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1

Co-development of crystalline and mesoscopic order in mesostructured zeolite nanosheets.  

PubMed

Mesoporous zeolites are a new and technologically important class of materials that exhibit improved diffusion and catalytic reaction properties compared to conventional zeolites with sub-nanometer pore dimensions. During their syntheses, the transient developments of crystalline and mesoscopic order are closely coupled and challenging to control. Correlated solid-state NMR, X-ray, and electron microscopy analyses yield new molecular-level insights on the interactions and distributions of complicated organic structure-directing agents with respect to crystallizing zeolite frameworks. The analyses reveal the formation of an intermediate layered silicate phase, which subsequently transforms into zeolite nanosheets with uniform nano- and mesoscale porosities. Such materials result from coupled surfactant self-assembly and inorganic crystallization processes, the interplay between which governs the onset and development of framework structural order on different length and time scales. PMID:25412768

Messinger, Robert J; Na, Kyungsu; Seo, Yongbeom; Ryoo, Ryong; Chmelka, Bradley F

2015-01-12

2

Transition metal-silicate analogs of zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and characterization of three transition metal (Fe3+, Ti4+ and V4+)-silicate molecular sieves are discussed. The key factors for a successful incorporation of these metal ions in the growing silicate network during gel preparation\\/hydrothermal synthesis (e.g. avoidance of insoluble\\/sparingly soluble metal hydroxides\\/oxyhydroxides (Fe3+ and Ti4+) and alkali metal ions (Ti4+and V4+\\/5+)) as well as the effects of post synthesis

Paul Ratnasamy; Rajiv Kumar

1993-01-01

3

Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.  

PubMed

This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin irritation study. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate and Sodium Magnesium Silicate caused minimal eye irritation in a Draize eye irritation test. Bentonite caused severe iritis after injection into the anterior chamber of the eyes of rabbits and when injected intralamellarly, widespread corneal infiltrates and retrocorneal membranes were recorded. In a primary eye irritation study in rabbits, Hectorite was moderately irritating without washing and practically nonirritating to the eye with a washout. Rats tolerated a single dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect on nidation or on maternal or fetal survival in rabbits. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate had neither a teratogenic nor adverse effects on the mouse fetus. Female rats receiving a 20% Kaolin diet exhibited maternal anemia but no significant reduction in birth weight of the pups was recorded. Type A Zeolite produced no adverse effects on the dam, embryo, or fetus in either rats or rabbits at any dose level. Clinoptilolite had no effect on female rat reproductive performance. These ingredients were not genotoxic in the Ames bacterial test system. In primary hepatocyte cultures, the addition of Attapulgite had no significant unscheduled DNA synthesis. Attapulgite did cause significant increases in unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat pleural mesothelial cells, but no significant increase in sister chromosome exchanges were seen. Zeolite particles (<10 microm) produced statistically significant increase in the percentage of aberrant metaphases in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cells collected by peritoneal lavage from exposed mice. Topical application of Magnesium Aluminum Silicate to human skin daily for 1 week produced no adverse effects. Occupational exposure to mineral dusts has been studied extensively. Fibrosis and pneumoconiosis have been documented in workers involved in the mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingre

Elmore, Amy R

2003-01-01

4

Negative Poisson's ratios in siliceous zeolite MFI-silicalite.  

PubMed

Brillouin scattering measurements of the single-crystal elastic properties of the as-made zeolite silicalite mid R:(C(3)H(7))(4)NFmid R:(4)[Si(96)O(192)]-MFI provides the first experimental evidence for on-axis negative Poisson's ratios (auxeticity) in a synthetic zeolite structure. MFI laterally contracts when compressed and laterally expands when stretched along x(1) and x(2) directions in the (001) plane (nu(12)=-0.061, nu(21)=-0.051). The aggregate Poisson's ratio of MFI, although positive, has an anomalously low value nu=0.175(3) compared to other silicate materials. These results suggest that the template-free MFI-silicalite [Si(96)O(192)] might have potential applications as tunable sieve where molecular discriminating characteristics are adjusted by application of stress along specific axes. PMID:18532822

Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Lethbridge, Zoe A D; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Williams, Jennifer J; Walton, Richard I; Evans, Kenneth E; Bass, Jay D

2008-05-14

5

Amphiphilic organosilane-directed synthesis of crystalline zeolite with tunable mesoporosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites are a family of crystalline aluminosilicate materials widely used as shape-selective catalysts, ion exchange materials, and adsorbents for organic compounds. In the present work, zeolites were synthesized by adding a rationally designed amphiphilic organosilane surfactant to conventional alkaline zeolite synthesis mixtures. The zeolite products were characterized by a complementary combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy

Minkee Choi; Hae Sung Cho; Rajendra Srivastava; Chithravel Venkatesan; Dae-Heung Choi; Ryong Ryoo

2006-01-01

6

Partially Crystalline Silicate Dust in Protostellar Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the infrared emission of the Herbig Ae/Be stars and show that some possess characteristics indicative of partially crystalline grains similar to those seen in Beta Pictoris and some solar system comets.

Sitko, M. L.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Hanner, M. S.; Grady, C. A.

1996-01-01

7

On the Crystallinity of Silicate Dust in the Interstellar Medium  

E-print Network

An accurate knowledge of the mineralogy (chemical composition and crystal structure) of the silicate dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial for understanding its origin in evolved stars, the physical and chemical processing in the ISM, and its subsequent incorporation into protostellar nebulae, protoplanetary disks and cometary nuclei where it is subjected to further processing. While an appreciable fraction of silicate dust in evolved stars, in protoplanetary disks around pre-main sequence stars, in debris disks around main sequence stars, and in cometary nuclei is found to be in crystalline form, very recent infrared spectroscopic studies of the dust along the sightline toward the Galactic center source Sgr A* placed an upper limit of ~1.1% on the silicate crystalline fraction, well below the previous estimates of ~5% or ~60% derived from the observed 10 micron absorption profile for the local ISM toward Cyg OB2 No.12. Since the sightline toward SgrA contains molecular cloud materials as revealed by the detection of the 3.1 and 6.0 micron water ice absorption features, we argue that by taking into account the presence of ice mantles on silicate cores, the upper limit on the degree of silicate crystallinity in the ISM is increased to ~3--5%.

M. P. Li; G. Zhao; Aigen Li

2008-08-29

8

Methyl rotational tunneling dynamics of p-xylene confined in a crystalline zeolite host  

E-print Network

Methyl rotational tunneling dynamics of p-xylene confined in a crystalline zeolite host Sankar-xylene confined in nanoporous zeolite crystals has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering INS and proton to the methyl-zeolite interactions. The INS tunneling spectra from the crystals space group P212121 with four

Nair, Sankar

9

Application of thermodynamics to silicate crystalline solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of thermodynamic relations is presented, describing Guggenheim's regular solution models, the simple mixture, the zeroth approximation, and the quasi-chemical model. The possibilities of retrieving useful thermodynamic quantities from phase equilibrium studies are discussed. Such quantities include the activity-composition relations and the free energy of mixing in crystalline solutions. Theory and results of the study of partitioning of elements in coexisting minerals are briefly reviewed. A thermodynamic study of the intercrystalline and intracrystalline ion exchange relations gives useful information on the thermodynamic behavior of the crystalline solutions involved. Such information is necessary for the solution of most petrogenic problems and for geothermometry. Thermodynamic quantities for tungstates (CaWO4-SrWO4) are calculated.

Saxena, S. K.

1972-01-01

10

Crystalline silicates and hydrocarbon-conversion processes employing same  

SciTech Connect

Novel crystalline silicates which in dehydrated form have the composition in terms of moles of the oxides: (1.0 +- 3)(R)2/no.(AFe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.BAl/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . CGa/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . Y(DSiO/sub 2/ . EGeO/sub 2/)), wherein R one or more mono- or bivalent cations and A, B, C, D, E, Y and N are as defined hereinafter are disclosed. The thermally stable silicates are suitably employed as extracting agents, drying agents, ion exchange agents, catalysts and catalyst carriers.

Kouwenhoven, H.W.; Stork, W.H.

1980-12-09

11

Structural dependence of crystalline silicate hydration during aqueous dissolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using MeV ion beam analytical techniques which provide the depth profiles of incorporated hydrogen and major constituent elements, we show that, alike glasses, crystalline silicates can form surficial hydrated layers upon aqueous dissolution at temperatures up to 200°C. The occurrence of such layers depends on both crystal structure and chemical composition, tridimensional-network silicates containing easily exchangeable alkalis being the most suitable materials. This phenomenon could have important implications for the geochemical cycle of certain trace elements, since highly hydrolyzable ones tend to accumulate in such hydrated layers.

Petit, J.-C.; Dran, J.-C.; Paccagnella, A.; Della Mea, G.

1989-06-01

12

INTERSTELLAR SILICATE DUST IN THE z = 0.89 ABSORBER TOWARD PKS 1830-211: CRYSTALLINE SILICATES AT HIGH REDSHIFT?  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence of a >10{sigma} detection of the 10 {mu}m silicate dust absorption feature in the spectrum of the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS 1830-211, produced by a foreground absorption system at redshift 0.886. We have examined more than 100 optical depth templates, derived from both observations of Galactic and extragalactic sources and laboratory measurements, in order to constrain the chemical structure of the silicate dust. We find that the best fit to the observed absorption profile is produced by laboratory crystalline olivine, with a corresponding peak optical depth of {tau}{sub 10} = 0.27 {+-} 0.05. The fit is slightly improved upon by including small contributions from additional materials, such as silica, enstatite, or serpentine, which suggests that the dust composition may consist of a blend of crystalline silicates. Combining templates for amorphous and crystalline silicates, we find that the fraction of crystalline silicates needs to be at least 95%. Given the rarity of extragalactic sources with such a high degree of silicate crystallinity, we also explore the possibility that the observed spectral features are produced by amorphous silicates in combination with other molecular or atomic transitions, or by foreground source contamination. While we cannot rule out these latter possibilities, they lead to much poorer profile fits than for the crystalline olivine templates. If the presence of crystalline interstellar silicates in this distant galaxy is real, it would be highly unusual, given that the Milky Way interstellar matter contains essentially only amorphous silicates. It is possible that the z = 0.886 absorber toward PKS 1830-211, well known for its high molecular content, has a unique star-forming environment that enables crystalline silicates to form and prevail.

Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, 712 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vladilo, Giovanni, E-mail: ALLERM@mailbox.sc.edu [Osservatorio Astonomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy)

2012-03-20

13

Topotactic conversion of ?-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.  

PubMed

AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (?-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1)?hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2)?dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. PMID:24431158

Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

2014-02-10

14

Zeolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates that have complex framework structures. However, there are several features of zeolite crystals that make unequivocal structure determinations difficult. The acquisition of reliable structural information on zeolites is greatly facilitated by the availability of high-quality specimens. For structure determinations by conventional diffraction techniques, large single-crystal specimens are essential. Alternatively, structural determinations by powder profile refinement methods relax the constraints on crystal size, but still require materials with a high degree of crystalline perfection. Studies conducted at CAMMP (Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing) have demonstrated that microgravity processing can produce larger crystal sizes and fewer structural defects relative to terrestrial crystal growth. Principal Investigator: Dr. Albert Sacco

1992-01-01

15

Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distribution between Crystalline and Impurity Amorphous Regions  

SciTech Connect

Dealuminated zeolite HY was used to support Ir(CO)2 complexes formed from Ir(CO)2(C5H7O2). Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra and atomic-resolution electron microscopy images identify these complexes, and the images and 27Al NMR spectra identify impurity amorphous regions in the zeolite where the iridium is more susceptible to aggregation than in the crystalline regions. The results indicate a significant stability limitation of metal in amorphous impurity regions of zeolites.

Martinez-Macias, Claudia; Xu, Pinghong; Hwang, Son-Jong; Lu, Jing; Chen, Cong-Yan; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

2014-07-08

16

Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strätlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V.; Bortolozzi, G.

2010-06-01

17

Experimental constraints on permeable gas transport in crystalline silicic magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas and fluid transport in magmas via permeable flow through interconnected bubble networks controls the rate of outgassing from magmas ascending in volcanic conduits and the fluid transport in the mushy boundary layer of magma reservoirs. Hence, clarifying its mechanism and rate is crucial to understanding the explosivity of volcanic eruptions and the evolution and dynamics of a magma reservoir. Recent experimental studies have determined the gas permeabilities in crystal-free rhyolite and basalt. However, no experimental study has investigated the effect of the crystal contents on the permeable gas transport in magmas. In this study, we performed decompression experiments for hydrous rhyolitic melts having crystallinities of 30 and 50 vol% to examine the effect of crystals on the bubble microstructure and gas permeability during magma vesiculation. Size-controlled (100-meshed) corundum crystals were used as an analog of the phenocrysts in silicic magmas. Microstructural analyses using X-ray CT showed that bubbles coalesce and their connectivity increases with a decrease in the final pressure after the decompression, that is, an increase in the vesicularity. As long as the vesicularities of melt part in the crystal-free basis (melt vesicularity) were similar, no clear effect of the crystallinity on the degree of bubble coalescence and connectivity was observed at melt vesicularities <68 vol%. The corundum showed a large contact angle with aqueous fluid as well as plagioclase and alkaline feldspar; this failed to induce the efficient heterogeneous nucleation and coalescence of bubbles on its surface. The gas permeabilities of all the run products were lower than the detection limits of the present analysis (the order of 10-16 m2) at melt vesicularities <68 vol%. These results show that silicic magmas containing 30 and 50 vol% phenocrysts with a large contact angle have low gas permeabilities until the vesicularity becomes large (at least >68 vol%). This result indicates that the permeable fluid transport through a deep volcanic conduit, which has been proposed on the basis of the observations of volcanic gases and natural products, is so slow that other processes, like shear deformation or magma convection, may be needed to explain the observations.

Okumura, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Tsuchiyama, Akira

2012-09-01

18

Iron silicates, iron-modulated zeolite catalysts, and molecular models thereof.  

PubMed

Iron centres incorporated in silicate frameworks or located in their pores have been shown to possess unique catalytic properties. As compared to aluminosilicates this area of zeolite chemistry is much younger and in the first part of this review the findings made so far are summarised. Molecular model compounds may help to understand the formation, corrosion and reactivity of such materials or to even develop new ones. Hence, the subsequent parts deal with molecular iron siloxides, the number of which is still quite limited, and their behaviour also in relation to the iron-modified zeolites is outlined. At first, compounds based on an incompletely condensed cubic silsequioxane are discussed, before iron(III) complexes of more basic siloxide ligands with varying steric demands are described. Finally, recent developments based on branched polydentate siloxides are presented. PMID:24939619

Pinkert, Denise; Limberg, Christian

2014-07-21

19

[Aluminum coordination and active sites on aluminas, Y-zeolites and pillared layered silicates]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report is organized in four sections. In the first the authors will outline structural features which are common to all fine grained alumina, as well as to non-framework alumina in zeolites. This section will be followed by a study of the surface vs. bulk coordination of aluminum. The third section will deal with measurement of the number of acid sites and the scaling of their strength. The fourth and last section will describe three model reactions: the isomerization of 1-butene and of 2 cis-butene; the isomerization and disproportionation of oxtho-xylene; and the transformation of trichloroethane into vinyl chloride followed by the polymerization of the vinyl chloride. The relationship between chemical activity and selectivity and what is known of the local structure of the active catalytic sites will be underlined. Other kinds of zeolites besides Y zeolite have been studied. Instead of the aluminum pillared silicates they found it more interesting to study the substitution of silicon by aluminum in a layered structure containing a permanent porosity (aluminated sepiolite).

Fripiat, J.J.

1994-02-01

20

Entrapment of Ionic Tris(2,2-Bipyridyl) Ruthenium(II) in Hydrophobic Siliceous Zeolite: O2 Sensing in Biological Environments  

E-print Network

Entrapment of Ionic Tris(2,2-Bipyridyl) Ruthenium(II) in Hydrophobic Siliceous Zeolite: O2 SensingVised Manuscript ReceiVed June 5, 2008 Synthesis of the ionic dye, tris(2,2-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) chloride (Ru the ruthenium compound inside a zeolite supercage ensures permanent entrapment since the 7 Ã? windows

Dutta, Prabir K.

21

Cooked GEMS - Insights into the Hot Origins of Crystalline Silicates in Circumstellar Disks and the Cold Origins of GEMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparison of interstellar, circumstellar and primitive solar nebula silicates has led to a significant conundrum in the understanding of the nature of solid materials that begin the planet forming processes. Crystalline silicates are found in circumstellar regions around young stars and also evolved stars ejecting particles into the interstellar medium (ISM) but they are not seen in the interstellar medium itself, the source material for star and planet formation. Crystalline silicates are minor to major components of all known early solar system materials that have been examined as meteorites or interplanetary dust samples. The strong presence of Mg-rich crystalline silicates in Oort cloud comets and their minor presence in some Kuiper belt comets is also indicated by 11.2 m peak in approx. 10 microns "silicate" infrared feature. This evidence strongly indicates that Mg-rich crystalline silicates were abundant components of the solar nebula disk out to at least 10 AU, and present out to 30 AU.

Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Matrajt, G.; Wooden, D. H.

2005-01-01

22

Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of isotherm for hydrogen adsorption on nanoporous siliceous zeolites at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolites belong to a most prominent class of nanoporous materials which have been considered as potential sorbents for hydrogen storage. The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on purely siliceous zeolites such as ACO, MEP, ASV, ANA, RWY, and RHO, which encompass a range of different pore structures and their chemical compositions has been simulated employing Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) procedure for a temperature range of 250-325 K, and a pressure range of 0-10 kbar. The effects of pore structure of zeolites, temperature and pressure on the hydrogen adsorption has been examined. The results clearly show that the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules at high pressure, only depends on pore diameter, and the temperature effect on the adsorption decreases with decrease in the number of adsorbed of hydrogen molecules.

Rahmati, Mahmoud; Modarress, Hamid

2009-02-01

23

Infrared spectra of crystalline phase ices condensed on silicate smokes at T less than 20 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared spectra of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 condensed at T less than 20 K on amorphous silicate smokes reveal that predominantly crystalline phase ice forms directly on deposit. Spectra of these molecules condensed on aluminum substrates at T less than 20 K indicate that amorphous phase ice forms. On aluminum, crystalline phase H2O and CH3OH are formed by annealing amorphous deposits to 155 K and 130 K, respectively (or by direct deposit at these temperatures); crystalline NH3 is formed by direct deposit at 88 K. Silicate smokes are deposited onto aluminum substrates by evaporation of SiO solid or by combustion of SiH4 with O2 in flowing H2 followed by vapor phase nucleation and growth. Silicate smokes which are oxygen-deficient may contain active surface sites which facilitate the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition during condensation. Detailed experiments to understand the mechanism are currently in progress. The assumption that amorphous phase ice forms routinely on grains at T less than 80 K is often used in models describing the volatile content of comets or in interpretations of interstellar cloud temperatures. This assumption needs to be reexamined in view of these results.

Moore, Marla H.; Ferrante, Robert F.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Donn, Bertram

1994-01-01

24

Conditions Conducive to Forming Crystalline Uranyl Silicates in High Caustic Nuclear Waste Evaporators  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory conditions used to synthesize the uranyl silicate minerals are almost identical to the evaporator conditions under which high caustic nuclear wastes are processed to reduce total liquid waste volume. The only significant difference lies in the sodium ion concentration in such caustic nuclear wastes, which typically averages around 5.6 M Na+. In this investigation, synthetic uranyl silicate minerals (sodium weeksite, sodium boltwoodite and uranophane) were produced only under low Na+ concentration (less than 0.02 M), while attempts to synthesize these same uranyl silicates minerals in the presence of high Na+ concentration (high ionic strength reacting media), which is typical of caustic nuclear waste evaporator processing conditions proved unfruitful. In the presence of high Na+ concentration the main product for the same soluble silica-uranium reaction mixture shifts towards the formation of mainly clarkeite (Na[(UO2)O(OH)](H2O)0-1), a hydrated sodium uranate and not to wards the formation of uranyl silicates. Thus, the presence of high Na+ concentration in the reaction mixture of dissolved uranium and silica inhibits or suppresses the formation of crystalline uranyl silicates. We therefore conclude that evaporator fouling by uranyl silicate minerals is not easily produced under nuclear waste processing conditions because of the high Na+ concentration in the liquid wastes.

OJI, LAWRENCE

2004-11-16

25

High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approx. 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10 AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) > 1000 K at r(sub h) < 5 AU, 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -5) M(sub O)/yr, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-to-amorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Woodward, C. E.

2004-01-01

26

High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approximately 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) greater than 1000K at r(sub h) less than 5AU, 10(exp -6) -10(exp -5) solar mass per year, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-toamorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Wodward, C. E.

2004-01-01

27

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum  

E-print Network

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect Silicate, Magnesium Silicate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Sodium Magnesium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate

Ahmad, Sajjad

28

Effects of microwave irradiation on the crystalline phase of zeolite synthesized from fly ash by hydrothermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fly ash was dissolved into NaOH aqueous solution and the mixture of rice husk ash as a silica source with the solution separated from the insoluble fly ash was treated hydrothermally at 373 K with microwave heating and conventional heating. Through this experiment, we investigated effects of microwave irradiation on the crystalline phase of zeolites synthesized from fly ash

Kunihiro Fukui; Keiji Kanayama; Tetsuya Yamamoto; Hideto Yoshida

2007-01-01

29

Destruction of massive fragments in protostellar disks and crystalline silicate production  

E-print Network

We present a mechanism for the crystalline silicate production associated with the formation and subsequent destruction of massive fragments in young protostellar disks. The fragments form in the embedded phase of star formation via disk fragmentation at radial distances \\ga 50-100 AU and anneal small amorphous grains in their interior when the gas temperature exceeds the crystallization threshold of ~ 800 K. We demonstrate that fragments that form in the early embedded phase can be destroyed before they either form solid cores or vaporize dust grains, thus releasing the processed crystalline dust into various radial distances from sub-AU to hundred-AU scales. Two possible mechanisms for the destruction of fragments are the tidal disruption and photoevaporation as fragments migrate radially inward and approach the central star and also dispersal by tidal torques exerted by spiral arms. As a result, most of the crystalline dust concentrates to the disk inner regions and spiral arms, which are the likely sites ...

Vorobyov, Eduard I

2011-01-01

30

On the metallicity dependence of crystalline silicates in oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the occurrence of crystalline silicates in oxygen-rich evolved stars across a range of metallicities and mass-loss rates. It has been suggested that the crystalline silicate feature strength increases with increasing mass-loss rate, implying a correlation between lattice structure and wind density. To test this, we analyse Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Space Observatory Short Wavelength Spectrometer spectra of 217 oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch and 98 red supergiants in the Milky Way, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, and Galactic globular clusters. These encompass a range of spectral morphologies from the spectrally rich which exhibit a wealth of crystalline and amorphous silicate features to 'naked' (dust-free) stars. We combine spectroscopic and photometric observations with the GRAMS grid of radiative transfer models to derive (dust) mass-loss rates and temperature. We then measure the strength of the crystalline silicate bands at 23, 28 and 33 ?m. We detect crystalline silicates in stars with dust mass-loss rates which span over 3 dex, down to rates of ˜10-9 M? yr-1. Detections of crystalline silicates are more prevalent in higher mass-loss rate objects, though the highest mass-loss rate objects do not show the 23-?m feature, possibly due to the low temperature of the forsterite grains or it may indicate that the 23-?m band is going into absorption due to high column density. Furthermore, we detect a change in the crystalline silicate mineralogy with metallicity, with enstatite seen increasingly at low metallicity.

Jones, O. C.; Kemper, F.; Sargent, B. A.; McDonald, I.; Gielen, C.; Woods, Paul M.; Sloan, G. C.; Boyer, M. L.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Clayton, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Srinivasan, S.; Ruffle, P. M. E.

2012-12-01

31

Microporous Zeolite MembranesMicroporous Zeolite Membranes and Their Potential for Hand Their Potential for H22 ProductionProduction  

E-print Network

Microporous Zeolite MembranesMicroporous Zeolite Membranes and Their Potential for Hand interest." 22 Zeolites andZeolites and ZeotypesZeotypes ZeoliteZeolite ­­ A crystallineA crystalline zeolites.same structure as known zeolites. MFI Zeolite #12;"...exceptional service in the national interest

32

Infrared spectra of crystalline and glassy silicates and application to interstellar dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared spectra of crystalline minerals predicted in theoretical condensation sequences do not match the astronomical observations. Since the astronomical spectra are a closer match to glassy silicates, the authors undertook a study to measure the infrared spectra of glassy silicates that have compositions similar to silicate minerals predicted in theoretical condensation sequences. The data should support observations aimed at elucidating condensation chemistry in dust forming regions. The authors measured the mass absorption coefficients, from 2.5 to 25 microns, of ground samples of olivine, diopside, and serpentine and also smoke samples that were prepared from these minerals. The smoke samples prepared in this way are predominantly glassy with nearly the same composition as the parent minerals. The crystalline samples consisted of pure olivine ((Fe(0.1)Mg(0.9))(2)SiO(4)), serpentine, diopside. Sample purity was confirmed by x ray diffraction. Each mineral was ground for 10 hours and a measured mass of the powder was mixed with KBr powder for absorption measurements using the method of Borghesi et a. (1985). The smoke samples were prepared from the same samples used for grinding by vaporizing the minerals using pulsed laser radiation in air. The smoke samples formed by condensation of the resulting vapor. The smoke settled onto infrared transparent KRS-5 substrates and onto a quartz crystal microbalance used to obtain mass measurements. A description of the preparation method is given in Stephens (1980). The glassy diopside showed only diffuse electron diffraction peaks and hence was nearly amorphous, while the serpentine smoke showed a weak diffraction pattern corresponding to MgO. The smoke from olivine showed a weak diffraction pattern corresponding to Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4. The mass absorption coefficients, from 2.5 to 25 microns, of crystalline diopside, olivine, and serpentine and their corresponding smoke samples are shown in figures.

Stephens, John R.; Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, Sergio; Bussoletti, E.

1989-01-01

33

Point defects in crystalline zircon (zirconium silicate), ZrSiO4: electron paramagnetic resonance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article outlines the present state of knowledge of paramagnetic defects in crystalline zircon as obtained mainly, but not exclusively, from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies in crystalline zircon (zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4). The emphasis is on single-crystal studies where, in principle, unambiguous analysis is possible. Firstly, the crystallography of zircon is presented. Secondly, the relationships between available crystal-site symmetries and the symmetries of observed paramagnetic species in zircon, and how these observations lead to unambiguous assignments of point-group symmetries for particular paramagnetic species are detailed. Next, spin-Hamiltonian (SH) analysis is discussed with emphasis on the symmetry relationships that necessarily exist amongst the Laue classes of the crystal sites in zircon, the paramagnetic species occupying those sites and the SH itself. The final sections of the article then survey the results of EPR studies on zircon over the period 1960-2002.

Tennant, W. C.; Claridge, R. F. C.; Walsby, C. J.; Lees, N. S.

34

Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of /sup 29/Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 1300/sup 0/C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for /sup 23/Na and /sup 29/Si.

Schneider, E.

1985-11-01

35

On the metallicity dependence of crystalline silicates in oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants  

E-print Network

We investigate the occurrence of crystalline silicates in oxygen-rich evolved stars across a range of metallicities and mass-loss rates. It has been suggested that the crystalline silicate feature strength increases with increasing mass-loss rate, implying a correlation between lattice structure and wind density. To test this, we analyse Spitzer IRS and Infrared Space Observatory SWS spectra of 217 oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and 98 red supergiants in the Milky Way, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and Galactic globular clusters. These encompass a range of spectral morphologies from the spectrally-rich which exhibit a wealth of crystalline and amorphous silicate features to 'naked' (dust-free) stars. We combine spectroscopic and photometric observations with the GRAMS grid of radiative transfer models to derive (dust) mass-loss rates and temperature. We then measure the strength of the crystalline silicate bands at 23, 28 and 33 microns. We detect crystalline silicates in stars with dust ma...

Jones, O C; Sargent, B A; McDonald, I; Gielen, C; Woods, Paul M; Sloan, G C; Boyer, M L; Zijlstra, A A; Clayton, G C; Kraemer, K E; Srinivasan, S; Ruffle, P M E

2012-01-01

36

Stability of zeolites under electron irradiation and imaging of heavy cations in silicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aluminosilicate framework of synthetic `zeolites' of type A (Na+-form) and ZSM-5, as well as the Na+-forms of faujasite (Fig. 1) in their so-called X- and Y-variants (fuller structural descriptions are given in ref s 1 and 2) have recently been imaged at near-atomic scale by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM)3-5. However, the as-prepared synthetic and naturally occurring zeolites, all of

L. A. Bursill; J. M. Thomas; K. J. Rao

1981-01-01

37

FRIEDEL-CRAFTS ACYLATION OF ANISOLE CATALYSED BY H-ZEOLITE BETA OF CRYSTALLINE RICE HUSK ASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity of H-Beta zeolite, synthesised directly from crystalline rice husk ash in various SiO2\\/Al2O3 gel ratios, was studied in the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with propionic anhydride. Reactions were carried out in a batch reactor at various times and reaction temperatures in order to obtain the optimum acylation condition. Products identified by gas chromatography showed that p-methoxypropiophenone is the

ZAINAB RAMLI; DIDIK PRASETYOKO; SALASIAH ENDUD

38

Zeolite materials prepared using silicate waste from template synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon.  

PubMed

Significant amount of silica waste is generated in the preparation of porous carbon materials using template synthesis. Industrial production of such porous carbon not only creates waste chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns and high waste treatment cost. Recycling is proposed as the best solution for tackling such chemical wastes. In this study, etched silica waste released from template synthesis of mesoporous carbon is recycled to produce precious functional microporous zeolite materials. The solid silica template is etched out with NaOH solution to produce silica-free mesoporous carbon. The collected silica waste is recycled to generate zeolites such as LTA and MFI type silica materials. The formation of zeolites is confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, (29)Si NMR, (27)Al NMR, and SEM. This straight forward green chemistry route not only recycles the waste chemicals, but also decreases environmental pollution for better improvement of our living. PMID:23792927

Kim, Yun Kyung; Rajesh, Kizhakke Palleeri; Yu, Jong-Sung

2013-09-15

39

Cobalt-containing layered or zeolitic silicates as photocatalysts for hydrogen generation.  

PubMed

Layered magadiite and zeolites Y containing framework Co or small CoO clusters in the pores have been synthesized and tested as photocatalysts for water splitting, in the absence and presence of methanol, upon UV or simulated sunlight irradiation; the best performing material was Co-magadiite. PMID:25314124

Nea?u, ?tefan; Puche, Marta; Fornés, Vicente; Garcia, Hermenegildo

2014-12-01

40

Crystalline Silicates in Comets: Modeling Irregularly-Shaped Forsterite Crystals and Its Implications on Condensation Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystalline silicates in comets are a product of the condensation in the hot inner regions (T > or approx. equals 1400 K [1]) of our proto-planetary disk or annealing at somewhat lower temperatures (T > or approx. equals 1000-1200 K) [2, 3, 4] in shocks coupled with disk evolutionary processes that include radial transport of crystals from their formation locations out to the cold outer regions where comet nuclei formed. The grain shape of forsterite (crystals) could be indicative of their formation pathways at high temperatures through vapor-solid condensation or at lower temperatures through vapor-liquid-solid formation and growth [5, 6, 7]. Experiments demonstrate that crystals that formed from a rapidly cooled highly supersaturated silicate vapor are characterized by bulky, platy, columnar/needle and droplet shapes for values of temperature and supersaturation, T and sigma, of 1000-1450 C and < 97, 700-1000 C and 97-161, 580-820 C and 131-230, and <500 C and > 230, respectively [7]. The experimental columnar/needle shapes, which form by vapor-liquid-solid at lower temperatures (<820 C), are extended stacks of plates, where the extension is not correlated with an axial direction: columnar/needles may be extended in the c-axis or a-axis direction, can change directions, and/or are off-kilter or a bit askew extending in a combination of the a- and c-axis direction.

Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.

2011-01-01

41

Discrimination of zeolites and beryllium containing silicates using portable Raman spectroscometric equipment with near-infrared excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Raman spectra were obtained for a series of zeolites (thomsonite, stilbite, natrolite) and beryllium containing silicates (beryl, chrysoberyl, euclase, phenacite, bavenite, milarite) using a portable Raman specrometer with a 785 nm laser excitation to show the possibility to apply this setting for unambiguous detection and discrimination of these silicate minerals. Obtained spectra contain the most intense Raman bands at the same positions ±2-4 cm -1 as reported in the literature. The use of these bands permits the unambiguous identification of these phases. Data show the possibility to discriminate individual species of similar whitish color and aspect. Measurements showed an excellent correspondence of Raman bands obtained using the portable system and a laboratory Raman microspectrometer (with the same excitation laser wavelenght). However, for several minerals of these groups (chrysoberyl, bertrandite, chiavennite) Raman spectra were not of sufficient quality to permit unambiguous identification. The reasons are discussed. Raman spectrum of chiavennite CaMnBe 2Si 5O 13(OH) 2·2(H 2O) - a transformation product occurring together with bavenite on the surface of beryl crystals was obtained for the first time using the laboratory Raman spectrometer.

Jehli?ka, J.; Vandenabeele, P.; Edwards, H. G. M.

2012-02-01

42

Crystalline Mg2SiO4 and amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grain formation by coalescence and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for producing MgO and SiO2 smokes was developed. Mg-bearing silicate grain formation using the coalescence and growth of MgO and SiO2 grains was carried out in our laboratory. It becomes evident that single and poly crystalline Mg2SiO4 (forsterite) and amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grains can be produced by the coalescence and growth of MgO and SiO2 grains. This result suggests that the observed crystalline Mg2SiO4 grains and amorphous Mg-bearing silicate particles in Red Super Giant (RSG), Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), post-AGB and planetary nebula (PNe) could be produced by the coalescence and growth of MgO and SiO2 grains.

Kamitsuji, K.; Suzuki, H.; Kimura, Y.; Sato, T.; Saito, Y.; Kaito, C.

2005-01-01

43

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral harmotome - (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16?6H2O - A natural zeolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral harmotome (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16?6H2O is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and other industrial applications. It is a natural zeolite with catalytic potential. Raman bands at 1020 and 1102 cm-1 are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of three dimensional siloxane units. Raman bands at 428, 470 and 491 cm-1 are assigned to OSiO bending modes. The broad Raman bands at around 699, 728, 768 cm-1 are attributed to water librational modes. Intense Raman bands in the 3100 to 3800 cm-1 spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of water in harmotome. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. A sharp infrared band at 3731 cm-1 is assigned to the OH stretching vibration of SiOH units. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterization of the silicate mineral harmotome.

Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Wang, Lina; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

2015-02-01

44

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral harmotome--(Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16?6H2O--a natural zeolite.  

