han; Lin, Chia-Her; Lii, Kwang-Hwa; Bu, Xianhui; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2013-02-15

    The development of zeolite-like structures with extra-large pores (>12-membered rings, 12R) has been sporadic and is currently at 30R. In general, templating via molecules leads to crystalline frameworks, whereas the use of organized assemblies that permit much larger pores produces noncrystalline frameworks. Synthetic methods that generate crystallinity from both discrete templates and organized assemblies represent a viable design strategy for developing crystalline porous inorganic frameworks spanning the micro and meso regimes. We show that by integrating templating mechanisms for both zeolites and mesoporous silica in a single system, the channel size for gallium zincophosphites can be systematically tuned from 24R and 28R to 40R, 48R, 56R, 64R, and 72R. Although the materials have low thermal stability and retain their templating agents, single-activator doping of Mn(2+) can create white-light photoluminescence. PMID:23348508

  9. Trends in the adsorption and reactivity of hydrogen on magnesium silicate nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Ichraf; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Bromley, Stefan T

    2015-04-14

    We study nanoclusters of Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene (having (MgO)6(SiO2)3 and (MgO)4(SiO2)4 compositions) with respect to their reactivity towards hydrogen atoms, using density functional calculations. Ultrasmall silicate particles are fundamental intermediates in cosmic dust grain formation and processing, and are thought to make up a significant mass fraction of the grain population. Due to their nanoscale dimensions and high surface area to bulk ratios, they are likely to also have a disproportionately large influence on surface chemistry in the interstellar medium. This work investigates the potential role of silicate nanoclusters in vital interstellar hydrogen-based chemistry by studying atomic H adsorption and H2 formation. Our extensive set of calculations confirm the generality of a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation between the H2 reaction barrier and the 2Hchem binding energy, suggesting it to be independent of silicate dust grain shape, size, crystallinity and composition. Our results also suggest that amorphous/porous grains with forsteritic composition would tend to dissociate H2, but relatively Mg-poor silicate grains (e.g. enstatite composition) and/or more crystalline/compact silicate grains would tend to catalyse H2 formation. The high structural thermostability of silicate nanoclusters with respect to the heat released during exothermic H2 formation reactions is also verified. PMID:25746007

  10. Ferromagnetic inclusions in silicate thin films: insights into the magnetic properties of cosmic grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Djouadi; J. Gattacceca; L. D'Hendecourt; P. Rochette; A. P. Jones; C. Davoisne; H. Leroux; J. Borg

    2007-01-01

    Context: We recently reported the formation of metallic inclusions in an amorphous and\\/or crystalline silicate matrix by thermal annealing of thin films in reducing atmospheres. Experimentally, the obtained microstructures closely resemble those of the glass with embedded metal and sulphides (GEMS) found in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs). We present here the magnetic properties of these synthetic samples.

  11. Nanocrystalline Zeolites: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severance, Michael Andrew

    Nanocrystalline zeolite particles are becoming an important material in many technical applications (e.g. zeolite membranes). Synthetic methods that minimize the zeolite crystal diameter, while providing a narrow particle size distribution, are of primary importance in these technical applications. However, there are several limitations to currently existing synthetic routes aimed at producing nanozeolites and zeolite membrane devices. For example, zeolite growth in these contexts typically requires days to weeks at high temperature to crystallize. Despite excellent performance of zeolite membranes in several separation applications, the long synthesis times required undermine any practical application of these technologies. This work focuses on chemical manipulation of zeolite nucleation processes in sol gel systems in effort to address such limitations. The primary findings indicate that careful control of the nucleation stage of a clear zeolite synthesis (optically transparent sol gel) allow the formation of zeolite Y nanocrystals less than 50 nm in diameter with a polydispersity index less than 0.2. Furthermore, chemical perturbations made during the nucleation stage of zeolite Y hydrogel synthesis is shown to accelerate crystal growth by a factor of 3-4, depending on the specific sol gel chemistry. These findings are applied to the nanocrystal seeding and rapid hydrothermal growth of zeolite Y membranes on inexpensive polymeric supports. A novel synthetic method is developed to this end. Also, the chemical and physical properties of monodisperse nanocrystalline zeolite Y synthesized herein are explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the particle interface plays an important role in the ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline zeolites in contrast to their larger zeolite counterparts in analogy to other ceramic and metal oxide ion conductors. Finally, the possibility to produce novel organic and inorganic composite systems through zeolite host-guest chemistry is explored. A nanozeolite-silver nanoparticle host-guest system is synthesized and a mechanism describing its evolution is developed. Also, the photochemistry of a colloidal nanozeolite-organic dye host-guest system is explored with ultrafast transient UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. This allows some of the fastest chemical events to be probed within the host-guest system.

  12. Electronic structure calculations of calcium silicate hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sterne, P.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Many phases in the calcium-silicate-hydrate system can develop in cement exposed over long periods of time to temperatures above 25 C. As a consequence, chemical reactions involving these phases can affect the relative humidity and water chemistry of a radioactive waste repository that contains significant amounts of cement. In order to predict and simulate these chemical reactions, the authors are developing an internally consistent database of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrate structures. The results of first principles electronic structure calculations on two such phases, wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) and xonotlite (Ca{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 17}(OH){sub 2}), are reported here. The calculated ground state properties are in very good agreement with experiment, providing equilibrium lattice parameters within about 1--1.4% of the experimentally reported values. The roles of the different types of oxygen atoms, which are fundamental to understanding the energetics of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrates are briefly discussed in terms of their electronic state densities. The good agreement with experiment for the lattice parameters and the consistency of the electronic density of states features for the two structures demonstrate the applicability of these electronic structure methods in calculating the fundamental properties of these phases.

  13. Tribochemical reactions of erionite and Na-LTA zeolites with Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O: A mössbauer study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de Oñate Martínez; C. Díaz Aguila; J. Fernández Bertrán; E. Reguera Ruíz; C. Portilla Vergara; R. Roque Malherbe

    1992-01-01

    The tribochemical reactions between Na-LTA and natural erionite with Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and NH3 adsorption experiments. The reactions occur with the consequent zeolite dealumination and the formation of a crystalline compound, a product of the extracted aluminum and the sulfate.

  14. Tribochemical reactions of erionite and Na-LTA zeolites with Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O: A mössbauer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oñate Martínez, J.; Aguila, C. Díaz; Bertrán, J. Fernández; Ruíz, E. Reguera; Vergara, C. Portilla; Malherbe, R. Roque

    1992-10-01

    The tribochemical reactions between Na-LTA and natural erionite with Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and NH3 adsorption experiments. The reactions occur with the consequent zeolite dealumination and the formation of a crystalline compound, a product of the extracted aluminum and the sulfate.

  15. Influence of polyelectrolytes on crystallization of zeolite Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köro?lu, Hansu Jülide; Hande Öz, Pembe; Nusret Bulutçu, A.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the influence of polyelectrolytes on the crystallization of zeolite Y is investigated. The prepared synthesis mixtures are aged at room temperature for 24 h and then left to crystallize. The compositional and structural information are provided by elemental analysis obtained by ICP, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analyzer and adsorption and desorption isotherms of nitrogen by a volumetric adsorption instrument. The first group of synthesis studies is conducted by using solutions containing no additive (WA), nonionic (NI), 100% anionic (100A), and 100% cationic (100C) polyelectrolytes. The crystallization temperature and crystallization time are kept at 100 ºC and 48 h, respectively. The experimental results show that nonionic polyelectrolyte has the most influence on the crystallization of zeolite NaY. In the second group of synthesis studies, the effects of polyelectrolytes with various degrees of anionic properties (10%, 50% and 70%) of the same chemical structure are investigated by conducting crystallization experiments at 100 °C for a duration of 48 h. The results suggest that; particle size, crystallinity and BET surface area (SBET) can be controlled by adding anionic polyelectrolytes to the solution.

  16. [Spectroscopic analysis of the crystallization mechanism of synthesized zeolite with XRD and FTIR approaches].

    PubMed

    Fan, Chun-hui; Ma, Hong-rui; Hua, Li

    2012-04-01

    Zeolites were synthesized from fly ash using modified one-stage method. The changes in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and chemical elements of zeolite were investigated during the synthesis process to reveal the materials and elements transformation in solid-liquid system. The approaches of XRD, SEM and FTIR were used to indicate the crystallization characteristics and mechanism. The zeolite NaP1 was synthesized, and the CEC value reached to the maximum of 135 mmol/100g at 24 h. After the hydrothermal reaction for 12 h, the characteristic peak and metastable crystalline structure of zeolite NaP1 appeared, then the hydroxy sodalite products formed at 48 h. The crystallization process was the result of materials transformation: the elements of fly ash released into the liquid system for the melting effect of alkali solution, and the solid system played the role of skeleton in crystallization process, being the "source" and the "sink" of the reaction, respectively, and the achievements presented the crystallization mechanism of liquid-phase and solid-phase transformation. PMID:22715798

  17. Metal/zeolite catalysts of methane dehydroaromatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamonov, N. A.; Fadeeva, E. V.; Grigoriev, D. A.; Mikhailov, M. N.; Kustov, Leonid M.; Alkhimov, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Results of studying methane dehydroaromatization over metal/zeolite catalysts have been reviewed. Special attention has focused on molybdenum catalysts based on HZSM-5 zeolites. The effect of catalyst synthesis and reaction conditions on the catalytic properties of the systems has been scrutinized. Information on the mechanism of the process and the nature of active sites has been reported. The bibliography includes 137 references.

  18. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals

    E-print Network

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22

    . To achieve this end we are attempting to grow zeolite particles in the confined water spaces formed in water/surfactant systems, using these "nanoreactors" to modulate zeolite growth. Our work to date has focused on the synthesis of two-dimensional (5x100x...

  19. The flexibility of zeolites for Hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartbaeva, Asel; Wells, Stephen Anthony; Edwards, Peter P.

    2008-03-01

    The flexibility window is a newly discovered theoretical measure which can provide a valuable selection criterion when evaluating hypothetical zeolite framework structures as potential synthetic targets. Today synthetic zeolites are the most important catalysts in petrochemical refineries. There have been considerable efforts to synthesize new zeolites with specific pore geometries, to add to the 167 available at present. Millions of hypothetical structures have been generated on the basis of energy minimization, and there is an ongoing search for criteria capable of predicting new zeolite structures. The flexibility window appears to be a property of existing zeolite frameworks not shared by many hypothetical structures. It provides a valuable selection criterion when evaluating hypothetical zeolite framework structures as potential synthetic targets. We are investigating the use of zeolites as hydrogen storage materials, as small molecules such as molecular hydrogen and ammonia can be easily absorbed into a flexible framework of zeolites. An exiting possibility is the use of framework flexibility to control hydrogen uptake, storage and release. This would allow a safe use of hydrogen for fuel cells.

  20. Cracking of naphtha range alkanes and naphthenes over zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayim Abrevaya

    2007-01-01

    Naphtha range alkanes and naphthenes can be activated over H-form of zeolites, which provide low temperature cracking pathways that are otherwise unavailable during conventional steam cracking. A range of zeolitic catalysts were tested for cracking naphtha. Due to their relatively larger kinetic diameter, isoalkanes and naphthenes exhibited lower reactivity than linear alkanes over 8-MR zeolites. 12-MR zeolites favored bimolecular hydride

  1. Orthogonal Experiment of Modified Zeolite for Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuo Jinlong

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve ammonia removal capability from wastewater, zeolite was modified in this paper. Some results for virgin zeolite were revealed by SEM, and its structure showed some ions such NH4+ enter into the pore way in the zeolite. The best results could be attained by combined modification with orthogonal experiment. The adsorption capacity of modified zeolite could be

  2. Thermal degradation of epoxy\\/natural zeolite composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Young Lee; Mi-Ja Shim; Sang-Wook Kim

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of thermal degradation of epoxy system filled with natural zeolite were studied by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). All the epoxy composites were degraded in one stage regardless of the zeolite content. In the Freeman & Carroll equation, the activation energy at 20 phr of zeolite was lower than that at any other content of zeolite and these values decreased

  3. Zeolitic materials with hierarchical porous structures.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Orozco, Sofia; Inayat, Amer; Schwab, Andreas; Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2011-06-17

    During the past several years, different kinds of hierarchical structured zeolitic materials have been synthesized due to their highly attractive properties, such as superior mass/heat transfer characteristics, lower restriction of the diffusion of reactants in the mesopores, and low pressure drop. Our contribution provides general information regarding types and preparation methods of hierarchical zeolitic materials and their relative advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, recent advances in the preparation and characterization of hierarchical zeolitic structures within the crystallites by post-synthetic treatment methods, such as dealumination or desilication; and structured devices by in situ and ex situ zeolite coatings on open-cellular ceramic foams as (non-reactive as well as reactive) supports are highlighted. Specific advantages of using hierarchical zeolitic catalysts/structures in selected catalytic reactions, such as benzene to phenol (BTOP) and methanol to olefins (MTO) are presented. PMID:21495091

  4. Polymer precursors to silicate ceramics: Studies of ceramic formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.K.; Martin, M.H.E.; Beecroft, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A route to silicate ceramics based on the pyrolysis of polymer precursors was investigated using high temperature X-ray diffraction. The methacrylate precursors under study have been optimized to produce forsterite, a ceramic which when doped with chromium has been shown to lase in the near infrared at wavelengths suitable for optical communication. Greatest yields occur when monomers capable of producing silicate crosslinks are introduced into the precursor compositions. The formation of forsterite occurs at those temperatures (600-800{degrees}C) producing the greatest rate of mass loss. A transient crystalline phase prior to forsterite formation was revealed by the X-ray studies. The concentration of carbon present in the sample was also observed to delay forsterite formation until higher temperatures. The effect of chromium dopant on ceramic formation will be described.

  5. Nitric oxide adsorbed on zeolites: EPR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiro, Hidenori; Lund, Anders; Shiotani, Masaru

    2004-05-01

    CW-EPR studies of NO adsorbed on sodium ion-exchanged zeolites were focused on the geometrical structure of NO monoradical and (NO) 2 biradical formed on zeolites. The EPR spectrum of NO monoradical adsorbed on zeolite can be characterized by the three different g-tensor components and the resolved y-component hyperfine coupling with the 14N nucleus. Among the g-tensor components, the value of g zz is very sensitive to the local environment of zeolite and becomes a measure of the electrostatic field in zeolite. The temperature dependence of the g-tensor demonstrated the presence of two states of the Na-NO adduct, in rigid and rotational states. The EPR spectra of NO adsorbed on alkaline metal ion-exchanged zeolite and their temperature dependency are essentially the same as that on sodium ion-exchanged zeolite. On the other hand, for NO adsorbed on copper ion-exchanged zeolite it is known that the magnetic interaction between NO molecule and paramagnetic copper ion are observable in the spectra recorded at low temperature. The signals assigned to (NO) 2 biradical were detected for EPR spectrum of NO adsorbed on Na-LTA. CW-EPR spectra as well as their theoretical calculation suggested that the two NO molecules are aligned along their N?O bond axes. A new procedure for automatical EPR simulation is described which makes it possible to analyze EPR spectrum easily. In the last part of this paper, some instances when other nitrogen oxides were used as a probe molecule to characterize the zeolite structure, chemical properties of zeolites, and dynamics of small molecules were described on the basis of selected literature data reported recently.

  6. sup 29 Si and sup 27 Al NMR study of zeolite formation from alkali-leached kaolinites. Influence of thermal preactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, A.; Aznar, A.; Sanz, J.; Serratosa, J.M. (CSIC, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-01-25

    The alkali treatment of kaolinites heated between 400 and 1,000{degree}C has been studied by NMR ({sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al signals), IR, and x-ray diffraction techniques. The dissolution of kaolinite samples produces Al(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and SiO{sub 4}{sup 4{minus}} species which participate in the zeolite germ formation. The nature of zeolites generated (hydroxysodalite, Na-A, and tetragonal P{sub t}) varies with thermal activation of the starting silicates, but the prolonged leaching of the samples favors the transformation of initially formed phases into the most stable P{sub t} zeolite. The synthesis of this compound (Si/Al > 1) requires the previous polymerization of dissolved silica species, and the amount of incorporated Si depends on the temperature of pretreatment of kaolinite.

  7. Ion implantation in silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, G.W.

    1993-12-01

    This review examines the effects of ion implantation on the physical properties of silicate glasses, the compositional modifications that can be brought about, and the use of metal implants to form colloidal nanosize particles for increasing the nonlinear refractive index.

  8. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  9. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2015-01-01

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping is achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. Application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0?nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8?nm average surface roughness. PMID:25958985

  10. Uniform Catalytic Site in Sn-beta Zeolite Determined using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bare,S.; Kelly, S.; Sinkler, W.; Low, J.; Modica, F.; Valencia, S.; Corma, A.; Nemeth, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Sn silicate zeolite, Sn-{beta}, has been shown to be an efficient, selective heterogeneous catalyst for Baeyer-Villiger oxidations. Using primarily a multishell fit to extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data, we show that the Sn does not randomly insert into the {beta}-zeolite structure but rather occupies identical, specific, crystallographic sites. These sites are the T5/T6 sites in the six-membered rings. Moreover, the Sn is substituted in pairs on opposite sides of these six-membered rings. We believe that it is the specific, uniform crystallographic location of the Sn in the crystal structure that leads to sites with uniform catalytic activity, and consequently to the high chemical selectivity demonstrated for this catalyst. This manifests itself in the almost enzyme-like selectivity of this catalyst in Baeyer-Villiger oxidations. This uniform site distribution of the Sn suggests that there is likely a symbiotic relationship between the structure-directing agent in the zeolite synthesis and the Sn heteroatoms during the framework formation.

  11. Framework-incorporated Mn and Co analcime zeolites: Synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Seyed Naser, E-mail: azizi@umz.ac.ir [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani Tilami, Salma [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The framework-substituted cobalt and manganese analcime zeolites were synthesized via a direct hydrothermal approach. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD powder, SEM-EDX, nitrogen physical adsorption, Raman microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy which complementarily demonstrated the incorporation of cobalt and manganese into the zeolites framework. The results showed that substitution of Mn and Co could be placed in two synthesis gels with same compositions containing Al/Mn=5 and Al/Co=4 mol ratios, respectively. In addition, with replacing Al with Mn and synthesis of Mn-modified analcime, zeolite with higher surface area and pore volume could be achieved than the Co modified analcime. - Graphical abstract: The images and adsorption-desorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K for (a) Co (b) Mn modified analcime. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Co and Mn modified analcime for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Framework-incorporation of Co and Mn using the same silicate gel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applying several techniques to provide proofs for the characterization.

  12. THE BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sarah; Padera, Robert F.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    Micro- and nano- mesoporous silicate particles are considered potential drug delivery systems because of their ordered pore structures, large surface areas and the ease with which they can be chemically modified. However, few cytotoxicity or biocompatibility studies have been reported, especially when silicates are administered in the quantities necessary to deliver low-potency drugs. The biocompatibility of mesoporous silicates of particle sizes ~ 150 nm, ~ 800 nm and ~ 4 µm and pore sizes of 3 nm, 7 nm and 16 nm respectively are examined here. In vitro, mesoporous silicates showed a significant degree of toxicity at high concentrations with mesothelial cells. Following subcutaneous injection of silicates in rats, the amount of residual material decreased progressively over three months, with good biocompatibility on histology at all time points. In contrast, intra peritoneal and intra venous injections in mice resulted in death or euthanasia. No toxicity was seen with subcutaneous injection of the same particles in mice. Microscopic analysis of the lung tissue of the mice indicates that death may be due to thrombosis. Although local tissue reaction to mesoporous silicates was benign, they caused severe systemic toxicity. This toxicity could be mitigated by modification of the materials. PMID:18675454

  13. IVb Transition Metal Oxides and Silicates: An Ab Initio Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian-Marco Rignanese

    Using density-functional theory, we investigate the structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of group IVb transition\\u000a metals (M=Hf, Zr, Ti) oxides and silicates which have drawn considerable attention as alternative high-k materials. For the\\u000a oxides, three crystalline phases of dioxide are considered. The first two are the cubic and tetragonal structures which exist\\u000a for hafnia HfO2 or zirconia ZrO2, while it

  14. Interaction between zeolites and cluster compounds. Part 1.?Adsorption of iron pentacarbonyl on zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bein; Peter A. Jacobs

    1983-01-01

    Received 1 1 th November, 1982 The adsorption isotherms of Fe(CO), on Nay, HY and Linde L zeolites obtained in McBain balances show micropore adsorption, whereas additional capillary condensation is found with zeolite omega and Na-mordenite. The pores and\\/or cages of the zeolites studied are completely filled with the complex upon saturation, with the exception of Na-mordenite. Their behaviour is

  15. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in zeolite cages

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes work in the two areas of zeolites and layered double hydroxides. Results of studies on structural aspects of Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+]-zeolite Y are summarized. Photoinduced electron transfer between entrapped Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+] and methylviologen (MV) in neighboring supercages was examined. Benzylviologen was also used. Since molecules larger than 13 [angstrom] cannot be accomodated in zeolite cages, the layered double metal hydroxides (LDH) LiAl[sub 2](OH)[sub 6][sup +]X[sup [minus

  16. Modified 8-ring zeolites as catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergna, H.E.; Corbin, D.R.; Sonnichsen, G.C.

    1988-06-21

    A catalyst composition is described for conversion of methanol and/or dimethylether and ammonia to dimethylamine, comprising at least one modified acidic zeolite selected from the group consisting of chabazite erionite, ZK-5, and rho, the zeolite having been modified by treatment with one or more compounds containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of silicon, aluminum, phosphorus, and boron, to deposit substantially on the external surfaces thereof at least 0.5 weight percent of the element.

  17. Kinetics of zeolite dealumination in steam

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, C.D.; Labouriau, A.; Crawford, S.N.; Romero, R.; Quirin, J.; Earl, W.L.

    1998-08-01

    Zeolite dealumination is a well known phenomenon that contributes to the deactivation or activation of catalysts in several different applications. The most obvious effect is in acid catalysis where dealumination under reaction conditions removes the Broensted sites, thus deactivating the catalyst. The authors are interested in the use of cation exchanged zeolites as selective reduction catalysts for removal of NO{sub x} from exhaust streams, particularly from automotive exhaust. In this case, copper exchanged ZSM-5 has been shown to be an effective catalyst for the generic reaction of NO{sub x} with hydrocarbons. However, high temperature and steam in combustion exhaust causes dealumination and consequent migration of copper out of the zeolite structure resulting in rapid deactivation of the catalyst. Dealumination of zeolites has been reported by many authors in uncountable papers and cannot be reviewed here. However, to the authors` knowledge there are no reports on the kinetics of dealumination under varying conditions of temperature and steam. By measuring the kinetics of dealumination with different zeolites and exchange cations they expect to develop working models of the dealumination process that will allow control of zeolite deactivation. This manuscript is a description of the basic techniques used and a progress report on the very beginning of this study.

  18. Three Mile Island zeolite vitirification demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Knowlton, D.E.; Shupe, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The cleanup of the high-activity-level water at Three Mile Island (TMI) provides an opportunity to further develop waste management technology. Approximately 790,000 gallons of high-activity-level water at TMI's Unit-2 Nuclear Power Station will be decontaminated at the site using the submerged demineralizer system (SDS). In the SDS process, the cesium and strontium in the water are sorbed onto zeolite that is contained within metal liners. The Department of Energy has asked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to take a portion of the zeolite from the SDS process and demonstrate, on a production scale, that this zeolite can be vitrified using the in-can melting process. This paper is a brief overview of the TMI zeolite vitrification program. The first section discusses the formulation of a glass suitable for immobilizing SDS zeolite. The following section describes a feed system that was developed to feed zeolite to the in-can melter. It also describes the in-can melting process and the government owned facilities in which the demonstrations will take place. Finally, the schedule for completing the program activities is outlined.

  19. Microstructural aspects of zeolite formation in alkali activated cements containing high levels of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brough, A.R.; Katz, A.; Bakharev, T.; Sun, G.K.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Struble, L.J.; Young, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement Based Materials

    1995-02-01

    Wasteforms made by reaction at elevated temperature of a highly e simulated low level nuclear waste solution, having high sodium ion concentration, with a cementitious blend high in fly ash have been studied. Significant formation of Na-P1 zeolite (gismondine framework) and of a sodalite occurred. The time evolution of the crystalline phases over the first 28 days is reported for both adiabatic and isothermal curing, and the role of these phases in microstructure development is discussed. The level of carbonate ions in solution was found to have a substantial effect on strength evolution and chemistry.

  20. Facile synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicates constructed with crystalline microporous frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoyu; Ren, Yanqun; Duan, Qianqian; Chen, Fei; Xi, Hongxia; Qian, Yu

    2013-08-01

    A hierarchically micro-mesoporous structured ZSM-5 zeolite has been synthesized from assembly of aluminosilcate species with a tetra-quaternary ammonium type surfactant, in which the surfactant acts as two-level structure-directing templates for generating micropores and mesopores simultaneously. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Quantum chemical calculation. X-ray diffraction as well as nitrogen sorption analyses indicated the dual-porosity of samples, one is from intra-crystalline micropores, and the other is from mesopores. Quantum chemical calculation results showed that the inner ammonium groups of surfactant had more higher molecular degrees of freedom for the zeolite-structure-directing function. Moreover, on the basis of the same concept, this method could be extended to investigate other hierarchically structured zeolites.

  1. Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.W. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

  2. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM); Odinek, Judy G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  3. Hemolytic activity of five different calcium silicates.

    PubMed Central

    Skaug, V; Gylseth, B

    1983-01-01

    Mineral characteristics and the in vitro hemolytic activity of three synthetic and two natural calcium silicates (CaSi) are compared. Hemolysis is higher for the synthetic compounds than for the natural ones. The difference is accentuated by weak ultrasonication of the minerals. No variation was observed within the two groups, including both acicular and fibrous forms. Calcium was released from the minerals during storage in Tris-buffered saline. At the same time, hemolysis decreased, and crystallographic alterations occurred in the leached minerals. Treatment of the CaSi with calcium chelators (EGTA and EDTA) did not change hemolytic activity. An increase was observed when 30 mM calcium was added. Hemolysis is related to specific surface areas and the crystalline structure of the minerals. Calcium may also be a contributing factor. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c FIGURE 1. d FIGURE 1. e FIGURE 1. f FIGURE 7. a FIGURE 7. b FIGURE 7. c FIGURE 7. d FIGURE 7. e FIGURE 7. f PMID:6315361

  4. Lithologic mapping of silicate rocks using TIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Common rock-forming minerals have thermal infrared spectral features that are measured in the laboratory to infer composition. An airborne Daedalus scanner (TIMS) that collects six channels of thermal infrared radiance data (8 to 12 microns), may be used to measure these same features for rock identification. Previously, false-color composite pictures made from channels 1, 3, and 5 and emittance spectra for small areas on these images were used to make lithologic maps. Central wavelength, standard deviation, and amplitude of normal curves regressed on the emittance spectra are related to compositional information for crystalline igneous silicate rocks. As expected, the central wavelength varies systematically with silica content and with modal quartz content. Standard deviation is less sensitive to compositional changes, but large values may result from mixed admixture of vegetation. Compression of the six TIMS channels to three image channels made from the regressed parameters may be effective in improving geologic mapping from TIMS data, and these synthetic images may form a basis for the remote assessment of rock composition.

  5. Use of zeolitized pumice waste as a water softening agent.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, I; Catalfamo, P; Cavallari, L; Di Pasquale, S

    2007-08-17

    Important pumice quarries are located on the island of Lipari (Italy) where an intense activity of extraction, transformation and trade of pumice takes place. Nevertheless, the finest fraction amounting to about 60% of mined pumice is discarded and disposed off in open-sky pits. This implies economic losses for mining industries and environmental problems for neighbouring villages. In order to find a sustainable use of this waste, we resumed and improved an old extractive process with aqueous sodium alkali, where a sodium silicate concentrated solution was produced together with an unextracted residue partially converted into zeolite P in Na+ form and now we are searching for suitable applications of this residue. In this paper, we relate about its use as a low cost water softening agent on the basis of results obtained from several tests both in batch systems and column. They show that, at room temperature, the residue works well with calcium and badly with magnesium, whereas, at 60 degrees C, also the affinity toward Mg ions increases to acceptable levels. Repeated regenerations of the residue with concentrated NaCl solutions do not appreciably compromise the performance. The limits for the possible use as water softening agent are defined. PMID:17320286

  6. Preparation of environmentally friendly alkylglucoside surfactants using zeolites as catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Corma, A.; Iborra, S.; Miquel, S.; Primo, J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Valencia (Spain)] [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Valencia (Spain)

    1996-07-01

    Acid zeolites were evaluated for glycosidation activity of D-glucose and n-butanol. Zeolites with high Si/Al ratios such as faujasite and beta are the most suitable catalysts. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Branched vs. linear hydrocarbon separations with novel modified zeolites.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Gary R.; Noble, Richard D.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Arruebo, Manuel; Ulutagay-Kartin, Mutlu; Anderson, Thomas M.

    2004-08-01

    Conclusions of this paper are: (1) Adsorption/desorption on bulk unmodified zeolites showed isoprene adsorbed by zeolite-L and n-pentane adsorbed by zeolite-Y and ZSM-5; (2) Bulk carbonization is used to passivate zeolite activity toward organic adsorption/decomposition; (3) Based on the bulk modified zeolite separation results, we have determined that the MFI type has the most potential for isoprene enrichment; (4) Modified MFI type membranes are jointly made by Sandia and the Univ. of Colorado. Separation experiments are performed by Goodyear Chemical; (5) Isoprene/n-pentane separations have been demonstrated by using both zeolite membranes and modified bulk zeolites at various temperatures on the Goodyear Pilot-scale unit; and (6) Target zeolite membrane separations values of 6.7% isoprene enrichment have been established by economic analysis calculations by Burns & McDonnell.

  8. Branched vs. linear hydrocarbon separations with novel modified zeolites.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Gary R.; Noble, Richard D.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Arruebo, Manuel; Ulutagay-Kartin, Mutlu; Johnston, Kaylynn; Anderson, Thomas M.

    2005-06-01

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) Adsorption/desorption on bulk unmodified zeolites showed isoprene adsorbed by zeolite-L and n-pentane adsorbed by zeolite-Y and ZSM-5; (2) Bulk carbonization is used to passivate zeolite activity toward organic adsorption/decomposition; (3) Based on the bulk modified zeolite separation results, we have determined that the MFI type has the most potential for isoprene enrichment; (4) Modified MFI type membrane are jointly made by Sandia and the Univ. of Colorado. Separation experiments are performed by Goodyear Chemical; (5) Isoprene/n-pentane separations have been demonstrated by using both zeolite membranes and modified bulk zeolites at various temperatures on the Goodyear Pilot-scale unit; and (6) Target zeolite membrane separations values of 6.7% isoprene enrichment have been established by economic analysis calculations by Burns & McDonnell.