PubMed

The mineral harmotome (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16?6H2O is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and other industrial applications. It is a natural zeolite with catalytic potential. Raman bands at 1020 and 1102 cm(-1) are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of three dimensional siloxane units. Raman bands at 428, 470 and 491 cm(-1) are assigned to OSiO bending modes. The broad Raman bands at around 699, 728, 768 cm(-1) are attributed to water librational modes. Intense Raman bands in the 3100 to 3800 cm(-1) spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of water in harmotome. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. A sharp infrared band at 3731 cm(-1) is assigned to the OH stretching vibration of SiOH units. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterization of the silicate mineral harmotome. PMID:25203212

Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Wang, Lina; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

2015-02-25

45

Petrologic Constraints on Amorphous and Crystalline Magnesium Silicates: Dust Formation and Evolution in Selected Herbig Ae/Be Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and "amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry" around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting "astronomical nomenclature" and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the "Principle of Actualism" that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite ± tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

2013-07-01

46

PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1-University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-001 (United States); Nuth, Joseph A., E-mail: fransjmr@unm.edu [Astrochemistry Laboratory, Solar System Exploration Division, Code 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-07-01

47

Pure, single phase, high crystalline, chamfered-edge zeolite 4A synthesized from coal fly ash for use as a builder in detergents.  

PubMed

Single phase chamfered-edge zeolite 4A samples in pure form with a high crystallinity were synthesized by applying step-change of synthesis temperature during hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash. The calcium binding capacity of these zeolite 4A samples (prepared from coal fly ash) and the commercial detergent grade zeolite 4A were tested for usage as a detergent builder. The results show that these zeolite 4A samples behaved similarly as the commercial one in removing calcium ions during the washing cycle. Moreover, from the leaching tests (evaluation of toxicological safety), the results show that these zeolite 4A samples leached the same elements (Sb, As, Se and Tl) as the commercial one with the concentrations in the same order of magnitude. This shows that the toxicological effect of the coal fly ash converted zeolite 4A was not worse than that of the commercial sample. Finally, economic and environmental aspects of converting coal fly ash to useful products were discussed. PMID:16621273

Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

2006-09-01

48

Zeolitic alteration and fracture fillings in silicic tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the distribution and chemistry of zeolites in tuffs and in fractures at Yucca Mountain. Samples used in this study were collected from continuously-cored exploratory drill holes. A variety of analytical techniques, including optical petrography, x-ray powder diffraction, electron microanalysis, and x-ray fluorescence, were used to characterize the distribution and chemistry of zeolites in these samples.

Broxton, D.E.; Carlos, B.A.

1986-12-31

49

Review of the thermal stability and cation exchange properties of the zeolite minerals clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime; applications to radioactive waste isolation in silicic tuff  

SciTech Connect

Silicic tuffs of the southern Great Basin and basalts of the Columbia River Plateau are under investigation as potential host rocks for high- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Nonwelded and partially welded tuffs may contain major amounts (> 50%) of the zeolite minerals clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime. Densely welded tuffs and some basalt flows may contain clinoptilolite as fracture filling that limits the permeability of these rocks. The cation exchange properties of these zeolite minerals allow them to pose a formidable natural barrier to the migration of cationic species of various radionuclides in aqueous solutions. However, these minerals are unstable at elevated temperatures and at low water-vapor pressures and may break down either by reversible dehydration or by irreversible mineralogical reactions. All the breakdown reactions occurring at increased temperature involve a net volume reduction and evolution of fluids. Thus, they may provide a pathway (shrinkage fractures) and a driving force (fluid pressure) for release of radionuclides to the biosphere. These reactions may be avoided by keeping zeolite-bearing horizons saturated with water and below about 85{sup 0}C. This may restrict allowable gross thermal loadings in waste repositories in volcanic rocks.

Smyth, J.R.; Caporuscio, F.A.

1981-06-01

50

GT2_bdevries_3: Mapping the distribution of the crystalline silicate forsterite in the Saturn Nebula (NGC 7009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to observe a 3x3 oversampled map of the Planetary Nebula NGC 7009. The wavelength of the observation is centered on the 69micron band of crystalline silicate forsterite. This observation will strengthen the results obtained for the PN NGC 6543 (GT1_bdevries_1, PI: B.L. de Vries). For NGC 6543 we have already seen that the forsterite is confined to the inner part of the outflow, therefor linked to the denser last mass-loss phase. NGC 7009 is similar to NGC 6543 in size and age. Combining the observations of NGC 7009 with NGC 6543 will help to further investigate the dust-formation in the circumstellar environment of evolved stars and look at the link with mass-loss and possibly binarity. The total observing time is 2.1h

de Vries, B.

2011-05-01

51

Science Results from the Stardust Comet Sample Return Mission: Large Scale Mixing in the Solar Nebula and the Origin of Crystalline Silicates in Circumstellar Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first year of laboratory analyses of Kuiper belt materials returned to Earth by the Stardust comet sample return mission have provided important new information on: A) large-scale mixing in the solar nebula and B) the origin of crystalline silicates in circumstellar disks. Most of the >5µm solid particles collected by the mission are mineral grains or assemblages of high

Donald E. Brownlee

2006-01-01

52

Lyotropic liquid crystalline L3 phase silicated nanoporous monolithic composites and their production  

DOEpatents

A mesoporous ceramic material is provided having a pore size diameter in the range of about 10-100 nanometers produced by templating with a ceramic precursor a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase consisting of a three-dimensional, random, nonperiodic network packing of a multiple connected continuous membrane. A preferred process for producing the inesoporous ceramic material includes producing a template of a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase by mixing a surfactant, a co-surfactant and hydrochloric acid, coating the template with an inorganic ceramic precursor by adding to the L.sub.3 phase tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then converting the coated template to a ceramic by removing any remaining liquids.

McGrath, Kathryn M.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Gruner, Sol M.

2003-10-28

53

Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume  

SciTech Connect

For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Osamu Tochiyama [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

2007-07-01

54

Science Results from the Stardust Comet Sample Return Mission: Large Scale Mixing in the Solar Nebula and the Origin of Crystalline Silicates in Circumstellar Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first year of laboratory analyses of Kuiper belt materials returned to Earth by the Stardust comet sample return mission have provided important new information on: A) large-scale mixing in the solar nebula and B) the origin of crystalline silicates in circumstellar disks. Most of the >5µm solid particles collected by the mission are mineral grains or assemblages of high temperature minerals that condense at 1400K or above. The most extreme particle is a “Calcium Aluminum Inclusion” composed of refractory Ca, Al and Ti rich minerals. Like nearly identical components found in primitive meteorites, this particle shows a striking enrichment in 16O. The presence of these phases, linked by isotopic and minor element composition to rare components in meteorites, is direct evidence for radial transport of large solid grains from the center of the solar nebula to the Kuiper belt. Most of the mineral grains recovered by Stardust have solar isotopic composition and they have rather exotic minor element compositions. It appears that, like their meteoritic analogs, they formed by combinations of condensation and igneous processes and almost certainly not by the annealing of amorphous interstellar silicates, a formation process widely championed for the origin of crystalline silicate grains observed in disks and comets.

Brownlee, Donald E.; Stardust Mission Team

2006-12-01

55

Zeolite exposure and associated pneumoconiosis  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring zeolite minerals are aluminum silicates widespread in the earth's crust. Several of these minerals have fibrous forms and have been implicated as a possible cause of benign and malignant diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This report describes a patient, living in an area of Nevada rich in zeolites, who presented with idiopathic pleural thickening and pulmonary fibrosis associated with extensive pulmonary deposition of zeolites.

Casey, K.R.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Rom, W.N.; Moatamed, F.

1985-06-01

56

IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52  

SciTech Connect

We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended ({approx}4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at {>=}10 {mu}m. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 {mu}m, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); McKee, Christopher F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Suh, Kyung-Won [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheingju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Onaka, Takashi [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Burton, Michael G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Hiramatsu, Masaaki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bessell, Michael S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lee, Jae-Joon [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jeong, Woong-Seob [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 61-1, Whaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S., E-mail: koo@astrohi.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2011-05-01

57

Cesium titanium silicate and method of making  

DOEpatents

The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

Balmer, M.L.

1997-01-07

58

Cesium titanium silicate and method of making  

DOEpatents

The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

Balmer, Mari L. (West Richland, WA)

1997-01-01

59

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - a natural zeolite.  

PubMed

We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe(2+) and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125cm(-1). The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119cm(-1). These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484cm(-1) is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608cm(-1). The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime. PMID:24983920

Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

2014-12-10

60

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - A natural zeolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe2+ and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125 cm-1. The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119 cm-1. These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484 cm-1 is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608 cm-1. The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime.

Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

2014-12-01

61

Understanding the dissolution of zeolites.  

PubMed

Scientific knowledge of how zeolites, a unique classification of microporous aluminosilicates, undergo dissolution in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions is limited. Understanding the dissolution of zeolites is fundamental to a number of processes occurring in nature and throughout industry. To better understand the dissolution process, experiments were carried out establishing that the Si-to-Al ratio controls zeolite framework dissolution, by which the selective removal of aluminum constrains the removal of silicon. Stoichiometric dissolution is observed for Type 4A zeolite in HCl where the Si-to-Al ratio is equal to 1.0. Framework silicon dissolves completely during Type 4A dissolution and is followed by silicate precipitation. However, for the zeolite analcime which has a Si-to-Al ratio of 2.0 dissolves non-stoichiometrically as the selective removal of aluminum results in partially dissolved silicate particles followed by silicate precipitation. In Type Y zeolite, exhibiting a Si-to-Al ratio of 3.0, there is insufficient aluminum to weaken the structure and cause silicon to dissolve in HCl. Thus, little or no precipitation is observed, and amorphous undissolvable silicate particles remain intact. The initial dissolution rates of Type Y and 4A zeolites demonstrate that dissolution is constrained by the number of available reaction sites, and a selective removal rate parameter is applied to delineate the mechanism of particle dissolution by demonstrating the kinetic influence of the Si-to-Al ratio. Zeolite framework models are constructed and used to undergird the basic dissolution mechanism. The framework models, scanning electron micrographs of partially dissolved crystals, and experimentally measured dissolution rates all demonstrate that a zeolite's Si-to-Al framework ratio plays a universal role in the dissolution mechanism, independent of framework type. Consequently, the unique mechanism of zeolite dissolution has general implications on how petroleum reservoir stimulation treatments should be designed. PMID:17429989

Hartman, Ryan L; Fogler, H Scott

2007-05-01

62

Hexavalent chromium in tricalcium silicate: Part I Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline hydration products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration products of CrVI-doped tricalcium silicate (C3S)? have been investigated. C3S is the main constituent of Portland cement responsible for the strength and stability of hardened Portland cement paste. Chromium trioxide (CrO3), added as a dopant to C3S, simulates hexavalent chromium waste that may be stabilized in ordinary Portland cement. X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the development of

O. E Omotoso; D. G Ivey; R Mikula

1998-01-01

63

Thermal desorption characteristics of CO, O2 and CO2 on non-porous water, crystalline water and silicate surfaces at sub-monolayer and multilayer coverages  

E-print Network

The desorption characteristics of molecules on interstellar dust grains are important for modelling the behaviour of molecules in icy mantles and, critically, in describing the solid-gas interface. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments exploring the desorption of three small molecules from three astrophysically relevant surfaces are presented. The desorption of CO, O2 and CO2 at both sub-monolayer and multilayer coverages was investigated from non-porous water, crystalline water and silicate surfaces. Experimental data was modelled using the Polanyi-Wigner equation to produce a mathematical description of the desorption of each molecular species from each type of surface, uniquely describing both the monolayer and multilayer desorption in a single combined model. The implications of desorption behaviour over astrophysically relevant timescales are discussed.

Noble, J A; Dulieu, F; Fraser, H J

2011-01-01

64

Radiation effects and annealing kinetics in crystalline silicates, phosphates and complex Nb-Ta-Ti oxides. FInal Report  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of heavy particles (alpha-recoil nuclei, fission fragments, implanted ions) with ceramics is complex because they have a wide range of structure types, complex compositions and chemical bonding is variable. Radiation damage can produce diverse results, but most commonly, crystalline periodic materials become either polycrystalline or aperiodic (metamict state). We studied the transition from crystalline to aperiodic state in natural materials that have been damaged by alpha recoil nuclei in the U and Th decay series and in synthetic, analogous structure types which have been amorphized by ion implantation. Transition from crystalline to aperiodic was followed by analysis of XRD, high resolution TEM, and EXAFS/XANE spectroscopy. Use of these techniques with increasing dose provided data on an increasing finer scale as the damage process progressed.

Ewing, R.C.

1987-08-10

65

Spectroscopic analysis of Eu{sup 3+} -and Eu{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}-doped yttrium silicate crystalline powders prepared by combustion synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Yttrium silicate powders doped with Eu{sup 3+} and codoped with Eu{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} were prepared by combustion synthesis. The x-ray powder diffraction data showed the presence of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystalline phases. Singly doped (1 wt %) sample illuminated with ultraviolet light ({lambda}=256 nm) showed the characteristic red luminescence corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated from experimental data and the radiative and nonradiative relaxation rates were estimated. The results showed that the nonradiative relaxation rate is smaller in yttrium silicate compared to yttrium oxide powder, a reference material, prepared under similar conditions. Codoped samples were exposed to near-infrared laser excitation ({lambda}=975 nm) and the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} was also observed. In this case, the luminescence is achieved due to a cooperative upconversion (CUC) process involving energy transfer (ET) from pairs of ytterbium ions to europium ions. The ET rate was estimated by fitting a rate equation model with the dynamics of CUC red emission.

Rakov, Nikifor [PG-Ciencia dos Materiais, Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, 48902-300 Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Amaral, Dayanne F.; Guimaraes, Renato B.; Maciel, Glauco S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2010-10-15

66

Existence of Colloidal Primitive Building Units Exhibiting Memory Effects in Zeolite Growth Compositions  

E-print Network

Existence of Colloidal Primitive Building Units Exhibiting Memory Effects in Zeolite Growth of crystallization of nanocrystalline sodalite, zeolite A, and zeolite Y. Characterization of the freeze-dried mother zeolites A and Y, and 5 nm regions of crystallinity could be identified in zeolite Y. Upon adding

Dutta, Prabir K.

67

Lack of Evidence of In-Situ Decay of Aluminum-26 in a FeO-Poor Ferromagnesian Crystalline Silicate Particle, Pyxie, from Comet Wild 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the important discoveries from the Stardust mission is the observation of crystalline silicate particles that resemble Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites], which suggests radial transport of high temperature solids from the inner to the outer solar nebula regions and capture by accreting cometary objects. The Al-Mg isotope analyses of CAI-like and type II chondrule-like particles revealed no excess of Mg-26 derived from in-situ decay of Al-26 (Tau)(sub 1/2) = 0.705Myr; ), suggesting late formation of these particles. However, the number of Wild 2 particles analyzed for Al-Mg isotopes is still limited (n = 3). In order to better understand the timing of the formation of Wild 2 particles and possible radial transport in the protoplanetary disk, we performed SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) Al-Mg isotope analyses of plagioclase in a FeO-poor ferromagnesian Wild 2 particle, which is the most abundant type among crystalline Wild 2 particles.

Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ebel, D. S.; Kita, N. T.

2014-01-01

68

Cesium incorporation and diffusion in cancrinite, sodalite, zeolite, and allophane  

E-print Network

Cesium incorporation and diffusion in cancrinite, sodalite, zeolite, and allophane Jarai Mon of silicate minerals and precipitation of new aluminosilicate minerals. Cancrinite, sodalite, LTA zeolite in sodalite and cancrinite was far more difficult to replace than that in LTA zeolite or allophane. Most

Flury, Markus

69

Microstructural Optimization of a Zeolite Membrane for Organic  

E-print Network

#12;Microstructural Optimization of a Zeolite Membrane for Organic Vapor Separation Zhiping Lai,1 growth method for the fabrication of high-permeance, high-separa- tion-factor zeolite (siliceous ZSM-5, such as twin overgrowths and random nucleation. Organic polycations are used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers

Kokkoli, Efie

70

The calcium silicate hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the calcium silicate hydrates, including crystalline minerals and the extremely variable and poorly ordered phase (C-S-H) that is the main binding phase in most concrete. Up-to-date composition and crystal-structure information is tabulated for the most important crystalline calcium (alumino) silicate hydrates and related phases. A number of models for the nanostructure of C-S-H are summarized

I. G. Richardson

2008-01-01

71

Zeolite Nanoslabs? On the TEM and AFM Evidence of Zeosil Nanoslabs  

E-print Network

Zeolite Nanoslabs? On the TEM and AFM Evidence of Zeosil Nanoslabs Present during the Synthesis · nanoslabs · silicates · zeolites The mechanism of formation of syn- thetic zeolite structures has been a subject of many recent investigations.[1­3] One of the commonly studied zeolites is silicalite-1

Kokkoli, Efie

72

Entrapment of ionic tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) in hydrophobic siliceous zeolite: O2 sensing in biological environments.  

PubMed

Synthesis of the ionic dye, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) chloride (Ru(bpy) 3 2+.2Cl (-)) within the supercages of a highly hydrophobic zeolite Y is reported. Use of the neutral precursor Ru(bpy)Cl 2(CO) 2 allowed for high loading levels of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ (1 per 7 and 25 supercages). The emission quenching of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+-zeolite crystals dispersed in polydimethoxysiloxane (PDMS) films by dissolved oxygen in water was examined. The quenching data as a function of oxygen concentration was fit to a linear Stern-Volmer plot ( R2 = 0.98). Using the Stern-Volmer plot as calibration, changes in concentration of dissolved oxygen due to reaction with glucose in the presence of glucose oxidase was monitored. Human monocyte-derived macrophages internalized the submicron-sized Ru(bpy) 3 2+-zeolite crystals, and intracellular oxygen concentrations initiated by zymosan-mediated oxidative burst could be monitored by measuring the emission from Ru(bpy) 3 2+ by confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:18642937

Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A; Nagy, Amber; Waldman, W James; Dutta, Prabir K

2008-08-19

73

Effect of different glasses in glass bonded zeolite  

SciTech Connect

A mineral waste form has been developed for chloride waste salt generated during the pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of salt-occluded zeolite powders bound within a glass matrix. The zeolite contains the salt and immobilizes the fission products. The zeolite powders are hot pressed to form a mechanically stable, durable glass bonded zeolite. Further development of glass bonded zeolite as a waste form requires an understanding of the interaction between the glass and the zeolite. Properties of the glass that enhance binding and durability of the glass bonded zeolite need to be identified. Three types of glass, boroaluminosilicate, soda-lime silicate, and high silica glasses, have a range of properties and are now being investigated. Each glass was hot pressed by itself and with an equal amount of zeolite. MCC-1 leach tests were run on both. Soda-lime silicate and high silica glasses did not give a durable glass bonded zeolite. Boroaluminosilicate glasses rich in alkaline earths did bind the zeolite and gave a durable glass bonded zeolite. Scanning electron micrographs suggest that the boroaluminosilicate glasses wetted the zeolite powders better than the other glasses. Development of the glass bonded zeolite as a waste form for chloride waste salt is continuing.

Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Verma, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-05-01

74

Diameter and Chirality Distribution of SWNTs Grown from Zeolite Surfaces  

E-print Network

Diameter and Chirality Distribution of SWNTs Grown from Zeolite Surfaces Yoichi Murakami1-8656 Zeolites are microporous, crystalline aluminosilicates constructed from tetrahedral base units. We have been using the b-surfaces of silicalite-1 zeolite (framework: MFI) as catalyst support for catalytic

Maruyama, Shigeo

75

Synthesis of Zeolite from Aluminium Etching By-Product: The Effect of Reaction Temperature on Crystallinity and Its CO2 Adsorption Property  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of zeolite from the by-product of aluminium etching process was investigated. The starting by-product reactant had high aluminium content, 92.17% wt. as Al2O3. Si and Na compositions were adjusted by the addition of sodium metasilicate, in the hydrogel process.The reaction time was fixed at 1 h., while the stirring speed was controlled at 200 rpm. and the temperature

Supaporn Douglas

2008-01-01

76

Growth of zeolite crystals in the microgravity environment of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeolites are hydrated, crystalline aluminosilicates with alkali and alkaling earth metals substituted into cation vacancies. Typically zeolite crystals are 3 to 8 microns. Larger cyrstals are desirable. Large zeolite crystals were produced (100 to 200 microns); however, they have taken restrictively long times to grow. It was proposed if the rate of nucleation or in some other way the number of nuclei can be lowered, fewer, larger crystals will be formed. The microgravity environment of space may provide an ideal condition to achieve rapid growth of large zeolite crystals. The objective of the project is to establish if large zeolite crystals can be formed rapidly in space.

Sacco, A., Jr.; Sand, L. B.; Collette, D.; Dieselman, K.; Crowley, J.; Feitelberg, A.

1986-01-01

77

Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na[sub 2]O added as NAOH instead of Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] to avoid severe foaming due to CO[sub 2] evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

Reimann, G.A.

1991-10-01

78

Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na{sub 2}O added as NAOH instead of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to avoid severe foaming due to CO{sub 2} evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

Reimann, G.A.

1991-10-01

79

Multipore zeolites: synthesis and catalytic applications.  

PubMed

In the last few years, important efforts have been made to synthesize so-called "multipore" zeolites, which contain channels of different dimensions within the same crystalline structure. This is a very attractive subject, since the presence of pores of different sizes would favor the preferential diffusion of reactants and products through those different channel systems, allowing unique catalytic activities for specific chemical processes. In this Review we describe the most attractive achievements in the rational synthesis of multipore zeolites, containing small to extra-large pores, and the improvements reported for relevant chemical processes when these multipore zeolites have been used as catalysts. PMID:25664421

Moliner, Manuel; Martínez, Cristina; Corma, Avelino

2015-03-16

80

Origin of strong acidity in lanthanum-exchanged zeolites  

E-print Network

material, the high temperatures and acidity of hydrocracking processes can result in the collapse of the zeolite crystalline structure (17). These features require a thermally and chemically stable catalyst. As a large amount of structural aluminum... of this research was to determine the factors which give rise to strong acidity in zeolites. There is a linear relation between catalytic activity and zeolite framework aluminum number in the range of' 0 to 32 aluminum atoms per unit cell, whereas at higher...

Carvajal Freese, Ralf R.

1989-01-01

81

Thermal conductivity of pure silica MEL and MFI zeolite thin films Thomas Coquil,1  

E-print Network

Thermal conductivity of pure silica MEL and MFI zeolite thin films Thomas Coquil,1 Christopher M temperature cross-plane thermal conductivity of pure silica zeolite PSZ MEL and MFI thin films. PSZ MEL thin cross- talk noise, and iii power consumption.5 Pure silica zeolites PSZs are crystalline microporous

Pilon, Laurent

82

Influence of Zeolite Catalyst Supports on the Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-print Network

1 Influence of Zeolite Catalyst Supports on the Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes; catalytic CVD; metal catalyst; Zeolite ABSTRACT: Choice of the catalyst support is an important factor) method. Zeolites, which are a class of microporous crystalline material, have also been known

Maruyama, Shigeo

83

Selectivity of zeolite catalysts of hydrocracking of paraffin hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selectivity of catalysts of hydrocracking based on three types of zeolites: HKE, HM, and HTsVM was studied in comparable conditions and it was found that in rigorous conditions of conducting the process (longer contact time, deeper conversion of the normal paraffin), the contribution of nonselective hydrocracking which takes place on the external crystalline surface of the zeolites becomes marked

A. N. Shakun; L. F. Ilicheva; N. L. Nikitina; B. K. Nefedov; L. D. Konovalchikov; T. V. Alekseeva

1988-01-01

84

Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . .  

E-print Network

Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . . Realization 2d Zeolites Finite Zeolites The Layer . . . Holes in Zeolites Motions Open Problems Home Page Title Page Page 1 of 100 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Combinatorial Zeolites Herman Servatius -- Clark

Servatius, Brigitte

85

Selectivity of zeolite catalysts of hydrocracking of paraffin hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The selectivity of catalysts of hydrocracking based on three types of zeolites: HKE, HM, and HTsVM was studied in comparable conditions and it was found that in rigorous conditions of conducting the process (longer contact time, deeper conversion of the normal paraffin), the contribution of nonselective hydrocracking which takes place on the external crystalline surface of the zeolites becomes marked on all of the catalysts. Incorporation of a hydrogenating component in the zeolite-containing catalyst results in an increase in nonselective hydrocracking on the external crystalline surface of the zeolites, and addition of significant amounts of molybdenum oxide also results in a decrease in the total conversion of the n-paraffin. The contribution of nonselective hydrocracking decreases with an increase in the intracrystalline activity of the zeolite.

Shakun, A.N.; Il'icheva, L.F.; Nikitina, N.L.; Nefedov, B.K.; Konoval'chikov, L.D.; Alekseeva, T.V.

1988-09-20

86

Microstructural Optimization of a Zeolite Membrane for Organic Vapor Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seeded growth method for the fabrication of high-permeance, high-separation-factor zeolite (siliceous ZSM-5, [Si96O192]-MFI) membranes is reported. The method consists of growing the crystals of an oriented seed layer to a well-intergrown film by avoiding events that lead to a loss of preferred orientation, such as twin overgrowths and random nucleation. Organic polycations are used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers

Zhiping Lai; Griselda Bonilla; Isabel Diaz; Jose Geraldo Nery; Khristina Sujaoti; Miguel A. Amat; Efrosini Kokkoli; Osamu Terasaki; Robert W. Thompson; Michael Tsapatsis; Dionisios G. Vlachos

2003-01-01

87

Zeolites: Can they be synthesized by design  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves are crystalline oxides that have high surface-to-volume ratios and are able to recognize, discriminate, and organize molecules with differences of < 1 [angstrom]. The close connection between the atomic structure and macroscopic properties of these materials has led to uses in molecular recognition. For example, zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves can reveal marvelous molecular recognition specificity and sensitivity that can be applied to catalysis, separations technology, and chemical sensing. Additionally, they can serve as hosts to organize guest atoms and molecules that endow composite materials with optoelectric and electrochemical properties. Because of the high level of structural control necessary to create high-performance materials with zeolites or zeolite-like molecular sieves, the design and synthesis of these solids with specific architectures and properties are highly desired. Although this lofty goal is still elusive, advances have been made to allow the serious consideration of designing molecular sieves. Here, the author covers two aspects of this ongoing effort. First, he discusses the feasibility of designing pore architectures through the use of organic structure-directing agents. Second, he explores the possibility of creating zeolites through ''Lego chemistry.''

Davis, M.E. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1994-09-01

88

Thermodynamic modeling of natural zeolite stability  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites occur in a variety of geologic environments and are used in numerous agricultural, commercial, and environmental applications. It is desirable to understand their stability both to predict future stability and to evaluate the geochemical conditions resulting in their formation. The use of estimated thermodynamic data for measured zeolite compositions allows thermodynamic modeling of stability relationships among zeolites in different geologic environments (diagenetic, saline and alkaline lakes, acid rock hydrothermal, basic rock, deep sea sediments). This modeling shows that the relative cation abundances in both the aqueous and solid phases, the aqueous silica activity, and temperature are important factors in determining the stable zeolite species. Siliceous zeolites (e.g., clinoptilolite, mordenite, erionite) present in saline and alkaline lakes or diagenetic deposits formed at elevated silica activities. Aluminous zeolites (e.g., natrolite, mesolite/scolecite, thomsonite) formed in basic rocks in association with reduced silica activities. Likewise, phillipsite formation is favored by reduced aqueous silica activities. The presence of erionite, chabazite, and phillipsite are indicative of environments with elevated potassium concentrations. Elevated temperature, calcic water conditions, and reduced silica activity help to enhance the laumontite and wairakite stability fields. Analcime stability increases with increased temperature and aqueous Na concentration, and/or with decreased silica activity.

Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

1997-06-01

89

Environmental Applications of Natural Zeolitic Materials Based on Their Ion Exchange Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Present and potential use of natural zeolites as cation exchangers in environmental protection is reviewed. Siliceous zeolites,\\u000a such as chabazite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and phillipsite, exhibit good selectivities for cations with low charge density,\\u000a e.g., Cs+ and NH4\\u000a +, and for cations with low hydration energy, such as Pb2+. Zeolitised tuffs, containing the mentioned zeolites, may therefore be utilised for removing

C. Colella; Piazza Ie; V. Tecchio

90

Conversion of rice husk ash to zeolite beta.  

PubMed

White rice husk ash (RHA), an agriculture waste containing crystalline tridymite and alpha-cristobalite, was used as a silica source for zeolite Beta synthesis. The crystallization of zeolite Beta from RHA at 150 degrees C in the presence of tetraethylammonium hydroxide was monitored by XRD, FTIR and (29)Si MAS NMR techniques. It was found that zeolite Beta started to form after 12h and the complete crystallization of zeolite Beta phase was achieved after 2d. XRD, (29)Si MAS NMR and solid yield studies indicate that the transformation mechanism of silica present in RHA to zeolite Beta involves dissolution of the ash, formation of an amorphous aluminosilicate after 6h of crystallization, followed by dissolution in the mother liquor and final transformation to pure zeolite Beta crystals. PMID:16274981

Prasetyoko, Didik; Ramli, Zainab; Endud, Salasiah; Hamdan, Halimaton; Sulikowski, Bogdan

2006-01-01

91

An introduction to zeolite molecular sieves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers the following topics: What is a zeolite ; Natural zeolites and their occurrence; The structure of zeolites; Zeolite structure identification and characterization; Zeolite syntheses; Zeolites as ion exchangers; Zeolites as molecular sieves and drying agents; The stabilities of zeolite structures and their modification; Zeolites as catalysts; Zeolite-like materials (Zeotypes) containing elements other than Si or Al in

A. Dyer

1988-01-01

92

Database of Zeolite Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Database of Zeolite Structures is provided by the Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association. Links include an Atlas of Zeolite Framework Types, Collection of Simulated XRD Powder Patterns for Zeolites, Catalog of Disordered Zeolite Structures, Schemes for Building Zeolite Framework Models, and Zeolite Structure References, as well as various publications. The database can be searched or browsed, and contains several useful tools such as the "input your data" link, which allows the user to enter crystallographic data not available in the database and generate the diffraction pattern.

93

Novel long-term immobilization method for radioactive iodine-129 using a zeolite/apatite composite sintered body.  

PubMed

The amount of radioactive iodine generated from nuclear power plants is expected to increase with the proliferation of nuclear energy production, and long-term immobilization methods for such radioactive elements need to be developed to make nuclear energy sustainable. The standard immobilization method of radioactive elements, vitrification, is not very effective for radioactive iodine-129 because of the low solubility of iodine in silicate melts, its very high volatility at standard vitrification process temperatures, and its instability in the alkaline environment of deep geological layers below 300 m. We have developed a novel three-phase ceramic composite produced by a sintering process. Iodine adsorbed onto Ca-type zeolite A was covered with a hydroxyapatite nanolayer through the exchange reaction of ammonium with calcium. Clusters of iodine of 30 nm within the zeolite structure were found to be thermally stable up to 1253 K because of the partial blockage of the alpha-cage apertures by ammonium ions and the partial change from a crystalline phase to an amorphous phase at 473 K. No gasification of iodine molecules was found to occur during the sintering process. The outer phase was highly crystalline hydroxyfluorapatite in which the hydroxyapatite nanolayer plays an important role for successful sintering. The elution of iodine in low-dioxygen water, similar to that found within the Earth's crust, was investigated and was found to occur only in the surface layer of the sintered body. PMID:20355964

Watanabe, Yujiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Suetsugu, Yasushi; Komatsu, Yu; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Moriyoshi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Junzo

2009-07-01

94

Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

2006-10-19

95

Ammonium removal from wastewaters using natural New Zealand zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium) in agricultural wastewaters can promote eutrophication of receiving waters and be potentially toxic to fish and other aquatic life. Zeolites, which are hydrated aluminum?silicate minerals, have an affinity for ammonium ions (NH4 ) and are, therefore, potentially useful in removing this contaminant from wastewaters. The major objectives of this study were to evaluate the capacity

M. L. Nguyen; C. C. Tanner

1998-01-01

96

Siliceous cements and their timing relations in arkosic arenites, Lobo formation (Paleocene-Eocene), southwestern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arkoses (QââFââLâ) with subequal amounts of K-feldspar and plagioclase contain a variety of siliceous cements composing over 96% of those authigenic products present. Textural intergrowths and cement stratigraphy indicate siliceous phases overlap or postdate pure limonite and feldspar overgrowth formation and predate zeolites, albitization, and calcite constituents. Four siliceous phases are present: (1) impure siliceous cement, (2) microquartz, (3) chalcedony,

W. C. James; J. Russo

1989-01-01

97

Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen substituted zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest in basic solid materials, particularly for basic zeolites has considerably increased in the last two decades because of their potential use in catalysis and separation. Basic zeolites have most often been obtained by ion-exchange or impregnation with alkali metal cations or grafting of organic bases onto zeolite pore walls. Such materials often suffer from instability and/or pore blockage, because none of these approaches places basic sites directly into the zeolite framework. Recently zeolitic materials have been made with some of the bridging oxygen atoms in Si--O--Si and/or Si--O--Al linkages replaced by NH groups, i.e. by substitution of framework oxygen by nitrogen. As a result, the basic strength of the framework increases due to the lower electronegativity of nitrogen with respect to oxygen. In this study, solid base catalysts are obtained by nitrogen substitution of the faujasite type of zeolites under ammonia flow at high temperatures. The efficiency of the reaction is tested by using zeolites with different aluminum contents and extraframework cations and varying the reaction conditions such as ammonia flow rate, reaction temperature and duration. The characterization studies show that high levels of nitrogen substitution can be achieved while maintaining porosity, particularly for NaY and low-aluminum HY zeolites, without a significant loss in the crystallinity. 27Al and 29 Si MAS NMR experiments performed on the nitrogen substituted zeolites show dealumination of the framework and preferential substitution for Si--OH--Al sites at the early stages of the reaction (temperatures at 750--800 °C). No preference is seen for reactions performed at higher temperatures and longer reaction times (e.g., 850 °C and 48 h). X-ray PDF analysis performed on the modified zeolites show that the Si-N distance in the 1st shell is longer than Si-O bond distance and Si-Si/Al bond distance of the Si-O/N-Si/Al linkage decreases, as an indication of a decrease in bond angle. The basicity experiments performed on the zeolites show an increase basicity with increase of the nitrogen content.

Dogan, Fulya

98

Isomerization of ?-pinene over dealuminated ferrierite-type zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isomerization of ?-pinene was performed on a series of dealuminated ferrierite (FER)-type zeolites in liquid phase at 363 K using a batch reactor. The course of zeolite dealumination was followed in detail using 29Si, 27Al, 1H MAS NMR, XRD, FTIR, and sorption of nitrogen. The ammonium form of FER was dealuminated with aqueous solutions of HCl. While retaining the crystallinity

Rafal Rachwalik; Zbigniew Olejniczak; Jian Jiao; Jun Huang; Michael Hunger; Bogdan Sulikowski

2007-01-01

99

Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to synthesize nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y nanoclusters, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates, and evaluate the 'zeolite Y/Nanoporous host' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. In comparison to conventionally-used zeolite Y catalysts of micron size particles, the nanocrystals (< 100 nm particle size) which contain shorter path lengths, are expected to allow faster diffusion of large hydrocarbon substrates and the catalysis products within and out of the zeolite's channels and cages (<1 nm size). This is expected to significantly reduce deactivation of the catalyst and to prolong their period of reactivity. Encapsulating zeolite Y nanocrystals within the nanoporous materials is expected to protect its external surfaces and pore entrances from being blocked by large hydrocarbon substrates, since these substrates will initially be converted to small molecules by the nanoporous host (a catalyst in its own right). The project consisted of four major tasks as follows: (1) synthesis of the nanoparticles of zeolite Y (of various chemical compositions) using various techniques such as the addition of organic additives to conventional zeolite Y synthesis mixtures to suppress zeolite Y crystal growth; (2) synthesis of nanoporous silicate host materials of up to 30 nm pore diameter, using poly (alkylene oxide) copolymers which when removed will yield a mesoporous material; (3) synthesis of zeolite Y/Nanoporous Host composite materials as potential catalysts; and (4) evaluation of the catalyst for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2007-09-30

100

ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

101

ZEOLITE COATING SYSTEM FOR CORROSION CONTROL TO ELIMINATE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM DOD APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites are microporous crystalline aluminosilicates with uniform and molecular sized pores. They are non-toxic and have been explored for medical applications. We have been investigating the application of zeolite films as chromium-free protective coatings on aluminum alloys. We have shown that as-synthesized organic template containing high-silica-zeolite (HSZ) MFI coatings on AA-2024-T3 are non-porous and have excellent corrosion resistance in strong

Derek E. Beving; Cory R. O'Neill; Yushan Yan; Nicole Anderson

102

Zeolite catalysis: technology  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites have been used as catalysts in industry since the early nineteen sixties. The great majority of commercial applications employ one of three zeolite types: zeolite Y; Mordenite; ZSM-5. By far the largest use of zeolites is in catalytic cracking, and to a lesser extent in hydrocracking. This paper reviews the rapid development of zeolite catalysis and its application in industries such as: the production of gasoline by catalytic cracking of petroleum; isomerization of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ paraffin hydrocarbons; alkylation of aromatics with olefins; xylene isomerization; and conversion of methanol to gasoline.