  9. Smart zeolites: New forms of tungsten and molybdenum oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ozin, G.A.; Prokopowicz, R.A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Oezkar, S. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    1992-12-01

    In this Account, the authors describe their recent research efforts involving the use of volatile hexacarbonylmolybdenum and -tungstem compounds, as precursors in the synthesis of highly organized assemblies of molecular dimension molybdenum and tungsten oxides, encapsulated within the diamond network of 13-[Angstrom] supercages found in zeolite Y. These assemblies are extremely uniform in terms of their nuclearity and structure, and their exclusive internal confinement inside of and lack of significant perturbation of the zeolite Y host. In these materials, the bulk form of the metal oxide has essentially been reconstituted within the nanoscale void spaces of a crystalline aluminosilicate framework host. The electronic and structural properties of these molecular metal oxide arrays can be easily manipulated as a result of their facile redox interconvertibility, and the further capability of fine tuning their electronic enviornment by choosing which charge-balancing cation is present in the supercage. Bulk forms of WO[sub 3] and MoO[sub 3], which possess octahedral building blocks arranged into open framework, layer, and tunnel structures, are probably most famous for their ability to reversibly accept metal cations and protons into their internal void spaces and electron-charge-transfer equivalents into their conduction bands. This fascinating property enables them to function as intelligent materials in, for example, electrochromic windows, mirrors and displays, rechargeable solid-state batteries, pH-microelectrochemical transistors, and chemical sensors. In addition, their narrow-band-gap semiconductor properties allow them to be usefully exploited in liquid junction solar and electrochemical cells.23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Separation of xylene mixtures using polyurethane—zeolite composite membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingjiang Jessie Lue; Tsai-hsin Liaw

    2006-01-01

    Fractionation of o- and p-xylene isomeric mixtures was performed using pervaporation (PV) with polyurethane (PU) membranes containing ZSM zeolite. The xylene vapor sorption isotherms exhibited a Henry's law relationship in this PU–zeolite blend. In binary solutions the individual xylene uptake was also proportional to the solvent composition. Although incorporating zeolite into the PU–zeolite membrane rendered a decrease in xylene solubility

  11. Zeolite structure type EAB: Crystal structure and mechanism for the topotactic transformation of the Na, TMA form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. M.; Groner, M.

    1981-04-01

    Synthetic zeolite (Na, TMA)-E represents a new structure type designated EAB. Detailed structure analyses based on X-ray powder diffraction data have been carried out at room temperature, 220°C, and 350°C. The silicate framework, having maximum symmetry {P6 3}/{mmc}, consists of parallel 6-rings in ABBACC sequence as opposed to AABAAC in erionite (with which it has mistakenly been identified). Large changes in conformation of the EAB framework precede the transformation of (Na, TMA)-E to a sodalite-type product above 360°C. There are also strong indications for this reaction to be topotactic, whereby only one-twelfth of the original siloxane bridges are broken. Details of an acid-base reaction mechanism proceeding in characteristic loops of the structure are discussed. This process brings about the inversion of one-third of the tetrahedra in the silicate framework. The presence of water appears to be essential in this model-type reaction.

  12. The influence of metakaulinite crystallinity on the properties of a geopolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. M. G. Pinto; M. A. F. Melo; A. E. Martinelli

    Geopolymers is a result of polymers condensation of alkali aluminosilicates and silicates causing three- dimensional polymer structures. The chemical and physico-chemical properties of their precursors influence directly on the properties of the material hardened. To understand what happens in geopolymerics pastes, this work studies the crystallinity of metakaulinite on the rheological and mechanical properties of geopolymer. It was hereby concluded

  13. Catalytically active and hierarchically porous SAPO-11 zeolite synthesized in the presence of polyhexamethylene biguanidine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Qu, Wei; Chang, Weiwei; Pan, Shuxiang; Tian, Zhijian; Meng, Xiangju; Rigutto, Marcello; van der Made, Alexander; Zhao, Lan; Zheng, Xiaoming; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-03-15

    Hierarchically porous SAPO-11 zeolite (H-SAPO-11) is rationally synthesized from a starting silicoaluminophosphate gel in the presence of polyhexamethylene biguanidine as a mesoscale template. The sample is well characterized by XRD, N2 sorption, SEM, TEM, NMR, XPS, NH3-TPD, and TG techniques. The results show that the sample obtained has good crystallinity, hierarchical porosity (mesopores at ca. 10 nm and macropores at ca. 50-200 nm), high BET surface area (226 m(2)/g), large pore volume (0.25 cm(3)/g), and abundant medium and strong acidic sites (0.36 mmol/g). After loading Pt (0.5 wt.%) on H-SAPO-11 by using wet impregnation method, catalytic hydroisomerization tests of n-dodecane show that the hierarchical Pt/SAPO-11 zeolite exhibits high conversion of n-dodecane and enhanced selectivity for branched products as well as reduced selectivity for cracking products, compared with conventional Pt/SAPO-11 zeolite. This phenomenon is reasonably attributed to the presence of hierarchical porosity, which is favorable for access of reactants on catalytically active sites. The improvement in catalytic performance in long-chain paraffin hydroisomerization over Pt/SAPO-11-based catalyst is of great importance for its industrial applications in the future. PMID:24461835

  14. Hydrogen isotope separation using molecular sieve of synthetic zeolite 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoh, K.; Kimura, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kudo, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Univ., 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    It is known that hydrogen isotope molecules can be adsorbed easily onto synthetic zeolite 4A, 5A, and 13X at the liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77.4 K. We show here that hydrogen and deuterium are not adsorptive onto zeolite 3A at the same temperature. This phenomenon is explained by assuming the molecular sieve function in zeolite-3A-crystalline lattice structure. From a series of pseudo-isobaric experiments, it is also shown that the sieving phenomenon appears in a range above 77.4 K. This behavior is interpreted as resulting on the dependence of sieve's mesh size on temperature, where the sieving effect is considered to appear at a certain temperature. In this interpretation, an isotopic difference between hydrogen and deuterium is suggested to exist in the sieving effect appearance temperatures. This is endorsed in the result of pseudo-isobaric experiments. This temperature deference is very significant because that indicates the possibility of an effective method of hydrogen isotope separation. This possibility is verified through an experimental series of adsorption-desorption with a mixture of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, where the gas samples adsorbed through the sieve operated at intentionally selected temperatures are isolated and then analyzed. The result demonstrates remarkable values of isotope separation factor. (authors)

  15. Durability of Zeolite Against Repeated Activation Treatments with Microwave Heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Ohgushi; Mayumi Nagae

    2005-01-01

    The durability of zeolite X against repeated treatments with microwave heating was studied, and properties of the zeolite as desiccant were compared and assessed with those of the most popular commercial desiccants (calcium chloride) for home use. Mixed cationic forms of zeolite with a ratio of Na-X\\/Ca-X = 5 g\\/45 g in a full hydration was used to achieve desirable

  16. New vistas in zeolite and molecular sieve catalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Davis

    1993-01-01

    There is a close connection between the microscopic structures and the macroscopic properties of zeolite catalysts. The ability to control the zeolite properties through synthetic efforts will continue to be of great importance. At present, the control of zeolite properties mainly involves molecular level manipulations of structural features, e.g., pore size and location of active sites. That is to say,

  17. Preparation, Processing, and Characterization of Oriented Polycrystalline Zeolite and Aluminophosphate Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeger, Jared Andrew

    Since the advent of zeolite membranes, speculation on their industrial applicability has been closely monitored, although widespread commercialization has been hampered by limitations in fabrication and post-synthesis processing. Economical, energy-efficient technology breakthroughs require an evaluation of a range of material candidates which show robustness and reliability. Straightforward manufacturing techniques should be devised to generate thousands of square meters of membrane area; however, this demands control of structural characteristics on the scale of nanometers. As described in this dissertation, the path forward will be forged by exploiting the intrinsic crystalline properties of zeolites or aluminophosphates for the next advancement in membrane technology. A facile method is described for the preparation of silicalite-1 (MFI zeolite type) membranes using the secondary growth technique on symmetric porous stainless steel tubes. Activation through rapid thermal processing (RTP), a lamp-based heat-treatment process used as a critical fabrication step in silicon integrated circuit manufacturing, is proven to reduce the density of non-zeolitic transport pathways which are detrimental to high-resolution molecular sieving. RTP-treated membranes are shown to have enhanced performance in the binary separation of vapor-phase isomers (p-/o-xylene), gas-phase isomers (n-/i-butane), and alcohol/water when compared to membranes activated at a much slower heating rate but otherwise similarly-prepared. The performance is discussed in the context of the market potential for industrially-attractive separations: the recovery of p-xylene from an isomeric mixture or alcohol biofuels from aqueous post-fermentation streams. Hydrothermal growth techniques for the preparation and characterization of continuous aluminophosphate (AFI zeolite type) membranes with a preferential crystallographic alignment on porous alpha-Al2O3 disc supports are demonstrated. A mechanism is proposed for flake-like crystal formation in the early stages of in-plane crystalline intergrowth between oriented columnar crystals by electric heating. It is shown that elevated temperatures induce a phase transformation to a densified aluminophosphate phase despite framework metal substitution or alternative heat-treatment conditions. Additionally, stability and membrane characteristics following in situ microwave growth using a TiO2-coated support are examined. Indications of improved quality validate the candidacy of the microwave-grown membranes with regard to the potential for carbon nanotube synthesis in the aligned one-dimensional channels for high flux, high separation factor membrane fabrication.

  18. Formation of NaA and -X zeolites from waste solutions in conversion of coal fly ash to zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidekazu Tanaka; Yasuhiko Sakai; Ryozi Hino

    2002-01-01

    Na-A and -X zeolites were synthesized from waste solutions in conversion of coal fly ash (Fa) to zeolite. The amorphous SiO2 and Al2O3 of Fa were completely dissolved to form Po, Pt, and Pc type zeolites in NaOH solutions at 85°C. Only 24% of Si4+ eluted from Fa were converted to the zeolites and the remaining waste solutions contained high

  19. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. PMID:24106151

  20. Topological crystalline insulator nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Cha, Judy J

    2014-11-01

    Topological crystalline insulators are topological insulators whose surface states are protected by the crystalline symmetry, instead of the time reversal symmetry. Similar to the first generation of three-dimensional topological insulators such as Bi?Se? and Bi?Te?, topological crystalline insulators also possess surface states with exotic electronic properties such as spin-momentum locking and Dirac dispersion. Experimentally verified topological crystalline insulators to date are SnTe, Pb?-xSnxSe, and Pb?-xSnxTe. Because topological protection comes from the crystal symmetry, magnetic impurities or in-plane magnetic fields are not expected to open a gap in the surface states in topological crystalline insulators. Additionally, because they have a cubic structure instead of a layered structure, branched structures or strong coupling with other materials for large proximity effects are possible, which are difficult with layered Bi?Se? and Bi?Te?. Thus, additional fundamental phenomena inaccessible in three-dimensional topological insulators can be pursued. In this review, topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanostructures will be discussed. For comparison, experimental results based on SnTe thin films will be covered. Surface state properties of topological crystalline insulators will be discussed briefly. PMID:25350386

  1. Electrical properties of some Y 2 O 3 and\\/or Fe 2 O 3 -containing lithium silicate glasses and glass-ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed M. Gomaa; Hussein Darwish; Saad M. Salman

    2008-01-01

    The ac electrical properties of some lithium silicate glasses and glass-ceramics containing varying proportions of Y2O3 and\\/or Fe2O3 were measured to investigate their electronic hopping mechanism. There is a clear variation of these properties with composition.\\u000a The obtained results were related to the concentration and role of Y2O3 and\\/or Fe2O3 in the lithium silicate glass structure. In crystalline solids the

  2. Role of high-resolution electron microscopy in the identification and characterization of new crystalline, microporous materials: Reading off the structure and symmetry elements of pentasil molecular sieves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Terasaki; John M. Thomas; G. Robert Millward; D. Watanabe

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of establishing the structure of new microporous, crystalline solids such as zeolites, porosils, and aluminum phosphates by using high-resolution electron microscopy are assessed and illustrated with reference to ZSM-5. In particular, it is shown that the structure and symmetry elements of this member of the pentasil family may, by comparison of computed and observed (at 200 and 1000

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized copper-silicate with mel structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Hai Tang; Jing-Zhong Wang; He-Xuan Li

    2004-01-01

    Nano-sized copper silicalite with MEL structure has been hydrothermally synthesized for the first time under static conditions. The physicochemical property of this novel material was characterized by means of XRD, TEM, FT-IR, ESR, TG-DTA and NH3-TPD techniques. The results revealed that the as-synthesized copper silicalite was highly thermally stable owing to its siliceous nature. This monophased crystalline material was quite

  4. The Formation of Molecular Hydrogen on Silicate Dust Analogs: The Rotational Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G.; Sabri, T.; Jæger, C.

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory experiments continue to explore how the formation of molecular hydrogen is influenced by dust and how dust thereby affects hydrogen molecules adsorbed on its surface. In Sabri et al., we present the preparation of nanometer-sized silicate grain analogs via laser ablation. These analogs illustrate extremes in structure (fully crystalline or fully amorphous grains), and stoichiometry (the forsterite and fayalite end-members of the olivine family). These were inserted in FORMOLISM, an ultra-high vacuum setup where they can be cooled down to ~5 K. Atomic beams are directed at these surfaces and the formation of new molecules is studied via REMPI(2+1) spectroscopy. We explored the rotational distribution (0 <= J'' <= 5) of v'' = 0 of the ground electronic state of H2. The results of these measurements are reported here. Surprisingly, molecules formed and ejected from crystalline silicates have a cold (T rot ~ 120 K) rotational energy distribution, while for molecules formed on and ejected from amorphous silicate films, the rotational temperature is ~310 K. These results are compared to previous experiments on metallic surfaces and theoretical simulations. Solid-state surface analysis suggests that flatter grains could hinder the "cartwheel" rotation mode. A search for hot hydrogen, predicted as a result of H2 formation, hints at its production. For the first time, the rotational distribution of hydrogen molecules formed on silicate dust is reported. These results are essential to understanding the chemistry of astrophysical media containing bare dust grains.

  5. The formation of molecular hydrogen on silicate dust analogs: The rotational distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l'Observatoire de Paris et de l'Université de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Syracuse University, Physics Department, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320, USA. (United States); Sabri, T.; Jæger, C., E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@obspm.fr [Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory experiments continue to explore how the formation of molecular hydrogen is influenced by dust and how dust thereby affects hydrogen molecules adsorbed on its surface. In Sabri et al., we present the preparation of nanometer-sized silicate grain analogs via laser ablation. These analogs illustrate extremes in structure (fully crystalline or fully amorphous grains), and stoichiometry (the forsterite and fayalite end-members of the olivine family). These were inserted in FORMOLISM, an ultra-high vacuum setup where they can be cooled down to ?5 K. Atomic beams are directed at these surfaces and the formation of new molecules is studied via REMPI(2+1) spectroscopy. We explored the rotational distribution (0 ? J'' ? 5) of v'' = 0 of the ground electronic state of H{sub 2}. The results of these measurements are reported here. Surprisingly, molecules formed and ejected from crystalline silicates have a cold (T {sub rot} ? 120 K) rotational energy distribution, while for molecules formed on and ejected from amorphous silicate films, the rotational temperature is ?310 K. These results are compared to previous experiments on metallic surfaces and theoretical simulations. Solid-state surface analysis suggests that flatter grains could hinder the 'cartwheel' rotation mode. A search for hot hydrogen, predicted as a result of H{sub 2} formation, hints at its production. For the first time, the rotational distribution of hydrogen molecules formed on silicate dust is reported. These results are essential to understanding the chemistry of astrophysical media containing bare dust grains.

  6. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces, the co-ion exchange strengthens the polymer/silicate interface and ensures irreversible separation of the silicate layers. One way in which it does this is to essentially tether one amine of each diamine molecule to a silicate surface, leaving the second amine free for reaction with monomers during the synthesis of a polymer. In addition, the incorporation of alkyl ammonium ions into the galleries at low concentration helps to keep low the melt viscosity of the oligomer formed during synthesis of the polymer and associated processing - a consideration that is particularly important in the case of a highly cross-linked, thermosetting polymer. Because of the chemical bonding between the surface-modifying amines and the monomers, even when the alkyl ammonium ions become degraded at high processing temperature, the silicate layers do not aggregate and, hence, nanometer-level dispersion is maintained.

  7. Catalytic crystallization of ices by small silicate smokes at temperatures less than 20K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M.; Ferrante, R.; Hudson, R.; Tanabe, T.; Nuth, J.

    1993-03-01

    Samples of methanol and water ices condensed from the vapor onto aluminum substrates at low temperatures (below approximately 80 K) form amorphous ices; annealing at temperatures in excess of 140-155 K is usually required to convert such amorphous samples to crystalline ices. However, we have found that when either methanol or water vapor is deposited on to aluminum substrates that have been coated with a thin (0.1-0.5 mm) layer of amorphous silicate smoke, the ices condense in crystalline form. We believe that crystalline ice forms as the result of energy liberated at the ice/silicate interface perhaps due to weak bonding of the ice at defect sites on the grains and the very high surface to volume ratio and defect density of these smokes. Annealing of amorphous water ice mixed with more volatile components such as methane, carbon monoxide, etc., has been suggested as an efficient way to produce clatherates in the outer solar nebula and thus explain the volatile content of comets and icy satellites of the outer planets. This hypothesis may need to be re-examined if amorphous ice does not form on cold silicate grains.

  8. Catalytic crystallization of ices by small silicate smokes at temperatures less than 20K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M.; Ferrante, R.; Hudson, R.; Tanabe, T.; Nuth, J.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of methanol and water ices condensed from the vapor onto aluminum substrates at low temperatures (below approximately 80 K) form amorphous ices; annealing at temperatures in excess of 140-155 K is usually required to convert such amorphous samples to crystalline ices. However, we have found that when either methanol or water vapor is deposited on to aluminum substrates that have been coated with a thin (0.1-0.5 mm) layer of amorphous silicate smoke, the ices condense in crystalline form. We believe that crystalline ice forms as the result of energy liberated at the ice/silicate interface perhaps due to weak bonding of the ice at defect sites on the grains and the very high surface to volume ratio and defect density of these smokes. Annealing of amorphous water ice mixed with more volatile components such as methane, carbon monoxide, etc., has been suggested as an efficient way to produce clatherates in the outer solar nebula and thus explain the volatile content of comets and icy satellites of the outer planets. This hypothesis may need to be re-examined if amorphous ice does not form on cold silicate grains.

  9. [Research on the mineral phase and component of non-crystalline and nano-crystalline corrosion products on bronzes unearthed from Shang Tomb in Xingan].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-lin; Pan, Lu

    2012-05-01

    The patinas on bronzes in Shang Tomb of Xingan were powdery, pale green, which were more like "bronze disease", but the mineral composition of patinas was not paratacamite or atacamite. Micro X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance transmission electroscope (HTEM) showed that the patinas were mainly composed of non-crystalline and nano-crystalline SnO2, and the size of nano-crystalline particle was in the range of 4-5.7 nm; Moreover, the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed that element tin is the primary ingredient of the sample, as well as little copper, silicon, lead and iron were detected. By studying the crystal lattice stripe image of the nanometer SnO2, it was deduced that the chemical formula of nano-crystalline SnO2 did not include other elements; The Raman spectrum of the sample showed that there were not any characteristic peaks of SnO2, the spectrum was more like non-crystalline SnO2, and the weak and broad peak of 973 cm(-1) indicated that the sample may contain silicate grains, It was inferred that little of copper, silicon, lead and iron should exist in the form of non-crystalline silicate particles. PMID:22827070

  10. Chemical evaluation of hypothetical uninodal zeolites.

    PubMed

    Foster, Martin D; Delgado Friedrichs, Olaf; Bell, Robert G; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Klinowski, Jacek

    2004-08-11

    Optimized structural parameters, framework energies relative to alpha-quartz, and volumes accessible to sorption have been calculated for the systematically enumerated hypothetical uninodal zeolitic structures (structures in which all tetrahedral sites are equivalent). The structures were treated as silica polymorphs, and their energies were minimized using the GULP program with the Sanders-Catlow silica potential. Results are given for 164 structures, which include all 21 known uninodal zeolites, two known minerals (tridymite and cristobalite), and 78 unknown zeolite topologies. Twenty-three hypothetical structures were identified as chemically feasible. Complete structural information is provided, and several structures are discussed in detail. The results will assist in the design of new synthetic routes and in the identification of newly synthesized materials. PMID:15291580

  11. Triamterene crystalline nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samih H; Milliner, Dawn S; Wooldridge, Thomas D; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Medications can cause a tubulointerstitial insult leading to acute kidney injury through multiple mechanisms. Acute tubular injury, a dose-dependent process, occurs due to direct toxicity on tubular cells. Acute interstitial nephritis characterized by interstitial inflammation and tubulitis develops from drugs that incite an allergic reaction. Other less common mechanisms include osmotic nephrosis and crystalline nephropathy. The latter complication is rare but has been associated with several drugs, such as sulfadiazine, indinavir, methotrexate, and ciprofloxacin. Triamterene crystalline nephropathy has been reported only rarely, and its histologic characteristics are not well characterized. We report 2 cases of triamterene crystalline nephropathy, one of which initially was misdiagnosed as 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalline nephropathy. PMID:23958399

  12. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. PMID:25002191

  13. Crystal engineering of zeolites with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Paul; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; Ren, Zhibin; Cooke, David J.; Elliott, James A.; Eder, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    Achieving control over the morphology of zeolite crystals at the nanoscale is crucial for enhancing their performance in diverse applications including catalysis, sensors and separation. The complexity and sensitivity of zeolite synthesis processes, however, often make such control both highly empirical and difficult to implement. We demonstrate that graphene can significantly alter the morphology of titanium silicalite (TS-1) particles, in particular being able to reduce their dimensions from several hundreds to less than 10 nm. Through electron microscopy and molecular mechanics simulations we propose a mechanism for this change based on the preferential interaction of specific TS-1 surfaces with benzyl-alcohol-mediated graphene. These findings suggest a facile new means of controlling the zeolite morphology and thereby also further demonstrate the potential of graphene in hybrid materials. Moreover, the generality of the mechanism points the way to a new avenue of research in using two-dimensional materials to engineer functional inorganic crystals.Achieving control over the morphology of zeolite crystals at the nanoscale is crucial for enhancing their performance in diverse applications including catalysis, sensors and separation. The complexity and sensitivity of zeolite synthesis processes, however, often make such control both highly empirical and difficult to implement. We demonstrate that graphene can significantly alter the morphology of titanium silicalite (TS-1) particles, in particular being able to reduce their dimensions from several hundreds to less than 10 nm. Through electron microscopy and molecular mechanics simulations we propose a mechanism for this change based on the preferential interaction of specific TS-1 surfaces with benzyl-alcohol-mediated graphene. These findings suggest a facile new means of controlling the zeolite morphology and thereby also further demonstrate the potential of graphene in hybrid materials. Moreover, the generality of the mechanism points the way to a new avenue of research in using two-dimensional materials to engineer functional inorganic crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00320a

  14. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal. PMID:22633878

  15. Determination of the bulk modulus of hydroxycancrinite, a possible zeolitic precursor in geopolymers, by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Eun Oh; Simon M. Clark; Paulo J. M. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline zeolitic materials, such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite, herschelite and nepheline, are often synthesized from geopolymerization using fly-ash and solutions of NaOH at high temperatures. Comprised mainly of 6-membered aluminosilicate rings that act as basic building units, their crystal structures may provide insight into the reaction products formed in NaOH-activated fly ash-based geopolymers. Recent research indicates that the hydroxycancrinite and hydroxysodalite

  16. Tribochemical reactions of erionite and Na-LTA zeolites with Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .5H 2 O: A mössbauer study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de Oñate Martínez; C. Díaz Aguila; J. Fernández Bertrán; E. Reguera Ruíz; C. Portilla Vergara; R. Roque Malherbe

    1992-01-01

    The tribochemical reactions between Na-LTA and natural erionite with Fe2(SO4)35H2O were studied by Mssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and NH3 adsorption experiments. The reactions occur with the consequent zeolite dealumination and the formation of a crystalline\\u000a compound, a product of the extracted aluminum and the sulfate.

  17. Erupted silicic cumulates in large ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.; Huber, C.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    If chemical diversity in igneous rocks is dominated by crystal-liquid separation in open-system magma reservoirs, a significant number of crystal accumulation zones must be preserved in the crust and upper mantle. Such cumulates are conspicuous in mafic lithologies (MOR, layered mafic intrusions, lower crustal arc sections), but have rarely been described and/or are controversial in the silicic upper crust. Although it is possible to recognize signs of crystal accumulations in plutonic exposures, the fact that these batholiths are typically: 1) at least several millions of years old, 2) multi-stage, 3) deformed and 4) biased towards the youngest intrusive episodes, some ambiguity remains in how to interpret geochemical and textural observations. We have chosen to explore large zoned ignimbrites, which represent an instantaneous evacuation of an upper crustal magma reservoir, to isolate potential crystal accumulation zones. Late-erupted, crystal-rich scoria with unusual chemistries (e.g., high Ba, Zr, Eu/Eu*) have been found in multiple examples of these zoned ignimbrites around the world, including the 900+ km3 Ammonia Tanks and Carpenter Ridge Tuffs, both erupted during the Tertiary magmatic flare-up in the Western USA. As already suggested for the 7700 BP Crater Lake ignimbrite, such crystal-rich scoria have mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that are most convincingly explained by accumulation of low temperature minerals as highly-evolved melt escapes upward and pools at the top of large crystalline mushes. To account for the eruption of such crystal-rich zones (technically uneruptible with >50vol% crystals), some melting of low-temperature mineral phases is required; evidence for resorption textures in sanidine and quartz is commonplace in these scoria. The presence of mafic enclaves and/or mingling textures in such scoria indicate that recharge from below ultimately drove melting of part of the mineral assemblage within the cumulate rootzone, while simultaneously triggering eruption of the voluminous crystal-poor cap.

  18. Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization on internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1998-01-01

    Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars. PMID:9520372

  19. Guest/host relationships in the synthesis of the novel cage-based zeolites SSZ-35, SSZ-36, and SSZ-39

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, P.; Nakagawa, Y.; Lee, G.S.; Davis, M.E.; Elomari, S.; Medrud, R.C.; Zones, S.I.

    2000-01-19

    This report describes the synthesis and structure of three high-silica molecular sieves, SSZ-35, SSZ-36, SSZ-39, that are prepared from a library of 37 different cyclic and polycyclic quaternized amine molecules that are used as structure-directing agents (SDAs). The size and shape of the quaternized amine molecules are purposely designed in order to obtain novel zeolite structure, and the synthesis of these molecules is presented. The selectivity for the three molecular sieve phases is found to depend on both the SDA and the degree of heteroatom lattice substitution of Al{sup 3+} or B{sup 3+} in the silicate framework. Molecular modeling is utilized to probe the effects of the nonbonded SDA/zeolite-framework interaction energy on the selectivity for the observed molecular sieve phase. The Reitveld refinement of the powder X-ray data confirms the structure of the SSZ-39 zeolite to be isomorphous with the aluminophosphate molecular sieve, SAPO-18 (AEI). The structure of SSZ-36 is found to possess a range of fault probabilities between the two-dimensional channel system, end-member polymorphs, ITQ-3 and RUB-13 (International Zeolite Association Codes ITE and RTH, respectively). The SSZ-35 structure is reported to contain a one-dimensional pore system possessing stacked cages circumscribed by alternating rings of 10 and 18 tetrahedral atoms (10- and 18-membered rings).

  20. Silicate stabilization studies in propylene glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.A. [ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)

    1999-08-01

    In most North American and many European coolant formulations, the corrosion inhibition of heat-rejecting aluminum surfaces is provided by alkali metal silicates. But, their tendency towards polymerization, leading to gelation and/or precipitation, can reduce the effectiveness of a coolant. This paper presents the results of experiments which illustrate formulation-dependent behavior of inorganic silicate in propylene glycol compositions. Specific examples of the effects of glycol matrix, stabilizer type, and hard water on silicate stabilization are provided.

  1. THE EFFECT OF HEAVY COSMIC-RAY IONS ON SILICATE GRAINS IN THE INTERSTELLAR DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Szenes, G. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Kovacs, V. K.; Pecz, B. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Skuratov, V., E-mail: szenes@metal.elte.h [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-01

    Electronmicroscopic samples of crystalline Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} forsterite were irradiated by energetic Ar, Fe, Kr, and Xe ions at room temperature. Tracks with a mean radius R{sub e} = 1.36 nm were observed after irradiation by 56 MeV Fe ions, while no tracks were induced by a 48 MeV Ar beam. Amorphization of forsterite grains by cosmic-ray (CR) Fe ions are discussed, including the effects of low temperature, ion velocity, and ion-induced crystallization. CR Fe ions induce amorphous tracks in crystalline forsterite only in the range 40-140 MeV, and the period of time for complete amorphization is tau{sub cr} approx 13,400 Myr. Our estimate is tau{sub cr} approx 1300 Myr for enstatite. Thus, heavy CR particles do not reduce the crystallinity of silicate grains within a reasonable time, as supposed previously. However, energetic ions can induce crystallization in amorphous solids, and this may be partially or fully responsible for the estimated 0.2% crystallinity of silicates in the interstellar medium.

  2. Chemical interactions in multimetal/zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sachtler, W.M.H.

    1992-02-07

    Mechanistic explanations have been found for the migration of atoms and ions through the zeolite channels leading to specific distribution of ions and the metal clusters. In this report, we summarize the state of understanding attained on a number of topics in the area of mono- and multimetal/zeolite systems, to which our recent research has made significant contributions. The following topics are discussed: (1) Formation of isolated metal atoms in sodalite cages; (2) differences of metal/zeolite systems prepared by ion reduction in channels or via isolated atoms; (3) rejuvenation of Pd/NaY and Pd/HY catalysts by oxidative redispersion of the metal; (4) formation of mono- or bimetal particles in zeolites by programmed reductive decomposition of volatile metal complexes; (5) cation-cation interaction as a cause of enhanced reducibility; (6) formation of palladium carbonyl clusters in supercages; (7) enhanced catalytic activity of metal particle-proton complexes for hydrocarbon conversion reactions; (8) stereoselectivity of catalytic reactions due to geometric constraints of particles in cages.

  3. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  4. Silver clusters and chemistry in zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Sun; Karl Seff

    1994-01-01

    The spectroscopic work done on silver clusters trapped in solid noble gas matrices at low temperature has been extensively reviewed by Ozin, and Henglein has done the same for photochemical studies of colloidal silver particles in solution. This article will review the chemistry of silver in zeolite hosts, including the synthesis and structures of silver clusters. 127 refs.

  5. Silver clusters and chemistry in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, T.; Seff, K. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-06-01

    The spectroscopic work done on silver clusters trapped in solid noble gas matrices at low temperature has been extensively reviewed by Ozin, and Henglein has done the same for photochemical studies of colloidal silver particles in solution. This article will review the chemistry of silver in zeolite hosts, including the synthesis and structures of silver clusters. 127 refs.

  6. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-12-15

    This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

  7. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  8. The 8-13 micron spectra of comets and the composition of silicate grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.

    1994-04-01

    We have analyzed the existing spectra of seven comets which show an emission feature at 7.8-13 micrometers. Most have been converted to a common calibration, taking into account the SiO feature in late-type standard stars. The spectra are compared with spectra of the Trapezium, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), laboratory mineral samples, and small particle emission models. The emission spectra show a variety of shapes; there is no unique 'cometary silicate'. A peak at 11.20-11.25 micrometers, indicative of small crystalline olivine particles, is seen in only three comets of this sample, P/Halley, Bradfield 1987 XXIX, and Levy 1990 XX. The widths of the emission features range from 2.6 to 4.1 micrometers (FWHM). To explain the differing widths and the broad 9.8 micrometers maximum, glassy silicate particles, including both pyroxene and olivine compositions, are the most plausible candidates. Calculations of emission models confirm that small grains of glassy silicate well mixed with carbonaceous material are plausible cometary constituents. No single class of chondritic aggregate IDPs exhibits spectra closely matching the comet spectra. A mixture of IDP spectra, particularly the glass-rich aggregates, approximately matches the spectra of comets P/Halley, Levy, and Bradfield 1987 XXIX. Yet, if comets are simply a mix of IDP types, it is puzzling that the classes of IDPs are so distinct. None of the comet spectra match the spectrum of the Trapezium. Thus, the mineralogy of the cometary silicates is not the same as that of the interstellar medium. The presence of a component of crystalline silicates in comets may be evidence of mixing between high- and low-temperature regions in the solar nebula.

  9. Models for silicate melt viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, D.; Russell, K.; Moretti, R.; Mangiacapra, A.; Potuzak, M.; Romano, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The prediction of viscosity in silicate liquids, over the range of temperatures and compositions encountered in nature, remains one of the most challenging and elusive goals in Earth Sciences. Recent work has demonstrated that there are now sufficient experimental measurements of melt viscosity to create new viscosity models to replace previous Arrhenian models [1],[2] and extend the compositional range of more recent non-Arrhenian models [3]. Most recently, [4] have developed an empirical strategy for accurately predicting viscosities over a very wide range of anhydrous silicate melt compositions (e.g., rhyolite to basanite). Future models that improve upon this work, will probably extend the composition range of the model to consider, at least, H2O and other volatile components and may utilize a compositional basis that reflects melt structure. In preparation for the next generation model, we explore the attributes of the three most common equations that could be used to model the non-Arrhenian viscosity of multicomponent silicate melts. The equations for the non-Arrhenian temperature dependence of viscosity (? ) include: a) Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT): log ? = A + B/(T - C) b) Adam and Gibbs (AG): log ? = A + B/[T log (T/C)], and c) Avramov (Av): log ? = A + [B/T]? We use an experimental database of approximately 900 high-quality viscosity measurements on silicate melts to test the ability of each equation to capture the experimental data. These equations have different merits [5]. VFT is purely empirical in nature. The AG model has a quasi-theoretical basis that links macroscopic transport properties directly to thermodynamic properties via the configurational entropy. Lastly, the model proposed by Avramov adopts a form designed to relate the fit parameter (? ) to the fragility of the melt. [1] Shaw, H.R., 1972. Am J Science, 272, 438-475. [2] Bottinga Y. and Weill, D., 1972. Am J Science, 272, 438-475. [3] Hess, K.U. and Dingwell, D.B, 1996, Am Min, 81, 1297-1300. [4] D. Giordano & D.B. Dingwell, 2003. EPSL. 208, 337 (and related corrige EPSL 221, 449) [5] J.K. Russell, D. Giordano & D.B. Dingwell, 2003. Am Min 88, 1390

  10. Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiOxC4-x tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiOxC4-x tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10–100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle. PMID:24043830

  11. Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiO(x)C(4-x) tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiO(x)C(4-x) tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10-100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle. PMID:24043830

  12. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  13. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  14. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  19. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  20. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  1. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

  3. Interaction of Microwaves with Synthetic Type A Zeolite Containing Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Takayama, Sadatsugu; Sano, Saburo

    2013-11-01

    A synthetic honeycomb type A zeolite adsorbent was regenerated through microwave irradiation in a single-mode cavity microwave at 2.46 GHz. The regeneration mechanism was investigated by comparing the heating properties, thermogravimetric properties, and dielectric properties of the synthetic zeolite samples. The hydrated zeolite sample was easily heated to over 200 °C, although a difference in the impedance matching frequency of only 0.01 GHz sharply reduced the maximum heating and increased the regeneration time. The adsorbed water in the hydrated zeolite initially acted as a heating agent by absorbing microwave energy, because the dielectric loss factor of water is higher than that of synthetic zeolite around 2.45 GHz. From 50 to 250 °C, the zeolite itself also absorbed microwave energy.

  4. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  5. Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.

    1994-02-01

    The authors have studied the kinetics of oxylose/xylulose isomerization in significant detail over a variety of zeolites and obtained the pseudo-first order reaction rate constants. The authors have found that HY zeolite is still the best material and zeolites are more selective than homogeneous acid catalysts where decomposition of the sugar compounds is much faster. They have completed, as described in the Year 2 Work Plan, the study of cellobiose hydrolysis with an ion exchange resin. The kinetics of the solid-catalyzed reaction is qualitatively similar to that for catalysis by homogeneous acids. The planned program of NMR studies has revealed the dynamics of sugar molecules within the zeolite cavities. Two chemisorbed and a physisorbed state have been identified in HY zeolite. A new state, accounting for as much as a half of the sugar, has been found in ZSM-5 zeolite.

  6. Advanced zeolites used in FCC catalysts boost motor octane number

    SciTech Connect

    Letzsch, W.S.; Magee, J.S.; Upson, L.L.; Valeri, F. (Katalistiks International, Baltimore, MD (US))

    1988-10-31

    Fluid catalytic cracking catalysts that contain an advanced zeolite called LZ-210, have been shown, by commercial trials, to increase the motor octane number (MON) of the FCC gasoline produced. The zeolite crystal utilizes lower unit cell size, lower sodium in the zeolite, less alumina debris in the zeolite structure, and silica reinsertion into the zeolite structure to accomplish the MON increase. Data from commercial trials are presented to support the MON increases, along with some explanations of how the advanced zeolite accomplishes them. A strong gasoline market and the removal of lead have combined to place a premium on clear gasoline octanes. Because gasoline from fluid catalytic cracking units is the largest segment of the refinery pool (up to 40%), its octane numbers are particularly important. Traditional emphasis has been on the research octance number (RON) but motor octanes frequently limit the blending process.

  7. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-08-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations.

  8. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations. PMID:23949184

  9. Chemical Interactions in Multimetal/Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.

    2004-04-16

    This two-year project has led to a significant improvement in the fundamental understanding of the catalytic action of zeolite-supported redox catalysts. It turned out to be essential that we could combine four strategies for the preparation of catalysts containing transition metal (TM) ions in zeolite cavities: (1) ion exchange from aqueous solution; (2) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a volatile halide onto a zeolite in its acidic form; (3) solid state ion exchange; and (4) hydrothermal synthesis of a zeolite having TM ions in its lattice, followed by a treatment transporting these ions to ''guest positions''. Technique (2) enables us to position more TM ions into cavities than permitted by the conventional technique (1).viz one positive charge per Al centered tetrahedron in the zeolite lattice. The additional charge is compensated by ligands to the TM ions, for instance in oxo-ions such as (GaO){sup +} or dinuclear [Cu-O-Cu]{sup 2+}. While technique (3) is preferred over CVD where volatile halides are not available, technique (4) leads to rather isolated ''ex lattice'' oxo-ions. Such oxo-ions tend to be mono-nuclear, in contrast to technique (2) which preferentially creates dinuclear oxo-ions of the same TM element. A favorable element for the present research was that the PI is also actively engaged in a project on the reduction of nitrogen oxides, sponsored by EMSI program of the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy, Office of Science. This combination created a unique opportunity to test and analyze catalysts for the one step oxidation of benzene to phenol and compare them with catalysts for the reduction of nitrogen oxides, using hydrocarbons as the reductant. In both projects catalysts have been used which contain Fe ions or oxo-ions in the cavities the zeolite MFI, often called ZSM-5. With Fe as the TM-element and MFI as the host zeolite we found that catalysts with high Fe content, prepared by technique (2) were optimal for the De-NO{sub x} reaction, but extremely unselective for benzene oxidation to phenol. Conversely, the catalysts prepared with (4) had the highest turnover frequency for benzene oxidation, but performed very poorly for NO{sub x} reduction with so-butane. In fact the Fe concentration in the former catalysts were so low that it was necessary to design a special experimental program for the sole purpose of showing that it is really the Fe which catalyzes the benzene oxidation, not some acid center as has been proposed by other authors. For this purpose we used hydrogen sulfide to selectively poison the Fe sites, without deactivating the acidic sites. In addition we could show that the hydrothermal treatment of catalysts prepared by technique (4) is essential to transform iron ions in the zeolite lattice to ''ex lattice ions'' in guest positions. That line of the work required very careful experimentation, because a hydrothermal treatment of a zeolite containing Fe ions in its cavities can also lead to agglomeration of such ions to nano-particles of iron oxide which lowers the selectivity for the desired formation of phenol. This part of the program showed convincingly that indeed Fe is responsible for the benzene oxidation catalysis. The results and conclusion of this work, including the comparison of different catalysts, was published in a number of papers in the scientific literature, listed in the attached list. In these papers also our analysis of the reaction orders and the possible mechanism of the used test reaction are given.

  10. Silicate Glass Corrosion Mechanism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Lenting, Christoph; Dohmen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) of aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste borosilicate glasses is essential to predict their long-term aqueous durability in a geologic repository. Several observations have been made with compositionally different silicate glasses that cannot be explained by any of the established glass corrosion models. These models are based on diffusion-controlled ion exchange and subsequent structural reorganisation of a leached, hydrated residual glass, leaving behind a so-called gel layer. In fact, the common observation of lamellar to more complex pattern formation observed in experiment and nature, the porous structure of the corrosion layer, an atomically sharp boundary between the corrosion zone and the underlying pristine glass, as well as results of novel isotope tracer and in situ, real time experiments rather support an interface-coupled glass dissolution-silica reprecipitation model. In this model, the congruent dissolution of the glass is coupled in space and time to the precipitation and growth of amorphous silica at an inwardly moving reaction front. We suggest that these coupled processes have to be considered to realistically model the long-term performance of silicate glasses in aqueous environments.

  11. Tin-containing silicates: alkali salts improve methyl lactate yield from sugars.

    PubMed

    Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Osmundsen, Christian M; Fristrup, Peter; Holm, Martin S; Taarning, Esben

    2015-02-01

    This study focuses on increasing the selectivity to methyl lactate from sugars using stannosilicates as heterogeneous catalyst. All group?I ions are found to have a promoting effect on the resulting methyl lactate yield. Besides, the alkali ions can be added both during the preparation of the catalyst or directly to the solvent mixture to achieve the highest reported yield of methyl lactate (ca. 75?%) from sucrose at 170?°C in methanol. The beneficial effect of adding alkali to the reaction media applies not only to highly defect-free Sn-Beta prepared through the fluoride route, but also to materials prepared by post-treatment of dealuminated commercial Beta zeolites, as well as ordered mesoporous stannosilicates, in this case Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. These findings open the door to the possibility of using other preparation methods or different Sn-containing silicates with equally high methyl lactate yields as Sn-Beta. PMID:25605624

  12. Synthesis of double-layer silicates from recycled glass cullet: A new type of chemical adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, M.W.; Marks, J.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.

    1999-01-15

    Curbside recycling of glass bottles and jars has been extremely successful. Those glasses that are sorted by color are a marketable commodity; those that are not have no immediate commercial value and must be disposed of in landfills. With proper chemical treatment, however, mixed-glass cullet can be transformed into claylike chemical adsorbents. By mixing ground glass cullet with either alkali hydroxide or alkali carbonate solutions one is able to form a hydrous double-layer silicate known as rhodesite (NaKCa{sub 2}[Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O). Tests of the adsorptive and cation exchange properties comparable to natural clays and zeolites. Whereas natural materials tend to become sticky and/or lose their granularity when wet, rhodesite-based adsorbents do not.

  13. Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage Using Fly Ash Zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bably Prasad; Robert J. G. Mortimer

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two Indian fly ashes (from Talcher and Ramagundam) were converted into zeolites and both the raw fly ash and\\u000a zeolite were used to treat two British acidic mine waters. The results demonstrate that fly ash zeolites are more effective\\u000a than raw fly ash for treatment of acid mine drainage. Fly ash has been found effective for removal

  14. Zeolite-combined plasma reactor for decomposition of toluene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-M. Oh; H.-H. Kim; H. Einaga; A. Ogata; S. Futamura; D.-W. Park

    2006-01-01

    Toluene was decomposed in a surface-discharge plasma reactor and the combined effect of zeolite in the plasma reactor was studied. The decomposition of toluene and the product compositions depended on the reactor configuration and the capacity of zeolite to adsorb toluene. Toluene adsorbed on the zeolite (micro-pores) was not properly decomposed in the head of the plasma (P1), while it

  15. Heat of adsorption of ammonia by type E zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Khvoshchev; V. E. Skazyvaev; S. P. Zhdanov; I. V. Karetina

    1978-01-01

    Conclusions 1.Measurement has been made of the heat evolved in the adsorption of ammonia on calcium, calcium-sodium, and sodium forms of type E zeolites.2.The Ca2+ cations of type E zeolites are more active which respect to adsorbing ammonia molecules than are the Ca2+ ions of synthetic faujasites and type A zeolites.3.The results obtained are analyzed in terms of lattice position

  16. Modified zeolites as catalysts in the Friedel-Crafts acylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Gaare; Duncan Akporiaye

    1996-01-01

    Modified zeolites were found to be active catalysts in the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole by acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride. The effect of two different modifications of the zeolites were tested; lanthanum-exchange and varying the SiAl ratio. For the rare-earth modified zeolites, the activity was found to be dependent on the lanthanum content, and the yield increased with the level

  17. Microwave synthesis of LTA zeolite membranes without seeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanshuo Li; Hongliang Chen; Jie Liu; Weishen Yang

    2006-01-01

    A new method called “in-situ aging—microwave synthesis” was developed for zeolite membrane synthesis. High quality LTA zeolite membranes were successfully microwave-synthesized without seeding by this method. It was found that the formed zeolite layer was composed of sphere grains with undefined crystal facets. The necessity of in-situ aging was discussed. The effects of synthesis parameters including in-situ aging temperature, time

  18. Sorption of {sup 239}Np and {sup 235}U fission products by zeolite Y, Mexican natural erionite, and bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Olguin, M.T.; Solache, M.; Iturbe, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. (Mexico)]|[Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, C.P. (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Zeolite Y, erionite, and bentonite have been used in this work to remove {sup 239}Np and {sup 235}U fission products from aqueous solutions at various pH values. It was found that the sorption of fission products by aluminosilicates takes place by different mechanisms, mainly ion exchange, precipitation, and electrostatic surface interaction. The radionuclides content was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction was used to learn whether the solids maintained their crystallinity at different pH values.

  19. Availability of phosphorus in calcium silicate slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Anderson; G. H. Snyder; J. D. Warren

    1992-01-01

    Significant yield increases of sugarcane and rice have been observed in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida from application of soluble silicon as calcium silicate slag. Although calcium silicate slag contains trace quantities of P, significant quantities of P can be applied using commercial rates of slag. This may be of concern to both the agronomists responsible for determining P

  20. The speciation of water in silicate melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Stolper

    1982-01-01

    Previous models of water solubility in silicate melts generally assume essentially complete reaction of water molecules to hydroxyl groups. In this paper a new model is proposed that is based on the hypothesis that the observed concentrations of molecular water and hydroxyl groups in hydrous silicate glasses reflect those of the melts from which they were quenched. The new model

  1. Tetraethylenepentamine embedded zeolite A for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ki; Mo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Jun; You, Hyo-Sang; Yi, Chang-Keun; Park, Young Cheol; Park, Sang-Eon

    2013-04-01

    Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) embedded zeolite A crystals were synthesized by using TEPA and the preformed zeolite A precursor under the microwave irradiation. The presence of TEPA in zeolite A crystal was confirmed by TG analysis and FTIR, Raman spectra. The CO2 adsorptive behavior of TEPA embedded zeolite A samples was investigated by CO2 isotherms measured at 25 degrees C comparing with zeolite A. The optimum CO2 sorption capacity was found in the case of 7.5% TEPA embedded zeolite A, which showed 3.75 mmol g(-1) where as the zeolite A showed less CO2 adsorption capacity of 2.88 mmol g(-1). The adsorption capacity of TEPA embedded Zeolite A was sustained up to 90% during 4 cycles of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) from 40 degrees C to 140 degrees C, indicating that the TEPA embedded Zeolite A was found to be useful as one of the application to solid amine adsorbent for CO2. PMID:23763147

  2. LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLY OF NANOZEOLITE BASED ON POLYMERIC MICROSPHERE: ZEOLITE COATED SPHERE AND HOLLOW ZEOLITE SPHERE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuli Yang; Xingdong Wang; Yi Tang; Yajun Wang; Chen Ke; Shoukuan Fu

    2002-01-01

    Zeolite ?, silicalite-1, ZSM-5, and TS-1 coated spheres have been prepared successfully through layer-by-layer assembly of nanozeolite\\/polymer multilayers on polystyrene (PS) microspheres, and hollow zeolite spheres have been obtained by removal of the core by calcination. In the adsorption process of nanozeolites onto the polyelectrolyte-modified template spheres, it has been found that zeta potential of the zeolite colloidal solution that

  3. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  4. Olefins from methanol by modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, T.; Takegami, Y.

    1982-11-01

    Compares the effects of modified catalysts (ZSM-34 and ZSM-5 class zeolites) on methanol conversion to olefins (MTO) with regard to olefin selectivity and cost. Presents tables with prices of olefins in the US and Japan; comparison of methanol-cracking with naphtha cracking; methanol conversion data for Type-1, Type-II and reference catalysts; hydrocarbon distribution from MTO processes; and speculative economics for MTO processes of Concept-1 and 2. Diagrams the proposed MTO process scheme. Scanning electron micrographs of the zeolite catalysts are shown. Graphs indicate the change of ethylene prices in the US since 1978 and forecast ethylene prices in several countries. Concludes that the prices of ethylene for both MTO processes examined compare favorably with products of conventional processes.

  5. Electrical Response of PEDOT-PSS/FAU Zeolite Composites toward SO2: Controlling the Adsorption Properties of FAU Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthaanont, Pojjawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    In our work, we propose to combine a conductive polymer, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), with FAU zeolites to investigate the potential of the composites for use as SO2 sensing materials.Composites with PEDOT-PSS as a matrix containing faujasite zeolites of various cation types (divalent transition metal ions: Fe^2+, Co^2+, Ni^2+ and Cu^2+), were fabricated to investigate the effect of the cation type of the faujasite zeolites on the electrical conductivity response when exposed to SO2. The composite was tested through repeated sensing and recovery processes to investigate the reversibility and reproducibility. During the recovery process, the electrical conductivity of the composites were recovered, which proves that the sensing characteristics are repeatable. Responses and the interaction mechanism of the conductive polymer/zeolite composites were investigated. The composite with 20% (v/v) of zeolite content gives the highest sensitivity. The electrical conductivity responses of PEDOT-PSS/Zeolite composites can be altered due to the available adsorption sites for gas molecules. The addition of zeolites to the pristine PEDOT-PSS improved the electrical conductivity sensitivity of the composites by enhancing the interaction between PEDOT-PSS and SO2. The type of cation in the zeolite pores effected the sensitivity of the composites, depending on the acidity of the ion-exchanged zeolites.

  6. Modified ruthenium exchanged zeolites for enantioselective hydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Pârvulescu; S. Coman; C. Radu; D. Macovei; Em Angelescu; R. Russu

    1995-01-01

    Preparation of modified ruthenium molecular sieves has been investigated in two steps-depositionof ruthenium and modifying of ruthenium molecular sieves in presence of ligands. As support sieve there were used two molecular sieves with large pore apertures and low acidity strength (zeolite L and APO-34). Correlation of in situ UV-VIS ruthenium deposition measurements with catalyst characterisation revealed that ruthenium deposition takes

  7. Preliminary results of sulfide melt/silicate wetting experiments in a partially melted ordinary chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, mechanisms for core formation in planetary bodies have received considerable attention. Most current theories emphasize the need for large degrees of silicate partial melting to facilitate the coalescence and sinking of sulfide-metal liquid blebs through a low strength semi-crystalline silicate mush. This scenario is based upon observations that sulfide-metal liquid tends to form circular blebs in partially molten meteorites during laboratory experiments. However, recent experimental work by Herpfer and Larimer indicates that some sulfide-Fe liquids have wetting angles at and slightly below 60 deg in an olivine aggregate, implying an interconnected melt structure at any melt fraction. Such melt interconnectivity provides a means for gravitational compaction and extraction of the majority of a sulfide liquid phase in small planetary bodies without invoking large degrees of silicate partial melting. Because of the important ramifications of these results, we conducted a series of experiments using H-chondrite starting material in order to evaluate sulfide-liquid/silicate wetting behavior in a more complex natural system.

  8. Interaction of hydrogen with surfaces of silicates: single crystal vs. amorphous.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Frank, Paul; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2011-09-21

    We have studied how the formation of molecular hydrogen on silicates at low temperature is influenced by surface morphology. At low temperature (<30 K), the formation of molecular hydrogen occurs chiefly through weak physical adsorption processes. Morphology then plays a role in facilitating or hindering the formation of molecular hydrogen. We studied the formation of molecular hydrogen on a single crystal forsterite and on thin films of amorphous silicate of general composition (Fe(x)Mg((x-1)))(2)SiO(4), 0 < x < 1. The samples were studied ex situ by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM), and in situ using Thermal Programmed Desorption (TPD). The data were analysed using a rate equation model. The main outcome of the experiments is that TPD features of HD desorbing from an amorphous silicate after its formation are much wider than the ones from a single crystal; correspondingly typical energy barriers for diffusion and desorption of H, H(2) are larger as well. The results of our model can be used in chemical evolution codes of space environments, where both amorphous and crystalline silicates have been detected. PMID:21808801

  9. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA Dental Composites Reinforced with Electrospun Nylon 6 Nanocomposite Nanofibers Containing Highly Aligned Fibrillar Silicate Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ming; Gao, Yi; Liu, Yi; Liao, Yiliang; Xu, Riwei; Hedin, Nyle E.; Fong, Hao

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the reinforcement of electrospun nylon 6/fibrillar silicate nanocomposite nanofibers on Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental composites. The hypothesis was that the uniform distribution of nano-scaled and highly aligned fibrillar silicate single crystals into electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers would improve the mechanical properties of the resulting nanocomposite nanofibers, and would lead to the effective reinforcement of dental composites. The nylon 6/fibrillar silicate nanocomposite nanofibers were crystalline, structurally oriented and had an average diameter of approximately 250 nm. To relatively well distribute nanofibers in dental composites, the nanofiber containing composite powders with a particle structure similar to that in interpenetration networks were prepared first, and then used to make the dental composites. The results indicated that small mass fractions (1 % and 2 %) of nanofiber impregnation improved the mechanical properties substantially, while larger mass factions (4 % and 8 %) of nanofiber impregnation resulted in less desired mechanical properties. PMID:17940586

  10. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1991-12-31

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  11. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G. (Bryan, TX); Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  12. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  13. Crystalline beam ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Li, Xiao-Ping [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sessler, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-11

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing.

  14. Some observations on the synthesis of fully-dispersible nanocrystalline zeolite ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Rosilda; Chiang, Anthony S T

    2014-09-01

    A facile method for the rapid synthesis of fully-dispersible ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 100) of about 30 nm size in high yield (about 91%) is described. The method comprises three steps, viz., concentration of an initial clear solution, low-temperature (80 degrees C) ageing of concentrated sol, and high-temperature (175 degrees C) hydrothermal treatment or microwave heating (175 degrees C) of aged concentrated sol. A simple vacuum-concentration method was used for the extraction of pure NPs of ZSM-5 in solution. XRD, FT-IR, TGA and ASAP characterizations showed that the NPs were partially crystalline. The concentration step accelerated the aggregation of primary units, which helps in the production of a large number of nucleation centers protected by TPA+ ions against aggregation. During low-temperature ageing, the number of critical sized nuclei increases, growing into zeolite. The high-temperature heating results in the complete growth of unreacted silica, giving high yields. A key factor for generating small non-aggregated zeolite crystals is the amount of water in the synthesis sol. The three-step method presented here produces a target material of small and uniform sized, non-aggregated ZSM-5 of about 30 nm in a short reaction time. The results are significant, as the synthesis method adopted here produces much uniform, non-aggregated nanocrystalline ZSM-5 in a shorter time with high yield. PMID:25924414

  15. Molecular Heterogeneous Catalysis: a Single-Site Zeolite-Supported Rhodium Complex for Acetylene Cyclotrimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kletnieks, P.W.; Liang, A.J.; Craciun, R.; Ehresmann, J.O.; Marcus, D.M.; Bhirud, V.A.; Klaric, M.M.; Hayman, M.J.; Guenther, D.R.; Bagatchenko, O.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Gates, B.C.; Haw, J.F.

    2009-06-01

    By anchoring metal complexes to supports, researchers have attempted to combine the high activity and selectivity of molecular homogeneous catalysis with the ease of separation and lack of corrosion of heterogeneous catalysis. However, the intrinsic nonuniformity of supports has limited attempts to make supported catalysts truly uniform. We report the synthesis and performance of such a catalyst, made from [Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COCHCOCH{sub 3})] and a crystalline support, dealuminated Y zeolite, giving {l_brace}Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{r_brace} groups anchored by bonds to two zeolite oxygen ions, with the structure determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and the uniformity of the supported complex demonstrated by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. When the ethylene ligands are replaced by acetylene, catalytic cyclotrimerization to benzene ensues. Characterizing the working catalyst, we observed evidence of intermediates in the catalytic cycle by NMR spectroscopy. Calculations at the level of density functional theory confirmed the structure of the as-synthesized supported metal complex determined by EXAFS spectroscopy. With this structure as an anchor, we used the computational results to elucidate the catalytic cycle (including transition states), finding results in agreement with the NMR spectra.

  16. Design of composite photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-zeolite for degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (? > 420 nm) irradiation. PMID:25314607

  17. In Situ SAXS/WAXS of Zeolite Microwave Synthesis: NaY, NaA, and Beta Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Panzarella,B.; Tompsett, G.; Conner, W.; Jones, K.

    2007-01-01

    A custom waveguide apparatus is constructed to study the microwave synthesis of zeolites by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The WR-284 waveguide is used to heat precursor solutions using microwaves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The reaction vessels are designed to include sections of thin-walled glass, which permit X-rays to pass through the precursor solutions with minimal attenuation. Slots were machined into the waveguide to provide windows for X-ray energy to enter and scatter from solutions during microwave heating. The synthesis of zeolites with conventional heating is also studied using X-ray scattering in the same reactor. SAXS studies show that the crystallization of beta zeolite and NaY zeolite is preceded by a reorganization of nanosized particles in their precursor solutions or gels. The evolution of these particles during the nucleation and crystallization stages of zeolite formation depends on the properties of the precursor solution. The synthesis of NaA and NaX zeolites and sodalite from a single zeolite precursor is studied by microwave and conventional heating. Microwave heating shifts the selectivity of this synthesis in favor of NaA and NaX over sodalite; conventional heating leads to the formation of sodalite for synthesis from the same precursor. The use of microwave heating also led to a more rapid onset of NaA zeolite product crystallization compared to conventional heating. Pulsed and continuous microwave heating are compared for zeolite synthesis. The resulting rates of formation of the zeolite products, and the relative amounts of the products determined from the WAXS spectra, are similar when either pulsed or continuous microwave heating is applied in the reactor while maintaining the same synthesis temperature. The consequences of these results in terms of zeolite synthesis are discussed.

  18. Transparent Ni2+-doped lithium-alumino-silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near-infrared light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shifeng; Feng, Gaofeng; Wu, Botao; Xu, Shiqing; Qiu, Jianrong

    2007-04-01

    Broadband infrared luminescence centred at around 1300 nm with full-width at half maximum of about 342 nm was observed from transparent Ni2+-doped lithium-alumino-silicate glass-ceramics embedded with ?-eucryptite crystallines. The room temperature fluorescent lifetime was 98 µs. The transparent glass-ceramics may have potential applications in a widely tunable laser and a super-broadband optical amplifier for optical communications.

  19. First-principles estimates of equilibrium magnesium isotope fractionation in silicate, oxide, carbonate and hexaaquamagnesium(2+) crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin A. Schauble

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrium mass-dependent magnesium isotope fractionation factors are estimated for a range of crystalline compounds including oxides, silicates, carbonates, and salts containing the Mg(H2O)62+ solvation complex. Fractionation factors for the gas-phase species Mg and MgO are also presented. Fractionation factors are calculated with density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), using norm-conserving pseudopotentials. The results suggest that there will be substantial inter-mineral fractionation,

  20. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS OF PERVAPORATION THROUGH ZEOLITE MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolite membranes are well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation because of their molecular-sized pores and their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organics [1]. Because of ...