Heinemann, H.

1980-07-01

103

Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO{sub 2}-rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na{sup +} present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na{sup +} for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: susana.bernal@gmail.co [Materials Engineering Department, Composite Materials Group, CENM, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby [Materials Engineering Department, Composite Materials Group, CENM, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.a [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-06-15

104

Microporous and Photoluminescent Chalcogenide Zeolite Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline semiconducting sulfide and selenide zeolite analogs were synthesized that possess four-connected, three-dimensional tetrahedral networks built from tetravalent (M4+ = Ge4+ or Sn4+, where M = meta) and trivalent (M3+ = Ga3+ or In3+) cations. Microporous materials were obtained in all four combinations of M4+ and M3+, and some of them were thermally stable up to at least 380°C. These

Nanfeng Zheng; Xianhui Bu; Bing Wang; Pingyun Feng

2002-01-01

105

Study of molecular mobility of fluid in zeolite NaX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-diffusion of n-decane in zeolite NaX was studied by NMR PFG method. The situation when the liquid was only in the crystalline channels was studied in details. The restricted molecular motion of liquid in the crystalline channels was observed. The reasons of the anomalous self-diffusion of n-decane in zeolite bed were stated. The technique of the determination of the

A. V. Uryadov; V. D. Skirda

2001-01-01

106

Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy  

PubMed Central

Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources. PMID:23298332

2013-01-01

107

Solubility and structure of calcium silicate hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poorly crystalline calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phases that form near room temperature, which include the technically important C-S-H gel phase formed during the hydration of Portland cement, have a broad similarity to the crystalline minerals tobermorite and jennite, but are characterized by extensive atomic imperfections and structural variations at the nanometer scale. Relationships between the aqueous solubility and chemical

Jeffrey J. Chen; Jeffrey J. Thomas; Hal F. W. Taylor; Hamlin M. Jennings

2004-01-01

108

[Enlargement test of synthesis of MCM-22 zeolite by means of XRD].  

PubMed

On the basis of MCM-22 zeolite synthesis at the static condition in 100 mL lined PTFE autoclave, 250 and 1000 mL stainless steel autoclave respectively, the synthesis of MCM-22 zeolite was studied at the rotating condition in 2, 5 and 200 L autoclave respectively. The samples as-synthesized and calcined were characterized by means of XRD and so on. The resultsshow that all the synthesized samples are the pure MCM-22 zeolites, and their crystallinities were high, and MCM-22 zeolite can be synthesized successfully at the rotating condition in 200 L stainless steel autoclave. PMID:17655132

Shi, Jian-gong; Lu, Guan-zhong; Cao, Gang; Yu, Xiao-dong

2007-05-01

109

Growth of large zeolite crystals in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis studies performed using close analogs of triethanolamine (TEA) have shown that all three hydroxyl groups and the amine group in this molecule are necessary to provide nucleation suppression. Studies using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the hydroxyl ions and the amine group are involved in the formation of an aluminum complex. It was also shown that silicate species fo not interact this way with TEA in an alkaline solution. These results suggest that successful aluminum complexation leads to nucleation in zeolite-A crystallization.

Sacco, A., Jr.; Dixon, A.; Thompson, R.; Scott, G.; Ditr, J.

1988-01-01

110

Effect of reaction mixture composition and silica source on size distribution of zeolite X crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolite X crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization from gels with different compositions. The syntheses were performed at 95 °C using different silica sources such as sodium metasilicate anhydrous, sodium metasilicate pentahydrate, silicate solution and Cab-O-Sil. Triethanolamine was used in some syntheses in order to grow large crystals. Zeolite X crystals with diameters in the range of 1-220 ?m were obtained, and Cab-O-Sil in concert with triethanolamine yielded the largest crystals.

Tekin, Rumeysa; Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert

2015-02-01

111

EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

2006-06-01

112

Zeolite synthesis from fly ash and cement kiln dust  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites added to portland cement paste normally undergo a pozzolanic reaction. However, if the composition of the cement is modified by blending it with fly ash, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that forms has a low CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio which allows it to coexist with a zeolite. In fact, if one adds alkali to the system, it then becomes possible to nucleate and grow a zeolitic phase with C-S-H. Normally zeolites that form from fly ash and NaOH include NaP-1 and analcime. But when the fly ash and NaOH are mixed with cement kiln dust, cancrinite-like phases and tobermorite form instead. This implies that a zeolite-containing monolith could be produced that would exhibit both the cation-exchange and adsorptive properties of zeolites while retaining the characteristic strength and ease of use attributable to cement based materials. These composites show promise as a new class of inexpensive cation exchange and/or chemical adsorbents that can be used for large scale applications.

Grutzeck, M.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

113

Dispersible Exfoliated Zeolite Nanosheets and Their Application as a Selective Membrane  

SciTech Connect

Thin zeolite films are attractive for a wide range of applications, including molecular sieve membranes, catalytic membrane reactors, permeation barriers, and low-dielectric-constant materials. Synthesis of thin zeolite films using high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets is desirable because of the packing and processing advantages of the nanosheets over isotropic zeolite nanoparticles. Attempts to obtain a dispersed suspension of zeolite nanosheets via exfoliation of their lamellar precursors have been hampered because of their structure deterioration and morphological damage (fragmentation, curling, and aggregation). We demonstrated the synthesis and structure determination of highly crystalline nanosheets of zeolite frameworks MWW and MFI. The purity and morphological integrity of these nanosheets allow them to pack well on porous supports, facilitating the fabrication of molecular sieve membranes.

Varoon, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Xueyi [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Brewer, Damien D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Gettel, Melissa [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kumar, Sandeep [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lee, J. Alex [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Maheshwari, Sundeep [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mittal, Anudha [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sung, Chun-Yi [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Cococcioni, Matteo [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Francis, Lorraine F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); McCormick, Alon V. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mkhoyan, K. Andre [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

2011-10-06

114

Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

Saxena, S. K.

1971-01-01

115

Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution Using Zeolite Synthesized from Fly Ash by Alkaline Fusion Followed by Hydrothermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by adsorption process using zeolite synthesized from fly ash was investigated in this study. The XRD patterns revealed that the major crystalline phase of the synthesized zeolite was gismondine. The phosphate immobilization capacity (PIC) increased significantly from 52.7 mg\\/g of fly ash to 102.9 mg\\/g of synthesized zeolite after conversion. The batch experiments were conducted

Mulan Zhang; Huayong Zhang; Dan Xu; Lu Han; Jian Zhang; Luyi Zhang; Wensi Wu; Binghui Tian

2011-01-01

116

Steps toward interstellar silicate mineralogy. V. Thermal Evolution of Amorphous Magnesium Silicates and Silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermally induced amorphous-to-crystalline transition has been studied for bulk sheets and micrometre-sized particles of magnesium silicate glass (MgSiO3), nanometre-sized amorphous magnesium silicate (MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 smokes) and amorphous silica particles (SiO2). Silicate glass was produced by the shock-quenching of melts. Samples of nanometre-sized smoke particles have been obtained by the laser ablation technique. Both the MgSiO3 and the Mg2SiO4

D. Fabian; C. Jäger; Th. Henning; J. Dorschner; H. Mutschke

2000-01-01

117

"A Novel Synthesis of Zeolite W..."  

SciTech Connect

Zeolite W has been synthesized using organometallic silicon and aluminum precursors in two hydrothermal systems: organocation containing and organocation-free. The reaction using the organocation yielded a fully crystalline, relatively uniform crystal size product, with no organic molecules occluded in the pores. In contrast, the product obtained from an identical reaction, except for the absence of the organocation, contained amorphous as well as crystalline material and the crystalline phase showed a large diversity of both crystal size and morphology. The use of organometallic precursors, either with or without an organocation, allows for the crystallization of the MER framework at much lower 0H/Si02 and (K+ Na - Al)/Si ratios than is typical of inorganic systems. The reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, and thermal analyses.

Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.

1999-05-07

118

Sol-gel synthesis and luminescence of unexpected microrod crystalline Ca 5La 5(SiO 4) 3(PO 4) 3O 2:Dy 3+ phosphors employing different silicate sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca 5La 5(SiO 4) 3(PO 4) 3O 2 doped with Dy 3+ were synthesized by sol-gel technology with hybrid precursor employed four different silicate sources, 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APMS), 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APES), 3-aminopropyl-methyl-diethoxysilane (APMES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), respectively. The SEM diagraphs show that there exist some novel unexpected morphological structures of microrod owing to the crosslinking reagents than TEOS as silicate source for their amphipathy template effect. X-ray pictures confirm that Ca 5La 5(SiO 4) 3(PO 4) 3O 2:Dy 3+ compound is formed by a pure apatitic phase. The Dy 3+ ions could emit white light in Ca 5La 5(SiO 4) 3(PO 4) 3O 2 compound, and the ratio of Y/B is 1.1, when the Dy 3+ doped concentration is 1.0 mol%.

Yan, Bing; Huang, Honghua

2007-08-01

119

Diagram of Zeolite Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

2003-01-01

120

Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons up to C9, a performance attesting the hierarchal pore structure. The preliminary techno-economic feasibility assessment demonstrates a net energy saving of 75% and cost saving of 63% compared to the commercial zeolite manufacturing process.

Chitta, Pallavi

121

Crystalline Silica  

Cancer.gov

An abundant natural material, crystalline silica is found in stone, soil, and sand. It is also found in concrete, brick, mortar, and other construction materials. Crystalline silica comes in several forms, with quartz being the most common. Quartz dust is respirable crystalline silica, which means it can be taken in by breathing.

122

Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of aluminum-free Mn-? zeolite: a catalyst for phenol hydroxylation.  

PubMed

Zeolite beta, especially heteroatomic zeolite beta, has been widely used in the industries of fine chemicals and petroleum refining because of its outstanding thermal stability, acid resistance, and unique 3-D open-frame structure. In this paper, aluminum-free Mn-? zeolite was hydrothermally synthesized in the SiO2-MnO2-(TEA)2O-NaF-H2O system. The effect of the chemical composition of the precursor mixture to the crystallization of the Al-free Mn-? zeolite was investigated. The synthesized Al-free Mn-? zeolite was characterized by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), XRD, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, FT-IR, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the synthesized zeolite has a structure of ? zeolite with good crystallinity and Mn ions present in the framework of the zeolite. The synthesized Al-free Mn-? zeolite shows great catalytic activity toward the phenol hydroxylation reaction using H2O2 as the oxidant. Approximately 35% of phenol conversion and ?98% of dihydroxybenzene selectivity can be obtained under the optimal conditions. PMID:25556927

He, Zhen; Wu, Juan; Gao, Bingying; He, Hongyun

2015-02-01

123

ZEOLITE CHARACTERIZATION TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site isolates tritium from its process streams for eventual recycling. This is done by catalyzing the formation of tritiated water (from process streams) and then sorbing that water on a 3A zeolite (molsieve) bed. The tritium is recovered by regenerating the saturated bed into a Mg-based water cracking unit. The process described has been in use for about 15 years. Recently chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was noted in the system piping. This has resulted in the need to replace the corroded piping and associated molecular sieve beds. The source of chlorine has been debated and one possible source is the zeolite itself. Since new materials are being purchased for recently fabricated beds, a more comprehensive analysis protocol for characterizing zeolite has been developed. Tests on archived samples indicate the potential for mobile chloride species to be generated in the zeolite beds.

Jacobs, W; Herbert Nigg, H

2007-09-13

124

Composite zeolite membranes  

DOEpatents

A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

125

Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks.  

PubMed

Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and beta-cages for FAU, alpha- and beta-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated. PMID:17529969

Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

2007-07-01

126

Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.  

PubMed

Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (?(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The ?(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low ?(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study. PMID:23460541

Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tu?çe

2013-06-01

127

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P

2012-11-20

128

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M.; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P.

2014-08-19

129

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Wang, Bo

2013-07-09

130

Determining the aluminium occupancy on the active T-sites in zeolites using X-ray standing waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolites are microporous crystalline materials that find wide application in industry, for example, as catalysts and gas separators, and in our daily life, for example, as adsorbents or as ion exchangers in laundry detergents. The tetrahedrally coordinated silicon and aluminium atoms in the zeolite unit cell occupy the so-called crystallographic T-sites. Besides their pore size, the occupation of specific T-sites by the aluminium atoms determines the performance of the zeolites. Despite its importance, the distribution of aluminium over the crystallographic T-sites remains one of the most challenging, unresolved issues in zeolite science. Here, we report how to determine unambiguously and directly the distribution of aluminium in zeolites by means of the X-ray standing wave technique using brilliant, focused X-rays from a third-generation synchrotron source. We report in detail the analysis of the aluminium distribution in scolecite, which demonstrates how the aluminium occupancy in zeolites can systematically be determined.

van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Lee, Tien-Lin; Drakopoulos, Michael; Lamberti, Carlo; Thieß, Sebastian; Zegenhagen, Jörg

2008-07-01

131

Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and\\/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite

Reimann

1991-01-01

132

Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays  

SciTech Connect

While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

2007-03-28

133

SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We present a compositional analysis of the 10 {mu}m silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 {mu}m, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of {approx}2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of {approx}87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a {approx}26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

Riaz, B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: basmah@iac.es

2009-08-10

134

Topotactic condensation of layer silicates with ferrierite-type layers forming porous tectosilicates.  

PubMed

Five different hydrous layer silicates (HLSs) containing fer layers (ferrierite-type layers) were obtained by hydrothermal syntheses from mixtures of silicic acid, water and tetraalkylammonium/tetraalkylphosphonium hydroxides. The organic cations had been added as structure directing agents (SDA). A characteristic feature of the structures is the presence of strong to medium strong hydrogen bonds between the terminal silanol/siloxy groups of neighbouring layers. The five-layered silicates differ chemically only with respect to the organic cations. Structurally, they differ with respect to the arrangement of the fer layers relative to each other, which is distinct for every SDA-fer-layer system. RUB-20 (containing tetramethylammonium) and RUB-40 (tetramethylphosphonium) are monoclinic with stacking sequence AAA and shift vectors between successive layers 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.19c0 and 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.24c0, respectively. RUB-36 (diethyldimethylammonium), RUB-38 (methyltriethylammonium) and RUB-48 (trimethylisopropylammonium) are orthorhombic with stacking sequence ABAB and shift vectors 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.36c0, 0.5a0 + 0b0 + 0.5c0 and 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.39c0, respectively. Unprecedented among the HLSs, two monoclinic materials are made up of fer layers which possess a significant amount of ordered defects within the layer. The ordered defects involve one particular Si-O-Si bridge which is, to a fraction of ca. 50%, hydrolyzed to form nests of two ?Si-OH groups. When heated to 500-600 °C in air, the HLSs condense to form framework silicates. Although all layered precursors were moderately to well ordered, the resulting framework structures were of quite different crystallinity. The orthorhombic materials RUB-36, -38 and -48, general formula SDA4Si36O72(OH)4, which possess very strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ? 2.4 Å), transform into a fairly or well ordered CDO-type silica zeolite RUB-37. The monoclinic materials RUB-20 and -40, general formula SDA2Si18O36(OH)2OH, possessing medium strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ? 2.65 Å) are transformed into poorly ordered framework silicates. Some rules of thumb can be established concerning the successful zeolite synthesis via a topotactic condensation of layered precursors. Favourably, the precursor (i) possesses already a well ordered structure without defects, (ii) contains strong inter-layer hydrogen bonds and does not contain strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds and (iii) contains a suitable cation. The nature of the organic cation (size, geometry, flexibility, thermal stability) plays a key role in the formation of a microporous tectosilicate with well ordered structure. RUB-36 which meets these criteria yields a well ordered condensation product (RUB-37). PMID:24875843

Marler, B; Wang, Y; Song, J; Gies, H

2014-07-21

135

Advances in nanosized zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis of nanosized zeolites. The strategies available for their preparation (organic-template assisted, organic-template free, and alternative procedures) are discussed. Major breakthroughs achieved by the so-called zeolite crystal engineering and encompass items such as mastering and using the physicochemical properties of the precursor synthesis gel/suspension, optimizing the use of silicon and aluminium precursor sources, the rational use of organic templates and structure-directing inorganic cations, and careful adjustment of synthesis conditions (temperature, pressure, time, heating processes from conventional to microwave and sonication) are addressed. An on-going broad and deep fundamental understanding of the crystallization process, explaining the influence of all variables of this complex set of reactions, underpins an even more rational design of nanosized zeolites with exceptional properties. Finally, the advantages and limitations of these methods are addressed with particular attention to their industrial prospects and utilization in existing and advanced applications.

Mintova, Svetlana; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Valtchev, Valentin

2013-07-01

136

Synthesis, deposition and characterization of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures on zeolite 4A  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Reports a simple precipitation-growth method to produce nanostructures of Mg(OH){sub 2} on the surface of zeolite 4A. {yields} Able to control the growth of the nanostructures by manipulating the experimental procedure. {yields} Able to deposit Mg(OH){sub 2} onto specific sites namely bridging hydroxyl protons (SiOHAl) on the surface of zeolite 4A. -- Abstract: The precipitation and self-assembly of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH){sub 2} nanopetals on dispersed zeolite 4A particles was investigated. Mg(OH){sub 2}/zeolite nanocomposites were produced from magnesium chloride solutions and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), and solid state NMR. It was determined that Mg(OH){sub 2} interacted with bridging hydroxyl protons (SiOHAl) on the zeolite surface, but not with silanol or aluminol groups. NMR analysis showed that 13% of the tetrahedral Al sites on the zeolite were converted to octahedral Al. The zeolite structure and crystallinity remained intact after treatment, and no dealumination reactions were detected. This suggests that the deposition-precipitation process at ambient conditions is a facile method for controlling Mg(OH){sub 2} nanostructures on zeolites.

Koh, Pei-Yoong; Yan, Jing; Ward, Jason; Koros, William J. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 (United States)] [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 (United States); Teja, Amyn S., E-mail: amyn.teja@chbe.gatech.edu [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 (United States); Xu, Bo [School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0295 (United States)] [School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0295 (United States)

2011-03-15

137

Thermodynamic studies of zeolites: natrolite, mesolite and scolecite  

SciTech Connect

Calorimetric measurements have been carried out on specimens of natrolite, mesolite, and scolecite in order to assess the thermodynamic properties of a zeolite series having the same alumino-silicate framework. Low-temperature heat capacity and high-temperature enthalpy increments of natrolite and scolecite were measured by adiabatic and drop-calorimetric techniques. Standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K of all three zeolites were determined by solution calorimetry. Thermodynamic functions have been calculated for natrolite to 660 K and for scolecite to 470 K. The heat capacity and standard entropy at 298.15 K have been estimated for mesolite. With reference to zeolitic water, it is concluded that the entropy of water molecules in both natrolite and scolecite is similar to that in ice. A consideration of the X-ray results for the present specimen of natrolite leads to the conclusion that a contribution of about 9.2 J/(mol x K) to the standard entropy is made by the Al-Si disorder in the alumino-silicate framework. The new results allow calculations to be made by which the pressure and temperature effect can be deduced for such equilibria as: natrolite + SiO/sub 2/(aq) = 2 analcime, and natrolite + Ca/sup 2 +/(aq) + H/sub 2/O = mesolite + 2Na/sup +/(aq). Results are consistent with observed parageneses in natural occurrences. 21 references, 1 figure, 10 tables.

Johnson, G.K.; Flotow, H.E.; O'Hare, P.A.G.; Wise, W.S.

1983-01-01

138

A high acid mesoporous USY zeolite prepared by alumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-acidity HUSY zeolite with mesoporous structure was prepared by alumination with a dilute aqueous NaAlO2 solution and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, IR framework vibration and 29Si MAS NMR methods. The results indicated the extra-framework aluminum was reinserted into the tetrahedral framework through isomorphic substitution of framework Si (0Al) sites by Al ions, whereas the crystal and micropore structure were unaltered. FTIR spectra of hydroxyl vibrations and pyridine adsorbed on realuminated zeolites showed that the number of Brønsted acid sites and strong Lewis acid sites increased whereas weak Lewis acid sites decreased twice. The mesoporous structure composed of inter-and intra-crystalline pores in the aluminated HUSY increased the external surface area of the zeolite, improving accessibility of molecules to the active sites and enhancing its catalytic ability. The realuminated HUSY zeolite supported with Ru catalyst exhibited a higher catalytic activity for benzene hydrogenation than the parent HUSY zeolite; the reaction rate in comparison to the mesozeolite increased by 5.5 times.

Ma, Jinghong; Kang, Yuhong; Ma, Ning; Hao, Wenming; Wang, Yan; Li, Ruifeng

2013-01-01

139

Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates in the Far-infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correct interpretation of a vast array of astronomical data relies heavily on understanding the properties of silicate dust as a function of wavelength, temperature, and crystallinity. We introduce the QPASI-T (Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques) project to address the need for high fidelity optical characterization data on the various forms of astronomical dust. We use two spectrometers to provide extinction data for silicate samples across a wide wavelength range (from the near infrared to the millimeter). New experiments are in development that will provide complementary information on the emissivity of our samples, allowing us to complete the optical characterization of these dust materials. In this paper, we present initial results from several materials including amorphous iron silicate, magnesium silicate and silica smokes, over a wide range of temperatures, and discuss the design and operation of our new experiments.

Rinehart, Stephen A,; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Henry, Ross M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Silverberg, Robert f.; Wollack, Edward J.

2008-01-01

140

Monodispersed Ultrafine Zeolite Crystal Particles by Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites is reviewed. Monodispersed ultrafine crystal particles of zeolite (Silicalite-1) have been synthesized in batch reactor vessels by microwave irradiation heating of aqueous basic silicate precursor solutions with tetra propyl ammonium hydroxide as the templating molecule. The effects of major process parameters (such as synthesis temperature, microwave heating rate, volume ratio (i.e., the volume of the initial synthesis solution over the total volume of the reactor vessel), and synthesis time on the zeolite particle characteristics are studied using a computer-controlled microwave reactor system that allows real-time monitoring and control of reaction medium temperature. The changes in the morphology, size and crystal structure of the particles are investigated using scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and BET surface analysis. We have found that the synthesis temperature, volume ratio, and heating rate play a significant role in controlling the particle size, uniformity, and morphology. Microwave processing has generated new morphologies of zeolite particles (i.e., uniform block-shaped particles that contain mixed gel-nanocrystallites and agglomerated crystal particles) that could not be made by a conventional hydrothermal process. At higher synthesis temperature and lower volume ratio, irregular block-shaped particles were produced, whereas increasing the volume ratio promoted the formation of monodispersed single-crystal particles with uniform shape. Our results clearly demonstrate that faster microwave heating is advantageous to enhance the zeolite crystallization kinetics and produces larger-size crystal particles in shorter time. In addition, zeolite crystallization mechanisms, depending on the microwave heating rate, were also discussed.

Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Harris, Michael Tyrone [ORNL; Khatri, Lubna [ORNL

2008-01-01

141

V. Thermal evolution of amorphous magnesium silicates and silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermally induced amorphous-to-crystalline transition has been studied for bulk sheets and micrometre-sized particles of magnesium silicate glass (MgSiO3), nanometre- sized amorphous magnesium silicate (MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 smokes) and amorphous silica particles (SiO2). Silicate glass was produced by the shock-quenching of melts. Samples of nanometre-sized smoke particles have been obtained by the laser ablation technique. Both the MgSiO3 and the

D. Fabian; J. Dorschner; H. Mutschke

142

Study of molecular mobility of fluid in zeolite NaX.  

PubMed

The self-diffusion of n-decane in zeolite NaX was studied by NMR PFG method. The situation when the liquid was only in the crystalline channels was studied in details. The restricted molecular motion of liquid in the crystalline channels was observed. The reasons of the anomalous self-diffusion of n-decane in zeolite bed were stated. The technique of the determination of the genuine self-diffusion coefficient in such porous systems was proposed. The genuine self-diffusion coefficients for system NaX/n-decane were obtained. PMID:11445324

Uryadov, A V; Skirda, V D

2001-01-01

143

Association of Indigo with Zeolites for Improved Color Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The durability of an organic colour and its resistance against external chemical agents and exposure to light can be significantly enhanced by hybridizing the natural dye with a mineral. In search for stable natural pigments, the present work focuses on the association of indigo blue with several zeolitic matrices (LTA zeolite, mordenite, MFI zeolite). The manufacturing of the hybrid pigment is tested under varying oxidising conditions, using Raman and UV-visible spectrometric techniques. Blending indigo with MFI is shown to yield the most stable composite in all of our artificial indigo pigments. In absence of defects and substituted cations such as aluminum in the framework of the MFI zeolite matrix, we show that matching the pore size with the dimensions of the guest indigo molecule is the key factor. The evidence for the high colour stability of indigo@MFI opens a new path for modeling the stability of indigo in various alumino-silicate substrates such as in the historical Maya Blue pigment.

Dejoie, Catherine; Martinetto, Pauline; Dooryhée, Eric; van Elslande, Elsa; Blanc, Sylvie; Bordat, Patrice; Brown, Ross; Porcher, Florence; Anne, Michel

2010-10-01

144

Separations Using Zeolite Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview describes some of the main features of the use of zeolite membranes for separation applications. Four different types of separations are considered: separation of non-adsorbing compounds, of organic molecules, of permanent gases from vapors, and of water (or polar molecules) from organic (or non-polar) species. Several factors, such as the limiting pore size and pore size distribution, surface

Joaquín Coronas; Jesús Santamaría

1999-01-01

145

Diffusion in zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the study of intracrystalline diffusion in zeolites by novel macroscopic methods and the results obtained by some of these methods are reviewed. For many systems there is a significant discrepancy between the macroscopic and microscopic (QENS, PFG NMR) diffusivity values. A possible explanation is suggested.

Douglas M. Ruthven

1995-01-01

146

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOSTS  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this project is to improve the catalytic performance of zeolite Y for petroleum hydrocracking by synthesizing nanoparticles of the zeolite ({approx}20-25 nm) inside nanoporous silicate or aluminosilicate hosts. The encapsulated zeolite nanoparticles are expected to possess reduced diffusional path lengths, hence hydrocarbon substrates will diffuse in, are converted and the products quickly diffused out. This is expected to prevent over-reaction and the blocking of the zeolite pores and active sites will be minimized. In this phase of the project, procedures for the synthesis of ordered nanoporous silica, such as SBA-15, using block copolymers and nonionic surfactant were successful reproduced. Expansion of the pores sizes of the nanoporous silica using trimethylbenzene is suggested based on shift in the major X-Ray Diffraction peak in the products to lower 2 angles compared with the parent SBA-15 material. The synthesis of ordered nanoporous materials with aluminum incorporated in the predominantly silicate framework was attempted but is not yet successful, and the procedures needs will be repeated and modified as necessary. Nanoparticles of zeolite Y of particle sizes in the range 40 nm to 120 nm were synthesized in the presence of TMAOH as the particle size controlling additive.

Conrad Ingram

2003-09-03

147

Pyrolytic Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Sucrose on a Mesoporous Silicate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized from sucrose by a pyrolytic technique using mesoporous MCM-41 silicate templates without transition metal catalysts. The Nanotubes were examined in the carbon/silicate composite and after dissolution of the silicate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of the multiwall nanotubes showed them to be 15 nm in diameter, 200 nm in length and close-ended. There was variation in crystallinity with some nanotubes showing disordered wall structures.

Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Siochi, Mia; Crooks, Roy

2005-01-01

148

Zeolite crystal growth in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of large, uniform zeolite crystals in high yield in space can have a major impact on the chemical process industry. Large zeolite crystals will be used to improve basic understanding of adsorption and catalytic mechanisms, and to make zeolite membranes. To grow large zeolites in microgravity, it is necessary to control the nucleation event and fluid motion, and to enhance nutrient transfer. Data is presented that suggests nucleation can be controlled using chemical compounds (e.g., Triethanolamine, for zeolite A), while not adversely effecting growth rate. A three-zone furnace has been designed to perform multiple syntheses concurrently. The operating range of the furnace is 295 K to 473 K. Teflon-lined autoclaves (10 ml liquid volume) have been designed to minimize contamination, reduce wall nucleation, and control mixing of pre-gel solutions on orbit. Zeolite synthesis experiments will be performed on USML-1 in 1992.

Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert W.; Dixon, Anthony G.

1991-01-01

149

SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO2 from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO2 from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150°C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO2 adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. _100°C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with other fly ashes, ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO2 adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the country.

MICHAEL GRUTZECK

1998-10-31

150

SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO{sub 2} from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO{sub 2} from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150 C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO{sub 2} adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. 100 C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO{sub 2} adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the US.

Michael Grutzeck

1999-04-30

151

Structural effects induced by 2.5 MeV proton beam on zeolite 4A: Positron annihilation and X-ray diffraction study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural changes induced by 2.5 MeV proton beam in zeolite 4A were studied at fluences of 1.1016, 8.1016 and 2.1017 ion/cm2. Positron lifetime (LT) measurements were performed in vacuum after a heat treatment to remove the water from samples. X-ray diffraction method (XRD) was also applied to determine the changes in the crystallinity of zeolite. Gradual transformation of the crystalline structure to amorphous one can be observed in dependence of the implanted doses. Combination of LT and XRD provides a consistent view on structural effects induced by H+ beam in zeolite 4A.

Tuyen, L. A.; Szilágyi, E.; Kótai, E.; Lázár, K.; Bottyán, L.; Dung, T. Q.; Cuong, L. C.; Khiem, D. D.; Phuc, P. T.; Nguyen, L. L.; Hue, P. T.; Hue, N. T. N.; Tao, C. V.; Chuong, H. D.

2015-01-01

152

Hydrogen storage enhanced in Li-doped carbon replica of zeolites: A possible route to achieve fuel cell demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first report the atomistic grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the synthesis of two realistic ordered microporous carbon replica in two siliceous forms of faujasite zeolite (cubic Y-FAU and hexagonal EMT). Atomistic simulations of hydrogen adsorption isotherms in these two carbon structures and their Li-doped composites were carried out to determine their storage capacities at 77 and 298 K. We found that these new forms of carbon solids and their Li-doped versions show very attractive hydrogen storage capacities at 77 and 298 K, respectively. However, for a filling pressure of 300 bars and at room temperature, bare carbons do not show advantageous performances compared to a classical gas cylinder despite of their crystalline micropore network. In comparison, Li-doped nanostructures provide reversible gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities twice larger (3.75 wt % and 33.7 kg/m3). The extreme lattice stiffness of their skeleton will prevent them from collapsing under large external applied pressure, an interesting skill compared to bundle of carbon nanotubes, and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These new ordered composites are thus very promising materials for hydrogen storage issues by contrast with MOFs.

Roussel, Thomas; Bichara, Christophe; Gubbins, Keith E.; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.

2009-05-01

153

Solvent-free syntheses of hierarchically porous aluminophosphate-based zeolites with AEL and AFI structures.  

PubMed

Development of sustainable routes for synthesizing aluminophosphate-based zeolites are very important because of their wide applications. As a typical sustainable route, solvent-free synthesis of zeolites not only decreases polluted wastes but also increases product yields. Systematic solvent-free syntheses of hierarchically porous aluminophosphate-based zeolites with AEL and AFI structures is presented. XRD patterns and SEM images show that these samples have high crystallinity. N2 sorption isotherm tests show that these samples are hierarchically porous, and their surface areas are comparable with those of corresponding zeolites from hydrothermal route. Chosen as an example, catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with O2 shows that cobalt substituted APO-11 from the solvent-free route (S-CoAPO-11) is more active than conventional CoAPO-11 from hydrothermal route owing to the sample hierarchical porosity. PMID:25348837

Jin, Yinying; Chen, Xian; Sun, Qi; Sheng, Na; Liu, Yan; Bian, Chaoqun; Chen, Fang; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

2014-12-22

154

One-step synthesis of hierarchical zeolite beta via network formation of uniform nanocrystals.  

PubMed

A hierarchical mesoporous network of zeolite beta with very high micropore as well as mesopore volume was synthesized without the need of a porogen at near 100% yield in the form of easily retrievable micrometer-sized particles. This was achieved by a dense-gel synthesis utilizing steam-assisted conversion (SAC) to induce a burst of nucleation. During the first phase of the synthesis, individual, evenly sized zeolite beta nanoparticles are formed that subsequently condense into a porous network displaying uniform mesopores. The final product consists of hierarchical self-sustaining macroscopic zeolite aggregates assembled from 20 nm crystalline domains of zeolite beta. The small size of the zeolite crystals in the resulting materials gives rise to mesopores with dominant pore sizes of about 13 nm. Large surface areas between 630 and 750 m(2)/g and total pore volumes up to 0.9 mL/g were obtained without sacrificing the microporosity (usually larger than 0.20 mL/g). Crystallization conditions were optimized for different Si/Al ratios between 10 and 33. A complete conversion into hierarchical zeolite beta was achieved in only a few hours at 170-180 °C if the amount of water present during the steam-assisted conversion was adequately adjusted. This dense gel steam conversion process proves to be a highly efficient strategy for fabricating hierarchical zeolite beta networks in a single step. PMID:21410255

Möller, Karin; Yilmaz, Bilge; Jacubinas, Richard M; Müller, Ulrich; Bein, Thomas

2011-04-13

155

Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by zeolite X synthesized from halloysite mineral.  