  1. Crystal chemistry of the zeolites erionite and offretite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. PASSAGLIA; G. ARTIOLI; A. GUALTIERI

    Many known occurrences of the zeolites erionite and offretite have been characterized by electron probe microanalysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and optical microscopy. For the first time, a substantial amount of experimentally consistent and homogeneous chemical and crystallographic data have been evaluated for these natural zeolites. Systematic anal- ysis of the data, performed by statistical multivariate analysis, leads to the following

  2. Generation, Characterization, and Impact of Mesopores in Zeolite Catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander van Donk; Andries H. Janssen; Johannes H. Bitter; Krijn P. de Jong

    2003-01-01

    Amongst the current developments in the field of hierarchical pore structures, the creation of mesopores in zeolite crystals is the most frequently employed way to combine micropores with mesopores in one material. In this review an overview is presented of the different approaches to generate and characterize mesopores in zeolite crystals and establish their impact on the catalytic action. Mesopores

  3. Autocatalytic cure kinetics of natural zeolite filled epoxy composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Young Lee; Mi-Ja Shim; Sang-Wook Kim

    1997-01-01

    The effect of natural zeolite on the cure kinetics of epoxy resin system was studied by autocatalytic cure kinetics. In the thermograms obtained from dynamic analysis, the exothermic peak separated into two peaks by the addition of natural zeolite, and the exothermic peak temperatures and the reaction starting temperatures decreased. In the autocatalytic cure rate, the maximum cure rate appeared

  4. Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure, increasing temperatures and hold times give denser products but the zeolite is frequently converted to sodalite. Reducing the temperature or hold time leads to a porous zeolite composite. Therefore, conditions that affect the thermal stability of salt-occluded zeolite both with and without glass are being investigated in an ongoing study. The parameters varied in this stage of the work were heating time, temperature, salt loading, and glass content. The heat-treated samples were examined primarily by X-ray diffraction. Large variations were found in the rate at which salt-occluded zeolite converted to other phases such as nepheline, salt, and sodalite. The products depended on the initial salt loading. Heating times required for these transitions depended on the procedure and temperature used to prepare the salt-occluded zeolite. Mixtures of glass and zeolite reacted much faster than the pure salt-occluded zeolite and were almost always converted to sodalite.

  5. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  6. Hydrogen atom addition to hydrocarbon guests in radiolyzed zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Werst; P. Han; S. C. Choure; E. I. Vinokur; L. Xu; A. D. Trifunac; L. A. Eriksson

    1999-01-01

    The formation of H adducts during radiolysis of zeolites containing olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbon guests was demonstrated to occur by H atom transfer from the zeolite to the adsorbed molecules. The H adducts and other paramagnetic radiolysis products (radical cations and H-loss radicals) were detected by EPR spectroscopy. The mechanism of H adduct formation was confirmed by, inter alia, H\\/D

  7. Middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd or Ni 

    E-print Network

    Marin-Rosas, Celia

    2009-05-15

    A study on middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd and/or Ni was performed. The effect of the addition of the corresponding CoMo, CoMoPd, CoMoPtPd and CoMoNi in PdNiPt-zeolite, Pt-zeolite, Ni-zeolite, and Pd...

  8. Density Functional Theory Study of Transformations of Nitrogen Oxides Catalyzed by Cu-Exchanged Zeolites

    E-print Network

    Adams, James B

    chemistry of nitrogen oxides. The catalyst active site is considered to be an isolated, zeolite (Z)-bound Cu zeolite catalyst chemistry. In a high silica zeolite such as Cu-ZSM-5, exchanged Cu is believed to exist-Exchanged Zeolites W. F. Schneider* and K. C. Hass Ford Research Laboratory, MD 3083/SRL, Dearborn, Michigan 48121

  9. An investigation of plant growth in an organo-zeolitic substrate and its ecological significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Leggo

    2000-01-01

    This work concerns a series of experiments designed to test and understand the effect of ammoniated zeolite on plant growth. The affinity of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite for NH4+ is utilised in organo-zeolitic substrates to enhance plant growth. By comparing plants grown in substrates with and without ammoniated zeolite, an increase in plant dry weight of some 19% was shown

  10. Formation of superacid centers in the structure of zeolite ZSM-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaev, L. E.; Kolesnikova, E. E.; Biryukova, E. N.; Kolesnichenko, N. V.; Khadzhiev, S. N.

    2013-04-01

    The structural changes and acid characteristics of the zeolite ZSM-5 modified with titanium and sulfur were studied. The modifier components were chemically bonded to the zeolite structure. The acid characteristics of zeolite changed and superacid centers appeared. A physicochemical study showed that treatment of zeolite with titanium tetrachloride and sulfuryl chloride did not change its structure and molecular-sieve properties.

  11. Compositional effects on Si–OH bond length in hydrous silicates with implications for trends in the SiOH acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubin, Dmitri P., E-mail: dmitri.zarubin@mtu-net.ru

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical calculations of the structure and Brønsted acidity of SiOH groups in silica clusters have never addressed the question if these vary with the degree of SiOH deprotonation. In this connection, a statistical analysis is presented of Si–OH bond lengths in crystalline hydrogen silicates with well-determined structures with a special emphasis placed on effects of the silicate composition. It is found that among hydrogen silicates of large cations with low charges the Si–OH bonds are always longer than terminal Si–O bonds in the same anion and correlate in length with the anionic charge per tetrahedron. The findings are explained by steric limitations on charge balancing at oxygen atoms by hydrogen bonds and/or cations. It is suggested that similar limitations and imbalances may underlie the well-known trends in the Brønsted acidity of silicic acids and silicas in aqueous media: decreased acidity with increased SiOH deprotonation and increased acidity with increased tetrahedra connectivity. - Graphical abstract: Si–OH bonds in crystalline silicates lengthen with the anionic charge per tetrahedron, which is in parallel with the well-known trend of decreased acidity of silicic acids and silicas in solution with increased degree of deprotonation. - Highlights: • Si–OH bonds in alkali hydrogen silicates are always longer than terminal Si–O bonds. • Si–OH bonds in silicates lengthen with the anionic charge per tetrahedron. • The Si–OH bond elongation results from inherent underbonding of terminal O atoms. • The longer the Si–OH bond, the less acidic the OH group is.

  12. Surface metal ion enhancement of thermally treated zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W.S.; Suib, S.L.

    1986-09-03

    During the past several years the area of zeolite science has received increasingly intense attention owing to the preparation of new molecular sieves and the availability of modern spectroscopic methods for the study of these materials. The majority of spectroscopic studies of zeolites have focused on measurements of bulk magnetic, electronic, and structural properties, but few surface studies have been reported. Surface-inhomogeneous aluminum and silicon species have recently been reported by Barr and co-workers. In this study the authors have heated metal ion containing zeolites under controlled conditions in order to probe interactions between the zeolite and the metal ion. Here they present preliminary results for Ag/sup +//NaY and Cs/sup +//NaY zeolites studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS), and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS).

  13. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Stephanie G [University of Colorado, Boulder; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Gibbons, Will T [University of Colorado, Boulder; Soydas, Belma [University of Colorado, Boulder; Kita, Hidetoshi [Yamaguchi University, Japan; Noble, Richard D [University of Colorado, Boulder; Falconer, John L. [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  14. Carbon dioxide and methane transport in DDR zeolite: insights from molecular simulations into carbon dioxide separations in small pore zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Eun Jee; David S. Sholl

    2009-01-01

    Zeolites are good candidates as a membranes for chemical separations because of their excellent chemical and thermal stability. Cage type zeolites are promising materials for gas separation since their narrow windows are expected to control molecular transport. DDR is one of the strongest candidates for light gas separations because of its narrow 8MR window. In our study, we examined the

  15. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate...with an absorbent tipped applicator to the surface of a new restoration to exclude temporarily fluids from its surface. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate...with an absorbent tipped applicator to the surface of a new restoration to exclude temporarily fluids from its surface. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate...with an absorbent tipped applicator to the surface of a new restoration to exclude temporarily fluids from its surface. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate...with an absorbent tipped applicator to the surface of a new restoration to exclude temporarily fluids from its surface. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate...with an absorbent tipped applicator to the surface of a new restoration to exclude temporarily fluids from its surface. (b)...

  20. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet E. Bowey

    1998-01-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the

  1. Effect of calcium silicate substrate on thermal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. White

    A recent revision of the ICBO building code specified the use of a calcium silicate substrate in the fire testing of thermal barriers for foam plastics. Twelve small-scale vertical ASTM E 119 fire exposure tests were conducted on specimens of 1\\/2-inch gypsum board or 5\\/8-inch plywood as the thermal barrier and 1\\/2-inch calcium silicate board or l-inch aluminum foil-faced foam

  2. Peroxide-assisted syntheses of metal silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Burlitch, J.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Peroxide-containing intermediates have played pivotal roles in new synthesis of several magnesium silicates including olivine, forsterite, transition metal-doped forsterite, and enstatite. The involvement of a little-known hydroperoxide of magnesium will be discussed. Elaboration of the synthesis methodology has produced layered silicates such as the fluoro-mica, potassium fluorophlogopite, and a fluoro-talc that has a higher level of substitution of hydroxide by fluoride than any previously reported.

  3. A structural model for binary silicate systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Lin; A. D. Pelton

    1979-01-01

    A structural model is presented for binary silicate systems of the typeMO-SiO2, whereMO is a basic oxide, in which silicate tetrahedra and oxygen “bridges” are treated as structural units. One single formalism\\u000a applies over the entire composition range from pureMO, where the model reduces to a simple orthosilicate anion model, to pure SiO2, where the model reduces to a simple

  4. Silicates characterization as potential bacteriocin-carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Ibarguren; M. Carina Audisio; E. Mónica Farfán Torres; María C. Apella

    2010-01-01

    Two different silicates, zeosil and expanded perlite, were characterized as potential carriers of a bacteriocin with anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity, produced by Enterococcus faecium CRL1385. Specific surface areas showed a value significantly higher for zeosil (146m2 g?1) than for perlite (0.65m2 g?1). Potential zeta measurements revealed that both silicates had negatively charged surfaces between pH 2 and 11, but zeosil presented

  5. Organically modified silicate aerogels, ``Aeromosils``

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.J.; Mackenzie, J.D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rubio-Alonso, F. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio

    1996-12-31

    Aerogels derived from sol-gel oxides such as silica have become quite scientifically popular because of their extremely low densities, high surface areas, and their interesting optical, dielectric, thermal and acoustic properties. However, their commercial applicability has thus far been rather limited, due in great part to their brittleness and hydrophilicity. In prior work by the research group, modifying silicate gel structures with flexible, organic containing polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane imparted significant compliance (even rubbery behavior) and hydrophobicity. These materials have been referred to as Ormosils. This study expounds on the current effort to extend these desirable properties to aerogels, and in-so-doing, creating novel ``Aeromosils``. Reactive incorporation of hydroxy-terminal polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into silica sol-gels was made using both acid and two-step acid/base catalyzed processes. Aerogels were derived by employing the supercritical CO{sub 2} technique. Analyses of microstructure were made using nitrogen adsorption (BET surface area and pore size distribution), and some mechanical strengths were derived from tensile strength testing. Interesting Aeromosil properties obtained include optical transparency, surface areas of up to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g, rubberiness, and better strength than corresponding silica aerogels with elongations at break exceeding 5% in some cases.

  6. Applications of two-dimensional solid state nuclear magnetic resonance in silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi

    1998-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique and has been routinely applied in many fields. In this study, we have used high resolution two-dimensional (2D) solid state NMR techniques to study the dynamic process of Li diffusion, the kinetic process of oxygen isotope exchange, and the structural characterization of hydrous and anhydrous silicate glasses at atomic level. In the Li diffusion study, we first established the correlation between the sp6Li chemical shifts and the lithium coordination environments in lithium containing silicates. Then, we assigned the sp6Li magic angle spinning (MAS) spectrum and applied 1D, 2D variable temperature exchange NMR to observe Lisp+ diffusion in lithium orthosilicate. For the first time, our result revealed a detailed picture of the hopping rates of Lisp+ ions among structurally distinct sites and helped to define the diffusion pathway. We have shown that Lisp+ ions hopping rates and activation energies depend on site geometry. NMR measurements on Li ionic hopping frequencies was used to accurately predict the bulk conductivity. In the site-specific oxygen isotope exchange study, we first developed a method to obtain quantitative sp{17}O NMR spectra. Then, we applied the method to stilbite, a natural zeolite. We have shown for the first time that framework oxygens in Al-O-Si sites react faster with oxygens in the channel water than oxygens in Si-O-Si sites. Such an observation has partially proved the quantum ab initio calculation on water adsorption onto silicates. Our measured kinetics results agreed well with bulk isotopic measurements. Water dissolution mechanism in silicates glasses, especially aluminosilicate glasses, has been a long-standing controversy. We have used the sp{17}O spectra for hydrous and anhydrous sodium tetrasilicate glasses and albite glasses to study the structural role of hydrogen-containing species. For the first time, we have observed the oxygen peak for SiOH in hydrous sodium tetrasilicate glass. Such a component might also be present in hydrous albite glasses. We also detected the oxygen signal for molecular Hsb2O in all the hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses. Our results tend to support one of the water dissolution models.

  7. High pressure synthesis of novel, zeolite based nano-composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Meso/micro-porous solids such as zeolites are complex materials exhibiting an impressive range of applications, including molecular sieve, gas storage, catalysis, electronics and photonics. We used these materials, particularly non catalytic zeolites in an entirely different fashion. In fact, we performed high pressure (0.5-30 GPa) chemical reactions of simple molecules on a sub-nanometer scale in the channels of a pure SiO2 zeolite, silicalite to obtain unique nano-composite materials with drastically modified physical and chemical properties. Our material investigations are based on a combination of X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques in the diamond anvil cell. I will first briefly show how silicalite can be easily filled by simple molecules such as Ar, CO2 and C2H4 among others from the fluid phase at high pressures, and how this efficient filling removes the well known pressure induced amorphization of the silica framework (Haines et al., JACS 2010). I will then present on a silicon carbonate crystalline phase synthesized by reacting silicalite and molecular CO2 that fills the nano-pores, at 18-26 GPa and 600-980 K; after the synthesis the compound is temperature quenched and it results to be slightly metastable at room conditions (Santoro et al., PNAS 2011). On the other hand, a stable at room condition spectacular crystalline nano-composite is obtained by photo-polymerizing ethylene at 0.5-1.5 GPa under UV (351-364 nm) irradiation in the channels of silicalite (Santoro et al., Nat. Commun, in press 2013). For this composite we obtained a structure with single polyethylene chains adapting very well to the confining channels, which results in significant increases in bulk modulus and density, and the thermal expansion coefficient changes sign from negative to positive with respect to the original silicalite host. Mechanical properties may thus be tuned by varying the amount of polymerized ethylene. We then think our findings could allow the high pressure, catalyst free synthesis of a unique generation of technological, functional materials based on simple hydrocarbons polymerized in confining meso/micro-porous solids.

  8. Residual stresses and phase transformations in Ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenburg, Fabian

    Due to their high melting temperature, low density, and good thermomechanical stability, silicon-based ceramics (SiC, Si3N4) are some of the most promising materials systems for high temperature structural applications in gas turbine engines. However, their silica surface layer reacts with water vapor contained in combustion environments. The resulting hydroxide layer volatilizes, leading to component recession. Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been developed to shield the substrate from degradation. Next generation coatings for silicon-based ceramics based on ytterbium silicates have shown a promising combination of very low and good thermomechanical properties. The focus of this thesis is threefold: In the first part, phase transformations in plasma sprayed ytterbium silicates were investigated. Plasma sprayed materials are known to contain large amounts of amorphous material. Phase changes during the conversion from amorphous to crystalline materials were investigated as they have been known to lead to failure in many coatings. The second part of this work focused on measuring residual stresses in multilayer EBCs using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Strains were resolved spatially, with probe sizes as small as 20 um. Stresses were calculated using mechanical properties of ytterbium silicates, determined with in-situ loading and heating experiments. In-situ and ex-situ heating experiments allowed for the study of changes in stress states that occur in these EBC materials during heating and cooling cycles. Lastly, the interaction of ytterbium silicates with low-melting environmental calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) glasses was studied. Synchrotron XRD was used to study the influence of CMAS on the stress state in the coating, X-ray computed tomography was used to provide 3D images of coatings, and EDS and TEM analysis were used to study the interactions at the CMAS/ytterbium silicate interface in detail.

  9. Carbon dioxide sensitivity of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mottillo, Cristina; Friš?i?, Tomislav

    2014-07-14

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks of zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, including the framework ZIF-8 commercially sold as Basolite Z1200, exhibit surprising sensitivity to carbon dioxide under mild conditions. The frameworks chemically react with CO2 in the presence of moisture or liquid water to form carbonates. This effect, which has been previously not reported in metal-organic framework chemistry, provides an explanation for conflicting reports on ZIF-8 stability to water and is of outstanding significance for evaluating the potential applications of metal-organic frameworks, especially for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24889776

  10. A silicate disk in the heart of the Ant

    E-print Network

    Olivier Chesneau; Foteini Lykou; Bruce Balick; Eric Lagadec; Mikako Matsuura; Nathan Smith; Alain Spang; Sebastian Wolf; Albert A. Zijlstra

    2007-10-02

    We aim at getting high spatial resolution information on the dusty core of bipolar planetary nebulae to directly constrain the shaping process. Methods: We present observations of the dusty core of the extreme bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3, Hen 2-154, the Ant) taken with the mid-infrared interferometer MIDI/VLTI and the adaptive optics NACO/VLT. The core of Mz 3 is clearly resolved with MIDI in the interferometric mode, whereas it is unresolved from the Ks to the N bands with single dish 8.2 m observations on a scale ranging from 60 to 250 mas. A striking dependence of the dust core size with the PA angle of the baselines is observed, that is highly suggestive of an edge-on disk whose major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the bipolar lobes. The MIDI spectrum and the visibilities of Mz 3 exhibit a clear signature of amorphous silicate, in contrast to the signatures of crystalline silicates detected in binary post-AGB systems, suggesting that the disk might be relatively young. We used radiative-transfer Monte Carlo simulations of a passive disk to constrain its geometrical and physical parameters. Its inclination (74 degrees $\\pm$ 3 degrees) and position angle (5 degrees $\\pm$ 5 degrees) are in accordance with the values derived from the study of the lobes. The inner radius is 9$\\pm$ 1 AU and the disk is relatively flat. The dust mass stored in the disk, estimated as 1 x 10-5Msun, represents only a small fraction of the dust mass found in the lobes and might be a kind of relic of an essentially polar ejection process.

  11. Antimony and silicon environments in antimony silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, M.; Davies, B.C.; Orman, R.G. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Thomas, M.F. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Holland, D., E-mail: d.holland@warwick.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Antimony silicate glasses, of general formula xSb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1-x)SiO{sub 2} (0.1{<=}x{<=}0.78), have been prepared by melt-quenching and their structures studied using {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Oxidation during melting gives rise to Sb{sup 5+} in concentrations, which increase linearly with x to give a value of {approx}10% when x=0.78. {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra show Moessbauer shifts and quadrupole splittings consistent with Sb{sup 3+} in a [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid, similar to that in crystalline Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A broad band in the Raman spectrum at {approx}410 cm{sup -1} is due to the vibrations of such a unit. The dependence of the silicon Q{sup n} speciation on x can be interpreted by the formation of Sb-O-Sb links possibly to form rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite. - Graphical abstract: Antimony silicate glasses have been shown to contain Sb{sup 3+} in [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid units using {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. {sup 29}Si magic-angle-spinning NMR has shown silicon Q{sup n} speciation which can be interpreted as formation of rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite.

  12. Steps toward interstellar silicate dust mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.; Henning, TH.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most certain facts on interstellar dust is that it contains grains with silicon oxygen tetrahedra (SOT), the internal vibrations of which cause the well known silicate bands at 10 and 18 microns. The broad and almost structureless appearance of them demonstrates lack of translation symmetry in these solids that must be considered amorphous or glassy silicates. There is no direct information on the cations in these interstellar silicates and on the number of bridging oxygens per tetrahedron (NBO). Comparing experimental results gained on amorphous silicates, e.g., silicate glasses, of cosmically most abundant metals (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al) with the observations is the only way to investigate interstellar silicate dust mineralogy (cf, Dorschner and Henning, 1986). At Jena University Observatory IR spectra of submicrometer-sized grains of pyroxene glasses (SSG) were studied. Pyroxenes are common minerals in asteroids, meteorites, interplanetary, and supposedly also cometary dust particles. Pyroxenes consist of linearly connected SOT (NBO=2). In the vitreous state reached by quenching melted minerals, the SOT remain nearly undistorted (Si-O bond length unchanged); the Si-O-Si angles at the bridging oxygens of pyroxenes, however, scatter statistically. Therefore, the original cation oxygen symmetry of the crystal (octahedral and hexahedral coordination by O) is completely lost. The blended bands at 10 and 18 microns lose their diagnostic differences and become broad and structureless. This illustrates best the basic problem of interstellar silicate mineral diagnostics. Optical data of glasses of enstatite, bronzite, hypersthene, diopside, salite, and hedenbergite have been derived. Results of enstatite (E), bronzite (B), and hypersthene (H) show very good agreement with the observed silicate features in the IR spectra of evolutionarily young objects that show P-type silicate signature according to the classification by Gurtler and Henning (1986). Compositional parameters and main characteristics of experimental SSG spectra in IR for the glasses E, B, and H are shown in tabular form. Results fit excellently the relations derived by Koike and Hasegawa (1987) and suggest that the band ratio of the astronomical silicate by Draine and Lee (1984) is too low.

  13. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  14. Structure and properties of metal-exchanged zeolites studied using gradient-corrected and hybrid functionals. I. Structure and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göltl, Florian; Hafner, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    The structural and energetic properties of purely siliceous, proton-, and Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite have been studied using periodic density-functional (DFT) calculations with both conventional gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals and hybrid functionals mixing exact (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and DFT exchange. Spin-polarized and fixed-moment calculations have been performed to determine the equilibrium and excited spin-configurations of the metal-exchanged chabazites. For the purely siliceous chabazite, hybrid functionals predict a slightly more accurate cell volume and lattice geometry. For isolated Al/Si substitution sites, gradient-corrected functionals predict that the lattice distortion induced by the substitution preserves the local tetrahedral symmetry, whereas hybrid functionals lead to a distorted Al coordination with two short and two long Al-O bonds. Hybrid functionals yield a stronger cation-framework binding that conventional functionals in metal-exchanged zeolites, they favor shorter cation-oxygen bonds and eventually also a higher coordination of the cation. Both types of functionals predict the same spin in the ground-state. The structural optimization of the excited spin-states shows that the formation of a high-spin configuration leads to a strong lattice relaxation and a weaker cation-framework bonding. For both Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite, the prediction of a preferred location of the cation in a six-membered ring of the zeolite agrees with experiment, but the energy differences between possible cation locations and the lattice distortion induced by the Al/Si substitution and the bonding of the cation depends quite significantly on the choice of the functional. All functionals predict similar energy differences for excited spin states. Spin-excitations are shown to be accompanied by significant changes in the cation coordination, which are more pronounced with hybrid functionals. The consequences of electronic spectra and chemical reactivity are analyzed in the following papers.

  15. Investigation of structural charge transfer in zeolites by ultraviolet spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Garbowski, E.D.; Mirodatos, C.

    1982-01-07

    Charge-transfer processes in various zeolites (faujasite, mordenite, ZSM5, erionite, and offretite) are evidenced by means of UV spectroscopy. UV bands at 240 and 320 nm are assigned to two different Al-O units. The band at 240 nm, present whatever the zeolite and whatever the chemical or thermal treatment, is related to framework Al-O units which are ''inert'' toward catalysis and easily removed by dealumination or dehydroxylation. The band at 320 nm, more stable toward dealumination and dehydroxylation, is specifically detected or significantly enhanced for catalytically active samples (methanol conversion, hydrocarbon cracking, and disproportionation). This band could be related to oxoaluminum structures inside the zeolite matrix.

  16. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  17. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  18. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite A

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistance sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1,000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  19. Liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have led to the use of these materials in structural applications where weight savings are critical. Advances in processing of LCPs could permit the incorporation of these polymers into other than uniaxial designs and extend their utility into new areas such as nonlinear optical devices. However, the unique feature of LCPs (intrinsic orientation order) is itself problematic, and current understanding of processing with control of orientation falls short of allowing manipulation of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers). The current and desirable characteristics of LCPs are reviewed and specific problems are identified along with issues that must be addressed so that advances in the use of these unique polymers can be expedited.

  20. Crystalline ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, U.; Habs, D.

    2004-10-01

    Threading ions like pearls on a string in an ion storage ring by freezing out the inter-particle motion opens opportunities far beyond the means of standard accelerator physics. The usual heating due to collisions of particles within the beam almost completely vanishes, giving rise to a state of unprecedented brilliance and exceptional stability. Only recently, this long anticipated crystalline state of an ion beam could be realized experimentally in the rf quadrupole storage ring PALLAS in Munich, bridging the gap between ion trap experiments and high energy ion storage rings. The progress of this experiment and its implications on larger scale machines will be reported in detail and compared to the present situation at the heavy ion storage rings TSR (Heidelberg) and ASTRID (Aarhus) as well as ESR (GSI) and CRYring (Stockholm).

  1. Single crystalline magnetite nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuqin; Zhang, Daihua; Han, Song; Li, Chao; Lei, Bo; Lu, Weigang; Fang, Jiye; Zhou, Chongwu

    2005-01-12

    We descried a method to synthesize single crystalline Fe3O4 nanotubes by wet-etching the MgO inner cores of MgO/Fe3O4 core-shell nanowires. Homogeneous Fe3O4 nanotubes with controllable length, diameter, and wall thickness have been obtained. Resistivity of the Fe3O4 nanotubes was estimated to be approximately 4 x 10-2 Omega cm at room temperature. Magnetoresistance of approximately 1% was observed at T = 77 K when a magnetic field of B = 0.7 T was applied. The synthetic strategy presented here may be extended to a variety of materials such as YBCO, PZT, and LCMO which should provide ideal candidates for fundamental studies of superconductivity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in nanoscale structures. PMID:15631421

  2. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1995-06-01

    Crystalline Beams* are an ordered state of an ensemble of ions, circulating in a storage ring, with very small velocity fluctuations. They can be obtained from ordinary warm ion beams with the application of powerful cooling techniques (stochastic, electron, laser, ...). Depending on the focussing properties and dimensions of the storage ring, and on the ion beam density, several ground states are possible. All of them can be visualized as a bundle of n{sub s} symmetrically distributed, parallel strings. The longitudinal ion separation {lambda} is the same for all strings. The minimum temperature that can be achieved depends on die background noise of the cooling technique used. It is required for stability that the vibration amplitude of the ions is only a fraction of the separation {lambda}.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash filtrates into zeolites 2: utilization in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Filtrates were collected using a codisposal reaction wherein fly ash was reacted with acid mine drainage. These codisposal filtrates were then analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for quantitative determination of the SiO2 and Al2O3 content. Alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis was then applied to the filtrates to convert the fly ash material into zeolites. The zeolites formed under the experimental conditions were faujasite, sodalite, and zeolite A. The use of the fly ash-derived zeolites and a commercial zeolite was explored in wastewater decontamination experiments as it was applied to acid mine drainage in different dosages. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Pb metal ions in the treated wastewater were investigated. The results of the treatment of the acid mine drainage with the prepared fly ash zeolites showed that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Hg were decreased as the zeolite dosages of the fly ash zeolite (FAZ1) increased. PMID:15991728

  5. Structural Studies of Crystalline Polyaniline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Winokur; B. R. Mattes

    1997-01-01

    The structural ordering within crystalline polyaniline (PANI) powders as emeraldine (i.e., at 50% oxidation) in both its base (EB) and (ES) salt forms has been studied using x-ray diffraction and these data reinforce the general belief that the local structure is extremely sensitive to the environmental conditions. PANI powders precipitated as ES immediately following synthesis lead to reasonably crystalline materials

  6. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jae Eun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jun, Ssang Sun [Global Leading Offshore Plant Education Center, Korea Maritime University, Busan, 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sejin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Clark, Simon M. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 20015 (United States); Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 deg. C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  7. New Laboratory-Based Optical Functions of Cosmic Abundance Glass: Comparison to “Astronomical Silicates” and Application to Post-AGB Object HD 161796

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Pitman, K. M.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    Complex refractive indices (optical functions) for amorphous silicates are used to model and interpret a wide variety of astrophysical environments including H II regions, circumstellar dust around evolved stars and in disks around young stellar objects (YSOs), and active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, the most widely-used optical functions in the literature have been derived using compositionally and structurally disparate materials, and were prepared with inconsistent methodology, kludging observational data and laboratory data with different experimental methods to populate the wavelength space. Furthermore, these previous optical functions often include portions derived from astronomical observations rather than laboratory spectra. New quantitative laboratory data are available to build up wavelength coverage for amorphous silicates in a more systematic way. We present optical functions and extinction cross-sections derived from mid-UV to far-IR laboratory transmission spectra of cosmic abundance silicate glass. The advantages of using these data are that our glass sample was synthesized especially with cosmic (solar) abundances in mind and excludes iron. We compare these results to other popular optical functions used to model amorphous silicates (e.g., “astronomical” or “cosmic” silicate by Draine & Lee 1984, Draine 2003, Ossenkopf et al. 1992), both directly and in application to HD 161796, a spherically symmetric, O-rich system with a visible central star, optically thin dust shell, and radiation field intermediate to AGB and PN class targets. The new cosmic silicate optical functions have much lower UV-vis and NIR opacity than the traditionally used functions necessitating significantly more dust (1 or 2 orders of magnitude for mass) to model an object like HD 161796. Furthermore, the lower opacity has an impact on the fraction of crystalline material needed to match the observed spectrum. Previous models produced using older optical functions will underestimate the dust mass and overestimate the importance of crystalline silicates. This work is supported through NSF AST-1009544 and NASA APRA04-000-0041.