PubMed

Zeolite X was successfully synthesized from natural halloysite mineral by hydrothermal method. The synthesized zeolite X was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and HRTEM. The characterization indicated that zeolite X had high crystallinity together with symmetrical and uniform pore channels. Ammonium (NH?+) adsorption properties of zeolite X were studied using batch experiments. The results revealed that high initial concentration and low temperature favored NH?+ adsorption on zeolite X. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit well with the equilibrium data. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order model. Intra-particle diffusion analysis demonstrated that NH?+ diffused quickly among the particles at the initial 20 min of the adsorption process, and then the diffusion slowed down and stabilized. Thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (?G?), enthalpy (?H?) and entropy (?S?) indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic at ambient conditions. The reusable ability of zeolite X was also evaluated. Due to its low cost, high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate, zeolite X synthesized from halloysite could be used as an effective and environmental-friendly adsorbent for NH?+ removal. PMID:20729599

Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Jinhua; Liu, Jindun; Chen, Rongfeng

2010-01-01

156

Molecular Chemistry in a Zeolite: Genesis of a Zeolite Y-Supported Ruthenium Complex Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Dealuminated zeolite Y was used as a crystalline support for a mononuclear ruthenium complex synthesized from cis-Ru(acac){sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}. Infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra indicated that the surface species were mononuclear ruthenium complexes, Ru(acac)(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2+}, tightly bonded to the surface by two Ru-O bonds at Al{sup 3+} sites of the zeolite. The maximum loading of the anchored ruthenium complexes was one complex per two Al{sup 3+} sites; at higher loadings, some of the cis-Ru(acac){sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} was physisorbed. In the presence of ethylene and H{sub 2}, the surface-bound species entered into a catalytic cycle for ethylene dimerization and operated stably. IR data showed that at the start of the catalytic reaction, the acac ligand of the Ru(acac)(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2+} species was dissociated and captured by an Al{sup 3+} site. Ethylene dimerization proceeded 600 times faster with a cofeed of ethylene and H{sub 2} than without H{sub 2}. These results provide evidence of the importance of the cooperation of the Al{sup 3+} sites in the zeolite and the H{sub 2} in the feed for the genesis of the catalytically active species. The results presented here demonstrate the usefulness of dealuminated zeolite Y as a nearly uniform support that allows precise synthesis of supported catalysts and detailed elucidation of their structures.

Ogino, I.; Gates, B.C.

2009-05-22

157

Direct Probe Fourier Transform Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Metal Atoms, Metal Ions, and Metal Clusters in Zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of crystalline aluminosilicates, known as the zeolites, are widely used as effective heterogeneous catalysts in the chemical industry. They possess excellent stability, activity and selectivity patterns for a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations [1–10]. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that zeolites are giant macromolecules formed by AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra joined by shared oxygens, and the structures of

Mark D. Baker; Geoffrey A. Ozin; John Godber

1985-01-01

158

Solid-state radioluminescent zeolite-containing composition and light sources  

DOEpatents

A new type of RL light source consisting of a zeolite crystalline material, the intralattice spaces of which a tritiated compound and a luminophore are sorbed, and which material is optionally further dispersed in a refractive index-matched polymer matrix.

Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

1992-01-01

159

Microstructural aspects of zeolite formation in alkali activated cements containing high levels of fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wasteforms made by reaction at elevated temperature of a highly e simulated low level nuclear waste solution, having high sodium ion concentration, with a cementitious blend high in fly ash have been studied. Significant formation of Na-P1 zeolite (gismondine framework) and of a sodalite occurred. The time evolution of the crystalline phases over the first 28 days is reported for

A. A. Kruger; A. R. Brough; A. Katz; T. Bakharev; G. K. Sun; R. J. Kirkpatrick; L. J. Struble; J. F. Young

1995-01-01

160

Synthesis of Foam-Shaped Nanoporous Zeolite Material: A Simple Template-Based Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nanoporous zeolite foam is an interesting crystalline material with an open-cell microcellular structure, similar to polyurethane foam (PUF). The aluminosilicate structure of this material has a large surface area, extended porosity, and mechanical strength. Owing to these properties, this material is suitable for industrial applications such as…

Saini, Vipin K.; Pires, Joao

2012-01-01

161

Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential  

SciTech Connect

The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul; Prasert Pavasant [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-10-15

162

Calibration analysis of zeolites by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was used for calibration analysis of different types of microporous crystalline aluminosilicates with exactly ordered structure — zeolites. The LIBS plasma was generated using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm and providing laser pulses of 4 ns duration. Plasma emission was analysed by echelle type emission spectrometer, providing wide spectral range 200-950 nm. The spectrometer was equipped with intensified CCD camera providing rapid spectral acquisition (gating time from 5 ns). The optimum experimental conditions (time delay, gate width and laser pulse energy) have been determined for reliable use of LIBS for quantitative analysis. Samples of different molar ratios of Si/Al were used to create the calibration curves. Calibration curves for different types of zeolites (mordenite, type Y and ZSM-5) were constructed. Molar ratios of Si/Al for samples used for calibration were determined by classical wet chemical analysis and were in the range 5.3-51.8 for mordenite, 2.3-12.8 for type Y and 14-600 for ZSM-5. Zeolites with these molar ratios of Si/Al are usually used as catalysts in alkylation reactions. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a suitable method for analysis of molar ratio Si/Al in zeolites, because it is simple, fast, and does not require sample preparation compared with classical wet chemical analysis which are time consuming, require difficult sample preparation and manipulation with strong acids and bases.

Hor?á?ková, M.; Grolmusová, Z.; Hor?á?ek, M.; Rakovský, J.; Hudec, P.; Veis, P.

2012-08-01

163

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates synthesised by reactive milling  

SciTech Connect

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyse a series of mechanochemically synthesised, nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The samples, with Ca/Si ratios of 0.2 to 1.5, showed structural features of C-S-H(I). XPS analysis revealed changes in the extent of silicate polymerisation. Si 2p, Ca 2p and O 1s spectra showed that, unlike for the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases studied previously, there was no evidence of silicate sheets (Q{sup 3}) at low Ca/Si ratios. Si 2p and O 1s spectra indicated silicate depolymerisation, expressed by decreasing silicate chain length, with increasing C/S. In all spectra, peak narrowing was observed with increasing Ca/Si, indicating increased structural ordering. The rapid changes of the slope of FWHM of Si 2p, {delta} {sub Ca-Si} and {delta} {sub NBO-BO} as function of C/S ratio indicated a possible miscibility gap in the C-S-H-solid solution series between C/S 5/6 and 1. The modified Auger parameter ({alpha}') of nanocrystalline C-S-H decreased with increasing silicate polymerisation, a trend already observed studying crystalline C-S-H. Absolute values of {alpha}' were shifted about - 0.7 eV with respect to crystalline phases of equal C/S ratio, due to reduced crystallinity.

Black, Leon [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Bereich Thermische Abfallbehandlung (ITC-TAB), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany) and Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.black@shu.ac.uk; Garbev, Krassimir [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Bereich Thermische Abfallbehandlung (ITC-TAB), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Beuchle, Guenter [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Bereich Thermische Abfallbehandlung (ITC-TAB), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stemmermann, Peter [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Bereich Thermische Abfallbehandlung (ITC-TAB), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schild, Dieter [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2006-06-15

164

Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition of a Presolar Silicate from the Queen Elizabeth Range 99177 Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mineral characterization of presolar silicate grains, the most abundant stardust phase, has provided valuable information about the formation conditions in circumstellar environments and in super-nova (SN) outflows. Spectroscopic observations of dust around evolved stars suggest a majority of amor-phous, Mg-rich olivine grains, but crystalline silicates, most of which are pyroxene, have also been observed [1]. The chemical compositions of hundreds of presolar silicates have been determined by Auger spectroscopy and reveal high Fe contents and nonstoichiometric compositions intermediate to olivine and pyroxene [2-6]. The unexpectedly high Fe contents can partly be attributed to secondary alteration on the meteorite parent bodies, as some grains have Fe isotopic anomalies from their parent stellar source [7]. Only about 35 presolar silicates have been studied for their mineral structures and chemical compositions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains display a wide range of compositions and structures, including crystalline forsterite, crystalline pyroxene, nanocrystalline grains, and a majority of amorphous nonstoichiometric grains. Most of these grains were identified in the primitive Acfer 094 meteorite. Presolar silicates from this meteorite show a wide range of Fe-contents, suggestive of secondary processing on the meteorite parent body. The CR chondrite QUE 99177 has not suffered as much alteration [8] and displays the highest presolar silicate abundance to date among carbonaceous chondrites [3, 6]. However, no mineralogical studies of presolar silicates from this meteorite have been performed. Here we examine the mineralogy of a presolar silicate from QUE 99177.

Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S.

2013-01-01

165

Hydrothermal alteration and zeolitization of the Fohberg phonolite, Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subvolcanic Fohberg phonolite (Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany) is an economic zeolite deposit, formed by hydrothermal alteration of primary magmatic minerals. It is mined due to the high (>40 wt%) zeolite content, which accounts for the remarkable zeolitic physicochemical properties of the ground rock. New mineralogical and geochemical studies are carried out (a) to evaluate the manifestation of hydrothermal alteration, and (b) to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the fluids, which promoted hydrothermal replacement. The alkaline intrusion is characterized by the primary mineralogy: feldspathoid minerals, K-feldspar, aegirine-augite, wollastonite, and andradite. The rare-earth elements-phase götzenite is formed during the late-stage magmatic crystallization. Fluid-induced re-equilibration of feldspathoid minerals and wollastonite caused breakdown to a set of secondary phases. Feldspathoid minerals are totally replaced by various zeolite species, calcite, and barite. Wollastonite breakdown results in the formation of various zeolites, calcite, pectolite, sepiolite, and quartz. Zeolites are formed during subsolidus hydrothermal alteration (<150 °C) under alkaline conditions. A sequence of Ca-Na-dominated zeolite species (gonnardite, thomsonite, mesolite) is followed by natrolite. The sequence reflects an increase in and decrease in of the precipitating fluid. Low radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a local origin of the elements necessary for secondary mineral formation from primary igneous phases. In addition, fractures cut the intrusive body, which contain zeolites, followed by calcite and a variety of other silicates, carbonates, and sulfates as younger generations. Stable isotope analysis of late-fracture calcite indicates very late circulation of meteoric fluids and mobilization of organic matter from surrounding sedimentary units.

Weisenberger, Tobias Björn; Spürgin, Simon; Lahaye, Yann

2014-11-01

166

Verified Syntheses of Zeolitic Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the International Zeolitic Association comes this online version of the special issue of Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 22, Issues 4-6, featuring a "cookbook" of "recipes" for making zeolites. Zeolites, of which there are over 100 structure types, occur naturally in some cases, but usually are prepared synthetically. Few are available commercially so researchers wanting to test a zeolite in a new application often must attempt the synthesis of the base zeolite in the laboratory. This book is intended to assist in this endeavor, says the editor, Dr. Harry Robson of Louisiana State University. The recipes can be accessed by material name or structure type. A preface, introductory and explanatory notes, and safety information are provided. The recipes include information on source materials, batch preparation and crystallization instructions, product phase, and XRD characterization. The contributor's name, date of entry, and references accompany each recipe.

167

Les systèmes hétérogènes « eau zéolithe hydrophobe »: de nouveaux ressorts moléculairesThe heterogeneous systems 'water hydrophobic zeolites': new molecular springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-volume isotherms have been determined for three heterogeneous 'water-zeolite' systems. The first two concern hydrophobic purely siliceous zeolites: silicalite-1 (F -) and zeolite ? (F -); the third comprises a more hydrophilic commercial zeolite of the type ZSM-5. The P- V diagram for the water-silicalite-1 (F -) system is characterized by a plateau corresponding to the intrusion of water inside the pores of the solid. During the release the phenomenon is reversible. This system, which is able to accumulate and restore superficial energy, constitutes a molecular spring. For zeolite ?, the P- V curve displays a plateau during the compression, but during the release, the phenomenon is not reversible. In that case, the system absorbs mechanical energy and acts as a bumper. The third system, based on the more hydrophilic ZSM-5 zeolite shows a linear isotherm without any plateau. These results open new applications perspectives in the field of the energetics for hydrophobic zeolites in contact with water. To cite this article: V. Eroshenko et al., C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 111-119

Eroshenko, Valentin; Regis, Robert-Charles; Soulard, Michel; Patarin, Joël

168

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

1990-01-01

169

The synthesis of zeolites from fly ash and the properties of the zeolite products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash produced during the combustion of powdered coal could be converted up to 45% into zeolite. By varying the experimental conditions different types of zeolite were produced, e.g. zeolite Na-P1, zeolite K-G and zeolite ZK19. By this zeolitization process the cation exchange capacity (CEC) was raised from 0.02 to circa 2.4 meq\\/g. Anionic heavy metals were largely extracted by

G Steenbruggen; G. G Hollman

1998-01-01

170

Template-free nanosized faujasite-type zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosized faujasite (FAU) crystals have great potential as catalysts or adsorbents to more efficiently process present and forthcoming synthetic and renewable feedstocks in oil refining, petrochemistry and fine chemistry. Here, we report the rational design of template-free nanosized FAU zeolites with exceptional properties, including extremely small crystallites (10–15 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution, high crystalline yields (above 80%), micropore volumes (0.30 cm3 g?1) comparable to their conventional counterparts (micrometre-sized crystals), Si/Al ratios adjustable between 1.1 and 2.1 (zeolites X or Y) and excellent thermal stability leading to superior catalytic performance in the dealkylation of a bulky molecule, 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, probing sites mostly located on the external surface of the nanosized crystals. Another important feature is their excellent colloidal stability, which facilitates a uniform dispersion on supports for applications in catalysis, sorption and thin-to-thick coatings.

Awala, Hussein; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

2015-04-01

171

Template-free nanosized faujasite-type zeolites.  

PubMed

Nanosized faujasite (FAU) crystals have great potential as catalysts or adsorbents to more efficiently process present and forthcoming synthetic and renewable feedstocks in oil refining, petrochemistry and fine chemistry. Here, we report the rational design of template-free nanosized FAU zeolites with exceptional properties, including extremely small crystallites (10-15 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution, high crystalline yields (above 80%), micropore volumes (0.30 cm(3) g(-1)) comparable to their conventional counterparts (micrometre-sized crystals), Si/Al ratios adjustable between 1.1 and 2.1 (zeolites X or Y) and excellent thermal stability leading to superior catalytic performance in the dealkylation of a bulky molecule, 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, probing sites mostly located on the external surface of the nanosized crystals. Another important feature is their excellent colloidal stability, which facilitates a uniform dispersion on supports for applications in catalysis, sorption and thin-to-thick coatings. PMID:25559425

Awala, Hussein; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

2015-04-01

172

The natural hydrous sodium silicates from the northern bank of Lake Chad: occurrence, petrology and genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrous sodium silicates sometimes associated with zeolites, form in an alkaline environment, in which there is a high concentration of dissolved silica. Such an environment existed during the Holocene in N'Guigmi interdunal depressions (Lake Chad), which led to the precipitation of various types of hydrous sodium silicates, including magadiite, kenyaite, and zeolites. Scanning electron and optical microscope observations allow several microstructures to be distinguished. These microstructures result from either precipitation sequences or a transformation along a diagenetic gradient. New petrological, microstructural and geochemical data confirm the transformation of magadiite into kenyaite during its diagenetic evolution, of which the final stage is probably Magadi-type chert. The study of various deposits of these minerals (hardened beds, scattered isolated crystals, mineralized plant debris, irregular concretions) have been used for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The decrease in the abundance of magadiite concretions in the sedimentary sequence can probably be explained by the climatic evolution of the region.

Sebag, D.; Verrecchia, E. P.; Lee, Seong-Joo; Durand, A.

2001-01-01

173

Radiation damage of a glass-bonded zeolite waste form using ion irradiation.  

SciTech Connect

Glass-bonded zeolite is being considered as a candidate ceramic waste form for storing radioactive isotopes separated from spent nuclear fuel in the electrorefining process. To determine the stability of glass-bonded zeolite under irradiation, transmission electron microscope samples were irradiated using high energy helium, lead, and krypton. The major crystalline phase of the waste form, which retains alkaline and alkaline earth fission products, loses its long range order under both helium and krypton irradiation. The dose at which the long range crystalline structure is lost is about 0.4 dpa for helium and 0.1 dpa for krypton. Because the damage from lead is localized in such a small region of the sample, damage could not be recognized even at a peak damage of 50 dpa. Because the crystalline phase loses its long range structure due to irradiation, the effect on retention capacity needs to be further evaluated.

Allen, T. R.; Storey, B. G.

1997-12-05

174

Clinoptilolite zeolitized tuff from Central Alborz Range, North Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolites are hydrated alumino-silicates of the alkaline and alkaline earth cations, principally sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (Iijima 1980; Hay 1981). Zeolites occur principally in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and are particularly widespread in volcani-clastic strata (Hay, 1978). Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite of the heulandite group with the simplified formula of (Na, K)6 Si30 Al6 O72 .nH2. It is the most common natural zeolite found mainly in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin. Alborz zone is one of the important geological divisions in Iran. This zone is restricted to Kopeh dagh zone in North & Central Iranian zone in South and is a region of active deformation within the broad Arabian-Eurasia collision zone (Allen et al. 2003). The zeolitized green tuff belt from Central Alborz which introduce here are made of volcanoclastic sequence of Karaj Formation. This belt is about 40 km long along Alborz Range and is Eocene in age. Zeolites and associated minerals of this altered vitric tuff studied. Zeolitization took place in some beds of Karaj Formations, with average range of 3 to 300 meters thickness. There are several gypsum lenses which interbed with a widespread green tuff succession in the studied area. On the basis of chemical composition these tuffs are in the range of acid to intermediate volcanic rocks. Also magmatic affinity is calc-alkaline and geological setting of the area belongs to volcanic arc granitoid. Petrographic data has shown that various shape and size of shard glass are the main component of tuffs. Based on the field studies, detail microscopy, XRD and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), the following main minerals are determined: Clinoptilolite+montmorillonite+crystobalite. Clinoptilolite and smectite are predominant minerals in all altered samples. Concerning the Si/Al ratio of 40 point analyses of glass shards the Alborz tuff has clinoptilolite composition. Otherwise the chemical composition of altered shard glass is very similar to clinoptilolite structural formula. By using medium results of chemical data the structural formula for Firuzkuh clinoptilolite is as follow: Si 29.91 Al 6.01 Fe2+ 951 Mg2+ 0.393 Ca 0.222 Na 3.162 K 1.422 Paleogeographic conditions have provided a marginal shallow seawater environment which has been filled by volcanoclastics sequence. In Eocene the zeolitization occur as layers which are confined stratigraphically, it seems this process that took place only in preferred tuffaceous horizons which enriched by shard glass. So the term staratabound can be used for this type zeolitization. In altered tuffs there are a close relationship between clinoptiloite and montmorilonite in some deposits. Alborz range, there was an occasionally marine environment (existence of marine microfossils) with humid climate (remnants of plants in some points). Transformation process (glass zeolite + smectite) provides a further silica contribution to the system, which finally in supersaturation and decreasing pH favors the precipitation of silica in altered tuff. This may have occurred when ground water flow become to mix with saline water to lowering the pH.

Taghipour, Batoul

2010-05-01

175

[On the influence of silicate feeding on metabolism of 137Cs in rabbit].  

PubMed

The features of 137Cs metabolism in the rabbit's organism when feeding on silicates were investigated. By results of two experiments on rabbits radiosorption by of zeolite, saponit, humolit, vermiculite and palygorskit in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated. It was found that vermiculite and palygorskit had the strongest influence on processes of accumulation and decorporation 137Cs, when a dose of additives was 5% of the weight of forage. PMID:15455671

Bogdanov, G A; Mikha?lov, A V; Aksenov, N V; Ianchuk, N Ia; Pavlov, O V

2004-01-01

176

Zeolite–Nafion composites as ion conducting membrane materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite membranes formed of zeolitic fillers embedded in Nafion can be made by evaporating the solvents from a suspension of small zeolite crystals in a Nafion solution. Two natural zeolites were selected as fillers: chabazite and clinoptilolite. Membranes with various zeolite content were obtained. Composite membranes with zeolite content up to 40 vol.% exhibited uniform distribution of the zeolite fillers

Vincenzo Tricoli; Francesco Nannetti

2003-01-01

177

The growth of zeolites A, X and mordenite in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate materials that form the backbone of the chemical process industry worldwide. They are used primarily as adsorbents and catalysts and support to a significant extent the positive balance of trade realized by the chemical industry in the United States (around $19 billion in 1991). The magnitude of their efforts can be appreciated when one realizes that since their introduction as 'cracking catalysts' in the early 1960's, they have saved the equivalent of 60 percent of the total oil production from Alaska's North Slope. Thus the performance of zeolite catalysts can have a profound effect on the U.S. economy. It is estimated that a 1 percent increase in yield of the gasoline fraction per barrel of oil would represent a savings of 22 million barrels of crude oil per year, representing a reduction of $400 million in the United States' balance of payments. Thus any activity that results in improvement in zeolite catalyst performance is of significant scientific and industrial interest. In addition, due to their 'stability,' uniformity, and, within limits, their 'engineerable' structures, zeolites are being tested as potential adsorbents to purify gases and liquids at the parts-per-billion levels needed in today's electronic, biomedical, and biotechnology industries and for the environment. Other exotic applications, such as host materials for quantum-confined semiconductor atomic arrays, are also being investigated. Because of the importance of this class of material, extensive efforts have been made to characterize their structures and to understand their nucleation and growth mechanisms, so as to be able to custom-make zeolites for a desired application. To date, both the nucleation mechanics and chemistry (such as what are the 'key' nutrients) are, as yet, still unknown for many, if not all, systems. The problem is compounded because there is usually a 'gel' phase present that is assumed to control the degree of supersaturation, and this gel undergoes a continuous 'polymerization' type reaction during nucleation and growth. Generally, for structure characterization and diffusion studies, which are useful in evaluating zeolites for improving yield in petroleum refining as well as for many of the proposed new applications (e.g., catalytic membranes, molecular electronics, chemical sensors) large zeolites (greater than 100 to 1000 times normal size) with minimum lattice defects are desired. Presently, the lack of understanding of zeolite nucleation and growth precludes the custom design of zeolites for these or other uses. It was hypothesized that the microgravity levels achieved in an orbiting spacecraft could help to isolate the possible effects of natural convection (which affects defect formation) and minimize sedimentation, which occurs since zeolites are twice as dense as the solution from which they are formed. This was expected to promote larger crystals by allowing growing crystals a longer residence time in a high-concentration nutrient field. Thus it was hypothesized that the microgravity environment of Earth orbit would allow the growth of large, more defect-free zeolite crystals in high yield.

Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, N.; Coker, E. N.; Dixon, A. G.; Warzywoda, J.; Thompson, R. W.

1994-01-01

178

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOSTS  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this project is to improve the catalytic performance of zeolite Y for heavy petroleum hydrocracking by synthesizing nanoparticles of the zeolite ({approx}20-30 nm) inside nanoporous silicate or aluminosilicate hosts of similar pore diameters. The encapsulated zeolite nanoparticles are expected to possess pores of reduced diffusional path lengths, hence hydrocarbon substrates will diffuse in, are converted and the products quickly diffused out. This is expected to prevent over-reaction, hence minimizing pore blockage and active sites deactivation. In this phase of the project, research activities were focused on refining procedures to: (a) improve the synthesis of ordered, high surface area nanoporous silica, such as SBA-15, with expanded pore size using trimethylbenzene as additive to the parent SBA-15 synthesis mixture; and (b) reduce the particle size of zeolite Y such that they can be effectively incorporated into the nanoporous silicas. The synthesis of high surface ordered nanoporous silica containing enlarged pores of diameter of 25 nm (larger than the standard size of 8.4 nm) using trimethylbenzene as a pore size expander was accomplished. The synthesis of zeolite Y nanoparticles with median pore size of approximately 50 nm (smaller than the 80 nm typically obtained with TMAOH) using combined TMABr/TMAOH as organic additives was also accomplished.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2004-06-30

179

21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2012-04-01

180

21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2010-04-01

181

21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2013-04-01

182

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2010-04-01

183

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2014-04-01

184

21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2014-04-01

185

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2012-04-01

186

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2011-04-01

187

21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2011-04-01

188

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

2013-04-01

189

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to synthesis nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates and evaluate the ''zeolite Y/Nanoporous host'' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. Our results to date are summarized as follows. The synthesis of high surface ordered nanoporous silica of expanded pore diameter of 25 nm (larger than the standard size of 8.4 nm) using trimethylbenzene as a pore size expander was accomplished. The synthesis of zeolite Y nanoparticles with median pore size of approximately 50 nm (smaller than the 80 nm typically obtained with TMAOH) using combined TMABr/TMAOH as organic additives was also accomplished. The successful synthesis of zeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite materials by sequential combination of zeolite precursors and nanoporous material precursor mixtures was implied based on results from various characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectra, thermal analysis, porosimetry data. The resulting materials showed pore sizes up to 11 nm, and infrared band at 570 cm{sup -1} suggesting the presence of both phases. Work in the immediate future will be focused on the following three areas: (1) Further characterization of all-silica and aluminosilicate mesoporous materials with expanded pore sizes up to 30 nm will continue; (2) Research efforts to reduce the average particle size of zeolite nanoparticles down to 35-30 nm will continue; (3) Further synthesis of polymer-SBA15 nanocomposites will be conducted by changing the amount and chemistry of the zeolitic precursors added; and (4) Investigation on the catalytic properties of the materials using probe catalytic reactions (such as cumene cracking), followed by catalytic testing for heavy oil conversion.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2005-03-21

190

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

1996-12-10

191

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

1996-01-01

192

Calcium silicate insulation structure  

DOEpatents

An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

193

Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework on adsorption  

E-print Network

Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework-FAU) and H-ZSM-5 zeolites have been investigated by both the cluster and embedded cluster approaches with the experimental observation that the ZSM-5 is more acidic than that of FAU zeolite. The adsorption energy

Truong, Thanh N.

194

Behavior of Holocarbons in Zeolitic Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results on this grant over the 3 year period, 1999-2002. The emphasis of the work has continued to shift during 2001-2 from halocarbon adsorption in zeolites towards other separation processes in zeolites. These additional areas include (i) work on lithium-containing zeolites for non-cryogenic air separation, and (ii) the study of nickel phosphate molecular sieves for hydrogen storage. Nevertheless, they continued their experimental and computational work on halocarbons in zeolites.

Dr. Anthony K. Cheetham

2003-12-08

195

Zeolites as media for hydrogen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of zeolites as media for hydrogen storage was investigated using zeolites of different pore architecture and composition at temperatures from 293 to 573K and pressures from 2.5 to 10.0 MPa. The results suggest that zeolites containing sodalite cages in their structure are particularly suitable. Accordingly, the highest storage capacity was obtained with sodalite, i.e. the zeolite with the

J. Weitkamp; M. Fritz; S. Ernst

1995-01-01

196

Tina M. Nenoff Defect-free Thin Film Zeolite Membranes for H2 Separation and IsolationDefect-free Thin Film Zeolite Membranes for H2 Separation and Isolation  

E-print Network

: synthesis efforts with Al/Si & Si/Ti phases (organic vs. alkali templating) film growth on variety Separation Membranes: Introduction Goal: Synthesis of robust microporous zeolite membranes to improve on H2 Separation Membranes: Objectives Objectives: Synthesis Defect-free Inorganic crystalline thin-film membranes

197

Core-shell strain structure of zeolite microcrystals.  

PubMed

Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicate minerals featuring a network of 0.3-1.5-nm-wide pores, used in industry as catalysts for hydrocarbon interconversion, ion exchangers, molecular sieves and adsorbents. For improved applications, it is highly useful to study the distribution of internal local strains because they sensitively affect the rates of adsorption and diffusion of guest molecules within zeolites. Here, we report the observation of an unusual triangular deformation field distribution in ZSM-5 zeolites by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, showing the presence of a strain within the crystal arising from the heterogeneous core-shell structure, which is supported by finite element model calculation and confirmed by fluorescence measurement. The shell is composed of H-ZSM-5 with intrinsic negative thermal expansion whereas the core exhibits a different thermal expansion behaviour due to the presence of organic template residues, which usually remain when the starting materials are insufficiently calcined. Engineering such strain effects could have a major impact on the design of future catalysts. PMID:23832126

Cha, Wonsuk; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Song, Sanghoon; Park, Hyun-jun; Thanh Pham, Tung Cao; Harder, Ross; Lim, Bobae; Xiong, Gang; Ahn, Docheon; McNulty, Ian; Kim, Jungho; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Robinson, Ian K; Kim, Hyunjung

2013-08-01

198

Cobalt and nickel supported on HY zeolite: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties  

SciTech Connect

Bifunctional catalysts consisting of cobalt and nickel supported on HY zeolite were synthesized by solvent excess impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption. The profiles of metal reduction on zeolite were obtained by temperature-programmed reduction. The catalytic properties of the bifunctional catalysts were verified by n-hexane hydroconversion. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analyses showed the presence of crystalline phases in HY zeolite and in samples after impregnation. A decrease in the micropore surface area was observed by nitrogen adsorption experiments and attributed to a reduction in the accessibility to micropores. The catalysts showed catalytic activity in the hydroconversion of n-hexane with selectivity to branched hydrocarbons. Such catalytic activity was related to the acid and metallic properties of the bifunctional catalysts used.

Garrido Pedrosa, Anne M. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: annemgp@yahoo.com; Souza, Marcelo J.B. [Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Chemical Engineering, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao-SE (Brazil); Melo, Dulce M.A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Antonio S. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

2006-06-15

199

Magnetic self-assembled zeolite clusters for sensitive detection and rapid removal of mercury(II).  

PubMed

We reported here the fabrication of a hierarchical mesoporous zeolite nanocomposite using 20 nm crystalline domins of zeolite L as building "bricks" by a simple and general one-step synthetic approach. By taking advantages of the large pore volumes, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals could be encapsulated into the nanocomposite conveniently for further facilitate separation and detection. In addition, by covalent coupling of fluorescent receptor (rhodamine-hydrazine), the combination of well-defined inorganic nanomaterials and organic receptors could be applied to selective detection of Hg(2+). Importantly, the unique adsorption capacity enabled by the hierarchical mesoporous zeolite and the efficient removal ability form complex multiphase systems by the magnetic characteristic made this multifunctional nanomaterial an excellent probe for detection, adsorption, and removal of Hg(2+) from waste aqueous solution. PMID:22126125

Yin, Meili; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Xinjian; Ren, Jinsong

2012-01-01

200

POLYMER-ZEOLITE NANOCOMPOSITE HIGH-TEMPERATURE  

E-print Network

POLYMER-ZEOLITE NANOCOMPOSITE HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROTON-EXCHANGE-MEMBRANE FOR FUEL CELLS Prepared For SMALL GRANT (EISG) PROGRAM INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT REPORT (IAR) POLYMER-ZEOLITE NANOCOMPOSITE HIGH://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Polymer-Zeolite Nanocomposite High Temperature Proton-Exchange- Membrane for Fuel Cells EI

201

Silicates in Alien Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

2009-01-01

202

A new approach to evaluate natural zeolite ability to sorb lead (Pb) from aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is a hazardous pollutant commonly found in aquatic ecosystems. Among several methods available, the addition of sorbent amendments to soils or sediments is attractive, since its application is relatively simple, while it can also be cost effective when a low cost and re-usable sorbent is used; e.g. natural zeolites. Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with a three-dimensional structure composed of a set of cavities occupied by large ions and water molecules. Zeolites can accommodate a wide variety of cations, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, which are rather loosely held and can readily be exchanged for others in an aqueous solution. Natural zeolites are capable of removing cations, such as lead, from aqueous solutions by ion exchange. There is a wide variation in the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of natural zeolites because of the different nature of various zeolites cage structures, natural structural defects, adsorbed ions, and their associated gangue minerals. Naturally occurring zeolites are rarely pure and are contaminated to varying degrees by other minerals, such as clays and feldspars, metals, quartz, or other zeolites as well. These impurities affect the CEC even for samples originated from the same region but from a different source. CEC of the material increases with decreasing impurity content. Potentially exchangeable ions in such impurities do not necessarily participate in ion exchange mechanism, while, in some cases, impurities may additionally block the access to active sites. For zeoliferous rocks having the same percentage of a zeolitic phase, the CEC increases with decreasing Si/Al ratio, as the more Si ions are substituted by Al ions, the more negative the valence of the matrix becomes. Sodium seems to be the most effective exchangeable ion for lead. On the contrary, it is unlikely that the potassium content of the zeolite would be substituted. A pretreatment with high concentration solutions of Na, such as 2 M NaCl, can significantly improve zeolite CEC by bringing the material to near homoionic form. pH and temperature are the critical parameters for using natural zeolites as sorbents. Zeolites should not be used in extremely acidic, neither in extremely basic pH conditions, except for very short times. The exchange of Pb, requires low solution pH, to avoid precipitation but not too low because the H+ are competitive ions for ion exchange; as a result the zeolite CEC related to Pb removal may be downgraded. If pH enters the basic range (e.g. pH>8), more aquatic complexes with lower positive valence than those prevailing in lower pH are produced; these complexes are less attracted by the negative charged zeolitic matrix. Pb uptake is favored at higher temperatures as ion exchange (including the diffusion of exchangeable ions inside the material and the medium, and vice versa) is an endothermic process. With the increase of temperature there is a decrease in hydration of all available exchangeable cations that eases the movement within the channels of the solid matrix. Additionally, the mobility of the potassium ions, present in the zeolitic material, also increases with the temperature resulting in enhanced CEC.

Drosos, Evangelos I. P.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

2013-04-01

203

Zeolite-dye micro lasers  

E-print Network

We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

1998-01-01

204

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to synthesis nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates and evaluate the ''zeolite Y/Nanoporous host'' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. Our results to date are summarized as follows. The synthesis of high surface ordered nanoporous silica of expanded pore diameter of 25 nm (larger than the standard size of 8.4 nm) using trimethylbenzene as a pore size expander was accomplished. The synthesis of zeolite Y nanoparticles with median pore size of approximately 50 nm (smaller than the 80 nm typically obtained with TMAOH) using combined TMABr/TMAOH as organic additives was also accomplished. The successful synthesis of zeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite materials by sequential combination of zeolite precursors and nanoporous material precursor mixtures was implied based on results from various characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectra, thermal analysis, porosimetry data. The resulting materials showed pore sizes up to 11 nm, and infrared band at 570 cm{sup -1} suggesting the presence of both phases. New results indicated that good quality highly ordered nanoporous silica host can be synthesized in the presence of zeolite Y seed precursor depending on the amount of precursor added. Preliminary research on the catalytic performance of the materials is underway. Probe acid catalyzed reactions, such as the cracking of cumene is currently being conducted. Work in the immediate future will be focused on the following three areas: (1) Further characterization of all-silica and aluminosilicate mesoporous materials with expanded pore sizes up to 30 nm will continue; (2) Research efforts to reduce the average particle size of zeolite nanoparticles down to 35-30 nm will continue; (3) Further synthesis of ZeoliteY/Nanoporous host composite catalysts of improved structural and physicochemical characteristics will be conducted by changing the amount and chemistry of the zeolitic precursors added; and (4) Investigation on the catalytic properties of the materials using probe catalytic reactions (such as cumene cracking), followed by catalytic testing for heavy oil conversion.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2005-03-31

205

A novel magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent synthesised from kaolinite type pyrite cinder (KTPC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a solid waste, kaolinite type pyrite cinder (KTPC) is a special pyrite cinder, its mineral components include metakaolin and magnetite, and the chemical compositions of these minerals include SiO2, Al2O3, FeO and Fe2O3. In this study, a novel magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent was synthesised from KTPC using the hydrothermal method, and the optimum hydrothermal synthesis conditions were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by determining the specific surface area (SSA) and the saturated cation exchange adsorption capacity (SCEAC) to Cs+. Under the optimum hydrothermal synthesis conditions, the magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent can be synthesised with high crystallinity, and the SSA and SCEAC to Cs+ are 24.49 m2/g and 106.63 mg/g, respectively. The further characterisations of pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were performed. The results revealed that magnetic particles are coated onto the zeolite surface and further form magnetic aggregates, and the existing magnetic particles in KTPC do not change their crystal structure and do not affect the synthesis of the 4A zeolite. In addition, the synthesised 4A zeolite adsorbent can be used as a magnetic adsorbent in wastewater treatment with high magnetic sensitivity and is thermally stable up to approximately 900 °C.

Wang, Weiqing; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Guofan; Liu, Jing; Huang, Yang

2015-01-01

206

Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition  

DOEpatents

A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

2006-05-09

207

Fundamentals and applications of pervaporation through zeolite membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolite membranes have uniform, molecular-sized pores, and they separate molecules based on differences in the molecules’ adsorption and diffusion properties. Zeolite membranes are thus well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organic compounds. Because of the large number of zeolites that can be prepared, zeolite membranes have

Travis C. Bowen; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

2004-01-01

208

2.5 Zeolites 2.5.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

58 2.5 Zeolites 2.5.1 Introduction Zeolites are a well-established technology used in a range of processes and industries. Zeolites are not new materials--they have been investigated for over two in agriculture (St. Cloud 2007, BRZ Zeolite 2007, Zeolite Australia 2007), horticulture (ZeoPro 2007), gas

209

Multiple-quantum NMR studies of spin clusters in liquid crystals and zeolites  

SciTech Connect

This work will describe the use of MQ NMR to study spin clusters in anisotropic materials. A technique known as multiple-quantum spin counting was used to determine average spin cluster sizes liquid crystalline materials and in faujacitic zeolites containing aromatic hydrocarbons. The first half of the thesis will describe MQ NMR and the MQ spin counting technique, and the second half of the thesis will describe the actual experiments and their results.

Pearson, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1991-07-01

210

Searching for microporous, strongly basic catalysts: experimental and calculated 29Si NMR spectra of heavily nitrogen-doped Y zeolites.  

PubMed

Nitrogen substituted zeolites with high crystallinity and microporosity are obtained by nitrogen substitution for oxygen in zeolite Y. The substitution reaction is performed under ammonia flow by varying the temperature and reaction time. We examine the effect of aluminum content and charge-compensating cation (H(+)/Na(+)/NH(4)(+)) on the degree of nitrogen substitution and on the preference for substitution of Si-O-Al vs Si-O-Si linkages in the FAU zeolite structure. Silicon-29 magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (1)H/(29)Si cross-polarization MAS NMR spectroscopy have been used to probe the different local environments of the nitrogen-substituted zeolites. Experimental data are compared to simulated NMR spectra obtained by constructing a compendium (>100) of zeolite clusters with and without nitrogen, and by performing quantum calculations of chemical shifts for the NMR-active nuclei in each cluster. The simulated NMR spectra, which assume peak intensities predicted by statistical analysis, agree remarkably well with the experimental data. The results show that high levels of nitrogen substitution can be achieved while maintaining porosity, particularly for NaY and low-aluminum HY materials, without significant loss in crystallinity. Experiments performed at lower temperatures (750-800 degrees C) show a preference for substitution at Si-OH-Al sites. No preference is seen for reactions performed at higher temperatures and longer reaction times (e.g., 850 degrees C and 48 h). PMID:19722674

Dogan, Fulya; Hammond, Karl D; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Huo, Hua; Conner, W Curtis; Auerbach, Scott M; Grey, Clare P

2009-08-12

211

Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period of observation was three weeks. During the first week (period 1) cows were maintained on basic ration for the purpose of recording baseline values. During the second week (period 2) control cows were fed a basic diet (grass silage), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine. Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited an activation of calcium mobilisation. The influence of zeolite on calcium homeostasis was not evident from monitoring serum concentration of calcium regulating hormones (PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)VitD) or renal excretion of markers of bone resorption. Enhanced active intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption was therefore considered insignificant in the calcium mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed in serum and urine after zeolite withdraw, is at present unknown, but it is suggested, that the readily mobilized Ca-pool in bone was a contributing factor. An effect of zeolite on phosphate and magnesium homeostasis in the experimental group was evidenced from the values of serum concentration and fractional excretion, which during supplementation were significant lower than in the control group. The influence of zeolite on phosphorus and magnesium is presumed to result from a combination of interference of zeolite with intestinal absorption and a marginal dietary supplementation of these minerals. PMID:14621401

Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

2003-01-01

212

DIRECT LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SILICATE STARDUST FROM RED GIANT STARS  

SciTech Connect

We performed combined focused ion beam/transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate the chemistry and structure of eight presolar silicate grains that were previously detected by NanoSIMS oxygen isotope mapping of the carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. The analyzed presolar silicates belong to the O isotope Groups I/II ({sup 17}O-enriched and {sup 18}O-depleted) and therefore come from 1-2.5 M{sub sun} asymptotic giant branch stars of close-to-solar or slightly lower-than-solar metallicity. Three grains are amorphous, Mg-rich, and show a variable, but more pyroxene-like composition. Most probably, these grains have formed under circumstellar low-temperature conditions below the crystallization temperature. Three grains are Fe-bearing glasses similar to the 'glass with embedded metal and sulfides' (GEMS) grains found in interplanetary dust particles. However, two of the meteorite GEMS grains from this study lack comparatively large ({approx}>20 nm) Fe-rich inclusions and have sulfur contents <1 at.%, which is different than observed for the majority of GEMS grains. These grains likely condensed under strong non-equilibrium conditions from an Si-enriched gas. One olivine is characterized by a crystalline core and an amorphous, more Fe-rich rim, which is probably the result of interstellar medium sputtering combined with Mg removal. The detection of another olivine with a relatively high Fe content (Mg no. 0.9) shows that circumstellar crystalline silicates are more Fe-rich than astrophysical models usually suggest. The overall predominance of olivine among the crystalline silicate stardust population compared to pyroxene indicates preferential formation or survival of this type of mineral. As pyroxene is indeed detected in circumstellar outflows, it remains to be seen how this result is compatible with astrophysical observations and experimental data.

Vollmer, Christian; Hoppe, Peter [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Particle Chemistry Dept., Joh.-J.-Becherweg 27, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Brenker, Frank E. [Geoscience Institute/Mineralogy, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Stroud, Rhonda M. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6360, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: cvollmer@mpch-mainz.mpg.de

2009-07-20

213

Synthesis, Structure, and Carbon Dioxide Capture Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites are one of humanity’s most important synthetic products. These aluminosilicate-based materials represent a large segment of the global economy. Indeed, the value of zeolites used in petroleum refining as catalysts and in detergents as water softeners is estimated at $350 billion per year. A major current goal in zeolite chemistry is to create a structure in which metal ions and functionalizable organic units make up an integral part of the framework. Such a structure, by virtue of the flexibility with which metal ions and organic moieties can be varied, is viewed as a key to further improving zeolite properties and accessing new applications. Recently, it was recognized that the Si?O?Si preferred angle in zeolites (145°) is coincident with that of the bridging angle in the M?Im?M fragment (where M is Zn or Co and Im is imidazolate), and therefore it should be possible to make new zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with topologies based on those of tetrahedral zeolites. This idea was successful and proved to be quite fruitful; within the last 5 years over 90 new ZIF structures have been reported. The recent application of high-throughput synthesis and characterization of ZIFs has expanded this structure space significantly: it is now possible to make ZIFs with topologies previously unknown in zeolites, in addition to mimicking known structures. In this Account, we describe the general preparation of crystalline ZIFs, discussing the methods that have been developed to create and analyze the variety of materials afforded. We include a comprehensive list of all known ZIFs, including structure, topology, and pore metrics. We also examine how complexity might be introduced into new structures, highlighting how link?link interactions might be exploited to effect particular cage sizes, create polarity variations between pores, or adjust framework robustness, for example. The chemical and thermal stability of ZIFs permit many applications, such as the capture of CO{sub 2} and its selective separation from industrially relevant gas mixtures. Currently, ZIFs are the best porous materials for the selective capture of CO{sub 2}; furthermore, they show exceptionally high capacity for CO{sub 2} among adsorbents operating by physisorption. The stability of ZIFs has also enabled organic transformations to be carried out on the crystals, yielding covalently functionalized isoreticular structures wherein the topology, crystallinity, and porosity of the ZIF structure are maintained throughout the reaction process. These reactions, being carried out on macroscopic crystals that behave as single molecules, have enabled the realization of the chemist’s dream of using “crystals as molecules”, opening the way for the application of the extensive library of organic reactions to the functionalization of useful extended porous structures.

Phan, Anh; Doonan, Christian J; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Knobler, Carolyn B; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

2010-01-01

214

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN HAZARDOUS METAL REMOVAL FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature by using synthetic zeolites. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants including arseni...

215

Analyses of Cometary Silicate Crystals: DDA Spectral Modeling of Forsterite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comets are the Solar System's deep freezers of gases, ices, and particulates that were present in the outer protoplanetary disk. Where comet nuclei accreted was so cold that CO ice (approximately 50K) and other supervolatile ices like ethane (C2H2) were preserved. However, comets also accreted high temperature minerals: silicate crystals that either condensed (greater than or equal to 1400 K) or that were annealed from amorphous (glassy) silicates (greater than 850-1000 K). By their rarity in the interstellar medium, cometary crystalline silicates are thought to be grains that formed in the inner disk and were then radially transported out to the cold and ice-rich regimes near Neptune. The questions that comets can potentially address are: How fast, how far, and over what duration were crystals that formed in the inner disk transported out to the comet-forming region(s)? In comets, the mass fractions of silicates that are crystalline, f_cryst, translate to benchmarks for protoplanetary disk radial transport models. The infamous comet Hale-Bopp has crystalline fractions of over 55%. The values for cometary crystalline mass fractions, however, are derived assuming that the mineralogy assessed for the submicron to micron-sized portion of the size distribution represents the compositional makeup of all larger grains in the coma. Models for fitting cometary SEDs make this assumption because models can only fit the observed features with submicron to micron-sized discrete crystals. On the other hand, larger (0.1-100 micrometer radii) porous grains composed of amorphous silicates and amorphous carbon can be easily computed with mixed medium theory wherein vacuum mixed into a spherical particle mimics a porous aggregate. If crystalline silicates are mixed in, the models completely fail to match the observations. Moreover, models for a size distribution of discrete crystalline forsterite grains commonly employs the CDE computational method for ellipsoidal platelets (c:a:b=8.14x8.14xl in shape with geometrical factors of x:y:z=1:1:10, Fabian et al. 2001; Harker et al. 2007). Alternatively, models for forsterite employ statistical methods like the Distribution of Hollow Spheres (Min et al. 2008; Oliveira et al. 2011) or Gaussian Random Spheres (GRS) or RGF (Gielen et al. 200S). Pancakes, hollow spheres, or GRS shapes similar to wheat sheaf crystal habit (e.g., Volten et al. 2001; Veihelmann et al. 2006), however, do not have the sharp edges, flat faces, and vertices seen in images of cometary crystals in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) or in Stardust samples. Cometary forsterite crystals often have equant or tabular crystal habit (J. Bradley). To simulate cometary crystals, we have computed absorption efficiencies of forsterite using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) DDSCAT code on NAS supercomputers. We compute thermal models that employ a size distribution of discrete irregularly shaped forsterite crystals (nonspherical shapes with faces and vertices) to explore how crystal shape affects the shape and wavelength positions of the forsterite spectral features and to explore whether cometary crystal shapes support either condensation or annealing scenarios (Lindsay et al. 2012a, b). We find forsterite crystal shapes that best-fit comet Hale-Bopp are tetrahedron, bricks or brick platelets, essentially equant or tabular (Lindsay et al. 2012a,b), commensurate with high temperature condensation experiments (Kobatake et al. 2008). We also have computed porous aggregates with crystal monomers and find that the crystal resonances are amplified. i.e., the crystalline fraction is lower in the aggregate than is derived by fitting a linear mix of spectral features from discrete subcomponents, and the crystal resonances 'appear' to be from larger crystals (Wooden et al. 2012). These results may indicate that the crystalline mass fraction in comets with comae dominated by aggregates may be lower than deduced by popular methods that only emoy ensembles of discrete crystals.

Wooden, Diane

2012-01-01

216

Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs+ and/or Sr2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs+ and/or Sr2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900-1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs+ and/or Sr2+ are glass-crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite-nepheline, Sr-feldspar-nepheline and Sr-feldspar-pollucite composites including ˜60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10-20 wt.% of glass. The 137Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10-7 g cm-2 day-1 was determined for the pollucite glass-ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water).

Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

2013-06-01

217

Phonolite-hosted zeolite deposits in the Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several subvolcanic phonolitic intrusions occur within the Miocene Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex (KVC) located in the central-southern segment of the Upper Rhine Graben, which is part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. Hydrothermally altered phonolitic rocks are of economic interest, due to the high (>40 wt%) zeolite content, which accounts for the remarkable zeolitic physicochemical properties of the ground rock. These properties have widespread industrial application in water softening, catalysis, remediation of soils and soil quality, wastewater treatment, and as additive in the cement industry. Currently the largest phonolite intrusion Fohberg is active in mining, located in the eastern part of the KVC. The Endhale phonolite, approximately 1.5 km to the north marks a further deposit currently under exploration. Both phonolites are hosted in Tertiary sedimentary units. The aim of this study is to carry out a new mineralogical and geochemical data a) to evaluate the manifestation of hydrothermal alteration of the Fohberg and Endhale phonolitic intrusions, and b) to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the fluids, which promoted hydrothermal replacement of primary igneous minerals. The high degree of alteration is in contrast to the only slightly altered Kirchberg phonolite in the western KVC. The alkaline intrusive bodies are characterized by the primary mineralogy: feldspathoid mineral, K-feldspar, aegirine-augite, wollastonite, and andradite, with additional REE-minerals (e.g. götzenite). Fluid-induced re-equilibration of feldspathoid minerals and wollastonite caused breakdown to a set of secondary phases. Feldspathoid minerals are totally replaced by secondary phases including various zeolite species, calcite, and barite. Wollastonite breakdown results in the formation of various zeolites, calcite, pectolite, sepiolite, and quartz. The large variability of secondary minerals indicates a heterogenic fluid composition throughout the phonolitic intrusions and through time. Zeolites formed during sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration under alkaline conditions and completely replace feldspathoid minerals in the matrix of the rock. A sequence of Ca-Na dominated zeolite species (gonnardite, thomsonite, mesolite) is followed by pure sodium endmember species (analcime, natrolite). These sequence reflects an increase in log[aNa+)/(aH+)] of the precipitating fluid. In contrast to the Fohberg phonolitc the Endhale phonolite contains analcime in addition to natrolite as pure Na zeolite species. The appearance of analcime is caused by higher silica activity during fluid rock interaction, which favors the formation of analcime over natrolite. The Fohberg phonolite is cut by fractures, which are totally or partially sealed with secondary minerals. Secondary minerals contain zeolites, followed by calcite and a variety of other silicates, carbonates, and sulphates as younger generations. Stable isotope analyses of late fracture calcite indicate the late circulation of meteoric fluids and mobilization of organic matter from surrounding sedimentary units.

Weisenberger, Tobias; Spürgin, Simon

2014-05-01

218

One-dimensional zeolites as hydrocarbon traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several zeolites with varying pore dimensionality have been investigated as hydrocarbon (HC) traps by studying the temperature programmed desorption of propane and toluene mixtures. In one-dimensional (1-D) zeolites, the diffusive motion of propane is blocked by the more-strongly adsorbed toluene thus raising the desorption temperature of propane above its single-component desorption temperature. In the 1-D zeolite EUO, propane is trapped

Kenneth F Czaplewski; Thomas L Reitz; Yoo Joong Kim; Randall Q Snurr

2002-01-01

219

Behavior of Holocarbons in Zeolitic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes results on this grant over the 3 year period, 1999-2002. The emphasis of the work has continued to shift during 2001-2 from halocarbon adsorption in zeolites towards other separation processes in zeolites. These additional areas include (i) work on lithium-containing zeolites for non-cryogenic air separation, and (ii) the study of nickel phosphate molecular sieves for hydrogen storage.

Anthony K. Cheetham

2003-01-01

220

Trends in the adsorption and reactivity of hydrogen on magnesium silicate nanoclusters.  

PubMed

We study nanoclusters of Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene (having (MgO)6(SiO2)3 and (MgO)4(SiO2)4 compositions) with respect to their reactivity towards hydrogen atoms, using density functional calculations. Ultrasmall silicate particles are fundamental intermediates in cosmic dust grain formation and processing, and are thought to make up a significant mass fraction of the grain population. Due to their nanoscale dimensions and high surface area to bulk ratios, they are likely to also have a disproportionately large influence on surface chemistry in the interstellar medium. This work investigates the potential role of silicate nanoclusters in vital interstellar hydrogen-based chemistry by studying atomic H adsorption and H2 formation. Our extensive set of calculations confirm the generality of a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation between the H2 reaction barrier and the 2Hchem binding energy, suggesting it to be independent of silicate dust grain shape, size, crystallinity and composition. Our results also suggest that amorphous/porous grains with forsteritic composition would tend to dissociate H2, but relatively Mg-poor silicate grains (e.g. enstatite composition) and/or more crystalline/compact silicate grains would tend to catalyse H2 formation. The high structural thermostability of silicate nanoclusters with respect to the heat released during exothermic H2 formation reactions is also verified. PMID:25746007

Oueslati, Ichraf; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Bromley, Stefan T

2015-04-14

221

Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures  

DOEpatents

A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

2008-11-25

222

Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to {approx}700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''.

Grutzeck, Michael W.

2005-06-27

223

Synthesis and Properties of Nanoparticle Forms Saponite Clay, Cancrinite Zeolite and Phase Mixtures Thereof  

PubMed Central

The low-temperature synthesis (90°C) of nanoparticle forms of a pure phase smectic clay (saponite) and zeolite (cancrinite) is reported, along with phase mixtures thereof. A synthesis gel corresponding to the Si:Al:Mg unit cell composition of saponite (3.6:0.40:3.0) and a NaOH/Si ratio of 1.39 affords the pure phase clay with disordered nanolayer stacking. Progressive increases in the NaOH/Si ratio up to a value of 8.33 results in the co-crystallization of first garronite and then cancrinite zeolites with nanolath morphology. The resulting phase mixtures exhibit a compound particulate structure of intertwined saponite nanolayers and cancrinite nanolaths that cannot be formed through physical mixing of the pure phase end members. Under magnesium-free conditions, pure phase cancrinite nanocrystals are formed. The Si/Al ratio of the reaction mixture affects the particle morphology as well as the chemical composition of the cancrinite zeolite. Ordinarily, cancrinite crystallizes with a Si/Al ratio of 1.0, but a silicon-rich form of the zeolite (Si/Al=1.25) is crystallized at low temperature from a silica rich synthesis gel, as evidenced by 29Si NMR spectroscopy and XEDS-TEM. Owing to the exceptionally high external surface areas of the pure phase clay (875 m2/g) and zeolite end members (8.9 - 40 m2/g), as well as their unique mixed phase composites (124 - 329 m2/g), these synthetic derivatives are promising model nanoparticles for studies of the bioavailability of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons immobilized in silicate bearing sediments and soils. PMID:21709774

Shao, Hua

2010-01-01

224

Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1991-01-01

225

Characteristic Low-Temperature Crystallization of Amorphous Mg-bearing Silicate Grains under Electron Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous Mg-bearing silicate grains, which were produced by the coalescence between MgO and SiOx smoke particles, were crystallized to forsterite (Mg2SiO4) by electron-beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscope at room temperature. The crystallization induced by electron beams was accelerated by the presence of CH4 adsorbed on the surface and incorporated interior of the grains. This experimental result implies the possibility of low-temperature crystallization in a silicate carbon star. In the case of binary stars, since the materials that flow from the stars stationarily exist around the star, the formed amorphous silicate grains will be irradiated by electrons from the star for a long duration. As a result, a significant amount of crystalline silicates can be produced.

Kimura, Yuki; Miyazaki, Yu; Kumamoto, Akihito; Saito, Midori; Kaito, Chihiro

2008-06-01

226

Ion implantation in silicate glasses  

SciTech Connect

This review examines the effects of ion implantation on the physical properties of silicate glasses, the compositional modifications that can be brought about, and the use of metal implants to form colloidal nanosize particles for increasing the nonlinear refractive index.

Arnold, G.W.

1993-12-01

227

Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

1980-01-01

228

The Silicate Structures: Chalkboard Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three-dimensional, magnetic representations of SiO tetrahedra and cations are manipulated on a chalkboard to create five basic silicate structures. Students are expected to complete a worksheet accompanying the exercise, which addresses silicate structures, bond types and strengths, physical properties (e.g. fracture, cleavage), Si:O ratio and introduction to vocabulary such as "felsic" and "mafic," and mineral formulae. The worksheet and chalkboard demonstration are designed to simplify silicate structures from complex ball-and-stick models typically used in textbook figures, and to grant students a visual, three-dimensional, manipulable, perspective on what tends to be a confusing concept. This exercise may be simplified or expanded to suit timeframe and the needs of the audience. Benefits of this approach include reinforcement of lecture concepts, broad appeal for a student group with multiple learning styles and degrees of knowledge, and strengthened understanding of the silicate structures.

Liane Stevens

229

Enhancement of the CO(2) retention capacity of X zeolites by Na- and Cs-treatments.  

PubMed

Adsorption of carbon dioxide on alkaline modified X zeolites was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) analysis of these materials previously saturated with CO(2) at 50, 100 and 200 degrees C. Parent X zeolite (in its sodium form) was treated with different sodium and cesium aqueous solutions, using both carbonates and hydroxides as precursors. The resulting materials were characterised by nitrogen physisorption, XRD, and NH(3)-TPD, in order to determine their morphological, crystallographic and chemical properties. Slight desilication phenomena were observed using hydroxides as precursors, whereas the treatment with Cs salts lead to higher crystallinity losses. Several successive adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in order to check the regenerability of the adsorbents. Cesium-treated zeolites present higher carbon dioxide retention capacities than the sodium treated and than the parent material. When working with these Cs-modified materials, the desorption takes place mainly at temperatures between 250 and 400 degrees C, results of great practical interest, since it allows the use these kinds of materials for adsorption-desorption cycles. The evolution of the retention capacity with temperature is also markedly more positive for Cs-treated zeolite, especially when carbonate is used as the precursor. These materials maintain high retention capacities at 100 degrees C (10mg g(-1)) and even at 200 degrees C (3mg g(-1)), temperatures at which the most of the adsorbents are inactive. PMID:17977576

Díaz, Eva; Muñoz, Emilio; Vega, Aurelio; Ordóñez, Salvador

2008-02-01

230

Design and fabrication of zeolite macro- and micromembranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical nature of the support surface influences zeolite nucleation, crystal growth and elm adhesion. It had been demonstrated that chemical modification of support surface can significantly alter the zeolite film and has a good potential for large-scale applications for zeolite membrane production. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium metal ions into the structural framework of MFI zeolite imparts the

Lik Hang Joseph Chau

2001-01-01

231

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

232

Durability of Hydrophilic and Antimicrobial Zeolite Coatings under Water Immersion  

E-print Network

Durability of Hydrophilic and Antimicrobial Zeolite Coatings under Water Immersion Cory O-exchanged zeolite A (Ag-ZA) coatings have been shown to have excellent hydrophilicity and are highly antimicrobial Keywords: zeolite coating, zeolite A, hydrophilic, antimicrobial, gravity Introduction Condensing heat

Chen, Wilfred

233

Silver supported on natural Mexican zeolite as an antibacterial material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect of the Mexican zeolitic mineral from Taxco, Guerrero exchanged with silver ions was investigated. The zeolitic mineral as well as sodium and silver zeolitic minerals were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy techniques. The elementary composition of the zeolitic mineral was determined by atomic absorption and microanalyses (EDAX). Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis

M Rivera-Garza; M. T Olgu??n; I Garc??a-Sosa; D Alcántara; G Rodr??guez-Fuentes

2000-01-01

234

Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals  

E-print Network

. To achieve this end we are attempting to grow zeolite particles in the confined water spaces formed in water/surfactant systems, using these "nanoreactors" to modulate zeolite growth. Our work to date has focused on the synthesis of two-dimensional (5x100x...

Desai, Tasha April

2013-02-22

235

SEQUESTERING MANURE N WITH SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural zeolites have a long and successful history of agricultural use in Japan and more recently in the U.S. However the price (often > $US500 Mg -1) limits their use in agriculture. Zeolites can be synthesized from fly ash by reaction with sodium hydroxide solutions and low temperature. The proje...

236

Application of zeolite membranes, films and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation methods of zeolite molecular sieve membranes and films with and without support were reviewed. Unsupported films have been prepared by in situ synthesis, casting of zeolite nanoparticles and solid state transformation, and supported films have been obtained by in situ synthesis, vapor-phase synthesis, secondary growth, casting of nanoparticles and their combinations or modifications. It is favorable to use supports

Fujio Mizukami

1999-01-01

237

The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger bodies. Models predict that in about ten to one hundred million years they will make planets", Waters says. "In fact, crystalline silicates are very common in our own Solar System. You also have them in the comet Hale Bopp!". The reason why crystalline silicates had not been detected before in stars has to do with their low temperatures. Cold material emits mostly infrared light, which means an infrared space telescope like ESA's ISO was needed. The two high-resolution spectrometers on-board the satellite, able to detect the 'chemical fingerprint' of the crystals, did the rest. Astronomers are sure about the discovery because those chemical fingerprints, the spectra, can be compared in laboratories with spectra from crystalline silicates found on Earth. This method has demonstrated the crystalline structure and has even already allowed the identification of some of the crystals, such as forsterite and enstatite. However, crystalline silicates are a large family and their chemical signatures can be very similar; to enlarge the list of precise crystals more work will be needed, say experts in space chemistry. That is just one of the open questions requiring lab work. There's at least another one: crystalline silicates are found around old stars, in protoplanetary disks and in our own Solar System, but not in the space among the stars; astronomers can't explain it yet. "Crystalline silicates are synthesised around the stars; then that dust goes into the interstellar space, and enriches the raw material out of which more stars and planets will form. So you would expect crystals also to be in the interstellar medium! Crystals will certainly make us learn a lot...", says Waters. "This finding shows that ISO is really unveiling the chemistry of the Universe", says ESA astronomer Alberto Salama, chairman of the workshop about ISO results in spectroscopy held this week at ESA's Villafranca station in Madrid where the results were presented to the scientific community. "This is becoming more and more a 'hot

2000-02-01

238

Zeolitic Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, December 2002, 20-28 20 Copyright 2002 Korean Zeolite Association  

E-print Network

Zeolitic Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, December 2002, 20-28 20 Copyright ¨Ï 2002 Korean Zeolite activity than ZSM-5 zeolite, and also has higher catalytic stability than MCM-41- SO3H. Keywords: Periodic. / Synthesis and Alkylation of Phenol over PMO-SO3H Zeolitic Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, December 2002 21

Kim, Ji Man

239

Zeolitic Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, December 2002, 29-35 Copyright 2002 Korean Zeolite Association 29  

E-print Network

Zeolitic Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, December 2002, 29-35 Copyright ¨Ï 2002 Korean Zeolite Association 29 Etherification Reaction of 2-Naphtol with Ethanol Using Dealuminated Beta Zeolite Jin Won Kim Korea *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Yie@ajou.ac.kr ABSTRACT Zeolite H

Kim, Ji Man

240

sup 29 Si and sup 27 Al NMR study of zeolite formation from alkali-leached kaolinites. Influence of thermal preactivation  

SciTech Connect

The alkali treatment of kaolinites heated between 400 and 1,000{degree}C has been studied by NMR ({sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al signals), IR, and x-ray diffraction techniques. The dissolution of kaolinite samples produces Al(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and SiO{sub 4}{sup 4{minus}} species which participate in the zeolite germ formation. The nature of zeolites generated (hydroxysodalite, Na-A, and tetragonal P{sub t}) varies with thermal activation of the starting silicates, but the prolonged leaching of the samples favors the transformation of initially formed phases into the most stable P{sub t} zeolite. The synthesis of this compound (Si/Al > 1) requires the previous polymerization of dissolved silica species, and the amount of incorporated Si depends on the temperature of pretreatment of kaolinite.

Madani, A.; Aznar, A.; Sanz, J.; Serratosa, J.M. (CSIC, Madrid (Spain))

1990-01-25

241

Proton Adsorption Selectivity of Zeolites in Aqueous Media: Effect of Si/Al Ratio of Zeolites.  

PubMed

In addition to their well-known uses as catalysts, zeolites are utilized to adsorb and remove various cations from aqueous system. The adsorption of the cations is ascribed to the negative charge of zeolites derived from isomorphous substitution of Si by Al. The amount of Na+ adsorption on 4A, X, Y, Na-P1 and mordenite type zeolites were determined in aqueous media, in a two-cation (Na+ and H+) system. Although each zeolite has a constant amount of negative charge, the amount of Na+ adsorption of each zeolite decreased drastically at low pH-pNa values, where pH-pNa is equal to log{(Na+)/(H+)}. By using the plot of the amount of Na+ adsorption versus pH-pNa, an index of the H+ selectivity, which is similar to the pKa of acids, of each zeolite was estimated, and the index tended to increase with decreasing Si/Al ratio of zeolites. These indicate that zeolites with lower Si/Al and higher negative charge density have higher H+ adsorption selectivity, and in fact, such a zeolite species (4A and X) adsorbed considerable amount of H+ even at weakly alkaline pH region. The adsorption of H+ results in the decrease of cation adsorption ability, and may lead to the dissolution of zeolites in aqueous media. PMID:25493632

Munthali, Moses Wazingwa; Elsheikh, Mohammed Abdalla; Johan, Erni; Matsue, Naoto

2014-01-01

242

Highly fluorescent C-dots obtained by pyrolysis of quaternary ammonium ions trapped in all-silica ITQ-29 zeolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C-dots obtained in the homogeneous phase may exhibit a broad particle size distribution. The formation of C-dots within nanometric reaction cavities could be a methodology to gain control on their size distribution. Among the various possibilities, in the present work, the cavities of small pore size zeolites have been used to confine C-dots generated by the pyrolysis of the organic structure directing agent present in the synthesis of these crystalline aluminosilicates. To explore this methodology, ITQ-29 zeolite having a Linde type A (LTA) structure was prepared as pure silica with 4-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3.2.1-ij]quinolinium as the organic structure directing agent. Pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere at 550 °C of a pure-silica ITQ-29 sample (cubic particles of 4 ?m edge) renders a highly fluorescent zeolite containing about 15 wt% of the carbonised residue. While another small pore zeolite, ITQ-12 (ITW), also renders photoluminescent C-dots under similar conditions, medium or large pore zeolites, such as silicalite (MFI) or pure silica Beta (BEA), failed to produce fluorescent powders under analogous thermal treatment and only decomposition and complete removal of the corresponding quaternary ammonium ion templates was observed for these zeolites. The dissolution of the pyrolysed ITQ-29 zeolite framework and the extraction of the carbon residue with ethyl acetate have allowed the characterisation of C-dots with particle sizes between 5 and 12 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.4 upon excitation at 350 nm that is among the highest reported for non-surface functionalized C-dots. Photoluminescence varies with the excitation wavelength and is quenched by oxygen. Pyrolysed ITQ-29 powders can act as fluorescent oxygen sensors.

Baldovi, Herme G.; Valencia, Susana; Alvaro, Mercedes; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Garcia, Hermenegildo

2015-01-01

243

Highly fluorescent C-dots obtained by pyrolysis of quaternary ammonium ions trapped in all-silica ITQ-29 zeolite.  

PubMed

C-dots obtained in the homogeneous phase may exhibit a broad particle size distribution. The formation of C-dots within nanometric reaction cavities could be a methodology to gain control on their size distribution. Among the various possibilities, in the present work, the cavities of small pore size zeolites have been used to confine C-dots generated by the pyrolysis of the organic structure directing agent present in the synthesis of these crystalline aluminosilicates. To explore this methodology, ITQ-29 zeolite having a Linde type A (LTA) structure was prepared as pure silica with 4-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3.2.1-ij]quinolinium as the organic structure directing agent. Pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere at 550 °C of a pure-silica ITQ-29 sample (cubic particles of 4 ?m edge) renders a highly fluorescent zeolite containing about 15 wt% of the carbonised residue. While another small pore zeolite, ITQ-12 (ITW), also renders photoluminescent C-dots under similar conditions, medium or large pore zeolites, such as silicalite (MFI) or pure silica Beta (BEA), failed to produce fluorescent powders under analogous thermal treatment and only decomposition and complete removal of the corresponding quaternary ammonium ion templates was observed for these zeolites. The dissolution of the pyrolysed ITQ-29 zeolite framework and the extraction of the carbon residue with ethyl acetate have allowed the characterisation of C-dots with particle sizes between 5 and 12 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.4 upon excitation at 350 nm that is among the highest reported for non-surface functionalized C-dots. Photoluminescence varies with the excitation wavelength and is quenched by oxygen. Pyrolysed ITQ-29 powders can act as fluorescent oxygen sensors. PMID:25516465

Baldovi, Herme G; Valencia, Susana; Alvaro, Mercedes; Asiri, Abdullah M; Garcia, Hermenegildo

2015-02-01

244

CuO nanoparticles incorporated in hierarchical MFI zeolite as highly active electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.  

PubMed

A hierarchical MFI zeolite, with typical micro/meso bimodal pore structures, was prepared by desilication method. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were incorporated into the hierarchical MFI zeolite by impregnation method. CuO/hierarchical zeolite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption. It is shown that the CuO nanoparticles are mostly dispersed in the mesopores with remaining of the crystallinity and morphology of the host zeolite. CuO nanoparticles located in hierarchical zeolite exhibit the excellent electrocatalytic performances to oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The electrocatalytic activity enhances with increasing the loading content of CuO from 5% to 15%. The composites were fabricated for nonenzyme glucose sensing. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor shows a wide linear range from 5×10(-7) to 1.84×10(-2) M with a low detection limit of 3.7×10(-7) M. The sensor also exhibits good repeatability, long-term stability as well as high selectivity against interfering species. PMID:25499226

Dong, Junping; Tian, Taolei; Ren, Linxiao; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Cheng, Xiaowei

2015-01-01

245

Synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) on modified HY zeolite and modified HY zeolite-supported Cu–Mn–Zn catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) via methanol dehydration were investigated over HY zeolite and over Fe-, Co-, Ni-, Cr-, or Zr-modified HY zeolite, and via direct CO hydrogenation over modified HY zeolite-supported Cu–Mn–Zn catalysts. Zr- and Ni-modified HY zeolite exhibited higher activity and stability for methanol dehydration, while Fe-, Co-, and Cr-modified HY zeolite deactivated quickly due to carbon deposition.

Jinhua Fei; Zhaoyin Hou; Bing Zhu; Hui Lou; Xiaoming Zheng

2006-01-01

246

Framework-incorporated Mn and Co analcime zeolites: Synthesis and characterization  

SciTech Connect

The framework-substituted cobalt and manganese analcime zeolites were synthesized via a direct hydrothermal approach. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD powder, SEM-EDX, nitrogen physical adsorption, Raman microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy which complementarily demonstrated the incorporation of cobalt and manganese into the zeolites framework. The results showed that substitution of Mn and Co could be placed in two synthesis gels with same compositions containing Al/Mn=5 and Al/Co=4 mol ratios, respectively. In addition, with replacing Al with Mn and synthesis of Mn-modified analcime, zeolite with higher surface area and pore volume could be achieved than the Co modified analcime. - Graphical abstract: The images and adsorption-desorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K for (a) Co (b) Mn modified analcime. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Co and Mn modified analcime for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Framework-incorporation of Co and Mn using the same silicate gel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applying several techniques to provide proofs for the characterization.