  8. Alkylcarbenium Ion Concentrations in Zeolite Pores During Octane Hydrocracking on Pt\\/H-USY Zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris W. Thybaut; C. S. Laxmi Narasimhan; Guy B. Marin; Joeri F. M. Denayer; Gino V. Baron; Pierre A. Jacobs; Johan A. Martens

    2004-01-01

    Hydroconversion of octane over platinum loaded acid zeolites was simulated using a single-event microkinetic model. Significantly different values for the alkene standard protonation enthalpies, i.e., -59.2 and –94 kJ mol-1 for the charging of secondary and tertiary carbon atoms respectively, were obtained. This difference is in favor of a carbocationic nature of the reactive intermediates on the acid sites rather

  9. Interaction between zeolites and cluster compounds. Part 2.?Thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl on zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bein; Peter A. Jacobs

    1984-01-01

    Thermal decomposition in a thermobalance of Fe(CO), adsorbed on alkali-metal, hydrogen-Y, dealuminated Y, L and omega zeolites proceeds stepwise via slow decarbonylation at low and high temperatures, separated by a fast endothermic reaction. Average CO\\/Fe ratios have been determined after each step. From i.r. results the former intermediates are assigned to species bearing bridging CO, whereas reaction products with CO\\/Fe

  10. Norcholestane in Miocene Onnagawa siliceous sediments, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Noriyuki; Sampei, Yoshikazu; Koga, Osamu (Shimane Univ. (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    A significant amount of 24-norcholestane with 20R, 5[alpha](H), 14[alpha](H), 17[alpha](H) stereochemistry is often found in marine siliceous sediments of the Middle Miocene Onnagawa Formation, Japan. Some Onnagawa siliceous sediments are abnormally abundant in 24-norcholestane. The primary production in the northeastern Japan Sea during the Middle Miocene was markedly increased due to the invasion of nutrient-rich cold seawater from the north accompanied by the tectonic opening of the Japan Sea. 24-norcholestane in high relative abundance is derived mainly from the marine diatoms which were enhanced during this event. The drastic ecological change caused by rapid tectonic opening of the Japan Sea and global climatic deterioration during Middle Miocene time is suggested to be influential in the formation of 24-norcholestane-rich Onnagawa siliceous sediments.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition on chabazite (CHA) zeolite membranes for effective post-combustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Taehee; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Won-Jin; Han, Doug-Young; Baik, Hionsuck; Choi, Nakwon; Choi, Jungkyu

    2014-12-16

    Chabazite (CHA) zeolites with a pore size of 0.37 × 0.42 nm(2) are expected to separate CO2 (0.33 nm) from larger N2 (0.364 nm) in postcombustion flue gases by recognizing their minute size differences. Furthermore, the hydrophobic siliceous constituent in CHA membranes can allow for maintaining the CO2/N2 separation performance in the presence of H2O in contrast with the CO2 affinity-based membranes. In an attempt to increase the molecular sieving ability, the pore mouth size of all silica CHA (Si-CHA) particles was reduced via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a silica precursor (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Accordingly, an increase of the CVD treatment duration decreased the penetration rate of CO2 into the CVD-treated Si-CHA particles. Furthermore, the CVD process was applied to siliceous CHA membranes in order to improve their CO2/N2 separation performance. Compared to the intact CHA membranes, the CO2/N2 maximum separation factor (max SF) for CVD-treated CHA membranes was increased by ? 2 fold under dry conditions. More desirably, the CO2/N2 max SF was increased by ? 3 fold under wet conditions at ? 50 °C, a representative temperature of the flue gas stream. In fact, the presence of H2O in the feed disfavored the permeation of N2 more than that of CO2 through CVD-modified CHA membranes and thus, contributed to the increased CO2/N2 separation factor. PMID:25479409

  12. Xenon NMR studies of dynamics and exchange in zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    We have found, despite earlier reports to the contrary, that for many microporous solids with one-dimensional channels (ZSM-12, ALPO-5, VPI-5, SSZ-24) the chemical shift has an anisotropic component. For ALPO-11, a detailed model has been developed which accounts for the loading-dependent chemical shift in terms of intraparticle exchange of statistical distributions of xenon atoms with 0, 1 or 2 nearest neighbors. A similar model can be applied to ZSM-12 up to moderate loadings. At higher loading levels 2D exchange methods show that interparticle exchange occurs as well. The same approach was used to study interparticle exchange in X and Y zeolite mixtures, exchange amongst zeolite clusters of up to 8 xenon atoms in the supercages of AgA zeolite, and main channel - side pocket exchange in mordenite. The parameters derived are directly relevant to the understanding of sorption and diffusion processes in zeolites.

  13. 12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH LOOKING WEST TO FOUNTAIN. STAIRWAY RUNS DOWN TO FILTRATION BAYS. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Single and Multiple Heteroatom Incorporation in MFI Zeolites 

    E-print Network

    Garcia Vargas, Nataly

    2012-11-05

    realistic scenarios for industrial implementation. The main objective of this dissertation was to study the single and simultaneous framework incorporation of tin, boron, germanium and aluminum in MFI zeolites under synthesis conditions that are more...

  15. High-silica zeolite nucleation from clear solutions

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Chil-Hung

    2006-04-12

    . This work initially tried to apply the insights developed from the TPAsilicalite- 1 clear solution synthesis by investigating the nanoparticles formation and zeolite growth in several tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-organocation-water solutions heated at 368...

  16. Investigation of Zeolite Nucleation and Growth Using NMR Spectroscopy 

    E-print Network

    Rivas Cardona, Alejandra

    2012-02-14

    and control of the zeolite properties. The primary objective of this dissertation is to determine the strength of organicinorganic interactions (i.e., the adsorption Gibbs energy) in transparent synthesis mixtures using PFG NMR spectroscopy, in order...

  17. Hydrogen Adsorption in Zeolite Studied with Sievert and Thermogravimetric Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnicenoks, P.; Sivars, A.; Grinberga, L.; Kleperis, J.

    2012-08-01

    Natural clinoptilolite (mixture from clinoptilolite, quartz and muscovite) is activated with palladium and tested for hydrogen adsorption capability at temperatures RT - 200°C. Thermogravimetric and volumetric methods showed that zeolite activated with palladium (1.25%wt) shows markedly high hydrogen adsorption capacity - up to 3 wt%. Lower amount of adsorbed hydrogen (~1.5 wt%) was found for raw zeolite and activated with higher amount of palladium sample. Hypothesis is proposed that the heating of zeolite in argon atmosphere forms and activates the pore structure in zeolite material, where hydrogen encapsulation (trapping) is believed to occur when cooling down to room temperature. An effect of catalyst (Pd) on hydrogen sorption capability is explained by spillover phenomena were less-porous fractions of natural clinoptilolite sample (quartz and muscovite) are involved.

  18. High-silica zeolite nucleation from clear solutions 

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Chil-Hung

    2006-04-12

    . This work initially tried to apply the insights developed from the TPAsilicalite- 1 clear solution synthesis by investigating the nanoparticles formation and zeolite growth in several tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-organocation-water solutions heated at 368...

  19. Theoretical models for NO decomposition in Cu-exchanged zeolites

    E-print Network

    Tsekov, R

    2015-01-01

    A unified description of the catalytic effect of Cu-exchanged zeolites is proposed for the decomposition of NO. A general expression for the rate constant of NO decomposition is obtained by assuming that the rate-determining step consists of the transferring of a single atom associated with breaking of the N-O bond. The analysis is performed on the base of the generalized Langevin equation and takes into account both the potential interactions in the system and the memory effects due to the zeolite vibrations. Two different mechanisms corresponding to monomolecular and bimolecular NO decomposition are discussed. The catalytic effect in the monomolecular mechanism is related to both the Cu+ ions and zeolite O-vacancies, while in the case of the bimolecular mechanism the zeolite contributes through dissipation only. The comparison of the theoretically calculated rate constants with experimental results reveals additional information about the geometric and energetic characteristics of the active centers and con...

  20. Adsorption of trichlorophenol on zeolite and adsorbent regeneration with ozone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjun; Mancke, Raoul Georg; Sabelfeld, Marina; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2014-04-30

    A FAU-type zeolite was studied as an adsorbent to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), a frequently detected recalcitrant pollutant in water bodies. Both adsorption isotherm and kinetics were studied with TCP concentrations from 10 to 100mg/L. It was observed that TCP was effectively adsorbed onto the zeolite with a high adsorption capacity and a high kinetic rate. Freundlich model and pseudo-second-order kinetics were successfully applied to describe the experimental data. The influence of solution pH was also studied. Furthermore, ozone was applied to regenerate the loaded zeolite. It was found that an effective adsorption of TCP was kept for at least 8 cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The ozonation also increased the BET specific surface of zeolite by over 60% and consequently enhanced the adsorption capacity. PMID:24632370

  1. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite-type materials: Germanates and zirconogermanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rebeca

    The great importance that zeolites have in the industry accounting for 40 billion US dollars a year to the petroleum cracking industry alone has attracted the interest of synthesizing and developing new crystalline microstructures. This work presents the unique structural properties of germanates, zeolite-type materials, by first reviewing five unique structure building units (SBUs) that include: 4=1 units, D4R units and large clusters with 7-, 9-, and 10-germanium atoms. Then, the work of the syntheses and characterization of different germanate structures is presented. The synthesis and characterization of four zirconogermanates constructed from the same cluster consisting of five tetrahedral germanium atoms and one zirconium atom in octahedral coordination is presented. The structures were prepared using different amines as structure directing agents (SDA); ASU-23 (using 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl) consists of one layered structure, ASU-24 (using hexamethylenediamine) is a pillared layered structure with exceptionally low framework density (FD=8.48 metal atoms per nanometer cubed), ASU-25 and ASU-26 (using 1,3-diaminopropane and ethylenediamine respectively) have 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks. The layer germanate (ASU-22) is built from 7-germanium clusters. X-ray structural analysis [P6(3)cm, a =28.794(2), c=20.603(4), V=14793(3) (unit cell parameters are in angstroms, volume in angstroms cubed)] revealed that the framework exhibits the kagome (kgm) topology. The extensive series of syntheses demonstrated the key role played by HF in the condensation of the 7-germanium clusters (these clusters have not been synthesized without HF). The zirconogermanate, ASU-17, in the 1,4-diaminobutane-HF system, was synthesized as crystalline powder and identified in the cubic crystals system with space group Ia-3d and unit cell parameter a =51.3 (angstroms) and corresponds to the SU-M structure reported by a group in Sweden. Exploratory work leading to the discovery this 3D cubic framework built from 10-germanium clusters showing pore size reaching the mesoporous range is presented. The synthesis and characterization of ASU-21, a crystalline germanate displaying large rigid cylinders, was also synthesized in the presence of hexamethylenediamine. The single crystal X-ray analysis [Ibam, a=49.257(10), b=28.439(6), c=14.866(3), V=20825(7) (unit cell parameters in angstroms and volume in angtrom cubed)] revealed the novel open-framework built form the same 10-germanium clusters found in ASU-17.

  2. Radial mixing in protoplanetary accretion disks. IV. Metamorphosis of the silicate dust complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gail, H.-P.

    2004-01-01

    The outer regions of protoplanetary accretion discs are formed by material from the parent molecular cloud of the freshly forming stars. The interstellar dust in this material is a mixture of species which does not correspond to any kind of chemical equilibrium state between the solid and gaseous phases. Mass accretion carries this material into the warm inner disc zones where chemical and physical processes are activated which convert the non-equilibrium solid-gas mixture into a chemical equilibrium mixture. Part of the equilibrated material is then mixed outwards by turbulent diffusion and large-scale circulation currents. This work specifically considers the evolution of the main dust components, viz. from the interstellar mixture of amorphous Mg-Fe-silicates, into a chemical equilibrium mixture of crystalline Mg-silicates, and iron. The basic set of equations for calculating the evolution of a mixture of silicates and iron is derived. Model calculations based on stationary, one-zone ?-discs are combined with the advection-diffusion-reaction equations for the dust evolution to study the interstellar to equilibrium dust conversion and the radial mixing of equilibrated dust into the outer disc regions. This determines the mixture of the main dust components which form the mineral inventory of planetesimals. It is found that the results of the model calculation for the resulting mineral mixture are in rough agreement with the composition of matrix material of primitive meteorites and dust in cometary nuclei.

  3. Transition metal oxides and silicates as high-? dielectrics: a first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Gonze, Xavier; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of the Hf-Si-O and Zr-Si-O systems which have drawn considerable attention as alternative high-? materials. For the oxides, both the cubic and tetragonal phases of hafnia (HfO_2) and zirconia (ZrO_2) are studied. For the silicates, we analyze first the crystalline phases: hafnon (HfSiO_4) and zircon (ZrSiO_4). Then, the amorphous silicates are considered. We introduce a scheme which relates the dielectric constants to the local bonding of Si and M=(Hf, Zr) atoms. This scheme is based on the definition of parameters characteristic of the basic structural units (SUs) formed by Si and M=(Hf, Zr) atoms and their nearest neighbours, and allows us to avoid heavy large-scale calculations, which are beyond current computational capabilities. Applied to amorphous Zr silicates, our scheme provides a good description of the measured dielectric constants, and highlights the role of sixfold coordinated M=(Hf, Zr) atoms.

  4. Solubility of Zinc Silicate and Zinc Ferrite in Aqueous Solution to High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Donald [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    Crystalline zinc silicate, Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, and zinc ferrite, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, were prepared and characterized. The solubilities of these phases were measured using flow-through apparatus from 50 to 350 C in 100 C intervals over a wide range of pH. Both solid phases dissolve incongruently, presumably to form ZnO(s) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) (or the corresponding hydroxide phases at low temperature), respectively. The respective concentrations of zinc(II) and iron(III) matched those of ZnO(cr) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) ({ge}150 C) reported in the literature, whereas the corresponding Si(IV) and Zn(II) concentrations were at least an order of magnitude below the solubility limits for their pure oxide phases. Therefore, the solubility constants for zinc silicate and ferrite were determined with respect to the known solubility constants for ZnO(cr) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) ({ge}150 C), respectively, and the corresponding concentrations of Si(IV) and Zn(II) measured in this study. The results of independent experiments, as well as those reported in the literature provide insights into the mechanism(s) of formation of zinc silicate and ferrite in the primary circuits of nuclear reactors.

  5. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-01-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3-HA) with ?5?wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO3-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO3-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO4-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ?1.1?wt% exists for synthesis of SiO4-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22983020

  6. Ibuprofen-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites prepared by hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kayleen T; Craig, Duncan Q M; McNally, Tony

    2010-08-01

    Ibuprofen loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) layered silicate nanocomposites were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. The morphology and extent of dispersion of ibuprofen and layered silicate was studied using a combination of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Exhaustive examination across the length scales revealed the composite to have both an intercalated and exfoliated morphology. The ibuprofen was well dispersed and distributed throughout the PCL matrix. Most significantly, the static tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of PCL can be manipulated as a function of nanoclay loading and is dependent on the aspect ratio of clay platelets. The glass transition of PCL increased by up to 16 degrees C on addition of nanoclay, as determined from dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). This behaviour was attributed to the constrained mobility of PCL chains intercalated between clay platelets and to the tethering of PCL chains by hydrogen bonding with platelet edges. As a consequence, PCL crystallisation was inhibited and confirmed from non-isothermal crystallisation experiments using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fraction of PCL that was crystalline (X(c)) decreased by 15% on addition of ibuprofen and nanoclay, although the temperature of crystallisation (T(c)) did not change significantly. The dissolution of ibuprofen from PCL can be retarded by addition of layered silicates (nanoclays) to the polymer matrix. PMID:20033261

  7. Color-control of the persistent luminescence of cadmium silicate doped with transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Carolina M., E-mail: carolabreu.fisica@gmail.com [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, Ronaldo S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Macedo, Zélia S. [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The structural and optical characterization of cadmium silicate (CdSiO{sub 3}) doped with transition metals is reported. This crystalline system presents intrinsic luminescence and is usually studied as host matrix for rare earth ions. In this work, CdSiO{sub 3} was doped with Mn, Ni and Cr to produce multicolored luminescent materials. Single crystalline CdSiO{sub 3} was obtained via solid state synthesis at 1000 °C/8 h. The valence of the dopants inserted in the host matrix was determined via XANES as 3+ for Cr, 2+ for Ni and both 2+ and 3+ for Mn, according to XANES studies. The optical absorption spectra of the samples presented wide bands in the visible region that were associated with the internal transitions of the dopants. All the samples presented photoluminescent bands near 420 nm, 496 nm and 591 nm, with different relative intensities that yield characteristic luminescence colors ranging from blue to red. - Graphical abstract: Phosphorescence of cadmium silicate doped with transition metals: nature of defects and possible luminescent channels. Highlights: ? CdSiO{sub 3} was doped with Mn, Ni and Cr to produce multicolored phosphors. ? Valence of the dopants was determined as 3+ for Cr, 2+ for Ni and 2+ and 3+ for Mn. ? The presence of absorption bands in the visible region led to self-absorption. ? Self-absorption in some cases can decrease the light output. ? Luminescent channels were created and related to internal transitions of the dopants.

  8. Structured carbon adsorbents from clay, zeolite and mesoporous aluminosilicate templates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M Barata-Rodrigues; T. J Mays; G. D Moggridge

    2003-01-01

    Porous carbons templated from inorganic materials such as zeolites and mesoporous molecular sieves received considerable attention in the last decade. In this context, we discuss the effects of different templating structures on the carbons yielded. We describe templating using a commercial cationic clay (Wyoming bentonite), a commercial zeolite (Tosoh H-Beta) and a synthetic mesoporous aluminosilicate (Al-MCM-48), as exemplars of the

  9. Removal of dilute benzene using zeolite-hybrid plasma reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi OGATA; Daisuke Ito; Koichi MIZUNO; Satoshi KUSHIYAMA; Toshiaki YAMAMOTO

    1999-01-01

    The decomposition of benzene was carried out using a plasma reactor packed with a mixture of BaTiO3 and zeolite pellets, the zeolite-hybrid reactor. The reactor performance was characterized by measuring COx formed during plasma discharge and COx adsorbed on the solid surface. The decomposition efficiency of benzene in the hybrid reactor was 1.4 to 2.1 times higher than that in

  10. Simulating Microwave-Heated Diffusion in Zeolite Nanopores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Blanco; Scott M. Auerbach

    We have performed equilibrium molecular dynamics and microwave (MW) heated molecular dynamics simulations to explore how MW heating influences self-diffusion in zeolite nanopores. We have applied these simulations to methanol and\\/or benzene in de-aluminated Y zeolite. We have found that even under the non-equilibrium conditions of MW heating, center-of-mass motions can be associated with effective temperatures. However, we find that

  11. The safety of synthetic zeolites used in detergents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Fruijtier-Pölloth

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly\\u000a be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and\\u000a exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. They\\u000a may partially decompose under acidic conditions such as in

  12. Tribomechanical micronization and activation of whey protein concentrate and zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Herceg; V. Lelas; M. Brn?i?; B. Tripalo; D. Jezek

    2004-01-01

    Tribomechanics is a part of physics that is concerned with the study of phenomena that appear during milling under dynamic\\u000a conditions. Tribomechanical micronization and activation (TMA) of whey protein concentrates (WPC) and zeolites (type clinoptilolite)\\u000a were carried out. Samples of powdered WPC and zeolite were treated with the laboratory TMA equipment. The treatment was carried\\u000a out at two various rotor

  13. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of an offretite\\/erionite type zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanyuan Yang; N. P. Evmiridis

    1996-01-01

    A novel method is described for the preparation of offretite\\/erionite type zeolites without use of nitrogen-containing templates. It is based on the introduction of a certain amount of potassium ions into a synthesis system leading to the formation of an omega type zeolite. The synthesized product is characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and is identified as a

  15. Transport of C 6 isomers through ZSM-5 zeolite membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Sommer; Thomas Melin; John L. Falconer; Richard D. Noble

    2003-01-01

    The separation of binary mixtures of hexane isomers using ZSM-5 zeolite membranes on porous stainless steel and alumina tubes was modeled for both vapor permeation and pervaporation. The fluxes and selectivities for single-component and mixture permeation of n-hexane, 3-methylpentane (3-MP), and 2,2-dimethylbutane (DMB) were described by combining two diffusion mechanisms. The flux through zeolite pores was modeled by Maxwell–Stefan diffusion

  16. High resolution argon adsorption isotherms for various zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nakai; J. Sonoda; M. Yoshida; M. Hakuman; H. Naono

    2007-01-01

    Ar isotherms (87.3 K) and N2 isotherms (77.4 K) were measured for two silicas with different silanol content and two MFI zeolites with different alumina (proton) content. Silanols or protons give the significant effect on 2 isotherms, but has little influence on Ar isotherms. Ar isotherms for seven zeolites of various micropore size were measured in the pressure range of

  17. Pd–Zeolites as Heterogeneous Catalysts in Heck Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dams; L. Drijkoningen; B. Pauwels; G. Van Tendeloo; D. E. De Vos; P. A. Jacobs

    2002-01-01

    Heck reactions were performed with 4-bromoacetophenone and n-butyl acrylate, yielding the trans-arylated acrylate ester with high selectivity. Pd–zeolite catalysts were compared with supported Pd metal catalysts. In order to obtain an active and heterogeneous catalyst, the preformed or in situ-formed catalytically active Pd0 species and the PdII intermediates must be sufficiently stabilized on the zeolites against leaching and against aggregation

  18. Cadmium adsorption on vermiculite, zeolite and pumice: Batch experimental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Rosaria Panuccio; Agostino Sorgonà; Marcella Rizzo; Giovanni Cacco

    2009-01-01

    Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the combined effects of ionic activity, pH, and contact time on the cadmium sorption in three different minerals, vermiculite, zeolite, and pumice, commonly employed as substrata in nurseries and recently considered for their potential use in remediation methods. The extent of cadmium sorption was vermiculite>zeolite>pumice, as shown by the Langmuir and Freundlich parameters, and

  19. Lightweight and Thermal Blocks from Zeolites as Aggregated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Munive; A. L. Leal-Cruz; M. I. Pech-Canul; J. A. Rodríguez-García; E. Rocha-Rangel

    2011-01-01

    The present research is focused on the design of mixtures containing zeolite (Z), as an alternative aggregate and their use in the production of blocks with lightweight and insulating properties that comply with the specific requirements of standards for its application in construction. To improve lightweight and insulating properties in blocks, first mixtures zeolitic sand-cement-lime (ZS\\/C\\/L) were prepared and their

  20. Microfabrics in Siliceous Hotsprings: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.; Westall, F.

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrics shed light on the mechanisms governing siliceous sinter precipitation, the profound effects of microorganisms, as well as a conventional facies model for siliceous hotsprings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Micromechanical properties of silicate glass films on sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebelny, A.V.; Carter, C.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1998-12-31

    The deformation of thin layers of glass on crystalline materials has been examined using newly developed experimental methods for nanomechanical testing. Continuous films of anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}), celsian (BaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}), and monticellite (CaMgSiO{sub 4}) were deposited onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Mechanical properties such as Young`s modulus and hardness were probed with a high-resolution depth-sensing indentation instrument. Nanomechanical testing, combined with AFM in-situ imaging of the deformed regions, allowed force-displacement measurements and imaging of the same regions of the specimen before and immediately after indentation. Emphasis has been placed on examining how changes in the glass composition, residual stress introduced into the films, effect of film`s heat-treatment, and the effect of substrate crystallographic orientation will affect the mechanical properties of silicate-glass films.

  2. Moderate-temperature zeolitic alteration in a cooling pyroclastic deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levy, S.S.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The locally zeolitized Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (13 Myr.), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., is part of a thick sequence of zeolitized pyroclastic units. Most of the zeolitized units are nonwelded tuffs that were altered during low-temperature diagenesis, but the distribution and textural setting of zeolite (heulandite-clinoptilolite) and smectite in the densely welded Topopah Spring tuff suggest that these hydrous minerals formed while the tuff was still cooling after pyroclastic emplacement and welding. The hydrous minerals are concentrated within a transition zone between devitrified tuff in the central part of the unit and underlying vitrophyre. Movement of liquid and convected heat along fractures from the devitrified tuff to the ritrophyre caused local devitrification and hydrous mineral crystallization. Oxygen isotope geothermometry of cogenetic quartz confirms the nondiagenetic moderate temperature origin of the hydrous minerals at temperatures of ??? 40-100??C, assuming a meteoric water source. The Topopah Spring tuff is under consideration for emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste repository. The natural rock alteration of the cooling pyroclastic deposit may be a good natural analog for repository-induced hydrothermal alteration. As a result of repository thermal loading, temperatures in the Topopah Spring vitrophyre may rise sufficiently to duplicate the inferred temperatures of natural zeolitic alteration. Heated water moving downward from the repository into the vitrophyre may contribute to new zeolitic alteration. ?? 1989.

  3. Nanosized zeolites as a perspective material for conductometric biosensors creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, Ivan; Soldatkin, Oleksandr; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Soldatkin, Alexei; Lagarde, Florence; Dzyadevych, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the method of enzyme adsorption on different zeolites and mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) was investigated for the creation of conductometric biosensors. The conductometric transducers consisted of gold interdigitated electrodes were placed on the ceramic support. The transducers were modified with zeolites and MSS, and then the enzymes were adsorbed on the transducer surface. Different methods of zeolite attachment to the transducer surface were used; drop coating with heating to 200°C turned out to be the best one. Nanozeolites beta and L, zeolite L, MSS, and silicalite-1 (80 to 450 nm) were tested as the adsorbents for enzyme urease. The biosensors with all tested particles except zeolite L had good analytical characteristics. Silicalite-1 (450 nm) was also used for adsorption of glucose oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. The glucose and acetylcholine biosensors were successfully created, whereas butyrylcholinesterase was not adsorbed on silicalite-1. The enzyme adsorption on zeolites and MSS is simple, quick, well reproducible, does not require use of toxic compounds, and therefore can be recommended for the development of biosensors when these advantages are especially important.

  4. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-01

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 ?m thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit. PMID:26061093

  5. Asymmetric printing of molecules and zeolites on self assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehr, Nermin Seda; Schäfer, Andreas; Ravoo, Bart Jan; de Cola, Luisa

    2010-04-01

    Microcontact printing (mCP) is used to immobilize dyes and peptides asymmetrically, by a ``peptide coupling'' reaction, on monolayers of zeolite L crystals in the contact area between the stamp and the surface of the monolayer. Chemically patterned surfaces of monolayers of zeolite L crystals are obtained by using patterned stamps with different ink solutions. Additional printing of functionalized nano-objects on SAMs of zeolite L crystals is demonstrated.Microcontact printing (mCP) is used to immobilize dyes and peptides asymmetrically, by a ``peptide coupling'' reaction, on monolayers of zeolite L crystals in the contact area between the stamp and the surface of the monolayer. Chemically patterned surfaces of monolayers of zeolite L crystals are obtained by using patterned stamps with different ink solutions. Additional printing of functionalized nano-objects on SAMs of zeolite L crystals is demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of XPS spectra are given. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00285e

  6. Removal of metal cations from water using zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Zamzow, M.J.; Murphy, J.E. (U.S. Bureau of Mines, Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Zeolites from abundant natural deposits were investigated by the Bureau of Mines for efficiently cleaning up mining industry wastewaters. Twenty-four zeolite samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma. These included clinoptilolite, mordenite, chabazite, erionite, and phillipsite. Bulk densities of a sized fraction ([minus]40, +65 mesh) varied from 0.48 to 0.93 g/ml. Attrition losses ranged from 1 to 18% during an hour-long shake test. The 24 zeolites and an ion-exchange resin were tested for the uptake of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Of the natural zeolites, phillipsite proved to be the most efficient, while the mordenites had the lowest uptakes. Sodium was the most effective exchangeable ion for exchange of heavy metals. Wastewater from an abandoned copper mine in Nevada was used to test the effectiveness of clinoptilolite for treating a multi-ion wastewater. The metal ions Fe[sup 3+], Cu[sup 2+], and Zn[sup 2+] in the copper mine wastewater were removed to below drinking water standards, but Mn[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 2+] were not. Calcium and NH[sub 4][sup +] interfered with the uptake of heavy metals. Adsorbed heavy metals were eluted from zeolites with a 3% NaCl solution. Heavy metals were concentrated in the eluates up to 30-fold relative to the waste solution. Anions were not adsorbed by the zeolites.

  7. Solvent Evaporation Assisted Preparation of Oriented Nanocrystalline Mesoporous MFI Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Kake; Sun, Junming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Wan, Haiying; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF; Nie, Zimin

    2011-07-01

    A solvent evaporation route to produce hierarchically porous zeolites with an oriented MFI nanocrystalline structure has been developed, and the method is scalable and productive. In this method, hexadecyltrimethoxysilane is added to an ethanol solution containing zeolitic precursors. A hard gel is formed during the evaporation process. Subsequent hydrothermal treatments produce the hierarchically porous zeolite. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies suggest that misoriented zeolite nuclei are produced in the very early stages of the hydrothermal treatment, but further reactions lead to single crystal-like aggregates composed of intergrowth nanocrystals with a mean interparticle pore diameter of 12 nm. All Al atoms exist in tetrahedral sites, as confirmed by 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). Variable temperature hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR spectroscopy suggest a fast molecular diffusion process from the interconnection between micro- and mesopores. Catalytic conversion of acetone to the isobutene reactions show comparable (with respect to conventional zeolites) selectivity to isobutene. However, hierarchically porous zeolites display enhanced activity and durability because of the more accessible acidic sites in the hierarchically porous structures.

  8. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  9. Photoionization of silicate glasses exposed to IR femtosecond pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M Efimov; L. B Glebov; S Grantham; M Richardson

    1999-01-01

    Photoionization of alkali-silicate, boro-silicate, lead-silicate and photosensitive multi-component silicate glasses has been studied under exposure to infrared femtosecond laser pulses at irradiance below the thresholds of laser-induced damage and catastrophic self-focusing. It is proved that the supercontinuum that is generated in all glasses studied as a result of the femtosecond laser pulses spectral broadening extends up to the short-wavelength part

  10. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  11. Silicic acid: boric acid complexes as wood preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    Wood was treated with a low molecular-weight silicic acid: boric acid agent and examined for increased resistance to termites and combustion. Wood treated with silicic acid only exhibited increased termite resistance, but not to the marked extent observed after treatment with a mixture of silicic and boric acids. Increasing the quantity of boric acid also increased the termite mortality rate

  12. The role of a silicate pump in driving new production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Dugdale; Frances P. Wilkerson; Hans J. Minas

    1995-01-01

    In the past, the importance of silicate as a limiting nutrient for new production in the ocean, and in determining global productivity and carbon budgets, has been relegated to the lower ranks compared to the role of nitrogen and, more recently, iron. This paper describes a “silicate pump” that acts in diatom-dominated communities to enhance the loss of silicate from

  13. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0934; FRL-9333-6] Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption...of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with...permissible level for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products...