Azizi, Seyed Naser, E-mail: azizi@umz.ac.ir [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani Tilami, Salma [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-15

247

Comparative pathology of silicate pneumoconiosis.  

PubMed Central

A simple pneumoconiosis with lamellar birefringent crystals was observed in animals dying in the San Diego Zoo. We studied 100 autopsies from 11 mammalian and eight avian species. In mammals, mild pulmonary lesions comprised crystal-laden macrophages in alveoli and lymphatics. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 20% of cases. There were no nodules. In birds, dust retention produced large granulomas around tertiary bronchi without fibrosis. Mineralogic analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed most of the crystals to be silicates. Ninety percent were complex silicates, with aluminum-potassium silicates comprising 70% of the analyzed particles. Electron and x-ray diffraction showed the silicates to be muscovite mica and its hydrothermal degradation product, ie, illite clay. This mica was also present on filtration membranes of atmospheric air samples obtained from the San Diego Zoo. The amount of dust retention was related to the animal's age, anatomic or ecologic variances, and length of stay in the San Diego Zoo. Its semidesert atmosphere is rich in silicates, which are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Similar mica-induced lesions are found in humans living in this region or the Southwest of the USA. This simple pneumoconiosis is likely to be widespread in human populations living in desert or semidesert climates. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:223447

Brambilla, C.; Abraham, J.; Brambilla, E.; Benirschke, K.; Bloor, C.

1979-01-01

248

Zeolites on Mars: Prospects for Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian surface composition measured by Viking can be represented by several combinations of minerals incorporating major fractions of zeolites known to occur in altered mafic rocks and polar soils on Earth. The abundant occurrence of zeolites on Mars is consistent with what is known about both the physical and chemical environment of that planet. The laboratory reflectance spectra (0.65 to 2.55 microns) of a number of relatively pure zeolite minerals and some naturally occurring zeolite-clay soils were measured. All of the spectra measured are dominated by strong absorption near 1.4 and 1.9 microns and a steep reflectance drop longward of about 2.2 microns, all of which are due to abundant H2O. Weaker water overtone bands are also apparent, and in most cases there is spectral evidence for minor Fe(3+). In these features the zeolite spectra are similar to spectra of smectite clays which have abundant interlayer water. The most diagnostic difference between clay and zeolite spectra is the total absence in the zeolites of the weak structural OH absorption.

Gaffney, E. S.; Singer, R. B.; Kunkle, T. D.

1985-01-01

249

Photochemical charge separation in zeolites: Electron transfer dynamics, nanocrystals and zeolitic membranes. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Aluminosilicate zeolites provide an excellent host for photochemical charge separation. Because of the constraints provided by the zeolite, the back electron transfer from the reduced acceptor to the oxidized sensitizer is slowed down. This provides the opportunity to separate the charge and use it in a subsequent reaction for water oxidation and reduction. Zeolite-based ruthenium oxide catalysts have been found to be efficient for the water splitting process. This project has demonstrated the usefulness of zeolite hosts for photolytic splitting of water.

Dutta, Prabir K.

2001-09-30

250

Copper-Exchanged Zeolite L Traps Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief series of simple chemical treatments found to enhance ability of zeolite to remove oxygen from mixture of gases. Thermally stable up to 700 degrees C and has high specific surface area which provides high capacity for adsorption of gases. To increase ability to adsorb oxygen selectively, copper added by ion exchange, and copper-exchanged zeolite reduced with hydrogen. As result, copper dispersed atomically on inner surfaces of zeolite, making it highly reactive to oxygen, even at room temperature. Reactivity to oxygen even greater at higher temperatures.

Sharma, Pramod K.; Seshan, Panchalam K.

1991-01-01

251

Luminescence quenching measurements on zeolite L monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The luminescence quenching of the oxygen sensitive Ru 2+ complex (Ru-ph4-TMS) used as a stopcock and attached to a zeolite L monolayer has been investigated. The luminescence lifetime of the attached Ru-ph4-TMS was the same under N II and under O II atmosphere. This remarkable result is attributed to the shielding provided by the channels of the zeolite L crystals arranged as a monolayer. The emitting 3MLCT state of the Ru-ph4-TMS stopcock is localized on the ligand bearing the phenyl groups forming the tail of this complex, which deeply penetrates into the zeolite L channel.

Albuquerque, Rodrigo Q.; Zabala Ruiz, Arantzazu; Li, Huanrong; De Cola, Luisa; Calzaferri, Gion

2006-04-01

252

Crystalline molecular flasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of host compounds have been used as molecular-scale reaction vessels, protecting guests from their environment or restricting the space available around them, thus favouring particular reactions. Such molecular 'flasks' can endow guest molecules with reactivities that differ from those in bulk solvents. Here, we extend this concept to crystalline molecular flasks, solid-state crystalline networks with pores within which

Yasuhide Inokuma; Masaki Kawano; Makoto Fujita

2011-01-01

253

Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen-  

E-print Network

layers and chains. We have reported examples that contain VO2+ ,[6­8] NbFO2+ ,[9] UO2 2+ ,[10,11] and [VO, and their potential use as components in advanced nanocomposites.[1­4] Nanoporous transition-metal silicates and catalytic properties introduced by the transition-metal centers.[4,5] We have recently developed a strategy

Wang, Xiqu

254

Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite via extraction of interstitial melt from an upper crustal mush predicts the complementary formation of large amounts of (typically unerupted) silicic cumulates. However, identification of these cumulates remains controversial. One hindrance to our ability to identify them is a lack of clear predictions for complementary chemical signatures between extracted melts and their residues. To address this discrepancy, we present a generalized geochemical model tracking the evolution of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently experiencing crystallization and extraction of interstitial melt. Our method uses a numerical solution rather than analytical, thereby allowing for various dependencies between crystallinity, partition coefficients for variably compatible and/or incompatible elements, and melt extraction efficiency. Results reveal unambiguous fractionation signatures for the extracted melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. Our model is first applied to a well-constrained example (Searchlight pluton, USA), and provides a good fit to geochemical data. We then extrapolate our results to understanding the relationship between volcanic and plutonic silicic suites on a global scale. Utilizing the NAVDAT database to identify crystal accumulation or depletion signatures for each suite, we suggest that many large granitoids are indeed silicic cumulates, although their crystal accumulation signature is expected to be subtle.

Gelman, Sarah E.; Deering, Chad D.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.

2014-10-01

255

Battery components employing a silicate binder  

DOEpatents

A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM); Odinek, Judy G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2011-05-24

256

Lithologic mapping of silicate rocks using TIMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common rock-forming minerals have thermal infrared spectral features that are measured in the laboratory to infer composition. An airborne Daedalus scanner (TIMS) that collects six channels of thermal infrared radiance data (8 to 12 microns), may be used to measure these same features for rock identification. Previously, false-color composite pictures made from channels 1, 3, and 5 and emittance spectra for small areas on these images were used to make lithologic maps. Central wavelength, standard deviation, and amplitude of normal curves regressed on the emittance spectra are related to compositional information for crystalline igneous silicate rocks. As expected, the central wavelength varies systematically with silica content and with modal quartz content. Standard deviation is less sensitive to compositional changes, but large values may result from mixed admixture of vegetation. Compression of the six TIMS channels to three image channels made from the regressed parameters may be effective in improving geologic mapping from TIMS data, and these synthetic images may form a basis for the remote assessment of rock composition.

Gillespie, A. R.

1986-01-01

257

Practical approach to prepare solid dispersion drug product using spherical silicate.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to establish a novel approach for preparing a solid dispersion drug product using spherical silicate by a Wurster-type fluidized bed granulator. The spherical silicate used in this study has porous structure and ideal particle size for loading by a Wurster-type fluidized bed granulator. As model drugs, ibuprofen (IBU), indomethacin (IMC), and phenytoin (PNT) were used and the proposed approach was applied to prepare amorphous drug. All drugs could be loaded on the spherical silicate in an amorphous state. On the other hand, spray drying of spherical silicate suspended in IBU solution was conducted to prepare amorphous product of IBU as a reference; however, complete amorphization was not achieved. Dissolution profiles of each drug after loading on spherical silicate by a Wurster-type fluidized bed granulator were evaluated, and dramatic improvement of dissolution was observed compared with those of crystalline drug. In the proposed approach, specific surface area and particle size of spherical silicate were determined as a key factors to contribute to high yield of amorphous product. PMID:25131150

Nagane, Kentaro; Kimura, Susumu; Ukai, Koji; Ogawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

2014-11-20

258

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

259

Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction  

E-print Network

Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen base cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) are generally in sufficient supply in seawater. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most

Jochem, Frank J.

260

Amended Silicated for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where fly ash is sold as a by-product.

James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

2006-12-31

261

Optical control and dynamic patterning of zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolite crystals have a wide use as model systems for artificial light harvesting systems, as nano-containers for supramolecular organization or as building blocks for 1D and 2D assemblies of several crystals. In particular the assembly of zeolite L crystals with the aim to bridge the gap between the nano- and the macroscopic world has been a focus of research during the last years. However, almost all available approaches to order, assemble and pattern Zeolite L are restricted to large amounts of crystals. Although these approaches have proven to be powerful for many applications, but they have only limited control over positioning or orientation of single crystals and are lacking if patterns or structures are required which are composed of a few or up to a few hundred individual crystals. We demonstrate here that holographic optical tweezers are a powerful and versatile instrument to control zeolite L on the single crystal level. It is shown that full three-dimensional positioning, including rotational control, of any zeolite L crystal can be achieved. Finally, we demonstrate fully reversible, dynamic patterning of a multitude of individually controlled zeolite L crystals.

Woerdemann, Mike; Alpmann, Christina; Hörner, Florian; Devaux, André; De Cola, Luisa; Denz, Cornelia

2010-08-01

262

Properties of glass-bonded zeolite monoliths  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown that mineral waste forms can be used to immobilize waste salt generated during the pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Solid, leach resistant monoliths were formed by hot-pressing mixtures of salt-occluded zeolite A powders and glass frit at 990 K and 28 MPa. Additional samples have now been fabricated and tested. Normalized release rates for all elements, including iodide and chloride, were less than 1 g/m{sup 2}d in 28-day tests in deionized water and in brine at 363 K (90{degrees}C). Preliminary results indicate that these rates fall with time with both leachants and that the zeolite phase in the glass-bonded zeolite does not function as an ion exchanger. Some material properties were measured. The Poisson ratio and Young`s modulus were slightly smaller in glass-bonded zeolite than in borosilicate glass. Density depended on zeolite fraction. The glass-bonded zeolite represents a promising mineral waste form for IFR salt.

Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Murphy, C.D. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1994-05-01

263

Topological crystalline insulator nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological crystalline insulators are topological insulators whose surface states are protected by the crystalline symmetry, instead of the time reversal symmetry. Similar to the first generation of three-dimensional topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3, topological crystalline insulators also possess surface states with exotic electronic properties such as spin-momentum locking and Dirac dispersion. Experimentally verified topological crystalline insulators to date are SnTe, Pb1-xSnxSe, and Pb1-xSnxTe. Because topological protection comes from the crystal symmetry, magnetic impurities or in-plane magnetic fields are not expected to open a gap in the surface states in topological crystalline insulators. Additionally, because they have a cubic structure instead of a layered structure, branched structures or strong coupling with other materials for large proximity effects are possible, which are difficult with layered Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. Thus, additional fundamental phenomena inaccessible in three-dimensional topological insulators can be pursued. In this review, topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanostructures will be discussed. For comparison, experimental results based on SnTe thin films will be covered. Surface state properties of topological crystalline insulators will be discussed briefly.

Shen, Jie; Cha, Judy J.

2014-11-01

264

Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

Richardson, J.W. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-12-31

265

The zeolite deposits of Greece  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

1996-01-01

266

Use of zeolitized pumice waste as a water softening agent.  

PubMed

Important pumice quarries are located on the island of Lipari (Italy) where an intense activity of extraction, transformation and trade of pumice takes place. Nevertheless, the finest fraction amounting to about 60% of mined pumice is discarded and disposed off in open-sky pits. This implies economic losses for mining industries and environmental problems for neighbouring villages. In order to find a sustainable use of this waste, we resumed and improved an old extractive process with aqueous sodium alkali, where a sodium silicate concentrated solution was produced together with an unextracted residue partially converted into zeolite P in Na+ form and now we are searching for suitable applications of this residue. In this paper, we relate about its use as a low cost water softening agent on the basis of results obtained from several tests both in batch systems and column. They show that, at room temperature, the residue works well with calcium and badly with magnesium, whereas, at 60 degrees C, also the affinity toward Mg ions increases to acceptable levels. Repeated regenerations of the residue with concentrated NaCl solutions do not appreciably compromise the performance. The limits for the possible use as water softening agent are defined. PMID:17320286

Arrigo, I; Catalfamo, P; Cavallari, L; Di Pasquale, S

2007-08-17

267

Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.  

PubMed

This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. PMID:24106151

Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

2014-04-01

268

Effects of ionization on silicate glasses. [Silicate glasses  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of our recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures.

Primak, W.

1982-02-01

269

Zeolites US market to reach $1 billion by 2000  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the growth of the U.S. market for zeolites, specifically sodium aluminosilicate. The largest application for zeolites is for petrochemical and petroleum catalysts; however, detergents are also a specific application addressed in the article.

Morris, G.D.L.

1997-02-05

270

Improved epitaxy of ultrathin praseodymia films on chlorine passivated Si(111) reducing silicate interface formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin praseodymia films have been deposited on both Cl-passivated and nonpassivated Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Comparative studies on the crystallinity and stoichiometry are performed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray standing waves, and x-ray reflectometry. On nonpassivated Si(111) an amorphous silicate film is formed. In contrast, praseodymia deposited on Cl-passivated Si(111) form a well-ordered crystalline film with cubic-Pr2O3 (bixbyite) structure. The vertical lattice constant of the praseodymia film is increased by 1.4% compared to the bulk value. Furthermore, the formation of an extended amorphous silicate interface layers is suppressed and confined to only one monolayer.

Gevers, S.; Flege, J. I.; Kaemena, B.; Bruns, D.; Weisemoeller, T.; Falta, J.; Wollschläger, J.

2010-12-01

271

Improved epitaxy of ultrathin praseodymia films on chlorine passivated Si(111) reducing silicate interface formation  

SciTech Connect

Ultrathin praseodymia films have been deposited on both Cl-passivated and nonpassivated Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Comparative studies on the crystallinity and stoichiometry are performed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray standing waves, and x-ray reflectometry. On nonpassivated Si(111) an amorphous silicate film is formed. In contrast, praseodymia deposited on Cl-passivated Si(111) form a well-ordered crystalline film with cubic-Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (bixbyite) structure. The vertical lattice constant of the praseodymia film is increased by 1.4% compared to the bulk value. Furthermore, the formation of an extended amorphous silicate interface layers is suppressed and confined to only one monolayer.

Gevers, S.; Bruns, D.; Weisemoeller, T.; Wollschlaeger, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany); Flege, J. I.; Kaemena, B.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

2010-12-13

272

Bietti's Crystalline Dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... su visión!) Vision and Aging Program Training and Jobs All Training and Jobs NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & ... Grants and Funding Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Facts About Bietti's Crystalline Dystrophy Listen This information ...

273

Triamterene crystalline nephropathy.  

PubMed

Medications can cause a tubulointerstitial insult leading to acute kidney injury through multiple mechanisms. Acute tubular injury, a dose-dependent process, occurs due to direct toxicity on tubular cells. Acute interstitial nephritis characterized by interstitial inflammation and tubulitis develops from drugs that incite an allergic reaction. Other less common mechanisms include osmotic nephrosis and crystalline nephropathy. The latter complication is rare but has been associated with several drugs, such as sulfadiazine, indinavir, methotrexate, and ciprofloxacin. Triamterene crystalline nephropathy has been reported only rarely, and its histologic characteristics are not well characterized. We report 2 cases of triamterene crystalline nephropathy, one of which initially was misdiagnosed as 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalline nephropathy. PMID:23958399

Nasr, Samih H; Milliner, Dawn S; Wooldridge, Thomas D; Sethi, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

274

Crystalline Silica Primer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

Staff- Branch of Industrial Minerals

1992-01-01

275

Structural Characterization of Crystalline Ice Nanoclusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water ice nanoclusters are useful analogs for studying a variety of processes that occur within icy grains in the extraterrestrial environment. The surface of ice nanoclusters prepared in the laboratory is similar to the surface of interstellar ice grains. In cold molecular clouds, the silicate cores of interstellar grains are typically approx. 100 nm in diameter and have a coating of impure amorphous water ice. Depositional, thermal and radiolytic processes leave the surface and subsurface molecules in a disordered state. In this state, structural defects become mobile and reactions of trapped gases and small molecules can occur. The large surface area of nanocluster deposits relative to their bulk allows for routine observation of such surface-mediated processes. Furthermore, the disordered surface and subsurface layers in nanocluster deposits mimic the structure of amorphous ice rinds found on interstellar dust grains. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM has been used tn characterize the crystallinity, growth mechanism, and size distribution of nanoclusters formed from a mixture of water vapor with an inert carrier gas that has been rapidly cooled to 77K. E M imaging reveals a Gaussian size distribution around a modal diameter that increases from approx. 15 to 30 nm as the percentage of water vapor within the mixture increases from 0.5 to 2.007, respectively . TEM bright and dark field imaging also reveals the crystalline nature of the clusters. h4any of the clusters show a mosaic structure in which crystalline domains originate at the center Other images show mirror planes that are separated by approx. 10 nm. Electron diffraction patterns of these clusters show that the clusters are composed of cubic ice with only a small hexagonal component. Further, the crystalline domain size is approximately the same as the modal diameter suggesting that the clusters are single crystals.

Blake, David

2000-01-01

276

Single and Multiple Heteroatom Incorporation in MFI Zeolites  

E-print Network

.e. incorporation of other elements in their framework) to expand their applications. The present dissertation makes advances in this regard. Zeolites with novel compositions that include elements such as titanium and tin have been reported to have great... of zeolites topologies and local structures, and the introduction of fluoride media for zeolite synthesis35-37 (which later allowed the synthesis of many novel structures and heterosubstituted zeolites). During the 1980s and 1990s, AlPOs (aluminophosphates...

Garcia Vargas, Nataly

2012-11-05

277

Design and fabrication of zeolite macro- and micromembranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical nature of the support surface influences zeolite nucleation, crystal growth and elm adhesion. It had been demonstrated that chemical modification of support surface can significantly alter the zeolite film and has a good potential for large-scale applications for zeolite membrane production. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium metal ions into the structural framework of MFI zeolite imparts the material with catalytic properties. The effects of silica and metal (i.e., Ti and V) content, template concentration and temperature on the zeolite membrane growth and morphology were investigated. Single-gas permeation experiments were conducted for noble gases (He and Ar), inorganic gases (H2, N2, SF6) and hydrocarbons (methane, n-C4, i-C4) to determine the separation performance of these membranes. Using a new fabrication method based on microelectronic fabrication and zeolite thin film technologies, complex microchannel geometry and network (<5 mum), as well as zeolite arrays (<10 mum) were successfully fabricated onto highly orientated supported zeolite films. The zeolite micropatterns were stable even after repeated thermal cycling between 303 K and 873 K for prolonged periods of time. This work also demonstrates that zeolites (i.e., Sil-1, ZSM-5 and TS-1) can be employed as catalyst, membrane or structural materials in miniature chemical devices. Traditional semiconductor fabrication technology was employed in micromachining the device architecture. Four strategies for the manufacture of zeolite catalytic microreactors were discussed: zeolite powder coating, uniform zeolite film growth, localized zeolite growth, and etching of zeolite-silicon composite film growth inhibitors. Silicalite-1 was also prepared as free-standing membrane for zeolite membrane microseparators.

Chau, Lik Hang Joseph

2001-07-01

278

Fly ash zeolite catalyst support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation research aimed at evaluating a fly ash zeolite (FAZ) catalyst support for use in heterogeneous catalytic processes. Gas phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) over a fixed-bed of the prepared catalyst/FAZ support was identified as an appropriate process for evaluation, by comparison with commercial catalyst supports (silica, alumina, and 13X). Fly ash, obtained from the Wabash River Generating Station, was first characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, particle size, and nitrogen sorption techniques. Then, a parametric study of a two-step alkali fusion/hydrothermal treatment process for converting fly ash to zeolite frameworks was performed by varying the alkali fusion agent, agent:flyash ratio, fusion temperature, fused ash/water solution, aging time, and crystallization time. The optimal conditions for each were determined to be NaOH, 1.4 g NaOH: 1 g fly ash, 550 °C, 200 g/L, 12 hours, and 48 hours. This robust process was applied to the fly ash to obtain a faujasitic zeolite structure with increased crystallinity (40 %) and surface area (434 m2/g). Following the modification of fly ash to FAZ, ion exchange of H+ for Na+ and cobalt incipient wetness impregnation were used to prepare a FTS catalyst. FTS was performed on the catalysts at 250--300 °C, 300 psi, and with a syngas ratio H2:CO = 2. The HFAZ catalyst support loaded with 11 wt% cobalt resulted in a 75 % carbon selectivity for C5 -- C18 hydrocarbons, while methane and carbon dioxide were limited to 13 and 1 %, respectively. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD, N2 sorption, TPR, and oxygen pulse titration to provide insight to the behavior of each catalyst. Overall, the HFAZ compared well with silica and 13X supports, and far exceeded the performance of the alumina support under the tested conditions. The successful completion of this research could add value to an underutilized waste product of coal combustion, in the form of catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

Campen, Adam

279

Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces, the co-ion exchange strengthens the polymer/silicate interface and ensures irreversible separation of the silicate layers. One way in which it does this is to essentially tether one amine of each diamine molecule to a silicate surface, leaving the second amine free for reaction with monomers during the synthesis of a polymer. In addition, the incorporation of alkyl ammonium ions into the galleries at low concentration helps to keep low the melt viscosity of the oligomer formed during synthesis of the polymer and associated processing - a consideration that is particularly important in the case of a highly cross-linked, thermosetting polymer. Because of the chemical bonding between the surface-modifying amines and the monomers, even when the alkyl ammonium ions become degraded at high processing temperature, the silicate layers do not aggregate and, hence, nanometer-level dispersion is maintained.

Campbell, Sandi

2005-01-01

280

Properties of Coatings Obtained in Treatment of Silicate Glasses in Potassium and Lead Nitrate Melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the duration of treatment of the surface of soda-lime glass in potassium and lead nitrate melts at a temperature of 460°C on the chemical and mechanical strength is investigated. It is demonstrated that the formation of a crystalline lead-silicate coating in this treatment increases the alkali resistance threefold and the mechanical strength of glass twofold. Practical recommendations

J. J. Torres Castacon; A. V. Gorokhovskii

2003-01-01

281

Pulmonary disease from occupational exposure to an artificial aluminium silicate used for cat litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

All available workers engaged in bagging an artificial crystalline aluminium silicate--the kiln-dried residue from the calcining and water extraction of alunite (a hydrated sulphate of aluminium and potassium) that is currently classified as a nuisance dust--were studied after a complaint of respiratory and systemic symptoms, including arthritis, by an employee of the factory, who showed physiological and radiographic evidence of

A W Musk; H W Greville; A E Tribe

1980-01-01

282

Synthesis of microporous titano-alumino-silicate ETAS-10 with different framework aluminum contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimized synthesis conditions for obtaining highly crystalline microporous titano-alumino-silicate ETAS-10 materials with different framework aluminum contents (Al\\/Ti molar ratio 0.1–0.48) have been reported. Samples with low Al contents (Al\\/Ti ?0.10) have been prepared using anatase and pseudoboehmite as, respectively, the Ti and Al sources. Good quality ETAS-10 materials with Al framework contents above 0.35 have been obtained using a modification

Z. Lin; J. Rocha; A. Ferreira; M. W. Anderson

2001-01-01

283

Production of biofuel from waste cooking palm oil using nanocrystalline zeolite as catalyst: process optimization studies.  

PubMed

The catalytic cracking of waste cooking palm oil to biofuel was studied over different types of nano-crystalline zeolite catalysts in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of reaction temperature (400-500 °C), catalyst-to-oil ratio (6-14) and catalyst pore size of different nanocrystalline zeolites (0.54-0.80 nm) were studied over the conversion of waste cooking palm oil, yields of Organic Liquid Product (OLP) and gasoline fraction in the OLP following central composite design (CCD). The response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum value of the operating variables for maximum conversion as well as maximum yield of OLP and gasoline fraction, respectively. The optimum reaction temperature of 458 °C with oil/catalyst ratio=6 over the nanocrystalline zeolite Y with pore size of 0.67 nm gave 86.4 wt% oil conversion, 46.5 wt% OLP yield and 33.5 wt% gasoline fraction yield, respectively. The experimental results were in agreement with the simulated values within an experimental error of less than 5%. PMID:21924606

Taufiqurrahmi, Niken; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

2011-11-01

284

Hydrothermal conversion of FAU zeolite into LEV zeolite in the presence of non-calcined seed crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal conversion of Faujasite-type (FAU) zeolite into Levynite (LEV) zeolite without the use of an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA) was successfully achieved in the presence of non-calcined seed crystals. The interzeolite conversion depended strongly upon the alkalinity (OH -/SiO 2) of the starting gel, the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU zeolite and the type of alkaline metal employed. Successful conversion of FAU zeolites into pure LEV zeolite was achieved only for FAU zeolites with Si/Al ratios in the range of 19-26, under highly alkaline conditions (OH -/SiO 2=0.6) by using NaOH as an alkali source. Although the yield of LEV zeolite prepared by this method was lower (18-26%) than that of the conventional hydrothermal synthesis with the use of SDA, the obtained LEV zeolite exhibited a unique core/shell structure.

Yashiki, Ayako; Honda, Koutaro; Fujimoto, Ayumi; Shibata, Shohei; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

2011-06-01

285

Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchanges, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with

D. I. Tchernev

1981-01-01

286

OPTIMUM DILUTION PROFILES OF COMPOSITE ZEOLITES IN PACKED BEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines theoretically the conversion of methanol over composite zeolite spherical catalytic particles in a fixed bed reactor. The composite zeolite contains small zeolite particles uniformly distributed in an amorphous silica-alumina matrix. Two problems are considered. The first is concerned with the effect of dilution of the catalyst with amorphous silica-alumina on the concentrations of species and temperature along

PANAGIOTIS G. SMIRNIOTIS; ELI RUCKENSTEIN

1991-01-01

287

Characterization and environmental application of a Chilean natural zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of natural zeolites for environmental applications is gaining new research interests mainly due to their properties and significant worldwide occurrence. The present work describes the characterization of a natural Chilean zeolite and the results as adsorbent for ammonia from aqueous solutions. The zeolitic-rich tuff sample, mainly composed of clinoptilolite and mordenite, consisted of 13 ?m mean volumetric particle

A. H. Englert; J. Rubio

2005-01-01

288

Zeolite membranes – state of their development and perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal zeolite membrane combines the general advantages of inorganic membranes (temperature stability, solvent resistance) with a perfect shape selectivity. Due to their “molecular sieve” function, zeolite membranes can principally discriminate the components of gaseous or liquid mixtures dependent on their molecular size. This molecular sieving principle requires a pinhole- and crack-free zeolite membrane. Remarkable separation effects can also be

J Caro; M Noack; P Kölsch; R Schäfer

2000-01-01

289

Crystal engineering of zeolites with graphene Paul Gebhardt,a  

E-print Network

Crystal engineering of zeolites with graphene Paul Gebhardt,a Sebastian W. Pattinson,b Zhibin Ren,b David J. Cooke,c James A. Elliottb and Dominik Eder*a Achieving control over the morphology of zeolite catalysis, sensors and separation. The complexity and sensitivity of zeolite synthesis processes, however

Elliott, James

290

MATERIALS, INTERFACES, AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PHENOMENA Hydrophilic Zeolite Coatings for Improved  

E-print Network

MATERIALS, INTERFACES, AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PHENOMENA Hydrophilic Zeolite Coatings for Improved Heat on the surface of a bare, ZSM-5 coated, and Zeolite-A coated stainless steel 304 substrate at different initial surface temperatures was experimentally studied. ZSM-5 and Zeolite-A coated SS-304 are more much more

Aguilar, Guillermo

291

[Research on the mineral phase and component of non-crystalline and nano-crystalline corrosion products on bronzes unearthed from Shang Tomb in Xingan].  

PubMed

The patinas on bronzes in Shang Tomb of Xingan were powdery, pale green, which were more like "bronze disease", but the mineral composition of patinas was not paratacamite or atacamite. Micro X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance transmission electroscope (HTEM) showed that the patinas were mainly composed of non-crystalline and nano-crystalline SnO2, and the size of nano-crystalline particle was in the range of 4-5.7 nm; Moreover, the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed that element tin is the primary ingredient of the sample, as well as little copper, silicon, lead and iron were detected. By studying the crystal lattice stripe image of the nanometer SnO2, it was deduced that the chemical formula of nano-crystalline SnO2 did not include other elements; The Raman spectrum of the sample showed that there were not any characteristic peaks of SnO2, the spectrum was more like non-crystalline SnO2, and the weak and broad peak of 973 cm(-1) indicated that the sample may contain silicate grains, It was inferred that little of copper, silicon, lead and iron should exist in the form of non-crystalline silicate particles. PMID:22827070

Cheng, Xiao-lin; Pan, Lu

2012-05-01

292

Preparation, Processing, and Characterization of Oriented Polycrystalline Zeolite and Aluminophosphate Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the advent of zeolite membranes, speculation on their industrial applicability has been closely monitored, although widespread commercialization has been hampered by limitations in fabrication and post-synthesis processing. Economical, energy-efficient technology breakthroughs require an evaluation of a range of material candidates which show robustness and reliability. Straightforward manufacturing techniques should be devised to generate thousands of square meters of membrane area; however, this demands control of structural characteristics on the scale of nanometers. As described in this dissertation, the path forward will be forged by exploiting the intrinsic crystalline properties of zeolites or aluminophosphates for the next advancement in membrane technology. A facile method is described for the preparation of silicalite-1 (MFI zeolite type) membranes using the secondary growth technique on symmetric porous stainless steel tubes. Activation through rapid thermal processing (RTP), a lamp-based heat-treatment process used as a critical fabrication step in silicon integrated circuit manufacturing, is proven to reduce the density of non-zeolitic transport pathways which are detrimental to high-resolution molecular sieving. RTP-treated membranes are shown to have enhanced performance in the binary separation of vapor-phase isomers (p-/o-xylene), gas-phase isomers (n-/i-butane), and alcohol/water when compared to membranes activated at a much slower heating rate but otherwise similarly-prepared. The performance is discussed in the context of the market potential for industrially-attractive separations: the recovery of p-xylene from an isomeric mixture or alcohol biofuels from aqueous post-fermentation streams. Hydrothermal growth techniques for the preparation and characterization of continuous aluminophosphate (AFI zeolite type) membranes with a preferential crystallographic alignment on porous alpha-Al2O3 disc supports are demonstrated. A mechanism is proposed for flake-like crystal formation in the early stages of in-plane crystalline intergrowth between oriented columnar crystals by electric heating. It is shown that elevated temperatures induce a phase transformation to a densified aluminophosphate phase despite framework metal substitution or alternative heat-treatment conditions. Additionally, stability and membrane characteristics following in situ microwave growth using a TiO2-coated support are examined. Indications of improved quality validate the candidacy of the microwave-grown membranes with regard to the potential for carbon nanotube synthesis in the aligned one-dimensional channels for high flux, high separation factor membrane fabrication.

Stoeger, Jared Andrew

293

Siliceous Protozoan Plates and Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siliceous protozoan plates and scales are commonly observed on diatom and chrysophyte microscopic slide preparations, however\\u000a they are rarely included in paleolimnological interpretations. A major deterrent to their full exploitation is that plates\\u000a can rarely be identified to the species level, and at times even generic-level identifications are tentative. This relatively\\u000a coarse taxonomic resolution discourages detailed paleoeoenvironmental interpretations. Hopefully, further

Marianne S. V. Douglas; John P. Smol

294

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko, David J.

2004-07-13

295

Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct oxygen sites (rather than one), and formation of a new supercell. New calorimetric measurements of enthalpy are used to examine the energetics of the hydrosodalite family of zeolites---specifically, formation enthalpies and hydration energies. Finally, force-field computational methods begin the examination of water in terms of energetics, structure, and radionuclide containment and diffusion.

Moloy, Eric C.

296

Development of Desiccant System using Wakkanai Siliceous Shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop a desiccant system using Wakkanai siliceous shale. A honeycombed desiccant rotor containing this shale's powder and chlorides was made and evaluated. However a specific surface area and a pore volume were smaller than a silica-gel rotor or a zeolite rotor, the maximum amount of water adsorption was twice as other rotors. We have verified the function of this desiccant rotor concerning adsorption and desorption of moisture from the draft experiments. The rotor containing the shale could adsorb moisture stably in the cyclic test, and be regenerated by 40°C air under this experimental condition. This means that the exhaust heat from the heat pump can be used for regenerating rotor. Furthermore, the numerical simulation was carried out on the assumption that this rotor was used for a dehumidification for the residential air conditioning in Tokyo. This rotor could adsorb 37.1% moisture of the required dehumidification amount for the hottest day in 2008. When we employed a pre-cooling before dehumidification, the amount of adsorption increased to 66.2%.

Nakabayashi, Saya; Nagano, Katsunori; Nakamura, Makoto; Togawa, Junya; Kurokawa, Asami

297

Crystallinity in cast Nafion  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is critically dependent on the water uptake in the polymer electrolyte, usually Nafion. Nafion in solution is often painted onto the electrodes of the fuel cell. It is important that this cast Nafion film stay amorphous and not crystallize. Cast Nafion films, ca. 1 {micro}m thick, crystallized on silicon plates when kept in air at room temperature for a long time. The films contain large crystalline regions ranging from 0.5 mm to several millimeters in size. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy have been used to investigate the crystalline and amorphous regions. The XRD shows two sharp peaks. One of the peaks is developed before the second one appears in the diffractogram, indicating that there might be two types of crystallizing processes. FTIR spectra of the amorphous and crystalline regions in the films show important differences. In the crystalline regions, the film contains the sulfonic acid at the end of the side chains; hence, the crystalline regions contain no water molecules. In the amorphous regions there is a complete proton transfer from the acid to the water molecules, and sulfonate groups are obtained.

Ludvigsson, M.; Lindgren, J.; Tegenfeldt, J.

2000-04-01

298

Diffusion of an alkane molecule in siliceous zeolite beta Matthew Aronson  

E-print Network

and reaction rates. Thus, the focus of this simulation study is to investigate will examine the how parameters such as chain length and temperature affect beta, as a function of chain length and temperature. The alkane was modeled

Shell, M. Scott

299

Capturing Ultrasmall EMT Zeolite from Template-Free Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small differences between the lattice energies of different zeolites suggest that kinetic factors are of major importance in controlling zeolite nucleation. Thus, it is critical to control the nucleation kinetics in order to obtain a desired microporous material. Here, we demonstrate how careful investigation of the very early stages of zeolite crystallization in colloidal systems can provide access to important nanoscale zeolite phases while avoiding the use of expensive organic templates. We report the effective synthesis of ultrasmall (6- to 15-nanometer) crystals of the large-pore zeolite EMT from template-free colloidal precursors at low temperature (30°C) and very high yield.

Ng, Eng-Poh; Chateigner, Daniel; Bein, Thomas; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

2012-01-01

300

Hydrogen Purification Using Natural Zeolite Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The School of Science at Universidad del Turabo (UT) have a long-lasting investigation plan to study the hydrogen cleaning and purification technologies. We proposed a research project for the synthesis, phase analysis and porosity characterization of zeolite based ceramic perm-selective membranes for hydrogen cleaning to support NASA's commitment to achieving a broad-based research capability focusing on aerospace-related issues. The present study will focus on technology transfer by utilizing inorganic membranes for production of ultra-clean hydrogen for application in combustion. We tested three different natural zeolite membranes (different particle size at different temperatures and time of exposure). Our results show that the membranes exposured at 900 C for 1Hr has the most higher permeation capacity, indicated that our zeolite membranes has the capacity to permeate hydrogen.

DelValle, William

2003-01-01

301

Towards a sustainable manufacture of hierarchical zeolites.  

PubMed

Hierarchical zeolites have been established as a superior type of aluminosilicate catalysts compared to their conventional (purely microporous) counterparts. An impressive array of bottom-up and top-down approaches has been developed during the last decade to design and subsequently exploit these exciting materials catalytically. However, the sustainability of the developed synthetic methods has rarely been addressed. This paper highlights important criteria to ensure the ecological and economic viability of the manufacture of hierarchical zeolites. Moreover, by using base leaching as a promising case study, we verify a variety of approaches to increase reactor productivity, recycle waste streams, prevent the combustion of organic compounds, and minimize separation efforts. By reducing their synthetic footprint, hierarchical zeolites are positioned as an integral part of sustainable chemistry. PMID:24520034

Verboekend, Danny; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

2014-03-01

302

Photophysical properties of metal ion functionalized NaY zeolite.  

PubMed

A series of luminescent ion exchanged zeolite are synthesized by introducing various ions into NaY zeolite. Monometal ion (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Ce(3+), Y(3+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+)) exchanged zeolite, rare-earth ion (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Ce(3+)) exchanged zeolite modified with Y(3+) and rare-earth ion (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Ce(3+)) exchanged zeolite modified with Zn(2+) are discussed here. The resulting materials are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum radiometer (FTIR), XRD, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), PLE, PL and luminescence lifetime measurements. The photoluminescence spectrum of NaY indicates that emission band of host matrix exhibits a blueshift of about 70 nm after monometal ion exchange process. The results show that transition metal ion exchanged zeolites possess a similar emission band due to dominant host luminescence. A variety of luminescence phenomenon of rare-earth ion broadens the application of zeolite as a luminescent host. The Eu(3+) ion exchanged zeolite shows white light luminescence with a great application value and Ce(3+) exchanged zeolite steadily exhibits its characteristic luminescence in ultraviolet region no matter in monometal ion exchanged zeolite or bimetal ions exchanged zeolite. PMID:24392790

Duan, Tian-Wei; Yan, Bing

2014-01-01

303

Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.  

PubMed

This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. PMID:25002191

Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

2014-12-10

304

Silicon Kedge XANES spectra of silicate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of a selection of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals have been measured using synchrotron radiation (SR). The spectra are qualitatively interpreted based on MO calculation of the tetrahedral SiO44-cluster. The Si K-edge generally shifts to higher energy with increased polymerization of silicates by about 1.3 eV, but with considerable overlap for silicates of

Dien Li; G. M. Bancroft; M. E. Fleet; X. H. Feng

1995-01-01

305

Association of indigo with zeolites for improved colour stabilization , Martinetto P.a,*  

E-print Network

Association of indigo with zeolites for improved colour stabilization Dejoie C.a , Martinetto P on the association of indigo #12;blue with several zeolitic matrices (LTA zeolite, mordenite, MFI zeolite of the MFI zeolite matrix, we show that matching the pore size with the dimensions of the guest indigo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Crystalline variational methods  

PubMed Central

A surface free energy function is defined to be crystalline if its Wulff shape (the equilibrium crystal shape) is a polyhedron. All the questions that one considers for the area functional, where the surface free energy per unit area is 1 for all normal directions, can be considered for crystalline surface free energies. Such questions are interesting for both mathematical and physical reasons. Methods from the geometric calculus of variations are useful for studying a number of such questions; a survey of some of the results is given. PMID:12427965

Taylor, Jean E.

2002-01-01

307

Biomimetic oxidation on Fe complexes in zeolites  

SciTech Connect

One-step hydroxylation of aromatic nucleus with nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is among recently discovered organic reactions. A high efficiency of FeZSM-5 zeolites in this reaction relates to a pronounced biomimetic-type activity of iron complexes stabilized in ZSM-5 matrix. N{sub 2}O decomposition on these complexes produces particular atomic oxygen form (a-oxygen), whose chemistry is similar to that performed by the active oxygen of enzyme monooxygenases. Room temperature oxidation reactions of {alpha}-oxygen as well as the data on the kinetic isotope effect and Moessbauer spectroscopy show FeZSM-5 zeolite to be a successful biomimetic model.

Panov, G.I.; Sobolev, V.I.; Dubkov, K.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

1996-12-31

308

Polymerization of methylacetylene in hydrogen zeolites  

SciTech Connect

Acid zeolites as media for the alignment and packaging of included conjugated polymers were investigated with the goal of producing materials with enhanced nonlinear optical properties. Methylacetylene gas was absorbed onto acid forms of Mordenite, Omega, L, Y, Beta ZSM-5, and SAPO-5 at room temperature. The resulting yellow to red-brown powders were characterized by mass uptake, powder XRD, TPD-TGA, {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR, {sup 1}H MAS NMR, UV-vis, ESR, FTIR, heptane absorption, ammonia bleaching, and chemical extraction techniques. The data show that large, conjugated, oligomeric species are formed within the internal void spaces of the zeolites.

Cox, S.D.; Stucky, G.D. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

1991-01-24

309

Effect of silicate ions on electrode overvoltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the addition of a silicate to a caustic solution (KOH) is studied in order to determine the degree to which silicates inhibit the corrosion of chrysotile under conditions of electrolysis at working temperatures of 100 C and above. In an alkaline solution containing various silicate concentrations, current density was increased and electrode overvoltage was measured. Results show that silicate ion concentrations in the electrolyte increase with temperature without effecting electrochemical performance up to 115 C at 700 MA/sqcm. At this point the concentration is about 0.5 g Si/100 g KOH. Beyond this limit, electrolytic performance rapidly degenerates due to severe oxidation of the electrodes.

Gras, J. M.; Seite, C.

1979-01-01

310

Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility upon impact melting, Ries Crater, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 24-km-diameter Ries impact crater in southern Germany is one of the most studied impact structures on Earth. The Ries impactor struck a Triassic to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequence overlying Hercynian crystalline basement. At the time of impact (14.87 +/- 0.36 Ma; Storzer et al., 1995), the 350 m thick Malm limestone was present only to the S and E of the impact site. To the N and W, the Malm had been eroded away, exposing the underlying Dogger and Lias. The largest proportion of shocked target material is in the impact melt-bearing breccia suevite. The suevite had been believed to be derived entirely from the crystalline basement. Calcite in the suevite has been interpreted as a post-impact hydrothermal deposit. From optical inspection of 540 thin sections of suevite from 32 sites, I find that calcite in the suevite shows textural evidence of liquid immiscibility with the silicate impact melt. Textural evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melt in the Ries suevite includes: carbonate globules within silicate glass, silicate globules embedded in carbonate, deformable and coalescing carbonate spheres within silicate glass, sharp menisci or cusps and budding between silicate and carbonate melt, fluidal textures and gas vesicles in carbonate schlieren, a quench crystallization sequence of the carbonate, spinifex textured quenched carbonate, separate carbonate spherules in the suevite mineral-fragment-matrix, and inclusions of mineral fragments suspended in carbonate blebs. Given this evidence of liquid immiscibility, the carbonate in the suevite has, therefore, like the silicate melt a primary origin by impact shock melting. Evidence of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility is abundant in the suevites to the SW to E of the Ries crater. The rarer suevites to the W to NE of the crater are nearly devoid of carbonate melts. This correspondence between the occurrence of outcropping limestones at the target surface and the formation of carbonate melt, indicates that the Malm limestones are the source rocks of the carbonate impact melt. This correspondence shows that the suevites preserve a compositional memory of their source rocks. From the regional distribution of suevites with or without immiscible carbonate melts, it is inferred that the Ries impactor hit the steep Albtrauf escarpment at its toe, in an oblique impact from the north.

Graup, Guenther

1999-05-01

311

CRYSTALLINE THORIUM BORATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline thorium borate (ThBâOâ) was synthesized by the ; reaction of thoria with boric oxide at elevated temperatures; crystals suitable ; for single-crystal x-ray studies were grown in molten boric oxide at 1300 deg C. ; Crystallographic, chemical, and some physical properties of thorium borate ; crystals are presented as well as the results of a preliminary phase study of

Y. Baskin; Y. Harada; J. H. Handwerk

1961-01-01

312

IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST  

SciTech Connect

Composite materials of SBA-15/zeolite Y were synthesized from zeolite Y precursor and a synthesis mixture of mesoporous silicate SBA-15 via a hydrothermal process in the presence of a slightly acidic media of pH 4-6 with 2M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The SBA-15/ZY composites showed Type IV adsorption isotherms, narrow BJH average pore size distribution of 4.9 nm, surface areas up to 800 m{sup 2}2/g and pore volumes 1.03 cm{sup 3}, all comparable to pure SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Chemical analysis revealed Si/Al ratio down to 8.5 in the most aluminated sample, and {sup 27}AlSS MAS NMR confirmed aluminum was in tetrahedral coordination. This method of introduction of Al in pure T{sub d} coordination is effective in comparison to other direct and post synthesis alumination methods. Bronsted acid sites were evident from a pyridinium peak at 1544 cm-1 in the FTIR spectrum after pyridine adsorption, and from NH{sub 3} -TPD experiments. SBA-15/ZY composites showed significant catalytic activities for the dealkylation of isopropylbenzene to benzene and propene, similar to those of commercial zeolite Y. It was observed that higher conversion for catalysts synthesized with high amount of ZY precursor mixture added to the SBA-15. Over all the composites has shown good catalytic activity. Further studies will be focused on gaining a better understand the nature of the precursor, and to characterize and to locate the acid sites in the composite material. The composite will also be evaluated for heavy oil conversion to naphtha and middle distillates.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2005-11-15

313

Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization on internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars  

PubMed Central

Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars. PMID:9520372

Smith, Joseph V.

1998-01-01

314

Effective diffusivities in zeolites 3. Effects of polarity, cation density, and site occupancy in ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect

The effective diffusivity that determines the catalytic reaction inhibition (utilization factor) in the steady-state process of catalysis, D[sub ss], differs from that derived from nonsteady-state sorption kinetics, D[sub ns] (e.g., uptake diffusivity'). D[sub ss] is obtainable from D[sub ns] by a transformation based on the equilibrium ratio C[sub T]/C[sub o] of the total sorbed concentration to the applied vapor phase concentration c[sub o][center dot]D[sub s] is several orders of magnitude larger than D[sub ns]. For o-xylene in siliceous ZSM-5 D[sub ss] was found to be virtually invariant with temperature. Introducing a polar NH[sub 2] substituent in place of CH[sub 3] does not alter the temperature independence, i.e., it does not introduce or alter activation energy'. In fact, a larger diffusively results, presumably from the slightly smaller effective molecular size. Introducing a high sodium cation density in the zeolite structure creates a temperature dependence of D[sub ss]. However, it is shown to be a result of the high percentage of occupancy of transition (jump) sites by sorbed molecules which diminishes with increasing temperature. These several observations allow important conclusions to be drawn concerning the real or apparent nature of activated' diffusion in the zeolite. 18 refs., 8 figs.

Garcia, S.F.; Weisz, P.B. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-11-01

315

Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors  

PubMed Central

Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiOxC4-x tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiOxC4-x tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10–100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle. PMID:24043830

Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

2013-01-01

316

Effect of some inorganic admixtures on the formation and properties of calcium silicate hydrates produced in hydrothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrated calcium silicates have been synthesized at 200 °C under saturated steam pressure, giving materials consisting of ill crystallized calcium silicate hydrates, formed as an initial product and\\/or more crystalline forms. Three series of samples having different CaOSiO2 ratios and doped with inorganic compounds such as CaCl2, AlCl3, CrCl3, Na2CrO4, NaOH and Al(OH)3 were produced. The phase composition of the

Wies?awa Nocu?-Wczelik

1997-01-01

317

The 8-13 micron spectra of comets and the composition of silicate grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have analyzed the existing spectra of seven comets which show an emission feature at 7.8-13 micrometers. Most have been converted to a common calibration, taking into account the SiO feature in late-type standard stars. The spectra are compared with spectra of the Trapezium, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), laboratory mineral samples, and small particle emission models. The emission spectra show a variety of shapes; there is no unique 'cometary silicate'. A peak at 11.20-11.25 micrometers, indicative of small crystalline olivine particles, is seen in only three comets of this sample, P/Halley, Bradfield 1987 XXIX, and Levy 1990 XX. The widths of the emission features range from 2.6 to 4.1 micrometers (FWHM). To explain the differing widths and the broad 9.8 micrometers maximum, glassy silicate particles, including both pyroxene and olivine compositions, are the most plausible candidates. Calculations of emission models confirm that small grains of glassy silicate well mixed with carbonaceous material are plausible cometary constituents. No single class of chondritic aggregate IDPs exhibits spectra closely matching the comet spectra. A mixture of IDP spectra, particularly the glass-rich aggregates, approximately matches the spectra of comets P/Halley, Levy, and Bradfield 1987 XXIX. Yet, if comets are simply a mix of IDP types, it is puzzling that the classes of IDPs are so distinct. None of the comet spectra match the spectrum of the Trapezium. Thus, the mineralogy of the cometary silicates is not the same as that of the interstellar medium. The presence of a component of crystalline silicates in comets may be evidence of mixing between high- and low-temperature regions in the solar nebula.

Hanner, Martha S.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

1994-01-01

318

Better Alternatives to “Astronomical Silicate”: Laboratory-Based Optical Functions of Cosmic Abundance Glass with Application to HD 161796  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Astronomical” or “cosmic” silicate optical (dielectric) functions over a large fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum are critical for interpreting the radiative environments of systems as varied as H II regions, circumstellar dust around evolved stars and in disks around young stellar objects (YSOs), and active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, the optical functions that have been previously derived by the community to address this need are for compositionally and structurally disparate materials, and were prepared with inconsistent methodology, kludging observational data and laboratory data with different experimental methods to populate the wavelength space. New quantitative laboratory data are available to build up wavelength coverage for amorphous silicates in a more systematic way. We present optical functions and extinction cross-sections derived from mid-UV to far-IR laboratory transmission spectra of cosmic abundance silicate glass. The advantages of using these data are that our glass sample was synthesized especially with cosmic (solar) abundances in mind and excludes iron. We compare these results to other popular optical functions used to model amorphous silicates (e.g., “astronomical” or “cosmic” silicate by Draine & Lee 1984, Draine 2003, Ossenkopf et al. 1992), both directly and in application to HD 161796, a spherically symmetric, O-rich system with a visible central star, optically thin dust shell, and energy intermediate to AGB and PN class targets. The new cosmic silicate optical functions have much lower UV-vis and NIR opacity than the traditionally used functions necessitating significantly more dust (1 or 2 orders of magnitude for mass) to model an object like HD 161796. Furthermore, the lower opacity has an impact on the fraction of crystalline material needed to match the observed spectrum. Previous models produced using older optical functions will underestimate the dust mass and overestimate the importance of crystalline silicates. This work is supported through NSF AST-1009544 and NASA APRA04-000-0041.

Pitman, Karly M.; Speck, A.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Buffard, A. S.; Whittington, A. G.

2013-01-01

319

21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2012-04-01

320

21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2010-04-01

321

21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2010-04-01

322

21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2013-04-01

323

21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2011-04-01

324

21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2013-04-01

325

21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122...Anticaking Agents § 582.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2014-04-01

328

21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122...Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2...

2014-04-01

329

40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

2014-07-01

331

40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

2012-07-01

332

40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

2013-07-01

333

40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721...Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). ...substance identified generically as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN...

2011-07-01

334

Chemical interactions in multimetal/zeolite catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Mechanistic explanations have been found for the migration of atoms and ions through the zeolite channels leading to specific distribution of ions and the metal clusters. In this report, we summarize the state of understanding attained on a number of topics in the area of mono- and multimetal/zeolite systems, to which our recent research has made significant contributions. The following topics are discussed: (1) Formation of isolated metal atoms in sodalite cages; (2) differences of metal/zeolite systems prepared by ion reduction in channels or via isolated atoms; (3) rejuvenation of Pd/NaY and Pd/HY catalysts by oxidative redispersion of the metal; (4) formation of mono- or bimetal particles in zeolites by programmed reductive decomposition of volatile metal complexes; (5) cation-cation interaction as a cause of enhanced reducibility; (6) formation of palladium carbonyl clusters in supercages; (7) enhanced catalytic activity of metal particle-proton complexes for hydrocarbon conversion reactions; (8) stereoselectivity of catalytic reactions due to geometric constraints of particles in cages.

Sachtler, W.M.H.

1992-02-07

335

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Tzou, Ming-Shin (Evanston, IL); Jiang, Hui-Jong (Evanston, IL)

1987-01-01

336

MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

337

C-14 tracer studies on zeolite catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To elucidate the mechanism of hydrocarbon conversion on zeolite catalysts, small amount of 14C-labelled substances were added to the regular feed. Catalytic studies on isomerization of m-xylene and n-butene were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor and the 14C distribution was determined by Radio-GC and Radio-HPLC.

Bauer, F.; Bilz, E.; Freyer, A.

2006-01-01

338

Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

2009-01-01

339

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

1987-03-31

340

SODIUM ZEOLITE A SUPPLEMENTATION TO DAIRY CALVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sodium zeolite A (SZA), an aluminosilicate, has been used in a number of animal studies, but alterations in mineral metabolism and tissue composition have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of SZA on mineral metabolism and tissue mineral composition...

341

ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water. The presence of arsenic in water supplies has been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer . Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange capacities. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of ...

342

ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES: SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-ADA-01134 Shevade, S, Ford*, R., and Puls*, R.W. "Arsenic Separation from Water Using Zeolites." In: 222nd ACS National Meeting, ACS Environmental Chemistry Division Symposia, Chicago, IL, 08/26-30/2001. 2001. 04/23/2001 This...

343

Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites  

SciTech Connect

This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-12-15

344

UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

345

DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702628 Aluminum Siting in Silicon-Rich Zeolite Frameworks: A Combined  

E-print Network

Zeolites DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702628 Aluminum Siting in Silicon-Rich Zeolite Frameworks: A Combined- graphic position of aluminum in zeolite frameworks governs the location of the active sites, which in turn

Sklenak, Stepan

346

Relationships Between Calcium Silicates and Clay Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal-chemical basis of the relationship between hydrated calcium silicate and clay minerals is discussed, and a review is given of recent work on the tobermorite minerals, the group of hydrated calcium silicates which most nearly resembles the clay minerals. New data are presented for the specific gravities, refractive indices, basal spacings, and dehydration isobars of synthetic tobermorite minerals, and

H. F. W. Taylor; J. W. HowlsoN

1956-01-01

347

Study on the order degree and geochemical characteristics of major elements of siliceous rock in eastern Qinling area, China.  

PubMed

Siliceous rocks were extensively distributed in the marine volcanic sedimentary formation of Erlangping Group in the Early Paleozoic in eastern Qinling area. These siliceous rocks formed in the same age, but had differences in the degree of crystallization and order because of the late diagenetic evolution. In the present study, the major elements and order degree of the siliceous rocks were studied, which were from the Erlangping Group in Xixia area, Songxian area and Nanzhao area of eartern Qinling orogenic belt. As shown in the results, the siliceous rocks contained SiO2 with percentage between 84.75% and 94.12% and average of 89.09%. The SiO2/(K2O+Na2O) values were from 26.69 to 114.78 with 65.67 as its average, and the values of SiO2/Al2O3 were from 10.48 to 61.52 with average of 30.58. These above characteristics excellently agreed with the geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal siliceous rocks, which deposited in the continental margin environment. In the Raman analytical results, the quartz contributed to the characteristic Raman shifts at 394, 464, 465 and 467 cm(-1). In the results of Gaussian fitting the degrees of order increased with the order of siliceous rocks of Songxian area, Nanzhao area and Xixia area, which were witnessed by the descending in FWHM values of quartz in the siliceous rocks of Songxian area, Nanzhao area and Xixia area orderly. Disagreeing with the FWHM values of Gaussian fitting, the silica contents of the siliceous rocks had a rising trend of Songxian (87.36%), Nanzhao (89.57%), Xixia area (90.35%), which meant a descending in impurity elements with the order of Songxian area, Nanzhao area and Xixia areas. According to this, there was high agreement between lower crystallinity degree and higher purity of silica, and this denoted that the rising in order degree of silica would result in lower impurity in siliceous rocks. Although the crystallinity degrees could change with the influences of temperature, pressure and its natural property, the impurity elements decreased with the rising in crystallinity degrees of silica. Although there was excluding of impurity elements during the increase in degrees of crystallinity and order, the key factor for the diversities of major elements in siliceous rocks was not likely to be the excluding of impurity elements during the increase in the crystallinity degrees in silica In this study, the Raman analysis exhibited to be an effective way to understand the degree of order for the silica of the siliceous rocks, which would be a potential way to study the subsequent diagenetic evolution of siliceous rocks. PMID:25752047

Ming, Lü; Li, Hong-Zhong; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Ma, Ming-wu; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Jin

2014-11-01

348

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08

349

Dynamic crystallization of silicate melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of furnaces with differing temperature range capabilities were used to provide variations in melt temperatures and cooling rates in a study of the effects of heterogeneous nucleation on crystallization. Materials of chondrule composition were used to further understanding of how the disequilibrium features displayed by minerals in rocks are formed. Results show that the textures of natural chondrules were duplicated. It is concluded that the melt history is dominant over cooling rate and composition in controlling texture. The importance of nuclei, which are most readily derived from preexisting crystalline material, support an origin for natural chondrules based on remelting of crystalline material. This would be compatible with a simple, uniform chondrule forming process having only slight variations in thermal histories resulting in the wide range of textures.

Russell, W. J.

1984-01-01

350

Tin-containing Silicates: Alkali Salts Improve Methyl Lactate Yield from Sugars.  

PubMed

This study focuses on increasing the selectivity to methyl lactate from sugars using stannosilicates as heterogeneous catalyst. All group?I ions are found to have a promoting effect on the resulting methyl lactate yield. Besides, the alkali ions can be added both during the preparation of the catalyst or directly to the solvent mixture to achieve the highest reported yield of methyl lactate (ca. 75?%) from sucrose at 170?°C in methanol. The beneficial effect of adding alkali to the reaction media applies not only to highly defect-free Sn-Beta prepared through the fluoride route, but also to materials prepared by post-treatment of dealuminated commercial Beta zeolites, as well as ordered mesoporous stannosilicates, in this case Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. These findings open the door to the possibility of using other preparation methods or different Sn-containing silicates with equally high methyl lactate yields as Sn-Beta. PMID:25605624

Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Osmundsen, Christian M; Fristrup, Peter; Holm, Martin S; Taarning, Esben

2015-02-01

351

Homogenization processes in silicic magma chambers by stirring and latent heat buffering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions commonly sample chemical and thermal heterogeneities as many deposits from large explosive events show gradients in composition, crystallinity and temperature. However, the most viscous of all magmas - crystal-rich rhyolites-dacites and large silicic plutons - are, in contrast, strikingly homogeneous. This observation is in stark contradiction to the common assumption that the main homogenizing process in magma chambers is mechanical mixing by convection. During transient convection, the total amount of strain determines whether homogeneity can be attained. Here, we show that a convective magma body needs 5-10 overturns following the introduction of heterogeneities to be homogenized to lengthscales such that diffusion is effective, irrespective of the vigor of the convection. For heterogeneities that are continuously re-established or introduced by the convective process itself (such as density instabilities generated by crystallization at the cooling boundaries of magma chambers), convective stirring is unable to lead to complete homogeneity at crystal fraction < 40 vol%. Therefore, to explain the low variability in major element whole-rock composition in crystal-rich dacitic/rhyolitic ignimbrites and silicic plutons, we propose that another mechanism of homogenization acts to decrease thermal (and related crystallinity) variability at high crystal fraction (> 50 vol%). It is induced by latent heat buffering of silicic magmas close to the haplogranitic eutectic, and leads to the rapid equilibration of temperature (and crystal fraction) throughout the magma reservoir. As this process drives the magma body towards a uniformly high crystallinity ("crystal mush"), we refer to it as "mushification". We use a combined numerical method based on stagnant-lid convection at low crystal fraction (< 45 vol%) and a lattice Boltzmann thermal conduction with phase change at high crystallinities (> 45 vol%) to show the strong dependence of the mushification process on the slope of the melt fraction-temperature relationship close to the solidus.

Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Manga, M.

2008-12-01

352

What are the true astronomical silicates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We redefine the term "astronomical silicate" by interpreting the 9.7?m and 18?m interstellar features not in terms of absorption by a pure silicate but rather in terms of silicate core-organic refractory mantle particles. The silicate core optical properties used are those of a glassy (amorphous) olivine produced in the laboratory. The optical constants of the organic refractory mantle material are derived from a combination of astronomical and laboratory spectra of residues of ultraviolet photoprocessed ices, which we define as ``astronomical organic refractory". The silicate core-organic refractory mantle elongated dust model provides an excellent match to the observation of the Becklin-Neugebauer object polarization features in shape, width, and in relative strength. An additional ice mantle is included on a fraction of the dust in the line of sight to the BN object which is consistent with the 3.1 ?m absorption strength. This further improves the match to observations.

Greenberg, J. M.; Li, A.

1996-05-01

353

CO2 SEPARATIONS USING ZEOLITE MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Zeolite and other inorganic molecular sieve membranes have shown potential for separations based on molecular size and shape because of their small pore sized, typically less than 1 nm, and their narrow pore size distribution. The high thermal and chemical stability of these inorganic crystals make them ideal materials for use in high temperature applications such as catalytic membrane reactors. Most of the progress with zeolite membranes has been with MFI zeolites prepared on porous disks and tubes. The MFI zeolite is a medium pore size structure having nearly circular pores with diameters between .53 and .56 nm. Separation experiments through MFI membranes indicate that competitive adsorption separates light gas mixtures. Light gas selectivities are typically small, however, owing to small differences in adsorption strengths and their small sizes relative to the MFI pore opening. Furthermore, competitive adsorption does not work well at high temperature where zeolite membranes are stable and have potential application. Separation by differences in size has a greater potential to work at high temperature than competitive adsorption, but pores smaller than those in MFI zeolites are required. Therefore, some studies focused on the synthesis of a small, 8-membered-pore structures such as zeolite A (0.41-nm pore diameter) and SAPO-34, a chabazite (about .4-nm pore diameter with about 1.4 nm cages) analog. The small pore size of the zeolite A and SAPO-34 structures made the separation of smaller molecules by differences in size possible. Zeolite MFI and SAPO-34 membranes were prepared on the inside surface of porous alumina tubes by hydrothermal synthesis, and single gas and binary mixture permeances were measured to characterize the membrane's performance. A mathematical diffusion model was developed to determine the relative quantities of zeolite and non-zeolite pores in different membranes by modeling the permeation date of CO{sub 2}. This model expresses the total flux through the membrane as the sum of surface diffusion through zeolite pores and viscous flow and Knudsen diffusion through non-zeolite pores. As predicted by the model, the permeance of CO{sub 2} decrease with increasing pressure at constant pressure drop for membranes with few non-zeolite pores, but the permeance increased through viscous flow pores and was constant through pores allowing Knudsen diffusion. Membranes having more non-zeolite pores had lower CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities. The SAPO-34 membranes were characterized for light gas separation applications, and the separation mechanisms were identified. Single gas permeances of CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} decreased with increasing kinetic diameter. For the best membrane at 300K, the He and H{sub 2} permeances were less than that of CO{sub 2}, because He, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were small compared to the SAPO-34 pore, and differences in the heat of adsorption determined the permeance order. The small component permeated the fastest in CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures between 300 and 470 K. For H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures, which were separated by competitive adsorption at room temperature, the larger component permeated faster below 400K. The room temperature CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity was 36 and decreased with temperature. The H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixture selectivity was 8 and constant with temperature up to 480 K. Calcination, slow temperature cycles, and exposure to water vapor had no permanent effect on membrane performance, but temperature changes of approximately 30 K/min decreased the membrane's effectiveness. The effects of humidity on gas permeation were studied with SAPO-34 membranes of different qualities. Membranes with high CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities (greater than 20) were stable in water vapor under controlled conditions, but degradation was seen for some membranes. The degradation opened non-SAPO-34 pores that were larger than SAPO-34 pores as shown by the IC{sub 4}H{sub 10} permeance, C

Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

2001-06-30

354

Crystalline color superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhomogeneous superconductors and inhomogeneous superfluids appear in a variety of contexts including quark matter at extreme densities, fermionic systems of cold atoms, type-II cuprates, and organic superconductors. In the present review the focus is on properties of quark matter at high baryonic density, which may exist in the interior of compact stars. The conditions realized in these stellar objects tend to disfavor standard symmetric BCS pairing and may favor an inhomogeneous color superconducting phase. The properties of inhomogeneous color superconductors are discussed in detail and in particular of crystalline color superconductors. The possible astrophysical signatures associated with the presence of crystalline color superconducting phases within the core of compact stars are also reviewed.

Anglani, Roberto; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Ciminale, Marco; Ippolito, Nicola; Gatto, Raoul; Mannarelli, Massimo; Ruggieri, Marco

2014-04-01

355

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, Rayford G. (Bryan, TX); Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

356

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

1993-01-05

357

Seeding of Porous Alumina Substrate with MFI Zeolite Nanocrystals using Spin-coating Technique  

E-print Network

Zeolite membranes offer a great potential for applications in many challenging separation processes. Controlled thickness of zeolite membrane allows high flux and excellent selectivity commercially available; producing ...

Baroud, T.

358

Crystalline beam ground state  

SciTech Connect

In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Li, Xiao-Ping [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sessler, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-11

359

Paranitrophenol liquid-phase adsorption in dealuminated Y zeolite.  

PubMed

Was studied the liquid-phase paranitrophenol (PNP) dynamic adsorption in a packed bed adsorption reactor (PBAR), filled with dealuminated Y zeolite (DAY) and granulated active carbon (GAC). In addition, was measured the equilibrium maximum amount of adsorption for the system: PNP aqueous solution-DAY zeolite, at 300 K, to compare it with other adsorbents. The DAY zeolite and the GAC were characterized with adsorption methods. The DAY zeolite was, as well, characterized with: XRD, SEM and EDAX. Some of the operational parameters which characterize the performance of the PBAR were calculated. To evaluate these results, was considered the breakthrough experiment as a frontal analysis chromatographic event and were applied the DeVault and van Deemter equations. It was concluded that the reactor filled with the DAY zeolite operates more efficiently than those filled with the GAC, because of the stronger adsorbate-adsorbent interaction in the case of the DAY zeolite. PMID:18930242

Muñiz-Lopez, C; Duconge, J; Roque-Malherbe, R

2009-01-01

360

Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities  

PubMed Central

Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations. PMID:23949184

Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

2013-01-01

361

Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations.

Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

2013-08-01

362

Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the kinetics of oxylose/xylulose isomerization in significant detail over a variety of zeolites and obtained the pseudo-first order reaction rate constants. The authors have found that HY zeolite is still the best material and zeolites are more selective than homogeneous acid catalysts where decomposition of the sugar compounds is much faster. They have completed, as described in the Year 2 Work Plan, the study of cellobiose hydrolysis with an ion exchange resin. The kinetics of the solid-catalyzed reaction is qualitatively similar to that for catalysis by homogeneous acids. The planned program of NMR studies has revealed the dynamics of sugar molecules within the zeolite cavities. Two chemisorbed and a physisorbed state have been identified in HY zeolite. A new state, accounting for as much as a half of the sugar, has been found in ZSM-5 zeolite.

Tsao, G.T.

1994-02-01

363

Order and disorder in calcium–silicate–hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Despite advances in the characterization and modeling of cement hydrates, the atomic order in Calcium–Silicate–Hydrate (C–S–H), the binding phase of cement, remains an open question. Indeed, in contrast to the former crystalline model, recent molecular models suggest that the nanoscale structure of C–S–H is amorphous. To elucidate this issue, we analyzed the structure of a realistic simulated model of C–S–H, and compared the latter to crystalline tobermorite, a natural analogue of C–S–H, and to an artificial ideal glass. The results clearly indicate that C–S–H appears as amorphous, when averaged on all atoms. However, an analysis of the order around each atomic species reveals that its structure shows an intermediate degree of order, retaining some characteristics of the crystal while acquiring an overall glass-like disorder. Thanks to a detailed quantification of order and disorder, we show that, while C–S–H retains some signatures of a tobermorite-like layered structure, hydrated species are completely amorphous.

Bauchy, M., E-mail: bauchy@mit.edu [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); MIT-CNRS Joint Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Qomi, M. J. Abdolhosseini; Ulm, F.-J. [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Pellenq, R. J.-M. [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); MIT-CNRS Joint Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Centre Interdisciplinaire des Nanosciences de Marseille, CNRS and Aix-Marseille University, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2014-06-07

364

Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing  

PubMed Central

Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through co-condensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

Melde, Brian J.; Johnson, Brandy J.; Charles, Paul T.

2008-01-01

365

Chemical Interactions in Multimetal/Zeolite Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This two-year project has led to a significant improvement in the fundamental understanding of the catalytic action of zeolite-supported redox catalysts. It turned out to be essential that we could combine four strategies for the preparation of catalysts containing transition metal (TM) ions in zeolite cavities: (1) ion exchange from aqueous solution; (2) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a volatile halide onto a zeolite in its acidic form; (3) solid state ion exchange; and (4) hydrothermal synthesis of a zeolite having TM ions in its lattice, followed by a treatment transporting these ions to ''guest positions''. Technique (2) enables us to position more TM ions into cavities than permitted by the conventional technique (1).viz one positive charge per Al centered tetrahedron in the zeolite lattice. The additional charge is compensated by ligands to the TM ions, for instance in oxo-ions such as (GaO){sup +} or dinuclear [Cu-O-Cu]{sup 2+}. While technique (3) is preferred over CVD where volatile halides are not available, technique (4) leads to rather isolated ''ex lattice'' oxo-ions. Such oxo-ions tend to be mono-nuclear, in contrast to technique (2) which preferentially creates dinuclear oxo-ions of the same TM element. A favorable element for the present research was that the PI is also actively engaged in a project on the reduction of nitrogen oxides, sponsored by EMSI program of the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy, Office of Science. This combination created a unique opportunity to test and analyze catalysts for the one step oxidation of benzene to phenol and compare them with catalysts for the reduction of nitrogen oxides, using hydrocarbons as the reductant. In both projects catalysts have been used which contain Fe ions or oxo-ions in the cavities the zeolite MFI, often called ZSM-5. With Fe as the TM-element and MFI as the host zeolite we found that catalysts with high Fe content, prepared by technique (2) were optimal for the De-NO{sub x} reaction, but extremely unselective for benzene oxidation to phenol. Conversely, the catalysts prepared with (4) had the highest turnover frequency for benzene oxidation, but performed very poorly for NO{sub x} reduction with so-butane. In fact the Fe concentration in the former catalysts were so low that it was necessary to design a special experimental program for the sole purpose of showing that it is really the Fe which catalyzes the benzene oxidation, not some acid center as has been proposed by other authors. For this purpose we used hydrogen sulfide to selectively poison the Fe sites, without deactivating the acidic sites. In addition we could show that the hydrothermal treatment of catalysts prepared by technique (4) is essential to transform iron ions in the zeolite lattice to ''ex lattice ions'' in guest positions. That line of the work required very careful experimentation, because a hydrothermal treatment of a zeolite containing Fe ions in its cavities can also lead to agglomeration of such ions to nano-particles of iron oxide which lowers the selectivity for the desired formation of phenol. This part of the program showed convincingly that indeed Fe is responsible for the benzene oxidation catalysis. The results and conclusion of this work, including the comparison of different catalysts, was published in a number of papers in the scientific literature, listed in the attached list. In these papers also our analysis of the reaction orders and the possible mechanism of the used test reaction are given.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.