  14. The silicate-mediated formose reaction: bottom-up synthesis of sugar silicates.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph B; Gurusamy-Thangavelu, Senthil A; Ma, Kuangbiao

    2010-02-19

    Understanding the mechanism of sugar formation and stabilization is important for constraining theories on the abiotic origin of complex biomolecules. Although previous studies have produced sugars from small molecules through the formose and related reactions, the product mixtures are complex and unstable. We have demonstrated that simple two- and three-carbon molecules (glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde), in the presence of aqueous sodium silicate, spontaneously form silicate complexes of four- and six-carbon sugars, respectively. Silicate selects for sugars with a specific stereochemistry and sequesters them from rapid decomposition. Given the abundance of silicate minerals, these observations suggest that formose-like reactions may provide a feasible pathway for the abiotic formation of biologically important sugars, such as ribose. PMID:20167782

  15. Mantle Mineral\\/Silicate Melt Partitioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. McFarlane; M. J. Drake

    1992-01-01

    Introduction: The partitioning of elements among mantle phases and silicate melts is of interest in unraveling the early thermal history of the Earth. It has been proposed that the elevated Mg\\/Si ratio of the upper mantle of the Earth is a consequence of the flotation of olivine into the upper mantle (Agee and Walker, 1988). Agee and Walker (1988) have

  16. Lithium Manganese Silicate Positive Electrode Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong

    As the fast development of the electronic portable devices and drastic fading of fossil energy sources. The need for portable secondary energy sources is increasingly urgent. As a result, lithium ion batteries are being investigated intensely to meet the performance requirements. Among various electrode materials, the most expensive and capacity limiting component is the positive materials. Based on this, researches have been mostly focused on the development of novel cathode materials with high capacity and energy density and the lithium transition metal orthosilicates have been identified as possible high performance cathodes. Here in, we report the synthesis of a kind of lithium transition metal orthosilicates electrode lithium manganese silicate. Lithium manganese silicate has the advantage of high theoretical capacity, low cost raw material and safety. In this thesis, lithium manganese silicate are prepared using different silicon sources. The structure of silicon sources preferred are examined. Nonionic block copolymers surfactant, P123, is tried as carbon source and mophology directing agent. Lithium manganese silicate's performances are improved by adding P123.

  17. Thermoset polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen

    Nanocomposites are formed when phase mixing occurs on a nanometer length scale. Due to the improved phase morphology and interfacial properties, nanocomposites exhibit mechanical properties superior to conventional composites. Toyota researchers first demonstrated that organoclay could be exfoliated in a nylon-6 matrix to greatly improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, which has resulted in a practical application in the automobile industry. A great deal of research has been conducted on organic-inorganic hybrid composites in which smectite clays are used as reinforcement agents. However, little work has been devoted to derivatives of other layered inorganic solids. In the present work, the first examples of organic polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites have been prepared by formation of a cured epoxy polymer network in the presence of organo cation exchange forms of magadiite. The exfoliation of silicate nanolayers in the epoxy matrix was achieved by in-situ intragallery polymerization during the thermosetting process. In general, the tensile properties, solvent resistance, barrier properties and chemical stability of the polymer matrix are greatly improved by the embedded silicate nanolayers when the matrix is flexible (sub-ambient Tg). The improvement of properties are dependent on the silicate loading, the degree of nanolayer separation and interfacial properties. Interestingly, the exfoliation also affects the polymer elasticity in a favorable way. The mechanism leading to nanocomposite formation is proposed. One exfoliated epoxy-magadiite nanocomposite/composition possessed unique transparent optical properties. The exfoliation chemistry was successfully extended to the other members of the layered silicic acid family. A new approach also was developed to prepare thermoset epoxy polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites in which curing agents can be directly intercalated into the intragallery without the need for alkylammonium ions on the exchange sites. This new development has resulted in a greater improvement in the overall properties of thermoset polymer-clay nanocomposites. The exfoliation chemistry was extended further to other thermoset silicone polymer systems. The new polysiloxane-layered silicic acid nanocomposites were prepared with promising mechanical properties. Some fundamental chemistry and physics issues regarding nanocomposite formation were elucidated by this research work, particularly with regard to the relationship of microstructure and interfacial factors to the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.

  18. Adsorption and isothermal models of atrazine by zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Tarek S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Saleh, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of Atrazine on zeolites, prepared from Egyptian kaolin, has been studied in order to consider the application of these types of zeolites in water purification. The batch mode has been employed, using atrazine solution of concentration ranging from 2 to 10 mg /l. The adsorption capacity and distribution coefficients ( Kd) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. It was found that, under the studies concentrations, the percent of adsorbed atrazine on both zeolites match to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The constants of each model were calculated to assess the adsorption behavior of atrazine on each type of zeolite. According to the equilibrium studies, adsorption of atrazine on zeolite X at lower concentrations is much better than that on zeolite A. The application of Dublin-Kaganer-Radushkevich model revealed physisorption endothermic adsorption process for both zeolites. These results show that natural zeolites hold great potential to remove hazardous materials such as atrazine from water.

  19. Hydrous silicate and salt minerals are stable in a hydrated state on the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bish, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.

    Mars Odyssey Neutron spectrometer data provide evidence of heterogeneous near-surface water abundances up to ˜ 10 wt% in near-equatorial regions on Mars. The fact that water ice is unstable in these regions suggests that some of this water may be present in hydrous silicates (smectites or zeolites) or hydrated salts. Zeolites (e.g., clinoptilolite and chabazite) and smectites have been suggested to occur on the martian surface, and Viking, Pathfinder, and MER chemical data support the existence of MgSO4 in altered surface materials. In addition, a variety of sulfate and chloride minerals have been identified in martian meteorite samples. Mg-sulfates exist on Earth in a variety of hydration states, including 7-hydrate (51 wt% water), 6-hydrate (47 wt% water), and monohydrate (13 wt% water), but occurrences on Mars may be very different and may include intermediate hydrates such as 5-, 4-, 3-, and 2-hydrates (43, 37, 31, and 23 wt% water, respectively). Other hydrated sulfates (e.g., gypsum, CaSO4\\cdot 2H2O, 21 wt% water) or hydrated sulfate-chloride salts may also be present based on existing chemical data. Experimental data on the thermodynamics of hydration/dehydration reactions for clinoptilolite, chabazite, and smectite show that they would be partially to completely hydrated at martian surface conditions. Their hydration enthalpies are such that they have the potential to hydrate and dehydrate during diurnal temperature cycles at the martian equator. Similar data are not available for the hydrated Mg sulfates, but controlled-atmosphere X-ray diffraction measurements on the 7-, 6-, and 1-hydrate suggest that the 7-hydrate is not stable at the low partial pressures of water found on Mars. The 6-hydrate becomes amorphous under low-pressure conditions but retains ˜ 18 wt% water; it readily rehydrates when exposed to elevated water-vapor pressure. The potential suite of hydrated silicate and salt minerals is large and requires considerable additional research. However, existing data demonstrate that several of these minerals are reasonable hosts for water molecules under present martian surface conditions. One or several of these minerals may contribute to the subsurface water observed by Mars Odyssey. Some of the hydrated Mg sulfates have such high water concentrations that realistic amounts would be required to account for the observed near-equatorial martian water.

  20. In-situ growth of porous alumino-silicates and fabrication of nano-porous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodumuri, Pradeep

    2009-12-01

    Feasibility of depositing continuous films of nano-porous alumino-silicates, primarily zeolites and MCM-41, on metallic and non-metallic substrates was examined with an aim to develop membranes for separation of gaseous mixtures and also for application as hydrogen storage material. Mesoporous silica was deposited in-side the pores of these nano-porous disks with an aim to develop membranes for selective separations. Our study involves supported zeolite film growth on substrates using in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. Faujasite, Silicalite and Mesoporous silica have been grown on various metallic and non-metallic supports. Metallic substrates used for film growth included anodized titanium, sodium hydroxide treated Titanium, Anodized aluminum, and sintered copper. A non-metallic substrate used was nano-porous aluminum oxide. Zeolite film growth was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (AMRAY 1820) and High Resolution Transmission electron microscope. Silicalite was found to grow uniformly on all the substrates to form a uniform and closely packed film. Faujasite tends to grow in the form of individual particles which do not inter-grow like silicalite to form a continuous film. Mesoporous silica was found to grow uniformly on anodized aluminum compared to growth on sintered copper and anodized titanium. Mesoporous silica growth on AnodiscRTM was found to cover more than half the surface of the substrate. Commercially obtained AnodiscRTM was found to have cylindrical channels of the pore branching into each other and since we needed pore channels of uniform dimension for Mesoporous silica growth, we have fabricated nano-porous alumina with uniform pore channels. Nano-porous alumina membranes containing uniform distribution of through thickness cylindrical pore channels were fabricated using anodization of aluminum disks. Free-standing nano-porous alumina membranes were used as templates for electro-deposition in order to fabricate nickel and palladium nano-wire mesh with large surface area to volume ratio. Such nano-wire metallic alloy meshes have a strong potential for application as advanced hydrogen storage material. Statistical image analysis techniques were used to determine the dependence of the pore morphology and distribution on the crystal orientation by anodizing single crystal aluminum disks that were oriented with their surface normal along [111], [110] and [111] directions. The [100] oriented disks were found to have the highest tendency to anodize in oxalic acid electrolytic solutions.

  1. Alkali metal crystalline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuhong; Gamble, Stephen; Ainsworth, David; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Andreev, Yuri G; Bruce, Peter G

    2009-07-01

    Polymer electrolytes have been studied extensively because uniquely they combine ionic conductivity with solid yet flexible mechanical properties, rendering them important for all-solid-state devices including batteries, electrochromic displays and smart windows. For some 30 years, ionic conductivity in polymers was considered to occur only in the amorphous state above Tg. Crystalline polymers were believed to be insulators. This changed with the discovery of Li(+) conductivity in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)(6):LiAsF(6). However, new crystalline polymer electrolytes have proved elusive, questioning whether the 6:1 complex has particular structural features making it a unique exception to the rule that only amorphous polymers conduct. Here, we demonstrate that ionic conductivity in crystalline polymers is not unique to the 6:1 complex by reporting several new crystalline polymer electrolytes containing different alkali metal salts (Na(+), K(+) and Rb(+)), including the best conductor poly(ethylene oxide)(8):NaAsF(6) discovered so far, with a conductivity 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than poly(ethylene oxide)(6):LiAsF(6). These are the first crystalline polymer electrolytes with a different composition and structures to that of the 6:1 Li(+) complex. PMID:19543313

  2. Alkali metal crystalline polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuhong; Gamble, Stephen; Ainsworth, David; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Andreev, Yuri G.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2009-07-01

    Polymer electrolytes have been studied extensively because uniquely they combine ionic conductivity with solid yet flexible mechanical properties, rendering them important for all-solid-state devices including batteries, electrochromic displays and smart windows. For some 30 years, ionic conductivity in polymers was considered to occur only in the amorphous state above Tg. Crystalline polymers were believed to be insulators. This changed with the discovery of Li+ conductivity in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiAsF6 (refs 4, 5). However, new crystalline polymer electrolytes have proved elusive, questioning whether the 6:1 complex has particular structural features making it a unique exception to the rule that only amorphous polymers conduct. Here, we demonstrate that ionic conductivity in crystalline polymers is not unique to the 6:1 complex by reporting several new crystalline polymer electrolytes containing different alkali metal salts (Na+, K+ and Rb+), including the best conductor poly(ethylene oxide)8:NaAsF6 discovered so far, with a conductivity 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiAsF6. These are the first crystalline polymer electrolytes with a different composition and structures to that of the 6:1 Li+ complex.

  3. Grain Growth and Silicates in Dense Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Chiar, J. E.; Ennico, K.; Boogert, A.; Greene, T.; Knez, C.; Lada, C.; Roellig, T.; Tielens, A.; Werner, M.; Whittet, D.

    2006-06-01

    Interstellar silicates are likely to be a part of all grains responsible for visual extinction (Av) in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and dense clouds. A correlation between Av and the depth of the 9.7 micron silicate feature (measured as optical depth, tau(9.7)) is expected if the dust species are well mixed. In the diffuse ISM, such a correlation is observed for lines of sight in the solar neighborhood. A previous study of the silicate absorption feature in the Taurus dark cloud showed a tendency for the correlation to break down at high Av (Whittet et al. 1988, MNRAS, 233, 321), but the scatter was large.We have acquired Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data of several lines of sight in the IC 5146, Barnard 68, Chameleon I and Serpens dense clouds. Our data set spans an Av range between 2 and 35 magnitudes. All lines of sight show the 9.7 micron silicate feature. The Serpens data appear to follow the diffuse ISM correlation line whereas the data for the other clouds show a non-linear correlation between the depth of the silicate feature relative to Av, much like the trend observed in the Taurus data. In fact, it appears that for visual extinctions greater than about 10 mag, tau(9.7) begins to level off. This decrease in the growth of the depth of the 9.7 micron feature with increasing Av could indicate the effects of grain growth in dense clouds. In this poster, we explore the possibility that grain growth causes an increase in opacity (Av) without causing a corresponding increase in tau(9.7).

  4. Identification of the man-made barium copper silicate pigments among some ancient Chinese artifacts through spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Yang, J. C.; Li, L.; Dong, J. Q.; Zhao, H. X.; Liu, S.

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the complementary application of non-invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the characterization of some ancient Chinese silicate artifacts. A total of 28 samples dated from fourth century BC to third century AD were analyzed. The results of chemical analysis showed that the vitreous PbO-BaO-SiO2 material was used to sinter these silicate artifacts. The barium copper silicate pigments including BaCuSi4O10, BaCuSi2O6 and BaCu2Si2O7 were widely identified from colorful areas of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, other crystalline phases such as Fe2O3, BaSi2O5, BaSO4, PbCO3 and quartz were also identified. The present study provides very valuable information to trace the technical evolution of man-made barium copper silicate pigments and their close relationship with the making of ancient PbO-BaO-SiO2 glaze and glass.

  5. Identification of the man-made barium copper silicate pigments among some ancient Chinese artifacts through spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Yang, J C; Li, L; Dong, J Q; Zhao, H X; Liu, S

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the complementary application of non-invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the characterization of some ancient Chinese silicate artifacts. A total of 28 samples dated from fourth century BC to third century AD were analyzed. The results of chemical analysis showed that the vitreous PbO-BaO-SiO2 material was used to sinter these silicate artifacts. The barium copper silicate pigments including BaCuSi4O10, BaCuSi2O6 and BaCu2Si2O7 were widely identified from colorful areas of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, other crystalline phases such as Fe2O3, BaSi2O5, BaSO4, PbCO3 and quartz were also identified. The present study provides very valuable information to trace the technical evolution of man-made barium copper silicate pigments and their close relationship with the making of ancient PbO-BaO-SiO2 glaze and glass. PMID:25541398

  6. Mineralogy and temporal relations of coexisting authigenic minerals in altered silicic tuffs and their utility as potential low-temperature dateable minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Broxton, David E.; Byers, Frank M.

    1996-05-01

    Coexisting fine-grained (0.1-20 ?m) authigenic silicate minerals separated from altered tuffs in Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits were characterized petrographically and using X-ray powder diffraction. The authigenic minerals are dominated by clinoptilolite, erionite, phillipsite, K-feldspar, silica, calcite, smectite, and randomly interstratified illite/smectite. Minor accessories of opal-CT, cristobalite, and barite are present with the major alteration minerals. Authigenic minerals from altered tuffs were dated using the {K}/{Ar} method to evaluate the utility of these minerals for determining the time of alteration in low-temperature diagenetic environments. The eruption ages of some of these zeolite-rich tuffs were determined using the {40Ar }/{39Ar } method on single sanidine and plagioclase minerals. The {K}/{Ar} isotopic ages of the fine-grained K-feldspar show minimal variation compared with results from the clinoptilolite separates. The isotopic ages from the authigenic K-feldspar (15-13.8 Ma) and some of the zeolites (16.-6.7 Ma) are similar to the eruption ages of the tuffs and indicate early alteration. Despite their open-framework structure, zeolites apparently can retain part or all of their radiogenic argon under favorable conditions (e.g., saturated environment). How much of the radiogenic argon is retained is estimated from the isotopic ages of other coexisting secondary minerals that are commonly dated by the {K}/{Ar} method. Although zeolite isotopic ages should be interpreted with caution, they may be useful to constrain temporal relations of low-temperature diagenetic processes when used in conjunction with other dateable minerals.

  7. Strong Eu2+ light emission in Eu silicate through Eu3+ reduction in Eu2O3/Si multilayer deposited on Si substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Eu2O3/Si multilayer nanostructured films are deposited on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that multicrystalline Eu silicate is homogeneously distributed in the film after high-temperature treatment in N2. The Eu2+ silicate is formed by the reaction of Eu2O3 and Si layers, showing an intense and broad room-temperature photoluminescence peak centered at 610 nm. It is found that the Si layer thickness in nanostructures has great influence on Eu ion optical behavior by forming different Eu silicate crystalline phases. These findings open a promising way to prepare efficient Eu2+ materials for photonic application. PMID:23618344

  8. Adsorption properties of Fe-containing dealuminated BEA zeolites as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin Hadjiivanov; Elena Ivanova; Radoslav Kefirov; Janusz Janas; Anna Plesniar; Stanislaw Dzwigaj; Michel Che

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption properties of Fe-containing dealuminated BEA zeolites were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and NO. Two Fe-containing SiBEA zeolite samples were prepared by a two-step post-synthesis method: creation of vacant T-atom sites (T=Si, Al) by dealumination of tetraethylammonium BEA zeolite with nitric acid followed by impregnation of the resulting SiBEA zeolite with an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3. The

  9. Removal of organobromine compounds from the pyrolysis oils of flame retarded plastics using zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Hall; Paul T. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Two flame retarded plastics have been pyrolysed in the presence of two zeolite catalysts to remove the organobromine compounds from the derived pyrolysis oil. The flame retarded plastics were, acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) that was flame retarded with tetrabromobisphenol A and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) that was flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether. The two catalysts investigated were zeolite ZSM-5 and zeolite Y-Zeolite.

  10. Highly dispersed metal atoms in zeolites. Progress report. [Hydroformylation

    SciTech Connect

    Suib, S.L.

    1985-04-15

    Our studies this past year have involved work in the following areas: preparation of highly dispersed metal atoms in molecular sieves via microwave discharge methods, hydroformylation of l-pentene with rhodium zeolites and Rutherford backscattering studies of zeolites. The microwave discharge method has been developed by us to provide a synthetic route to produce highly dispersed iron and cobalt atom clusters in several molecular sieves such as zeolites, aluminophosphates, pillared clays and clays. We have done ferromagnetic resonance, infrared, Mossbauer and scanning electron microscopy experiments on these materials. Generalizations that can be made so far are that these particles are extremely small, reactive and their formation is governed by the type of support. They are all active in Fischer-Tropsch reactions although cobalt materials are more selective and stable than iron materials. Superparamagnetic iron clusters have been observed for the incorporation of iron into zeolites, ALPO's and pillared clays. These results are unique in that iron (0) is usually oxidized in a zeolite environment. The second project deals with Wilkinson's catalyst and the preparation of phosphine rhodium zeolite catalysts. These catalysts are selective towards aldehyde formation and the normal to branched aldehyde ratio can be controlled. EXAFS, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray powder diffraction experiments have been carried out on these catalysts. The third project deals with Rutherford backscattering studies of zeolites. We have shown that Rutherford backscattering methods can be used to distinguish metal ions on the surface of a porous support from internal metal ions exchanged into the pores of the support.

  11. The role of zeolite beta nanoparticles solutions in the synthesis of zeolite-functionalised materials with bimodal porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oers, Cynthia J.

    The last decade, much attention has been devoted to the development of bimodal materials with zeolitic properties, with the intention to combine the beneficial properties of zeolites with these of mesoporous structures. Various synthesis methods have been developed, of which several are using zeolite nanoparticles solutions as silica-alumina source to form the mesoporous material. Extensive research has been conducted to the properties and the formation mechanism of both the nanoparticles solution and the final bimodal materials. However, still little is known about the correlation between the characteristics of the initial nanoparticles solution and the structural, chemical and physico-chemical properties of the final materials. The focus of this research is to acquire this lacking knowledge, which would allow tailoring of the final material characteristics, depending on the application requirements. In this PhD work, two types of bimodal materials with zeolitic features are investigated, i.e. a mesotemplate-free method and an impregnation on a mesoporous substrate, both using a zeolite beta nanoparticles solution as precursor. The main focus is put on how the synthesis conditions of the zeolite beta nanoparticles solution influence the final material properties. It is shown that the hydrothermal synthesis temperature (373K--393K--413K--423K/24h) of the zeolite beta nanoparticles solution has a direct impact on the porosity and zeolitic features of the final materials. Moreover, a clear threshold is observed: Synthesis temperatures below or equal to 413K result in bimodal materials without clear zeolitic properties, while a higher temperature of 423K gives materials with clear zeolitic features. Furthermore, this difference in material properties gives better results for the materials above the threshold regarding the acidity, stability and catalytic activity. A transmission electron microscopy and advanced electron tomography study showed that the mesotemplate-free structures are possessing a wormhole-like mesoporous structure, formed by the condensation of nanoparticles via neck formation. Furthermore, the study revealed a 2D growth of the nanoparticles under the threshold and a change towards 3D growth at the threshold temperature of 413K. This suggests a standard sol-mechanism below and at the threshold, and indicates an interruption of this mechanism by the start of the crystallisation process above 413K.

  12. Amorphous Silicates in Primitive Meteoritic Materials: Acfer 094 and IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of presolar grains is one measure of the primitive nature of meteoritic materials. Presolar silicates are abundant in meteorites whose matrices are dominated by amorphous silicates such as the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Presolar silicates are even more abundant in chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs). Amorphous silicates in the form of GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major component of CP IDPs. We are studying amorphous silicates in Acfer 094 matrix in order to determine whether they are related to the GEMS grains in CPIDPs

  13. Formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces

    E-print Network

    Ling Li; Giulio Manico; Emanuele Congiu; Joe Roser; Sol Swords; Hagai B. Perets; Adina Lederhendler; Ofer Biham; John Robert Brucato; Valerio Pirronello; Gianfranco Vidali

    2007-09-16

    Experimental results on the formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces are presented and analyzed using a rate equation model. The energy barriers for the relevant diffusion and desorption processes are obtained. They turn out to be significantly higher than those obtained for polycrystalline silicates, demonstrating the importance of grain morphology. Using these barriers we evaluate the efficiency of molecular hydrogen formation on amorphous silicate grains under interstellar conditions. It is found that unlike polycrystalline silicates, amorphous silicate grains are efficient catalysts of H_2 formation in diffuse interstellar clouds.

  14. Formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces

    E-print Network

    Li, Ling; Congiu, Emanuele; Roser, Joe; Swords, Sol; Perets, Hagai B; Lederhendler, Adina; Biham, Ofer; Brucato, John Robert; Pirronello, Valerio; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    Experimental results on the formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces are presented and analyzed using a rate equation model. The energy barriers for the relevant diffusion and desorption processes are obtained. They turn out to be significantly higher than those obtained for polycrystalline silicates, demonstrating the importance of grain morphology. Using these barriers we evaluate the efficiency of molecular hydrogen formation on amorphous silicate grains under interstellar conditions. It is found that unlike polycrystalline silicates, amorphous silicate grains are efficient catalysts of H_2 formation in diffuse interstellar clouds.

  15. Formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Manico, G.; Congiu, E.; Roser, J.; Swords, S.; Perets, H. B.; Lederhendler, A.; Biham, O.; Brucato, J. R.; Pirronello, V.; Vidali, G.

    2007-12-01

    Experimental results on the formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces are presented and analyzed using a rate equation model. The energy barriers for the relevant diffusion and desorption processes are obtained. They turn out to be significantly higher than those obtained for polycrystalline silicates, demonstrating the importance of grain morphology. Using these barriers we evaluate the efficiency of molecular hydrogen formation on amorphous silicate grains under interstellar conditions. It is found that unlike polycrystalline silicates, amorphous silicate grains are efficient catalysts of H2 formation in diffuse interstellar clouds.

  16. Mineralogy of amphiboles and 1:1 layer silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Wylie, A.G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This article reviews briefly the ways in which mineralogists and crystal chemist represent complex silicate structures: the basic nomenclature for amphiboles, and the 1:1 layer silicates; the geological occurrences of these minerals; their crystal structures and defect structures; the various morphologies, or habits, of amphibole and 1:1 layer silicate crystals; and the potentially active surface sites and dissolution kinetics of such particles. Also included is a discussion of how 1:1 layer silicates, amphiboles, and other chain silicates related to amphiboles are identified in the laboratory. 225 refs., 28 figs.

  17. Studies on catalytic cracking catalyst of hydrocarbons with a new type of zeolite L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huifang Pan; Guoyou Wei; Hailiang Yuan; Quan Huo; Qiang Li; Xinghong Pan; Wenhong Wang; Xiangzhen Yu

    2007-01-01

    A new catalyst which exhibits superior activity, stability and selectivity in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) reactions of hydrocarbons is defined as a new type of zeolite L, ultra stable zeolite L (USL), as an active additive component of catalyst. The zeolite L was synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization method and characterized by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and N2 isotherm adsorption.

  18. Competitive adsorption of malachite green and Pb ions on natural zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaobin Wang; Eko Ariyanto

    2007-01-01

    A natural zeolite was employed as adsorbent for removal of malachite green and Pb2+ ions from aqueous solution. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption behaviour of the dye and heavy metal in single and binary systems on the natural zeolite. Kinetic studies indicate that malachite green and Pb2+ adsorption on the natural zeolite in a single component

  19. Dealumination–aging pattern of REUSY zeolites contained in fluid cracking catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Hernández-Beltrán; Juan Carlos Moreno-Mayorga; Mar??a de Lourdes Guzmán-Castillo; Juan Navarrete-Bolaños; Montserrat González-González; Brent E. Handy

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the properties of a REUSY zeolite contained in a fluid cracking catalyst was investigated under laboratory steam deactivation procedures and in age fractions of the corresponding equilibrium catalyst (Ecat). The aging pattern, defined by the evolution of the zeolite surface area (ZSA) related to the decrease of the unit cell size (UCS), was similar between lab-steamed zeolites

  20. Thermal Conductivity in Zeolites Studied by Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Sondre K.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of zeolites is an important material property. For example, this is the case for catalysis, where chemical reactions release heat either inside zeolites or at zeolite surfaces. At zeolite surfaces, heat is released during the adsorption of guest molecules. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to determine the thermal conductivity of zeolites from experiments or from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation is an interesting approach to determine thermal conductivities. Inducing a thermal gradient by moving kinetic energy between different parts of the simulation box, and then studying the resulting thermal gradient, will lead to direct access to the thermal conductivity of the zeolite. In this work, we have used NEMD simulations to determine the thermal conductivity of several pure silica zeolites. The zeolites are modeled using the Demontis force field, making it possible to screen many zeolite frameworks, and study finite-size effects. In addition, we have studied the influence of adsorbed guest molecules on the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of zeolites is usually in order of 0.6 to almost 4 , with large differences between different crystallographic directions. We find that the loading of guest molecules adsorbed inside the zeolite has a minor influence on the thermal conductivity, and that in general the thermal conductivity increases with increasing framework density of the zeolite.

  1. Significant reduction of carcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke by the use of zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M Meier; K Siegmann

    1999-01-01

    Zeolites play an increasingly important role in toxicology and the life sciences. A new example is the removal of significant amounts of carcinogenic compounds from cigarette smoke. These compounds, particularly nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatics (PAHs), are well known to constitute a serious health risk. Most effective in reducing toxic compounds are zeolite catalysts placed directly on the tobacco. The zeolite

  2. Strategies for total NOx measurement with minimal CO interference utilizing a microporous zeolitic catalytic filter

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    at temperatures greater than 400 8C. By using a Pt-loaded zeolite Yas a catalyst filter bed placed before a sensor a layer of the Pt-zeolite catalyst filter material directly onto a Pt electrode, a pseudo-reference to NOxStrategies for total NOx measurement with minimal CO interference utilizing a microporous zeolitic

  3. Zeolite Membrane for Dehydration of Isopropylalcohol-Water Mixture by Vapor Permeation.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Ken-Ichi; Furuhata, Taisuke; Sekine, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Eiichi; Subramanian, Bharathi; Matsukata, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    Highly stable FAU-type zeolite membrane for the separation of isopropanol (IPA)-water mixture by pervaporation is described. FAU membrane showed high water permselectivity and permeance. Comparison of FAU membrane with a conventional LTA-type zeolite membrane revealed superior stability of FAU zeolite membrane in a mixture containing a large water content. PMID:26076213

  4. Role of acidity in hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde on platinum beta zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Lashdaf; Ville-Veikko Nieminen; Marja Tiitta; Tapani Venäläinen; Heidi Österholm; Outi Krause

    2004-01-01

    A series of platinum beta zeolites with different well-defined acid properties were tested in cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation. The acetal formation was found to be related to the amount of acid sites on the external surface of the zeolite. The acidity of the beta zeolite influenced the platinum dispersion, and the activity of the catalysts increased with total acidity of the beta

  5. Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xianchun

    2004-09-30

    -framework alumina in zeolites to form a new protonic acid. SiO2-bound catalysts have less strong acidity, Bronsted acidity and Lewis acidity than the zeolite powder. Also, the strength of strong acid sites of the zeolites is reduced when silica is embedded...

  6. Visible and ultraviolet \\/800-130 nm\\/ extinction of vapor-condensed silicate, carbon, and silicon carbide smokes and the interstellar extinction curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Stephens

    1980-01-01

    The extinction curves from 800 to 130 nm (1.25-7.7\\/micron) of amorphous silicate smokes nominally of olivine and pyroxene composition, carbon smokes, and crystalline SiC smokes are presented. The SiC smoke occurred in the low-temperature (beta) cubic structural form. The SiC smoke showed an absorption edge which occurred at significantly longer wavelengths than the calculated extinction profile of the hexagonal SiC

  7. Visible and ultraviolet (800--130 nm) extinction of vapor-condensed silicate, carbon, and silicon carbide smokes and the interstellar extinction curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Stephens

    1980-01-01

    The extinction curves from 800 to 130 nm (1.25--7.7 ..mu..m⁻¹) of amorphous silicate smokes nominally of olivine and pyroxene composition, carbon smokes, and crystalline SiC smokes are presented. The SiC smoke occurred in the low-temperature (..beta..) cubic structural form. The mean grain radius ranged from 5 to 13 nm. The extinction profiles of the amorphous olivine smokes were similar in

  8. Mixing of biogenic siliceous and terrigenous clastic sediments: South Belridge field and Beta field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.E. (Shell Western Exploration and Production, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The intermixing and interbedding of biogenically derived siliceous sediment with terrigenous clastic sediment in reservoirs of upper Miocene age provides both reservoir rock and seal and influences productivity by affecting porosity and permeability. Miocene reservoirs commonly contain either biogenic-dominated cyclic diatomite, porcelanite, or chert (classic Monterey Formation) or clastic-dominated submarine fan sequences with interbedded or intermixed siliceous members of biogenic origin. Biogenic-clastic cycles, 30-180 ft thick, at South Belridge field were formed by episodic influx of clastic sediment from distant submarine fans mixing with slowly accumulating diatomaceous ooze. The cycles consist of basal silt and pelletized massive diatomaceous mudstone, overlain by burrowed, faintly bedded clayey diatomite and topped by laminated diatomite. Cycle tops have higher porosity and permeability, lower grain density, and higher oil saturation than clay and silt-rich portions of the cycles. Submarine fan sediments forming reservoirs at the Beta field are comprised of interbedded sands and silts deposited in a channelized middle fan to outer fan setting. Individual turbidites display fining-upward sequences, with oil-bearing sands capped by wet micaceous silts. Average sands are moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to medium-grained arkosic arenites. Sands contain pore-filling carbonate and porcelaneous cements. Porcelaneous cement consists of a mixture of opal-A, opal-CT, and chert with montmorillonite and minor zeolite. This cement is an authigenic material precipitated in intergranular pore space. The origin of the opal is biogenic, with recrystallization of diatom frustules (opal-A) into opal-CT lepispheres and quartz crystals. Porcelaneous cement comprises 4-21% of the bulk volume of the rock. Seventy percent of the bulk volume of the cement is micropore space.

  9. The structural stability of AlPO4-5 zeolite under pressure: Effect of the pressure transmission medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hang; Yao, Mingguang; Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Lu, Shuangchen; Jiang, Linhai; Cui, Wen; Liu, Zhaodong; Liu, Jing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing

    2012-06-01

    The structural stability of AlPO4-5 zeolite (AFI) has been studied as a function of pressure up to 34.4 GPa in a diamond anvil cell by using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. It is found that the AFI structural stability can be enhanced significantly when a mixture of silicone oil and liquid nitrogen is used as pressure transmission medium (PTM). In this case, the crystalline-to-amorphous transition pressure for AFI increased to be 15.9 GPa, much higher than that of 8.5 GPa observed in the experiment by using silicone oil as PTM. We found that the average distance of the interplanar crystal spacing along to most planes was expanded obviously when liquid nitrogen is used as one component in the PTM. The presence of liquid nitrogen in the PTM also affects the structural evolution of the AFI channel under pressure. The results demonstrated that nitrogen molecules can be inserted into the channels of porous zeolite AFI single crystals, exerting a supporting effect against the structure collapse of AFI and thus improving their structural stability.

  10. Synthesis of nano-zeolite from coal fly ash and its potential for nutrient sequestration from anaerobically digested swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Wendell, Khunjar; Zhu, Jun; Li, Jiangli; Yu, Xianxian; Zhang, Zhijian

    2012-04-01

    The treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW) is problematic due to its high nutrient concentration. This study investigated the simultaneous sequestration of ammonium (N) and phosphate (P) from ADSW using nano-zeolites synthesized from fly ash (ZFA). The nanometer-scale crystalline structures plentiful of zeolite-NaP1 coating on ZFA particle increased the levels of specific surface area and cation exchange capacity at times of 40 and 104, compared to raw fly ash. Kinetic N and P sorption experiments with ZFA were well described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich models, suggesting the co-existence of homogeneous and heterogeneous sorption mechanisms. N and P removal efficiencies ranged from 41% to 95% and 75% to 98%, respectively, across a range of ZFA doses (from 0.25 to 8g/100ml). Collectively, application of the laboratory-synthesized ZFA can alleviate the nutrient loads in ADSW and therefore modify the ratio of N:P in wastewater beneficial for subsequent biological treatment. PMID:22330598

  11. Playing with dye molecules at the inner and outer surface of zeolite L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzaferri, Gion; Brühwiler, Dominik; Megelski, Silke; Pfenniger, Michel; Pauchard, Marc; Hennessy, Brian; Maas, Huub; Devaux, André; Graf, Urs

    2000-06-01

    Plants are masters of transforming sunlight into chemical energy. In the ingenious antenna system of the leaf, the energy of the sunlight is transported by chlorophyll molecules for the purpose of energy transformation. We have succeeded in reproducing a similar light transport in an artificial system on a nano scale. In this artificial system, zeolite L cylinders adopt the antenna function. The light transport is made possible by specifically organized dye molecules, which mimic the natural function of chlorophyll. Zeolites are crystalline materials with different cavity structures. Some of them occur in nature as a component of the soil. We are using zeolite L crystals of cylindrical morphology which consist of a continuous one-dimensional tube system and we have succeeded in filling each individual tube with chains of joined but noninteracting dye molecules. Light shining on the cylinder is first absorbed and the energy is then transported by the dye molecules inside the tubes to the cylinder ends. We expect that our system can contribute to a better understanding of the important light harvesting process which plants use for the photochemical transformation and storage of solar energy. We have synthesized nanocrystalline zeolite L cylinders ranging in length from 300 to 3000 nm. A cylinder of 800 nm diameter, e.g. consists of about 150?000 parallel tubes. Single red emitting dye molecules (oxonine) were put at each end of the tubes filled with a green emitting dye (pyronine). This arrangement made the experimental proof of efficient light transport possible. Light of appropriate wavelength shining on the cylinder is only absorbed by the pyronine and the energy moves along these molecules until it reaches the oxonine. The oxonine absorbs the energy by a radiationless energy transfer process, but it is not able to send it back to the pyronine. Instead it emits the energy in the form of red light. The artificial light harvesting system makes it possible to realize a device in which different dye molecules inside the tubes are arranged in such a way that the whole visible spectrum can be used by conducting light from blue to green to red without significant loss. Such a material could conceivably be used in a dye laser of extremely small size. The light harvesting nanocrystals are also investigated as probes in near-field microscopy, as materials for new imaging techniques and as luminescent probes in biological systems. The extremely fast energy migration, the pronounced anisotropy, the geometrical constraints and the high concentration of monomers which can be realized, have great potential in leading to new photophysical phenomena. Attempts are being made to use the efficient zeolite-based light harvesting system for the development of a new type of thin-layer solar cell in which the absorption of light and the creation of an electron-hole pair are spatially separated as in the natural antenna system of green plants. Synthesis, characterization and applications of an artificial antenna for light harvesting within a certain volume and transport of the electronic excitation energy to a specific place of molecular dimension has been the target of research in many laboratories in which different approaches have been followed. To our knowledge, the system developed by us is the first artificial antenna which works well enough to deserve this name. Many other highly organized dye-zeolite materials of this type can be prepared by similar methods and are expected to show a wide variety of remarkable properties. The largely improved chemical and photochemical stability of dye molecules inserted in an appropriate zeolite framework allows us to work with dyes which otherwise would be considered uninteresting because of their lack of stability. We have developed two methods for preparing well-defined dye-zeolite materials, one of them working at the solid-liquid and the other at the solid-gas interface. Different approaches for preparing similar materials are in situ synthesis (ship in a bottle) or different types of crystalliz

  12. The nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeffrey J.

    The nanostructure of C-S-H, the principle binding phase of hydrated cements in concrete, is examined through classical and spectroscopic methods such as solubility, 29Si MAS NMR, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). A more comprehensive understanding of the nanostructure is proposed. The central finding of this thesis is that variations in Ca/Si ratio, silicate structure, and Ca-OH content of C-S-H are systematically related to previously undiscovered variations in solubility in the CaO-SiO2-H 2O system at room temperature. These relationships show how C-S-H resembles disordered forms of the calcium silicate hydrate minerals 1.4-nm tobermorite [Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·8H 2O] and jennite [Ca9(Si6O18)(OH) 6·8H2O]. For example, in solids lacking Ca-OH groups, the structure resembles a purely tobermorite-like structure, which, when equilibrated in aqueous solutions saturated in Ca(OH)2, has a Ca/Si ratio of 1.5 and a minimum mean silicate chain length of 2; with increasing Ca-OH contents, the structure becomes increasingly jennite-like while showing higher Ca/Si ratios and higher mean chain lengths at saturation in Ca(OH)2. These relationships appear to reconcile the broad variations in the literature. 29Si NMR on concrete specimens aged 43--96 years show that the mean silicate chain length of C-S-H gel ultimately converges to a value of 5. With supporting evidence from chemical analysis and from high Ca-OH contents measured by INS, it is concluded that C-S-H gel formed in Ca3SiO5 pastes eventually equilibrates to a purely jennite-like structure. A Ca/Si ratio of 1.2 in C-S-H gel marks the composition at which Ca-OH groups are eliminated (or introduced) and below which spontaneous silicate polymerization occurs. Leaching studies on cement pastes show that when C-S-H is decalcified below Ca/Si ˜ 1.2, the induced silicate polymerization occurring in situ leads to macroscopic polymerization shrinkage. Cement pastes blended with high contents of mineral additions may be more susceptible to this mechanism. SANS measurements on leached Ca3SiO5 and cement pastes show dramatic variations in surface area with Ca/Si ratio. These variations are attributed to transformations between low- and high-density morphologies of C-S-H.

  13. Strontium complexation in aqueous solutions and silicate glasses: Insights from high energy-resolution fluorescence detection X-ray spectroscopy and ab-initio modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Manuela; Wilke, Max; Schmidt, Christian; Kvashnina, Kristina; Jahn, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Although fluid-melt partitioning of trace elements like Sr, Ba, La, and Y is known to be strongly influenced by the fluid and melt chemical composition, their speciation in silicate-saturated fluids is studied insufficiently at high temperatures and pressures. Here, high energy-resolution fluorescence detection-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS) has been applied to investigate the local environment of strontium in crystalline model compounds, silicate glasses, and aqueous solutions. Acquisition of Sr K-edge HERFD-XAS spectra of aqueous solutions of SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2, and three aqueous fluids with dissolved silicate components was done in situ at temperatures to 780 °C and pressures to ?800 MPa using hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells. Experiments were complemented by theoretical spectroscopy calculations using the finite difference method near edge structure (FDMNES) code. This approach was validated for a number of crystalline model compounds. For the silicate glasses and aqueous solutions (SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2), small clusters were examined. Either symmetric or distorted SrO6 clusters were found to describe Sr complexation in peraluminous or peralkaline glasses. However, small ‘static’ clusters seem not to be fully suited to account for the dynamically changing atomic arrangements in aqueous solutions at high temperature. Therefore, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed and used as input for modeling of X-ray absorption spectra. Analyses of these simulations indicated [SrCl(H2O)6]+ and Sr(OH)2(H2O)4 as the most likely complexes in the chloride and hydroxide solutions, respectively. Analysis of the spectra of the silicate-rich fluids shows that both melt and fluid composition strongly influence Sr complexation. For the silicate-rich fluids, formation of Sr-Cl complexes occurs at low (Na + K)/Cl and (Si + Al)/(Na + K) ratios in the fluid, whereas Sr hydroxide and possibly silicate complexes (similar to those in the silicate glass) are favored at higher ratios. Our X-ray spectroscopic results offer an explanation for the dependence of fluid-melt partitioning of Sr on melt composition measured in previous ex situ studies, and highlight the importance of components other than chloride (silicate and aluminosilicate) in controlling metal speciation in fluid-melt systems at high temperatures and pressures.

  14. Zeolites for the selective adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride.

    PubMed

    Matito-Martos, I; Álvarez-Ossorio, J; Gutiérrez-Sevillano, J J; Doblaré, M; Martin-Calvo, A; Calero, S

    2015-07-01

    Molecular simulations have been used to investigate at the molecular level the suitability of zeolites with different topology on the adsorption, diffusion and separation of a nitrogen-sulfur hexafluoride mixture containing the latter at low concentration. This mixture represents the best alternative for the sulfur hexafluoride in industry since it reduces the use of this powerful greenhouse gas. A variety of zeolites are tested with the aim to identify the best structure for the recycling of sulfur hexafluoride in order to avoid its emission to the atmosphere and to overcome the experimental difficulties of its handling. Even though all zeolites show preferential adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride, we identified local structural features that reduce the affinity for sulfur hexafluoride in zeolites such as MOR and EON, providing exclusive adsorption sites for nitrogen. Structures such as ASV and FER were initially considered as good candidates based on their adsorption features. However, they were further discarded based on their diffusion properties. Regarding operation conditions for separation, the range of pressure that spans from 3 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(3) kPa was identified as the optimal to obtain the highest adsorption loading and the largest SF6/N2 selectivity. Based on these findings, zeolites BEC, ITR, IWW, and SFG were selected as the most promising materials for this particular separation. PMID:26099734

  15. Bendable Zeolite Membranes: Synthesis and Improved Gas Separation Performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Ho, W S Winston; Figueroa, Jose D; Dutta, Prabir K

    2015-06-23

    Separation and sequestration of CO2 emitted from fossil energy fueled electric generating units and industrial facilities will help in reducing anthropogenic CO2, thereby mitigating its adverse climate change effects. Membrane-based gas separation has the potential to meet the technical challenges of CO2 separation if high selectivity and permeance with low costs for large-scale manufacture are realized. Inorganic zeolite membranes in principle can have selectivity and permeance considerably higher than polymers. This paper presents a strategy for zeolite growth within the pores of a polymer support, with crystallization time of an hour. With a thin coating of 200-300 nm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the zeolite-polymer composite, transport data for CO2/N2 separation indicate separation factors of 35-45, with CO2 permeance between 1600 and 2200 GPU (1 GPU = 3.35 × 10(-10) mol/(m(2) s Pa)) using dry synthetic mixtures of CO2 and N2 at 25 °C. The synthesis process results in membranes that are highly reproducible toward transport measurements and exhibit long-term stability (3 days). Most importantly, these membranes because of the zeolite growth within the polymer support, as contrasted to conventional zeolite growth on top of a support, are mechanically flexible. PMID:26030505

  16. Removal of BTEX from produced water using tailored zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, F. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The exchangeable cations in four natural zeolites (Bowie, CH, Winston and Tilden) were replaced with organic cations (quaternary amines). Two types of organic cations were used to create an organophilic environment suitable for adsorption of single-ring aromatics from water: small organic cations and long- alkyl chain cations. Both types of organic cations displace the natural exchangeable cations in the zeolite during the modification process. An organic layer covers the external surface of the zeolite after the natural inorganic cations are replaced by organic molecules. Two different pollutant adsorption mechanisms are observed in organozeolites. The first mechanism is prevalent when the zeolites are modified with small organic cations. The steric properties of adsorbed compounds are controlled by the intermolecular distance between the organic cations in the first mechanism. Benzene can be preferentially removed from solution over closely-related compounds (toluene and o-xylene) when the distance between organic cations is sufficient to allow this simple planar pollutant to enter into the intermolecular organic gaps. However, intermolecular distances that are significantly smaller than the benzene molecule prevent access to the adsorption sites. Organozeolites with long intermolecular gaps produce insufficient organic-organic interactions to hold the pollutants onto the solid-organic matrix. The selective adsorption produced by small organic cations is benzene >> toluene > xylene. The second mechanism is exhibited by zeolites modified with long-alkyl chains.

  17. Asymmetric silicate dust distribution toward the silicate carbon star BM Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, K.; Izumiura, H.; Leinert, Ch.; Driebe, T.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Despite their carbon-rich photospheres, silicate carbon stars show 10 ?m silicate emission. They are considered to have circumbinary or circum-companion disks, which serve as a reservoir of oxygen-rich material shed by mass loss in the past. Aims: We present N-band spectro-interferometric observations of the silicate carbon star BM Gem using MIDI at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our aim is to probe the spatial distribution of oxygen-rich dust at high spatial resolution. Methods: Using the UT2-UT3 and UT3-UT4 configurations, BM Gem was observed with VLTI/MIDI at 44-62 m baselines. Results: The N-band visibilities observed for BM Gem decrease steeply between 8 and ~10 ?m and increase gradually longward of ~10 ?m, reflecting the optically thin silicate emission feature emanating from sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains. The differential phases obtained at baselines of ~44-46 m show significant non-zero values (˜ -70°) in the central part of the silicate emission feature between ~9 and 11 ?m, revealing a photocenter shift and the asymmetric nature of the silicate emitting region. The observed N-band visibilities and differential phases can be described adequately by a simple geometrical model in which the unresolved star is surrounded by a ring with azimuthal brightness modulation. The best-fit model is characterized by a broad ring (~70 mas across at 10 ?m) with a bright region offset from the unresolved star by ~20 mas at a position angle of ~280°. This model can be interpreted as a system with a circum-companion disk and is consistent with the spectroscopic signatures of an accretion disk around an unseen companion, which were discovered in the violet spectrum of BM Gem. Based on observations made with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer of the European Southern Observatory. Program ID: 078.D-0292.

  18. Asymmetric silicate dust distribution toward the silicate carbon star BM Gem

    E-print Network

    Keiichi Ohnaka; Hideyuki Izumiura; Christoph Leinert; Thomas Driebe; Gerd Weigelt; Markus Wittkowski

    2008-07-21

    Silicate carbon stars show the 10 micron silicate emission, despite their carbon-rich photospheres. They are considered to have circumbinary or circum-companion disks, which serve as a reservoir of oxygen-rich material shed by mass loss in the past. We present N-band spectro-interferometric observations of the silicate carbon star BM Gem using MIDI at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our aim is to probe the spatial distribution of oxygen-rich dust with high spatial resolution. BM Gem was observed with VLTI/MIDI at 44--62 m baselines using the UT2-UT3 and UT3-UT4 baseline configurations. The N-band visibilities observed for BM Gem show a steep decrease from 8 to ~10 micron and a gradual increase longward of ~10 micron, reflecting the optically thin silicate emission feature emanating from sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains. The differential phases obtained at baselines of ~44--46 m show significant non-zero values (~ -70 degrees) in the central part of the silicate emission feature between ~9 and 11 micron, revealing a photocenter shift and the asymmetric nature of the silicate emitting region. The observed N-band visibilities and differential phases can be fairly explained by a simple geometrical model in which the unresolved star is surrounded by a ring with azimuthal brightness modulation. The best-fit model is characterized by a broad ring (~70 mas across at 10 micron) with a bright region which is offset from the unresolved star by ~20 mas at a position angle of ~280 degrees. This model can be interpreted as a system with a circum-companion disk and is consistent with the spectroscopic signatures of an accretion disk around an unseen companion recently discovered in the violet spectrum of BM Gem.

  19. Zeolite thin film-coated fiber sensors based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for detection of chemical vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xiangping; Zhao, Chunliu; Shi, Feifei; Kang, Juan

    2015-06-01

    A novel zeolite-coated fiber sensors for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on the Fabry-Perot interferometer was proposed and demonstrated. The sensor comprised a polycrystalline silicalite thin film grown up on the cleaved end face of a standard single-mode fiber. The inline Fabry-Perot cavity was composed by the end face of the single-mode fiber and the thin film. The sensor device operated by measuring the interference signal, which was a function of the amount of chemical vapor adsorption in its crystalline micro porous structure. Experimental results showed that the proposed VOC sensor worked well and the sensitivities were 2.78×10-3 dB/ppm when the concentration ranged from 350 ppm to 2100 ppm and 1.23×10-3 dB/ppm when the concentration ranged from 2100 ppm to 5250 ppm.

  20. Molecular composites from liquid crystalline polymers and liquid crystalline thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    We propose a new approach to molecular composites. This approach uses a mixture of a liquid crystalline polymer and a liquid crystalline thermoset to enhance the miscibility. Preliminary neutron scattering data is presented on a system of short and long rod aromatic amides. The data is interpreted using the interpenetrating phase model of Debye and Bueche. The analysis indicates that the scattering is consistent with this model and shows a characteristic length scale in the range of 70 to 80 A. The intensity of the scattering is lower than calculated for the strong segregation limit, suggesting that there is some intermixing of the components.

  1. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Stevenson, Paige; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers advantages of low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semi-rigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers.

  2. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Li, Xiao-Ping [BIOSYM Technologies Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-11-27

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ``crystal balls`` bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions.

  3. Cooling rate calculations for silicate glasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnie, D. P., III; Dyar, M. D.

    1986-03-01

    Series solution calculations of cooling rates are applied to a variety of samples with different thermal properties, including an analog of an Apollo 15 green glass and a hypothetical silicate melt. Cooling rates for the well-studied green glass and a generalized silicate melt are tabulated for different sample sizes, equilibration temperatures and quench media. Results suggest that cooling rates are heavily dependent on sample size and quench medium and are less dependent on values of physical properties. Thus cooling histories for glasses from planetary surfaces can be estimated on the basis of size distributions alone. In addition, the variation of cooling rate with sample size and quench medium can be used to control quench rate.

  4. Densities of liquid silicates at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Rigden, S M; Ahrens, T J; Stolper, E M

    1984-11-30

    Densities of molten silicates at high pressures (up to approximately 230 kilobars) have been measured for the first time with shock-wave techniques. For a model basaltic composition (36 mole percent anorthite and 64 mole percent diopside), a bulk modulus K(s), of approximately 230 kilobars and a pressure derivative (dK(s)/dP) of approximately 4 were derived. Some implications of these results are as follows: (i) basic to ultrabasic melts become denser than olivine-and pyroxene-rich host mantle at pressures of 60 to 100 kilobars; (ii) there is a maximum depth from which basaltic melt can rise within terrestrial planetary interiors; (iii) the slopes of silicate solidi [(dT(m)/dP), where T(m) is the temperature] may become less steep at high pressures; and (iv) enriched mantle reservoirs may have developed by downward segregation of melt early in Earth history. PMID:17839996

  5. Tailored Nanocomposites of Polypropylene with Layered Silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Nakajima, H; Manias, E; Krishnamoorti, R

    2009-01-01

    The melt rheological properties of layered silicate nanocomposites with maleic anhydride (MA) functionalized polypropylene are contrasted to those based on ammonium-terminated polypropylene. While the MA functionalized PP based nanocomposites exhibit solid-like linear viscoelastic behavior, consistent with the formation of a long-lived percolated nanoparticle network, the single-end ammonium functionalized PP based nanocomposites demonstrated liquid-like behavior at comparable montmorillonite concentrations. The differences in the linear viscoelasticity are attributed to the presence of bridging interactions in MA functionalized nanocomposites. Further, the transient shear stress of the MA functionalized nanocomposites in start-up of steady shear is a function of the shear strain alone, and the steady shear response is consistent with that of non-Brownian systems. The weak dependence of the steady first normal stress difference on the steady shear stress suggests that the polymer chain mediated silicate network contributes to such unique flow behavior.

  6. Synthesis of chiral polymorph A-enriched zeolite Beta with an extremely concentrated fluoride route.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mingquan; Zhang, Daliang; Fan, Weibin; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Liangkui; Guo, Wen; Yan, Wenfu; Yu, Jihong; Qiu, Shilun; Wang, Jianguo; Deng, Feng; Xu, Ruren

    2015-01-01

    Chiral zeolitic materials with intrinsically chiral frameworks are highly desired because they can combine both shape selectivity and enantioselectivity. In the field of zeolite, the synthesis of chiral polymorph A of zeolite Beta or chiral polymorph A-enriched zeolite Beta is one of the biggest challenges. We demonstrate here a generalized extremely concentrated fluoride route for the synthesis of chiral polymorph A-enriched zeolite Beta in the presence of five achiral organic structure-directing agents. The polymorph A-enriched Ti-Beta shows a higher enantioselectivity for the asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes than the normal Ti-Beta. PMID:26096214

  7. Synthesis of chiral polymorph A-enriched zeolite Beta with an extremely concentrated fluoride route

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingquan; Zhang, Daliang; Fan, Weibin; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Liangkui; Guo, Wen; Yan, Wenfu; Yu, Jihong; Qiu, Shilun; Wang, Jianguo; Deng, Feng; Xu, Ruren

    2015-01-01

    Chiral zeolitic materials with intrinsically chiral frameworks are highly desired because they can combine both shape selectivity and enantioselectivity. In the field of zeolite, the synthesis of chiral polymorph A of zeolite Beta or chiral polymorph A-enriched zeolite Beta is one of the biggest challenges. We demonstrate here a generalized extremely concentrated fluoride route for the synthesis of chiral polymorph A-enriched zeolite Beta in the presence of five achiral organic structure-directing agents. The polymorph A-enriched Ti-Beta shows a higher enantioselectivity for the asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes than the normal Ti-Beta. PMID:26096214

  8. Conductimetric determination of decomposition of silicate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C.; Lieck, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a procedure is given to detect decomposition of silicate systems in the liquid state by conductivity measurements. Onset of decomposition can be determined from the temperature curves of resistances measured on two pairs of electrodes, one above the other. Degree of decomposition can be estimated from temperature and concentration dependency of conductivity of phase boundaries. This procedure was tested with systems PbO-B2O3 and PbO-B2O3-SiO2.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  10. Photocatalytic oxidation of phenolic pollutants and hydrophobic organic compounds in industrial wastewater using modified nonosize titanium silicate-1 thin film technology.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Suzan A; Selvin, Rosilda; Roselin, L Selva; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystalline Titanium Silicate-1 (TS-1) with attractive physical and chemical properties is being explored for the degradation of phenol. A fully dispersible nanocrystalline zeolite TS-1 was prepared. The catalyst was characterized by DLS, XRD, TEM and BET analyses. XRD analysis confirmed that the diffraction pattern of the NPs (CP-0) was very similar to that of amorphous silica and the aged concentrated precursor sample CP-48 showed peaks characteristic of MFI. TEM analysis confirmed that the size of the crystal is about 30 nm. The photocatalytic oxidation of phenol was studied over nanocrystalline Titanium silicate-1 thin film flow reactor. The experimental parameters such as aeration, flow rate, solution pH and phenol concentration were optimized. The degradation efficiency of choro-substituted phenols are compared at optimum conditions. In addition, photocatalytic degradation efficiency of simulated phenolic waste water was studied. The results are significant, as the method adopted here can be extended for the treatment and purification of waste water and air using nanocrystalline Titanium silicate-1 thin film flow reactor. PMID:25924413

  11. Synthetic Zeolites and Other Microporous Oxide Molecular Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, John D.

    1999-03-01

    Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow "tailoring" of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol.

  12. Synthesis of self-pillared zeolite nanosheets by repetitive branching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyi; Liu, Dongxia; Xu, Dandan; Asahina, Shunsuke; Cychosz, Katie A; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Al Wahedi, Yasser; Bhan, Aditya; Al Hashimi, Saleh; Terasaki, Osamu; Thommes, Matthias; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2012-06-29

    Hierarchical zeolites are a class of microporous catalysts and adsorbents that also contain mesopores, which allow for fast transport of bulky molecules and thereby enable improved performance in petrochemical and biomass processing. We used repetitive branching during one-step hydrothermal crystal growth to synthesize a new hierarchical zeolite made of orthogonally connected microporous nanosheets. The nanosheets are 2 nanometers thick and contain a network of 0.5-nanometer micropores. The house-of-cards arrangement of the nanosheets creates a permanent network of 2- to 7-nanometer mesopores, which, along with the high external surface area and reduced micropore diffusion length, account for higher reaction rates for bulky molecules relative to those of other mesoporous and conventional MFI zeolites. PMID:22745424

  13. Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Stixrude, Lars; Karki, Bijaya

    2008-04-24

    The structure and physical properties of hydrous silicate melts and the solubility of water in melts over most of the pressure regime of Earth's mantle (up to 136 GPa) remain unknown. At low pressure (up to a few gigapascals) the solubility of water increases rapidly with increasing pressure, and water has a large influence on the solidus temperature, density, viscosity and electrical conductivity. Here we report the results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of hydrous MgSiO3 melt. These show that pressure has a profound influence on speciation of the water component, which changes from being dominated by hydroxyls and water molecules at low pressure to extended structures at high pressure. We link this change in structure to our finding that the water-silicate system becomes increasingly ideal at high pressure: we find complete miscibility of water and silicate melt throughout almost the entire mantle pressure regime. On the basis of our results, we argue that a buoyantly stable melt at the base of the upper mantle would contain approximately 3 wt% water and have an electrical conductivity of 18 S m(-1), and should therefore be detectable by means of electromagnetic sounding. PMID:18432243

  14. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-02-01

    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1 ?m diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775 nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38 ?m (single-stem) and 48 ?m (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3 × 105 (single-stem) and 7 × 106 (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  15. [An etiological definition of a case of mixed pneumoconiosis due to silicates and coal in the absence of anamnestic data].

    PubMed

    Bellis, D; Belluso, E; Burlo, P; Ferraris, G; Fubini, B; Volante, M; Bolis, V; Mollo, F

    1994-01-01

    A case of pneumoconiosis with unknown occupational history was examined both pathologically and mineralogically by means of a variety of techniques, including analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with electron diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron resonance spectroscopy. The pathologic features consisted of a diffuse interstitial fibrosis with deposits of amorphous and crystalline particles and granulomatous reaction. The identification of minerals, mainly talc, halloysite, coal and chlorite, allowed a definite diagnosis of mixed silicate pneumoconiosis to be made. This is an example of complete pathologic, mineralogic and physico-chemical analysis of a case of pneumoconiosis. PMID:8072440

  16. MAS-NMR study of lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass-ceramics with various ZnO content

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Madhumita [UCCS-Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France); Kothiyal, Govind P. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Montagne, Lionel [UCCS-Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: lionel.montagne@univ-lille1.fr; Delevoye, Laurent [UCCS-Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-02-15

    Lithium zinc silicate glasses of composition (mol%): 17.5Li{sub 2}O-(72-x)SiO{sub 2}-xZnO-5.1Na{sub 2}O-1.3P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-4.1B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 5.5{<=}x{<=}17.7, were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique and converted to glass-ceramic by controlled crystallization process. {sup 29}Si and {sup 31}P MAS-NMR was used to characterize the structure of both glass and glass-ceramic samples. Despite the complex glass composition, Q{sup 2}, Q{sup 3} and Q{sup 4} sites are identified from {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR, which relative intensities are found to vary with the ZnO content, indicating a network depolymerization by ZnO. Moreover, well separated Q{sup 3} and Q{sup 4} resonances for low ZnO content indicates the occurrence of phase separation. From {sup 31}P MAS-NMR, it is seen that phosphorus is mainly present in the form of ortho-(Q{sup 0}) and pyro-phosphate (Q{sup 1}) structural units and variation of ZnO content did not have much effect on these resonances, which provides an additional evidence for phase separation in the glass. On conversion to glass-ceramics, lithium disilicate (Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), lithium zinc ortho-silicate (Li{sub 3}Zn{sub 0.5}SiO{sub 4}), tridymite (SiO{sub 2}) and cristobalite (SiO{sub 2}) were identified as major silicate crystalline phases. Using {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR, quantification of these silicate crystalline phases is carried out and correlated with the ZnO content in the glass-ceramics samples. In addition, {sup 31}P spectra unambiguously revealed the presence of crystalline Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and (Na,Li){sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the glass-ceramics. - Graphical abstract: {sup 29}Si and {sup 31}P MAS-NMR analyses were carried out on multi-component Li{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses and glass-ceramics developed for sealing application. Structural data are reported, including phase separation process and quantification of amorphous and crystalline phases.

  17. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  18. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  19. Evaluation of drug release kinetics and physico-chemical characteristics of metronidazole floating beads based on calcium silicate and gas-forming agents.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Adibkia, Khosro; Kiafar, Farhad; Zarrintan, Mohammad Hosein; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation metronidazole-loaded alginate beads consisting of calcium silicate as a porous carrier or NaHCO(3) as a gas-forming agent were prepared for local eradication of Helicobacter Pylori. Gelation method was used for preparation of conventional sodium alginate beads. Drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading, floating properties, drug release, crystallinity and release kinetic as well as morphology of the prepared beads were assessed. The silicate based beads showed slower release pattern, compared to the gas-forming beads due to network structure strengthening effect of the calcium silicate. Furthermore, the gas-forming-based beads had shorter initial buoyancy lag time, owing to the fact that the NaHCO(3) produced larger pores than those of silicate treated ones. Drug entrapment efficiency ranged between 61.7 and 93.1% for the prepared formulations. The maximum value of drug loading for gas-forming and silicate-based beads were 66.64% and 34.97%, respectively. Kinetically, release pattern of metronidazole in simulated gastric fluid from the beads fitted best to Reciprocal powered time, Weibull and log-probability models with the respect overall mean percentage error values of 4.50, 5.30 and 7.76. By and large, these systems can float in the gastric condition and control the drug release from the beads. PMID:19694496

  20. Maximizing ammonium nitrogen removal from solution using different zeolites.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Warren, Jason G; Smith, Savannah

    2010-01-01

    Zeolite minerals are ideal for removing ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from animal wastes, leachates, and industrial effluents. The objectives of this study were to compare NH4+ removal and kinetics among several commercially available zeolites under various conditions and determine if calorimetry could provide information regarding kinetics of NH4+ removal. Ammonium sorption onto potassium (K) saturated zeolites was compared using synthetic vs. natural swine effluent and with either traditional batch-shaken system or a "tea bag" approach in which zeolites were contained in a mesh sack and suspended in a solution of swine effluent. Ammonium sorption was measured at four retention times using a flow-through system, and the resulting heat response was measured using isothermal calorimetry. Ammonium removal was not significantly different in synthetic vs. natural swine effluent. Ammonium removal was lower in batch-stirred compared to batch-shaken systems, suggesting that diffusion between particles was rate-limiting in the former system. Flow-through cells possessing contact times > 100 s displayed greater NH4+ sorption than batch systems, suggesting that maintaining high NH4+ concentration in solution, removal of exchange products, and sufficient reaction time are critical to maximizing NH4+ removal by zeolites. Within 100 s after NH4+ addition, endothermic heat responses indicated that NH4(+)-K+ exchange had peaked; this was followed by significant heat rate reduction for 50 min. This confirmed findings of an initial fast NH4(+)-K+ exchange followed by a slower one and suggests the 100-s period of rapid reaction is an indicator of the minimum flow through retention time required to optimize NH4+ sorption to zeolites used in this study. PMID:20830934

  1. Novel modified zeolites for energy-efficient hydrocarbon separations.

    SciTech Connect

    Arruebo, Manuel (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Dong, Junhang; Anderson, Thomas (Burns and McDonnell, Kansas City, MO); Gu, Xuehong; Gray, Gary (Goodyear Chemical Company, Akron, OH); Bennett, Ron (Goodyear Chemical Company, Akron, OH); Nenoff, Tina Maria; Kartin, Mutlu; Johnson, Kaylynn (Goodyear Chemical Company, Akron, OH); Falconer, John (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Noble, Richard (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)

    2006-11-01

    We present synthesis, characterization and testing results of our applied research project, which focuses on the effects of surface and skeletal modification of zeolites for significant enhancements in current hydrocarbon (HC) separations. Zeolites are commonly used by the chemical and petroleum industries as catalysts and ion-exchangers. They have high potential for separations owing to their unique pore structures and adsorption properties and their thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. Because of zeolites separation properties, low cost, and robustness in industrial process, they are natural choice for use as industrial adsorbents. This is a multidisciplinary effort to research, design, develop, engineer, and test new and improved materials for the separation of branched vs. linear organic molecules found in commercially important HC streams via adsorption based separations. The focus of this project was the surface and framework modification of the commercially available zeolites, while tuning the adsorption properties and the selectivities of the bulk and membrane separations. In particular, we are interested with our partners at Goodyear Chemical, on how to apply the modified zeolites to feedstock isoprene purification. For the characterization and the property measurements of the new and improved materials powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Residual Gas Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (RGA-MS), Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDAX), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area techniques were utilized. In-situ carbonization of MFI zeolite membranes allowed for the maximum separation of isoprene from n-pentane, with a 4.1% enrichment of the binary stream with n-pentane. In four component streams, a modified MFI membrane had high selectivities for n-pentane and 1-3-pentadiene over isoprene but virtually no separation for the 2-methyl-2-butene/isoprene pair.

  2. Effects of TS1 zeolite structures on physical properties and enzymatic degradation of Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS)\\/TS1 zeolite hybrid composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Yeon Hwang; Eui Sang Yoo; Seung Soon Im

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the water uptake features and carrier characteristics of the TS-1 zeolite affected the physical and rheological properties, morphological parameters, and enzymatic hydrolysis of Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS). The introduction of TS-1 zeolite as catalyst was developed for the preparation of PBS\\/TS-1 zeolite hybrid composites (PTHC) without heavy metal toxic substance in

  3. Mossbauer, infrared and magnetic characterization of iron/cobalt species in cage structure alumino-silicates (Zeolites)

    SciTech Connect

    Pannaparayil, T.; Lo, C.; Mulay, L.N.; Oskooie-Tabrizi, M.

    1984-11-01

    Magnetic, Mossbauer, and I.R. studies on S.P. (superparamagnetic) or M.D. (multidomain) particles of Fe and Co species dispersed in cage structure aluminosilicates in relation to syngas (CO+H/sub 2/) Fischer-Tropsch conversion are reported. The difference in the catalytic activity of such species has been shown to depend upon their degree of dispersion. The carbonyl impregnation gave ultra-fine S.P. Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/, whereas the nitrate impregnation gave M.D. Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ or omicron-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The active Fe/sub 5/C/sub 2/ component was converted to Fe/sub 3/C during the above reaction.

  4. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rolllins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  5. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  6. Regenerative Cu/La zeolite supported desulfurizing sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (inventor); Sharma, Pramod K. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H2S from fluid hydrocarbons such as diesel fuel at moderate condition comprise a porous, high surface area aluminosilicate support, suitably a synthetic zeolite, and most preferably a zeolite having a free lattice opening of at least 6 Angstroms containing from 0.1 to 0.5 moles of copper ions, lanthanum ions or their mixtures. The sorbent removes sulfur from the hydrocarbon fuel in high efficiency and can be repetitively regenerated without loss of activity.

  7. Motion of organic species occluded or sorbed within zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Newsam, J.M.; Silbernagel, B.G.; Melchior, M.T.; Brun, T.O.; Trouw, F.

    1988-01-01

    Containment of organic species within microporous materials such as zeolites influences their modes of molecular motion. This manifests itself in a range of ways, including a reduction in the volume that is readily accessible to the molecules by translation, constraints upon the molecular conformational space, restricted modes of molecular reorientation, or altered vibrational frequencies. The perspectives on certain of the motional properties of sorbates and of tetramethylammonium cations within zeolites provided by simple molecular modeling, neutron powder diffraction, /sup 13/C and /sup 2/H(D), and inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering are outlined and illustrated by selected recent results. 56 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Single and Multiple Heteroatom Incorporation in MFI Zeolites

    E-print Network

    Garcia Vargas, Nataly

    2012-11-05

    International Zeolite Association MAS Magic Angle Spinning ix MFI Code for the structure of Zeolite Socony Mobil - Five (ZSM-5) MPV, MPVO Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley, Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley- Oppenauer NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ONIOM Our Own N.................................................................................................91 3.9 27Al MAS NMR (left) and 29Si MAS NMR (right) of Ge-Al-MFI with a target composition of Si/Ge = 10 and Si/Al = 50 .........................................92 3.10 X-ray absorption near edge spectra of reference GeO2, Ge-Silicalite-1 and Ge...

  9. CO2 adsorption on LTA zeolites: Effect of mesoporosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Ahn, Wha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Highly mesoporous LTA zeolite (Meso-LTA) was prepared using an organosilane surfactant, dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride, as a mesopore-generating agent. Meso-LTA was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm at 77 K, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and then investigated for CO2 adsorption at 298 K. Compared to a solely microporous LTA zeolite (Micro-LTA), Meso-LTA showed faster CO2 adsorption kinetics at 1 bar and higher CO2 adsorption capacities under high pressure conditions (>10 bar).

  10. An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Brittany Helen

    Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

  11. Progress in crystalline silicon research

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.; King, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in US sponsored crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell technology for one-sun and concentrating applications, from the research laboratory to the production line. A summary of field experience, present economics, projected utility requirements, cell efficiency status, and the US DOE research direction will be presented. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Ductile crystalline–amorphous nanolaminates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinmin; Li, Ju; Hamza, Alex V.; Barbee, Troy W.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that the room-temperature plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses is compromised by strain softening and shear localization, resulting in near-zero tensile ductility. The incorporation of metallic glasses into engineering materials, therefore, is often accompanied by complete brittleness or an apparent loss of useful tensile ductility. Here we report the observation of an exceptional tensile ductility in crystalline copper/copper–zirconium glass nanolaminates. These nanocrystalline–amorphous nanolaminates exhibit a high flow stress of 1.09 ± 0.02 GPa, a nearly elastic-perfectly plastic behavior without necking, and a tensile elongation to failure of 13.8 ± 1.7%, which is six to eight times higher than that typically observed in conventional crystalline–crystalline nanolaminates (<2%) and most other nanocrystalline materials. Transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations demonstrate that shear banding instability no longer afflicts the 5- to 10-nm-thick nanolaminate glassy layers during tensile deformation, which also act as high-capacity sinks for dislocations, enabling absorption of free volume and free energy transported by the dislocations; the amorphous–crystal interfaces exhibit unique inelastic shear (slip) transfer characteristics, fundamentally different from those of grain boundaries. Nanoscale metallic glass layers therefore may offer great benefits in engineering the plasticity of crystalline materials and opening new avenues for improving their strength and ductility. PMID:17592136

  13. Effects of the zeolite framework on the adsorption of ethylene and benzene on alkali-exchanged zeolites: an ONIOM study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan Bobuatong; Jumras Limtrakul

    2003-01-01

    The density functional theory (B3LYP\\/6-31G(d,p)) and our-own-N-layered integrated molecular orbital + molecular mechanics (ONIOM) approach utilizing two-layer ONIOM schemes (B3LYP\\/6-31G(d,p): UFF) have been employed to investigate the structures of alkali-exchanged faujasite (FAU) and ZSM-5 zeolites, and their interactions with ethylene and benzene. Inclusion of the extended zeolite framework has an effect on the structure and energetics of the adsorption complexes

  14. Chemical interactions in multimetal/zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sachtler, W.M.H.

    1992-02-07

    For Pt/NaY catalysts our analysis of the mechanism of metal particle formation has enabled us to produce at will samples which contain either the majority of the Pt particles in supercages, without filling these cages completely, or the Pt particles bulge into neighboring cages. The catalytic selectivity is distinctly different for these preparations, in the former case molecules can enter a supercage which is partially filled by the Pt cluster, in the second case adsorption takes place through the cage window. Applying the same principles of catalyst preparation of bimetallic catalysts enables us to produce PtCu particles in supercages of NaY, which contain, initially a Pt core, surrounded by a Cu mantle. Earlier we have found that Ni ions migrate into hexagonal prisms during calcination of Ni/NaY; this process can be partially suppressed by first filling these prisms with Mn or Cr ions. In more recent work we found that addition of Pt strongly lowers the temperature of Ni reduction. Part of the Ni ions is reduced by hydrogen while still inside the smaller cages. This reduction process is, however, reversible; at elevated temperature and in an inert atmosphere protons re-oxidize the Ni atoms and dihydrogen gas is developed. In this way it seems possible to count the Ni atoms in small cages. The calcination stage in the preparation of zeolite supported metals has been studied in considerable detail for Pd/NaY. The Pd is introduced as a tetrammin complex; during calcination the ammine ligands are successively oxidized. Once three ammine ligands are destroyed, the Pd ions which carry only one ligand, surprisingly jump from the supercages to the sodalite cage.

  15. Computational studies of polyelectrolytes containing zeolite fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ratner, M. A.; Shriver, D. F.; Northwestern Univ.

    1999-08-05

    The structures and sodium affinities of a series of zeolitic fragments [H{sub 3}Al(OCH{sub 3}){sub x}(OSiH{sub 3}){sup -}{sub 1-x}, 2T, H{sub 2}Al(OCH{sub 3}){sub x}(OSiH{sub 3}){sup -}{sub 2-x}, 3T, Al(OCH3){sub x}(OSiH{sub 3}){sup -}{sub 4-x}, 5T] that mimic the charge sites in polyelectrolytes are calculated by ab initio molecular orbital methods at different levels of theory. At the HF/6-31G* level, the decrease in the sodium affinity due to the substitution of an OCH{sub 3} group by an OSiH{sub 3} group is about 8 kcal/mol in the 2T and 3T systems. In the 5T systems, the replacement of a sodium-coordinated OCH{sub 3} group by an OSiH{sub 3} group causes a decrease of 7 kcal/mol in the sodium affinity, while the substitution for a non-sodium-coordinated OCH{sub 3} group results in a 2.7 kcal/mol decrease. The lower sodium affinity indicates a weaker Coulombic interaction, suggesting an enhanced ionic conductivity with the substitution of carbon by silicon, consistent with experimental results. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses show that silicon-bonded oxygen atoms have smaller lone-pair dipole moments, resulting in a lower sodium affinity. The substitution of aluminum by boron leads to a higher sodium affinity, although the effect of replacing an OCH{sub 3} group by an OSiH{sub 3} group still reduces the sodium affinity. The effect of the sodium cation on the bond angles in these systems is also investigated.

  16. Computational studies of polyelectrolytes containing zeolitic fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.C.; Ratner, M.A.; Shriver, D.F. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)] [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Curtiss, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1999-08-05

    The structures and sodium affinities of a series of zeolitic fragments [H{sub 3}Al(OCH{sub 3}){sub x}(OSiH{sub 3}){sub 1{minus}x}{sup {minus}}, 2T, H{sub 2}Al(OCH{sub 3}){sub x}(OSiH{sub 3}){sub 2{minus}x}{sup {minus}}, Al(OCH{sub 3}){sub x}(OSiH{sub 3}){sub 4{minus}x}{sup {minus}}, 5T], that mimic the charge sites in polyelectrolytes are calculated by ab initio molecular orbital methods at different levels of theory. At the HF/6-31G{sup *} level, the decrease in the sodium affinity due to the substitution of an OCH{sub 3} group by an OSiH{sub 3} group is about 8 kcal/mol in the 2T and 3T systems. In the 5T systems, the replacement of a sodium-coordinated OCH{sub 3} group by an OSiH{sub 3} group causes a decrease of 7 kcal/mol in the sodium affinity, while the substitution for a non-sodium-coordinated OCH{sub 3} group results in a 2.7 kcal/mol decrease. The lower sodium affinity indicates a weaker Coulombic interaction, suggesting an enhanced ionic conductivity with the substitution of carbon by silicon, consistent with experimental results. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses show that silicon-bonded oxygen atoms have smaller lone-pair dipole moments, resulting in a lower sodium affinity. The substitution of aluminum by boron leads to a higher sodium affinity, although the effect of replacing an OCH{sub 3} group by an OSiH{sub 3} group still reduces the sodium affinity. The effect of the sodium cation on the bond angles in these systems is also investigated.

  17. H2 Formation on and Desorption from Amorphous Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Li, L.; Zhao, H.; Pirronello, V.; Perets, H.; Biham, O.

    2008-05-01

    We illustrate recent results of a laboratory investigation on the processes leading to the formation of molecular hydrogen on surfaces of silicates. Amorphous silicates of different Fe/Mg relative composition were used in our studies; comparisons are made with results obtained on a polycrystalline silicate surface. The process of ejection of molecules from these surfaces has also been studied. An analysis of surfaces of representative silicates using Atom Force Microscopy will be shown. This work was supported by NASA through NASA NNG06GD84G and NSF AST-0507405 (G.V.).

  18. The infrared spectrum of comet Bradfield (1987s) and the silicate emission feature.

    PubMed

    Hanner, M S; Newburn, R L; Gehrz, R D; Harrison, T; Ney, E P; Hayward, T L

    1990-01-01

    Infrared (1-20 micrometers) observations of comet Bradfield (1987s) from three observatories are reported. Silicate emission is prominent in all the data, from heliocentric distance r=0.87 to 1.45 AU. A CVF spectrum at r=1.45 AU shows a peak at 11.3 micrometers identified as crystalline olivine; the spectral shape is similar to that in Halley. Dust optical properties are similar to those of the grains in Halley's jets. Dust production rate near perihelion was approximately 10(6) g s-1 and varied in proportion to (r-2). We suggest that some differences in grain properties among comets could result from differences in the thermal history of the nuclear surface and the relative fraction of the dust particles originating in the subsurface icy layer versus the devolatilized mantle. PMID:11538569

  19. Indentation of silicate-glass films on Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebelny, A.V.; Lilleodden, E.T.; Gerberich, W.W.; Carter, C.B. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1999-07-01

    The deformation of thin layers of glass on crystalline materials has been examined using newly developed experimental methods for nanomechanical testing. Continuous films of anorthite (CaAl[sub 2]Si[sub 2]O[sub 8]) were deposited onto Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] surfaces by pulsed-laser deposition. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus and hardness were probed with a high-resolution depth-sensing indentation instrument. Nanomechanical testing, combined with AFM in situ imaging of the deformed regions, allowed force-displacement measurements and imaging of the same regions of the specimen before and immediately after indentation. This new technique eliminates any uncertainty in locating the indentation after unloading. Emphasis has been placed on examining how the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] substrate crystallographic orientation will affect mechanical composite response of silicate-glass film/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] system.

  20. The infrared spectrum of Comet Bradfield (1987s) and the silicate emission feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Newburn, R. L.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harrison, T.; Ney, E. P.; Hayward, T. L.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared (1-20 microns) observations of Comet Bradfield (1987s) from three observatories are reported. Silicate emission is prominent in all the data, from heliocentric distance r = 0.87 to 1.45 AU. A CVF spectrum at r = 1.45 AU shows a peak at 11.3 microns identified as crystalline olivine; the spectral shape is similar to that in Halley. Dust optical properties are similar to those of the grains in Halley's jets. Dust production rate near perihelion was about 10 to the 6th g/s and varied as N exp-2. It is suggested that some differences in grain properties among comets could result from difference in the thermal history of the nuclear surface and the relative fraction of the dust particles originating in the subsurface icy layer versus the devolatilized mantle.

  1. 2D Zeolite Coatings: Langmuir-Schaefer Deposition of 3?nm Thick MFI Zeolite Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rangnekar, Neel; Shete, Meera; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Topuz, Berna; Kumar, Prashant; Guo, Qiang; Ismail, Issam; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman; Basahel, Sulaiman; Narasimharao, Katabathini; Macosko, Christopher W; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel; Stottrup, Benjamin; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2015-05-26

    Stable suspensions of zeolite nanosheets (3?nm thick MFI layers) were prepared in ethanol following acid treatment, which partially removed the associated organic structure-directing agent. Nanosheets from these suspensions could then be dispersed at the air-water interface and transferred to silicon wafers using Langmuir-Schaefer deposition. Using layer-by-layer deposition, control on coating thickness was demonstrated. In-plane X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the deposited nanosheets contract upon calcination similar to bulk MFI crystals. Different methods for secondary growth resulted in preferentially oriented thin films of MFI, which had sub-12-nm thickness in certain cases. Upon calcination, there was no contraction detectable by in-plane XRD, indicating well-intergrown MFI films that are strongly attached to the substrate. PMID:25864539

  2. Characterization of natural zeolite clinoptilolite for sorption of contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xingu-Contreras, E.; García-Rosales, G.; García-Sosa, I.; Cabral-Prieto, A.; Solache-Ríos, M.

    2015-05-01

    The nanoparticles technology has received considerable attention for its potential applications in groundwater treatment for the removal of various pollutants as Cadmium. In this work, iron boride nanoparticles were synthesized in pure form and in presence of homo-ionized zeolite clinoptilolite, as support material. These materials were used for removing Cd (II) from aqueous solutions containing 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 mg/L. The characterization of these materials was made by using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Pure iron boride particles show a broad X-ray diffraction peak centered at 45? (2𝜃), inferring the presence of nanocrystals of Fe2B as identified from Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The size of these Fe2B particles was within the range of 50 and 120 nm. The maximum sorption capacities for Cd (II) of iron boride particles and supported iron boride particles in homo-ionized zeolitic material were nearly 100 %. For homo-ionized zeolite and homo-ionized zeolite plus sodium borohydride was ? 95 %.

  3. DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS DURING PERVAPORATION THROUGH A ZEOLITE MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An isotopic-transient technique was used to directly measure diffusion times of H2O, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone in pure and binary mixture feeds transporting through a zeolite membrane under steady-state pervaporation conditions. Diffusivities can be determ...

  4. Synthesis and Properties of Nano Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish K. Nune; Praveen K. Thallapally; Alice Dohnalkova; Chongmin Wang; Jun Liu; Gregory J. Exarhos

    2010-01-01

    Nano sized zeolitic imidazolate frameworks [nZIF-8] with excellent chemical and thermal stability has been synthesized at room temperature by simple mixing of 2-methylimidazole and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in methanol\\/ 1% high molecular weight poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution for 24 hrs

  5. Synthesis and Properties of Nano Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2010-07-21

    Nano sized zeolitic imidazolate frameworks [nZIF-8] with excellent chemical and thermal stability has been synthesized at room temperature by simple mixing of 2-methylimidazole and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in methanol/ 1% high molecular weight poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution for 24 hrs

  6. USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

  7. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  8. Use of synthetic zeolites for arsenate removal from pollutant water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhesh Shevade; Robert G. Ford

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have been conducted to examine the extent of arsenic

  9. Chemisorption of alkenes on copper-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Jen; K. Otto

    1994-01-01

    On Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite at room temperature, propane is physisorbed, while propene shows characteristics of chemisorption. The chemisorption mode has certain advantages for the catalytic control of automotive emissions. Alkane and alkene adsorption equilibria and kinetics are compared on Cu-ZSM-5 and on ZSM-5 free of alumina. The results are discussed in terms of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  10. Fenton Chemistry of FeIII Zeolitic Minerals Treated with

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    Fenton Chemistry of FeIII -Exchanged Zeolitic Minerals Treated with Antioxidants T O N I A . R U D Fenton activity. Lung lining fluid contains antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AAIII- exchanged erionite and mordenite after treatment with antioxidants. The Fenton assay involved the reaction

  11. [Denitrification water treatment with zeolite composite filter by intermittent operation].

    PubMed

    Qing, Cheng-Song; Bao, Tao; Chen, Tian-Hu; Chen, Dong; Xie, Jing-Jing

    2012-12-01

    The zeolite composite filters (ZCF) with the size of4-8 mm were prepared using raw zeolite (0.15-0.18 mm) as the main material and the cement as binder. After a combination of material characterizations, such as the void fraction, apparent density, compression strength and surface area, the optimal prepared conditions of composite filters were obtained as follow: weight ratio of m (zeolite): m (cement) = 7 : 3, curing for 15 d under the moisture condition and ambient temperature. Through upflow low-concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater, ZCF filled in the experimental column was hung with the biological membrane. Thus, intermittent dynamic experiments were conducted, the intermittent operation cycle included adsorption, biological regeneration and drip washing. Until concentration of ammonia nitrogen was more than 2 mg x L(-1) of effluent standards, water in experiment column was firstly emptied, and then blast biological regeneration was conducted. After the filters were bathed with water, the zeolite adsorption-biological regeneration cycle was performed repeatedly. The experimental results show that under conditions of 24 h blast and 5 d of continuous operation period, ammonia nitrogen removal rate is up to 87.6% on average, total nitrogen removal rate reaches 51.2% on average. PMID:23379168

  12. Binary diffusion of unequal sized molecules in zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narasimhan Sundaram; Ralph T Yang

    2000-01-01

    Multicomponent diffusivities in zeolites are predicted using the framework of the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, for which the information on equilibrium mixture adsorption isotherms is a critical requirement. Two thermodynamically consistent mixture isotherms, a multi-site Langmuir model and a modified Dubinin-type expansion facilitate quantification of the thermodynamic effect. In both these isotherms, saturation capacities of the species are allowed to

  13. Smart zeolites: New forms of tungsten and molybdenum oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. Ozin; R. A. Prokopowicz; S. Oezkar

    1992-01-01

    In this Account, the authors describe their recent research efforts involving the use of volatile hexacarbonylmolybdenum and -tungstem compounds, as precursors in the synthesis of highly organized assemblies of molecular dimension molybdenum and tungsten oxides, encapsulated within the diamond network of 13-[Angstrom] supercages found in zeolite Y. These assemblies are extremely uniform in terms of their nuclearity and structure, and

  14. Studies of photochemically and electrochemically driven electron transport in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallouk, T. E.

    1988-04-01

    Electron transfer reactions in zeolites and related solid-state materials are being studied. Some particular areas of study are: Electron transfer reactions of linked sensitizer-acceptor molecules. We have studied via laser flash photolysis transient absorbance the photochemistry of linked Ru(bpy)3--diquat molecules exchanged onto the outer surface of zeolite L powder. Electron-donor quenching of excited-state RuL3 complexes was also examined. We have studied electron transfer reactions between cyanometallate anions M(CN)8(sup 4 minus)(M = Mo,W), M(CN)6(sup 4 minus)(M = Fe,Os) and excited state ruthenium complexes. Quantum-size TiO2 in zeolite L was next examined. We are attempting to prepare systems in which the conduction band of an oxide semiconductor is used to convey electrons from a sensitizer to a catalyst within a zeolite L particle. Internal platinization of pillared clays. We have photoplatinized dispersed Na(+) montmorillonite, using PtCl6(sup 2 minus) as the platinum source, and then pillared the clay with Al(OH)2C1 solutions. We are currently investigating the size and charge selectivity of these catalytic materials.

  15. Desulfurization of Transportation Fuels with Zeolites Under Ambient Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph T. Yang; Arturo J. Hernández-Maldonado; Frances H. Yang

    2003-01-01

    Deep desulfurization of transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels) is being mandated by U.S. and foreign governments and is also needed for future fuel cell applications. However, it is extremely difficult and costly to achieve with current technology, which requires catalytic reactors operated at high pressure and temperature. We show that Cu+ and Ag+ zeolite Y can adsorb sulfur

  16. Experiments of Water Formation on Warm Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    When dust grains have a higher temperature than they would have in dense clouds, and when H, H2, and O2 have a negligible residence time on grains, the formation of water should still be possible via the hydrogenation of OH and Eley-Rideal-type reactions. We determined that the OH desorption energy from an amorphous silicate surface is at least 143 meV (1656 K). This is 400 K higher than the value previously used in chemical models of the interstellar medium and is possibly as high as 410 meV (4760 K). This extends the temperature range for the efficient formation of water on grains from about 30 K to at least 50 K, and possibly over 100 K. We do not find evidence that water molecules leave the surface upon formation. Instead, through a thermal programmed desorption experiment, we find that water formed on the surface of an amorphous silicate desorbs at around 160 K. We also measured the cross-sections for the reaction of H and D with an O3 layer on an amorphous silicate surface at 50 K. The values of the cross-sections, ?H = 1.6 ± 0.27 Å2 and ?D = 0.94 ± 0.09 Å2, respectively, are smaller than the size of an O3 molecule, suggesting the reaction mechanism is more likely Eley-Rideal than hot-atom. Information obtained through these experiments should help theorists evaluate the relative contribution of water formation on warm grains versus in the gas phase.

  17. Novel technique for phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs).

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Uemoto, Masahide; Kagami, Jumpei; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Masaya; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao

    2013-05-01

    A novel technique for phosphorus (P) recovery from aqueous solutions was developed using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs). A-CSHs, which have a high Ca/Si molar ratio of 2.0 or greater, could be synthesized using unlimitedly available, inexpensive materials such as siliceous shale and calcium hydroxide. A-CSHs showed high performance for P recovery from an anaerobic sludge digestion liquor (ASDL) and the synthetic model liquor (s-ASDL) containing 89 mg PO4-P/L. After 20 min mixing, 1.5 g/L A-CSHs could remove approximately 69 and 73% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively. By contrast, autoclaved lightweight concrete particles, which contained crystalline calcium silicate hydrates as a principal component, removed only 10 and 6% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. When A-CSHs were washed with deionized water to remove free Ca(OH)2, P removability was significantly improved (up to 82%) despite the reduction in the amount of Ca(2+) released. Unlike in the case of Ca(OH)2, no significant carbonate inhibition was observed with P removal by A-CSHs. Moreover, P removed by A-CSHs showed better settleability, filterability, and dewaterability than P precipitated with conventional CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2. The present study demonstrated that A-CSHs have great potential as a novel, beneficial material for P recovery and recycling. PMID:23497975

  18. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Debris Disk Catalog. II. Silicate Feature Analysis of Unresolved Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Tushar; Chen, Christine H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Manoj, P.; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Watson, Dan M.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 ?m silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 ?m observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a min, increases with stellar luminosity, L *, but the dependence of a min on L * is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  19. Catalase-like activity studies of the manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?içek, Ekrem; Dede, Bülent

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of manganese(II) adsorbed on zeolite 3A, 4A, 5A. AW-300, ammonium Y zeolite, organophilic, molecular sieve and catalase-like enzyme activity of manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites are reported herein. Firstly zeolites are activated at 873 K for two hours before contact manganese(II) ions. In order to observe amount of adsorption, filtration process applied for the solution. The pure zeolites and manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites were analysed by FT-IR. As a result according to the FT-IR spectra, the incorporation of manganese(II) cation into the zeolite structure causes changes in the spectra. These changes are expected particularly in the pseudolattice bands connected with the presence of alumino and silicooxygen tetrahedral rings in the zeolite structure. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated in the presence of imidazole. The Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites display efficiency in the disproportion reactions of hydrogen peroxide, producing water and dioxygen in catalase-like activity.

  20. Growth of diamond in hydrous silicate melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Fagan; Robert W. Luth

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates that a hydrous, halide bearing silicate melt is a viable medium for diamond growth. Experiments were\\u000a conducted in the MgO–SiO2–H2O–C ± KCl ± NaCl system, which was used as a model for harzburgitic mantle. In no case did we observe crystals that could\\u000a be interpreted as spontaneously nucleated, but growth of diamond on seed crystals at 1,400–1,600°C and 7 GPa in experiments