2004-04-16

366

Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchanges, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with double glazing, aluminum frame and insulation. Preliminary testing indicates close agreement with theoretical predictions of its performance.

Tchernev, D. I.

1981-07-01

367

Zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive to reduce manure mineral content.  

PubMed

Clinoptilolite (a species of zeolite) as grower hog feed additive can potentially improve nutrient ingestion and lower manure nutrient levels. A first objective was to establish the optimal particle size of the zeolite powder, as a fine size increases the adsorption surface while a coarse size can facilitate handling. The second objective tested the effect of feeding zeolite on manure nutrient levels. For the first objective, three zeolite powders (250-500 microm; 50-250 microm, and 50-500 microm) were exposed to an NH(4)(+) solution under a pH of either 7.0 or 2.0. The resulting solutions were tested for cation exchange. A commercial zeolite was also tested for the pH of 2.0 to evaluate zeolite stability. At 0%, 5% and 10% humidity, the same three particle size powders were subjected to shear tests to determine the zeolite's angle of friction. For the second objective using metabolic cages, female hogs were subjected to one of four rations (a control and three with zeolite) while collecting and analyzing their manures. For the first objective, the coarse particle zeolite performed best, adsorbing 158 and 123 Cmol(+)/kg of NH(4)(+) under neutral and acid pH, respectively, and releasing an equivalent amount of minerals only under neutral pH. The commercial zeolite with less clinoptilolite released more Al, Fe, Cu and Pb, showing less stability. The high internal angle of friction of zeolite did not vary with particle size and moisture, indicating funnel flow under gravity. For the second objective, hogs fed a zeolite diet produced manure with 15% and 22% less N and P, respectively, and demonstrated a better feed conversion, although not statistically significant (P>0.05). These results show that there is some potential in using high quality clinoptilolite in the ration of grower hogs. PMID:16905313

Leung, S; Barrington, S; Wan, Y; Zhao, X; El-Husseini, B

2007-12-01

368

CO2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds consisting of MS-13X or MS-4A were determined from breakthrough curves for various CO2-N2 mixtures, and the fitness of the Dubinin-Astakhov equation (Dubinin MM, Astakhov VA. Description of adsorption equilibria of vapors on zeolite over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. In: Flanigen M, Sand LB, editors. Molecular sieves zeolite II. Washington:

K. Kamiuto; Ermalina; K. Ihara

2001-01-01

369

CO 2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO2 adsorption equilibria of the honeycomb zeolite beds consisting of MS-13X or MS-4A were determined from breakthrough curves for various CO2–N2 mixtures, and the fitness of the Dubinin–Astakhov equation (Dubinin MM, Astakhov VA. Description of adsorption equilibria of vapors on zeolite over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. In: Flanigen M, Sand LB, editors. Molecular sieves zeolite II. Washington:

K. Kamiuto; Ermalina; K. Ihara

2001-01-01

370

Thermal analysis of fly ash-based zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents research results on dehydration properties and thermal behaviour of zeolites synthesized from fly ash,\\u000a applying TG (thermogravimetry), DTG (derivative thermogravimetry) and SDTA (simultaneous differential thermal analysis) methods.\\u000a In result of the analysis conducted water contents in zeolite samples were defined. On the basis of the data obtained from\\u000a the thermogravimetric analysis, thermal behaviour of zeolites was assessed.

I. Majchrzak-Kuc?ba; W. Nowak

2004-01-01

371

Large zeolites - Why and how to grow in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of zeolite crystals which are considered to be the most valuable catalytic and adsorbent materials of the chemical processing industry are discussed. It is proposed to use triethanolamine as a nucleation control agent to control the time release of Al in a zeolite A solution and to increase the average and maximum crystal size by 25-50 times. Large zeolites could be utilized to make membranes for reactors/separators which will substantially increase their efficiency.

Sacco, Albert, Jr.

1991-01-01

372

Synthetic zeolites as amendments for sewage sludge-based compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of incorporating a synthetic zeolite (Zeolite P) in a range of concentrations (0.1–1.0 w:w) into an experimental horticultural compost, derived from sewage sludge, have been investigated. The impact of zeolite treatment on time-related changes of the labile zinc, copper, iron and manganese pools within the compost was compared to lime incorporation (5% w:w) and to a proprietary unamended

L. R Nissen; N. W Lepp; R Edwards

2000-01-01

373

Synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane by microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane on a porous ?-Al2O3 support by microwave heating (MH) was investigated. The formation of a NaA zeolite membrane was drastically promoted by MH. The synthesis time was reduced from 3 h for conventional heating (CH) to 15 min for MH. Surface seeding cannot only promote the formation of NaA zeolite on the support, but

Xiaochun Xu; Weishen Yang; Jie Liu; Liwu Lin

2001-01-01

374

Microwave synthesis of LTA zeolite membranes without seeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method called “in-situ aging—microwave synthesis” was developed for zeolite membrane synthesis. High quality LTA zeolite membranes were successfully microwave-synthesized without seeding by this method. It was found that the formed zeolite layer was composed of sphere grains with undefined crystal facets. The necessity of in-situ aging was discussed. The effects of synthesis parameters including in-situ aging temperature, time

Yanshuo Li; Hongliang Chen; Jie Liu; Weishen Yang

2006-01-01

375

Transesterification of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out at 60, 120, and 150°C in the presence of a series NaX faujasite zeolite, ETS-10 zeolite, and metal catalysts. The stock zeolites were exchanged with potassium and cesium; NaX containing occluded sodium oxide (NaOx\\/NaX) and occluded sodium azide (NaOx\\/NaX*). The catalysts were calcined at 500°C prior to use in order to

Galen J. Suppes; Mohanprasad A. Dasari; Eric J. Doskocil; Pratik J. Mankidy; Michael J. Goff

2004-01-01

376

Effects of zeolites on cultures of marine micro-algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  The cation-exchange capacity of zeolites is well known and has been increasingly explored in different fields with both economic\\u000a and environmental successes. In aquatic medium with low salinity, zeolites have found multiple applications. However, a review\\u000a of the literature on the applications of zeolites in salt waters found relatively few articles, including some recently published\\u000a papers. The

Adriano Fachini; Maria Teresa S. D. Vasconcelos

2006-01-01

377

Zeolite Crystal Growth in Microgravity and on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP), a NASA-sponsored Research Partnership Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Shown here are zeolite crystals (top) grown in a ground control experiment and grown in microgravity on the USML-2 mission (bottom). Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station.

2003-01-01

378

Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite  

DOEpatents

High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

Reimann, George A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1986-01-01

379

Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite  

DOEpatents

High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

Reimann, G.A.

1985-03-05

380

Preliminary results of sulfide melt/silicate wetting experiments in a partially melted ordinary chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, mechanisms for core formation in planetary bodies have received considerable attention. Most current theories emphasize the need for large degrees of silicate partial melting to facilitate the coalescence and sinking of sulfide-metal liquid blebs through a low strength semi-crystalline silicate mush. This scenario is based upon observations that sulfide-metal liquid tends to form circular blebs in partially molten meteorites during laboratory experiments. However, recent experimental work by Herpfer and Larimer indicates that some sulfide-Fe liquids have wetting angles at and slightly below 60 deg in an olivine aggregate, implying an interconnected melt structure at any melt fraction. Such melt interconnectivity provides a means for gravitational compaction and extraction of the majority of a sulfide liquid phase in small planetary bodies without invoking large degrees of silicate partial melting. Because of the important ramifications of these results, we conducted a series of experiments using H-chondrite starting material in order to evaluate sulfide-liquid/silicate wetting behavior in a more complex natural system.

Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.

1994-01-01

381

Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

1964-01-01

382

Electrical Response of PEDOT-PSS/FAU Zeolite Composites toward SO2: Controlling the Adsorption Properties of FAU Zeolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our work, we propose to combine a conductive polymer, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), with FAU zeolites to investigate the potential of the composites for use as SO2 sensing materials.Composites with PEDOT-PSS as a matrix containing faujasite zeolites of various cation types (divalent transition metal ions: Fe^2+, Co^2+, Ni^2+ and Cu^2+), were fabricated to investigate the effect of the cation type of the faujasite zeolites on the electrical conductivity response when exposed to SO2. The composite was tested through repeated sensing and recovery processes to investigate the reversibility and reproducibility. During the recovery process, the electrical conductivity of the composites were recovered, which proves that the sensing characteristics are repeatable. Responses and the interaction mechanism of the conductive polymer/zeolite composites were investigated. The composite with 20% (v/v) of zeolite content gives the highest sensitivity. The electrical conductivity responses of PEDOT-PSS/Zeolite composites can be altered due to the available adsorption sites for gas molecules. The addition of zeolites to the pristine PEDOT-PSS improved the electrical conductivity sensitivity of the composites by enhancing the interaction between PEDOT-PSS and SO2. The type of cation in the zeolite pores effected the sensitivity of the composites, depending on the acidity of the ion-exchanged zeolites.

Chanthaanont, Pojjawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

2012-02-01

383

Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping  

SciTech Connect

This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

Hsu, R.H.

2001-03-26

384

Raman spectra of zeolites exchanged with uranyl(VI) cations—II. Zeolite X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of hydrolysed uranyl(VI) species in UO 2X zeolites prepared by various methods has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Ion-exchange in aqueous (pH>3) and non-aqueous (anhydrous methanol and uranyl nitrate melts) media resulted in the formation of hydroxy-bridged complexes such as [(UO 2) 3(OH) 4] 2+, [(UO 2) 3(OH) 5] +, and [(UO 2) 4(OH) 7] +. Ion-exchange in more acidic media (initial pH < 3) was accompanied by the formation of a disordered phase incorporating UO 3, following extensive collapse of the zeolite framework structure. Cation speciation in the UO 2X system is compared to that in UO 2Y zeolites.

Bartlett, John R.; Cooney, Ralph P.

1989-01-01

385

Influence of PC superplasticizers on tricalcium silicate Sylvie Pourchet*1  

E-print Network

to be due to the nucleation-growth of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) resulting from tricalcium silicateInfluence of PC superplasticizers on tricalcium silicate hydration Sylvie Pourchet*1 , Cédric with variations of content of anionic groups was studied on pure tricalcium silicate hydration. The hydration

Boyer, Edmond

386

Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y  

E-print Network

be loaded with as much as fifty weight percent MoOs without destroying the zeolite structure. The final calcined product was bound with SiOi and crushed. The crushed par- ticles were 210 to 495 pm in diameter. The nitrogen adsorption specific surface... (', . Nickel Ion Exchange D. Molybdenum Irr&pregnat ion E. Calcination F. Reactivity 31 31 37 47 VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 57 REFERENCES APPENDIX A: DETAILED PROCEDURES APPENDIX B: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY CONDITIONS 60 62 75 VITA 77 LIST...

Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

1988-01-01

387

Polymerization of methylacetylene in hydrogen zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid zeolites as media for the alignment and packaging of included conjugated polymers were investigated with the goal of producing materials with enhanced nonlinear optical properties. Methylacetylene gas was absorbed onto acid forms of Mordenite, Omega, L, Y, Beta ZSM-5, and SAPO-5 at room temperature. The resulting yellow to red-brown powders were characterized by mass uptake, powder XRD, TPD-TGA, ¹³C

Sherman D. Cox; Galen D. Stucky

1991-01-01

388

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral pectolite - NaCa?Si?O?(OH).  

PubMed

The mineral pectolite NaCa?Si?O?(OH) is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and in other industrial applications. Raman bands at 974 and 1026 cm(-1) are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of linked units of Si?O? units. Raman bands at 974 and 998 cm(-1) serve to identify Si?O? units. The broad Raman band at around 936 cm(-1) is attributed to hydroxyl deformation modes. Intense Raman band at 653 cm(-1) is assigned to OSiO bending vibration. Intense Raman bands in the 2700-3000 cm(-1) spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of the OH units in pectolite. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterisation of the silicate mineral pectolite. PMID:25004896

Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

2015-01-01

389

Zeolite compositions as proxies for eruptive paleoenvironment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report chemical compositions of authigenic alteration minerals in subglacially erupted hyaloclastite breccias from James Ross Island, Antarctica, which provide a geochemical proxy for paleoenvironment. Analyses of zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite) from several lava-fed deltas on the island were compared with published compositions of zeolites from known freshwater and marine environments. Using values of (Na + K)/Ca = 3.0 (for phillipsites) and 1.0 (for chabazites), the data successfully distinguish between marine and freshwater alteration. However, our study also suggests that volcanic breccias may not be sealed to fluids, even when the pore spaces are completely filled. The James Ross Island data show that, at higher elevations in lava-fed deltas, the zeolites preserve their original freshwater-influenced (i.e., glacial) compositions, whereas at lower elevations, (Na + K)/Ca ratios are generally higher and indicate a later marine influence. We suggest that water may penetrate several kilometers into the volcanic pile by movement along fractures and/or grain boundaries.

Johnson, Joanne S.; Smellie, John L.

2007-03-01

390

New biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate/layered silicate nanocomposites.  

PubMed

Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/layered silicate nanocomposites were prepared via melt extrusion. The nanostructure, as observed from wide-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, indicates intercalated hybrids. The extent of intercalation depends on the amount of silicate and the nature of organic modifier present in the layered silicate. The nanohybrids show significant improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of the matrix as compared to the neat polymer. The silicate particles act as a strong nucleating agent for the crystallization of PHB. The biodegradability of pure PHB and its nanocomposites was studied at two different temperatures under controlled conditions in compost media. The rate of biodegradation of PHB is enhanced dramatically in the nanohybrids. The change in biodegradation is rationalized in terms of the crystallization behavior of the nanohybrids as compared to that of the neat polymer. PMID:17958439

Maiti, Pralay; Batt, Carl A; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

2007-11-01

391

Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks  

SciTech Connect

Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.

1986-04-01

392

Highly silicic compositions on the Moon.  

PubMed

Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies. PMID:20847267

Glotch, Timothy D; Lucey, Paul G; Bandfield, Joshua L; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Thomas, Ian R; Elphic, Richard C; Bowles, Neil; Wyatt, Michael B; Allen, Carlton C; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Paige, David A

2010-09-17

393

Silicate Liquid Immiscibility in Young Impact Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion textures have rarely been described from impact melts. Here, we present and compare several examples of silicate emulsions in impact melts and show that liquid immiscibility may play an important role in the formation of impact melts.

Hamann, C.; Hecht, L.; Schultze, D.; Ebert, M.; Reimold, W. U.; Wirth, R.

2014-09-01

394

Characterisation of crystalline C-S-H phases by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We have prepared a number of crystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases hydrothermally, with calcium-silicon ratios varying from approximately 0.5 (K-phase) to 2.0 (hillebrandite and {alpha}-dicalcium silicate hydrate). The phases were then analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Increasing calcium-silicon ratios resulted in decreased silicon binding energies. Additionally, changes in the O 1s spectra could be explained in terms of bridging (BO) and nonbridging oxygen (NBO) moieties. Finally, the modified Auger parameter has proved particularly useful in determining the extent of silicate anion polymerisation. Of note also are the apparently unusual spectra for 11 A tobermorite. The silicon and oxygen photoelectron spectra indicate a phase with a lower degree of silicate polymerisation than predicted from its composition. The main contributing factor is the intrinsic disorder within the tobermorite structure. This study has shown how XPS may be used to obtain valuable structural information from C-S-H phases, and our analysis of the crystalline phases is the first step towards the analysis of real C-S-H-based cement systems.

Black, Leon; Garbev, Krassimir; Stemmermann, Peter; Hallam, Keith R.; Allen, Geoffrey C

2003-06-01

395

Modified calcium silicates as active rubber fillers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical characteristics of calcium silicates obtained from the reaction of sodium metasilicate solution with calcium\\u000a nitrate are given. Further, studies of the modification of the silicate surface with silane and titanate coupling agents are\\u000a presented. By wettability measurements and an analysis of the chemically adsorbed carbon arising from the coupling agents,\\u000a the degree of modification of these surfaces was

Andrzej Krysztafkiewicz

1987-01-01

396

Design of composite photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-zeolite for degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light irradiation.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (? > 420 nm) irradiation. PMID:25314607

Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

2014-01-01

397

Monitoring of the crystallization of zeolite LTA using Raman and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

LTA zeolite is used both in industry as well as in laboratories, because of its spatial-specific structure which is useful in gas adsorption and in ion exchange separation. At-line reaction monitoring and multivariate analysis of data, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), are fundamentals of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT), which consists of the use of analyzers with rapid detection and low sample preparation for analysis during the process stream. In this work, an optimization of zeolite LTA synthesis was performed aiming to obtain nanocrystals and the synthesis was monitored using Raman spectroscopy and PCA. A reaction mixture of 6.2Na2O?:?Al2O3?:?2SiO2?:?128H2O was used and it was possible to obtain a small particle size and high crystallinity after 72 h of synthesis at 25 °C. The synthesis was monitored at-line, using Raman spectroscopy in both liquid and solid phases. The extension of the reaction could be clearly observed by the PCA scores. As expected, the liquid phase presented changes over time, but the solid phase presented three specific stationary conditions at 0-24 h, 32-56 h and 72-80, related to the beginning of the reaction, the nucleation process, and the crystal formation, respectively. In addition, it was possible to identify the intermediates of the reaction and with the aid of PCA to monitor the reaction close to the real time. PMID:25460364

Chaves, T F; Soares, F L F; Cardoso, D; Carneiro, R L

2015-02-01

398

The characterisation by luminescence spectroscopy of uranium(VI) incorporated into zeolites and aluminas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescence spectroscopy of solids at 77 K has been used to characterise the uranium(VI) species incorporated into ?-alumina, ?-alumina and zeolites Y and ZSM-20 by adsorption from solution and into ZSM-5 by chemical synthesis. With uranyl adsorbed from nitrate solutions onto ?- and ?-aluminas, the luminescence measurements show the dominant uranium species is schoepite, UO 3· xH 2O, in agreement with results from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. With uranyl acetate, there are indications that a crystalline acetate species is also present. With zeolite-Y and ZSM-20, the main species is a dimer. In addition, some monomeric [UO 2(H 2O) 5] 2+ is also present. With ZSM-5, although this is not observed in X-ray diffraction, the luminescence spectrum shows the presence of a species, similar to the schoepite seen with the aluminas. It is suggested that this may be due both to closely related polymeric species, and to uranyl anions, such as [UO 2(OH) 4] 2- and [UO 2(OH) 3] -.

Azenha, M. E. D. G.; da Graça Miguel, M.; Formosinho, S. J.; Burrows, H. D.

2001-05-01

399

Oxygen transport in zeolite Y measured by quenching of encapsulated tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium  

E-print Network

Oxygen transport in zeolite Y measured by quenching of encapsulated tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium Abstract This study deals with emission quenching of zeolite encapsulated trisbipyridyl ruthenium (II) (Ru the migration of O2 within zeolites using the emis- sion quenching of zeolite encapsulated ruthenium

Dutta, Prabir K.

400

Study on Preparation of Zeolite\\/Ag+ Composite Particles Material and Its Air Purification Property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolit\\/Ag+ composite particles material (ZACPM) had been prepared using zeolite as carrier by carrying Ag+, solidifying Ag+ stably in the holes of zeolite and enhancing the adsorption property of zeolite. The effects of technological parameters on preparation of ZACPM, the air purification properties such as antibacterial property and the function of eliminating harmful gases and the microstructure of ZACPM were

Hao Ding; Ning Liang; Bai Kun Wang; Hong Zhou

2010-01-01

401

Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence. Although the zeolite assemblages are similar to those found in other major zeolite occurrences in basaltic pillow lavas, regional zoning of the zeolite assemblages is not apparent. The formation of the different assemblages is discussed.-D.F.B.

Keith, T.E.C.; Staples, L.W.

1985-01-01

402

1 Flexibility As an Indicator of Feasibility of Zeolite Frameworks 2 Colby J. Dawson,  

E-print Network

1 Flexibility As an Indicator of Feasibility of Zeolite Frameworks 2 Colby J. Dawson, Vitaliy Kapko two 6 million unique hypothetical zeolite structures. By a simple flexibility calculation, we have 7 feasibility as zeolites. 78 out of 97 officially approved zeolite framework types 9 that occur in the database

Thorpe, Michael

403

SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SOâ from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The

Michael Grutzeck

1999-01-01

404

CATION CONTROLLED SINGLET OXYGEN MEDIATED OXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITHIN ZEOLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oxidation of trialkyl olefins has been performed within zeolites employing thionin as the singlet oxygen sensitizer. Unusual selectivity in favor of secondary hydroperoxides is observed within zeolites. In light of the fact that in solution such a selectivity is never observed the selectivity report...

405

Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOEpatents

A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

2000-01-01

406

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOEpatents

A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

2001-01-01

407

Separation of fructooligosaccharides using zeolite fixed bed columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that the chromatographic separation of mixtures of monosaccharides and disaccharides may be improved by employing Y zeolites, a procedure which holds promise in the separation of oligosaccharides. In the present study, a column packed with zeolite was employed to study the separation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). FOS were produced by an enzyme isolated from Rhodotorula sp., which

Raquel Cristine Kuhn; Francisco Maugeri Filho

2010-01-01

408

Liquid holdup and flow dispersion in zeolite packed beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple tracing method, based on residence time distribution measurements, is presented for the evaluation of the liquid holdup and dispersion in zeolite packed beds. Two tracers and two different materials, one porous (zeolite clinoptilolite) and one non-porous (SiC), were used in experiments on seven packed beds of different dimensions, operating under downflow or upflow condition, in the range of

V. J. Inglezakis; M. Lemonidou; H. P. Grigoropoulou

2001-01-01

409

Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

1992-01-01

410

Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

1982-01-01

411

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOEpatents

A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

1999-01-01

412

FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS OF PERVAPORATION THROUGH ZEOLITE MEMBRANES  

EPA Science Inventory

Zeolite membranes are well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation because of their molecular-sized pores and their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organics [1]. Because of ...

413

Synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal combustion by-products production in USA and EU is estimated in around 115 million tons per year. A large portion of this production is accounted for the coal fly ash (CFA). Cement and concrete manufacturing consumes most of the CFA produced. Zeolite synthesized from CFA is a minor but interesting product, with high environmental applications. Zeolites may be easily obtained

X Querol; N Moreno; J. C Umaña; A Alastuey; E Hernández; A López-Soler; F Plana

2002-01-01

414

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure, increasing temperatures and hold times give denser products but the zeolite is frequently converted to sodalite. Reducing the temperature or hold time leads to a porous zeolite composite. Therefore, conditions that affect the thermal stability of salt-occluded zeolite both with and without glass are being investigated in an ongoing study. The parameters varied in this stage of the work were heating time, temperature, salt loading, and glass content. The heat-treated samples were examined primarily by X-ray diffraction. Large variations were found in the rate at which salt-occluded zeolite converted to other phases such as nepheline, salt, and sodalite. The products depended on the initial salt loading. Heating times required for these transitions depended on the procedure and temperature used to prepare the salt-occluded zeolite. Mixtures of glass and zeolite reacted much faster than the pure salt-occluded zeolite and were almost always converted to sodalite.

Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

415

Transport properties of alkanes through ceramic thin zeolite MFI membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline randomly oriented defect free zeolite layers on porous ?-Al2O3 supports are prepared with a thickness of less than 5 ?m by in situ crystallisation of silicalite-1. The flux of alkanes is a function of the sorption and intracrystalline diffusion. In mixtures of strongly and weakly adsorbing gases and a high loadings of the strongly adsorbing molecule in the zeolite

Z. A. E. P. Vroon; K. Keizer; M. J. Gilde; H. Verweij; A. J. Burggraaf

1996-01-01

416

Chert and its sodium-silicate precursors in sodium-carbonate lakes of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chert has formed from two sodium-silicate minerals, magadiite (NaSi7,O13(OH)3·3H2O) and kenyaite (NaSi11O20.5(OH)4·3H2O), in uppermost Pleistocene deposits of lakes Magadi and Natron in Kenya and Tanzania. The chert consists of finely crystalline quartz and characteristically forms nodules of irregular shape with white coatings having reticulate surface patterns. Similar nodules are widespread in lower and middle Pleistocene lacustrine deposits in the vicinity

Richard L. Hay

1968-01-01

417

Mineralogy Of Silicate Dust Particles For Comet 17P/Holmes By Subaru/COMICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust grains and icy materials in comets have been used to investigate the formation conditions of the solar system. It is considered that the existence of crystalline silicate in comets indicates the radial mixing of materials in the early solar nebula. The outburst of comet 17P/Holmes showed on late October, 2007. We carried out low-dispersion spectroscopic observations of 17P/Holmes in midinfrared region with Subaru/COMICS. We show results of our model fitting analysis by using a thermal emission model for this comet. We discuss about the mineral composition for dust grains of 17P/Holmes.

Yamaguchi, M.; Ootsubo, T.; Watanabe, J.; Honda, M.; Sakon, I.; Ishiguro, M.; Sarugaku, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Kawakita, H.

2011-10-01

418

Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of phenol drifts on three zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the sorption of phenol drifts was studied by performing batch kinetic sorption experiments. The equilibrium kinetic data was analyzed using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Fowler-Guggenheim model gives a perfect fitting with the isotherm data. The influence of porous structure of a zeolite particle on phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions is analyzed and discussed. The adsorption for phenol drifts on zeolite was proved to be an exothermic process. Thus the solubility of the phenolic compound and the pH of the solution play also an important role in adsorption phenomena. The relative affinity of the phenolic compound toward the zeolite was related to the electron donor-acceptor complexes that were formed between the basic sites on the zeolite (oxygen) and hydrogens (acidic site) of the phenols. Finally zeolite seems to be an efficient adsorbent; it can be easily regenerated by methanol leaching.

Koubaissy, Bachar; Toufaily, Joumana; El-Murr, Maya; Jean Daou, T.; Hafez, Hala; Joly, Guy; Magnoux, Patrick; Hamieh, Tayssir

2012-09-01

419

Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Robert Virta, mineral commodity specialist for the U.S. Geological Survey, prepared the following information about the zeolite industry. Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

Virta, R.

2008-01-01

420

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

2011-01-01

421

Applications of two-dimensional solid state nuclear magnetic resonance in silicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique and has been routinely applied in many fields. In this study, we have used high resolution two-dimensional (2D) solid state NMR techniques to study the dynamic process of Li diffusion, the kinetic process of oxygen isotope exchange, and the structural characterization of hydrous and anhydrous silicate glasses at atomic level. In the Li diffusion study, we first established the correlation between the sp6Li chemical shifts and the lithium coordination environments in lithium containing silicates. Then, we assigned the sp6Li magic angle spinning (MAS) spectrum and applied 1D, 2D variable temperature exchange NMR to observe Lisp+ diffusion in lithium orthosilicate. For the first time, our result revealed a detailed picture of the hopping rates of Lisp+ ions among structurally distinct sites and helped to define the diffusion pathway. We have shown that Lisp+ ions hopping rates and activation energies depend on site geometry. NMR measurements on Li ionic hopping frequencies was used to accurately predict the bulk conductivity. In the site-specific oxygen isotope exchange study, we first developed a method to obtain quantitative sp{17}O NMR spectra. Then, we applied the method to stilbite, a natural zeolite. We have shown for the first time that framework oxygens in Al-O-Si sites react faster with oxygens in the channel water than oxygens in Si-O-Si sites. Such an observation has partially proved the quantum ab initio calculation on water adsorption onto silicates. Our measured kinetics results agreed well with bulk isotopic measurements. Water dissolution mechanism in silicates glasses, especially aluminosilicate glasses, has been a long-standing controversy. We have used the sp{17}O spectra for hydrous and anhydrous sodium tetrasilicate glasses and albite glasses to study the structural role of hydrogen-containing species. For the first time, we have observed the oxygen peak for SiOH in hydrous sodium tetrasilicate glass. Such a component might also be present in hydrous albite glasses. We also detected the oxygen signal for molecular Hsb2O in all the hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses. Our results tend to support one of the water dissolution models.

Xu, Zhi

1998-10-01

422

Antimony and silicon environments in antimony silicate glasses  

SciTech Connect

Antimony silicate glasses, of general formula xSb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1-x)SiO{sub 2} (0.1{<=}x{<=}0.78), have been prepared by melt-quenching and their structures studied using {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Oxidation during melting gives rise to Sb{sup 5+} in concentrations, which increase linearly with x to give a value of {approx}10% when x=0.78. {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra show Moessbauer shifts and quadrupole splittings consistent with Sb{sup 3+} in a [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid, similar to that in crystalline Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A broad band in the Raman spectrum at {approx}410 cm{sup -1} is due to the vibrations of such a unit. The dependence of the silicon Q{sup n} speciation on x can be interpreted by the formation of Sb-O-Sb links possibly to form rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite. - Graphical abstract: Antimony silicate glasses have been shown to contain Sb{sup 3+} in [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid units using {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. {sup 29}Si magic-angle-spinning NMR has shown silicon Q{sup n} speciation which can be interpreted as formation of rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite.

Mee, M.; Davies, B.C.; Orman, R.G. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Thomas, M.F. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Holland, D., E-mail: d.holland@warwick.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

423

A silicate disk in the heart of the Ant  

E-print Network

We aim at getting high spatial resolution information on the dusty core of bipolar planetary nebulae to directly constrain the shaping process. Methods: We present observations of the dusty core of the extreme bipolar planetary nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3, Hen 2-154, the Ant) taken with the mid-infrared interferometer MIDI/VLTI and the adaptive optics NACO/VLT. The core of Mz 3 is clearly resolved with MIDI in the interferometric mode, whereas it is unresolved from the Ks to the N bands with single dish 8.2 m observations on a scale ranging from 60 to 250 mas. A striking dependence of the dust core size with the PA angle of the baselines is observed, that is highly suggestive of an edge-on disk whose major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the bipolar lobes. The MIDI spectrum and the visibilities of Mz 3 exhibit a clear signature of amorphous silicate, in contrast to the signatures of crystalline silicates detected in binary post-AGB systems, suggesting that the disk might be relatively young. We used radiative-transfer Monte Carlo simulations of a passive disk to constrain its geometrical and physical parameters. Its inclination (74 degrees $\\pm$ 3 degrees) and position angle (5 degrees $\\pm$ 5 degrees) are in accordance with the values derived from the study of the lobes. The inner radius is 9$\\pm$ 1 AU and the disk is relatively flat. The dust mass stored in the disk, estimated as 1 x 10-5Msun, represents only a small fraction of the dust mass found in the lobes and might be a kind of relic of an essentially polar ejection process.

Olivier Chesneau; Foteini Lykou; Bruce Balick; Eric Lagadec; Mikako Matsuura; Nathan Smith; Alain Spang; Sebastian Wolf; Albert A. Zijlstra

2007-10-02

424

Single crystalline magnetite nanotubes.  

PubMed

We descried a method to synthesize single crystalline Fe3O4 nanotubes by wet-etching the MgO inner cores of MgO/Fe3O4 core-shell nanowires. Homogeneous Fe3O4 nanotubes with controllable length, diameter, and wall thickness have been obtained. Resistivity of the Fe3O4 nanotubes was estimated to be approximately 4 x 10-2 Omega cm at room temperature. Magnetoresistance of approximately 1% was observed at T = 77 K when a magnetic field of B = 0.7 T was applied. The synthetic strategy presented here may be extended to a variety of materials such as YBCO, PZT, and LCMO which should provide ideal candidates for fundamental studies of superconductivity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in nanoscale structures. PMID:15631421

Liu, Zuqin; Zhang, Daihua; Han, Song; Li, Chao; Lei, Bo; Lu, Weigang; Fang, Jiye; Zhou, Chongwu

2005-01-12

425

Liquid crystalline polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have led to the use of these materials in structural applications where weight savings are critical. Advances in processing of LCPs could permit the incorporation of these polymers into other than uniaxial designs and extend their utility into new areas such as nonlinear optical devices. However, the unique feature of LCPs (intrinsic orientation order) is itself problematic, and current understanding of processing with control of orientation falls short of allowing manipulation of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers). The current and desirable characteristics of LCPs are reviewed and specific problems are identified along with issues that must be addressed so that advances in the use of these unique polymers can be expedited.

1990-01-01

426

Preparation and screening of crystalline zeolite and hydrothermally-synthesized materials  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

2005-03-08

427

Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. PMID:24794812

Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

2014-06-15

428

Probing zeolites with organic molecules: Supercages of X and Y zeolites are superpolar  

SciTech Connect

Supercages of Li{sup +}- and Na{sup +}-exchanged X and Y zeolites are much more polar than even water. The extent of polarity depends on the nature and the number of cations present within a supercage. The polarity of Li{sup +}- and Na{sup +}-exchanged X and Y zeolites decreases in the presence of water. In presence of water the contribution of cations toward polarity is much smaller than water itself. In this study polarity has been monitored with organic probe molecules, Nile red, pyrene 1-carboxaldehyde and coumarin-500. A connection between polarity and electric field within a cage has also been established. Since the supercages are much more polar than all organic solvents, they can be characterized as superpolar. Because of this one may be able to achieve excited-state switching of carbonyl compounds within a zeolite while such may not be possible in organic solvents. The n{pi}*-{pi}{pi}* state switching of acetophenones is easily achieved within a zeolite while such does not occur in polar solvent methanol-ethanol mixture.

Uppili, S.; Thomas, K.J.; Crompton, E.M.; Ramamurthy, V.

2000-01-11

429

Fluorescence spectroscopy of U(VI)-silicates and U(VI)-contaminated Hanford sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved U(VI) laser fluorescence spectra (TRLFS) were recorded for a series of natural uranium-silicate minerals including boltwoodite, uranophane, soddyite, kasolite, sklodowskite, cuprosklodowskite, haiweeite, and weeksite, a synthetic boltwoodite, and four U(VI)-contaminated Hanford vadose zone sediments. Lowering the sample temperature from RT to ˜ 5.5 K significantly enhanced the fluorescence intensity and spectral resolution of both the minerals and sediments, offering improved possibilities for identifying uranyl species in environmental samples. At 5.5 K, all of the uranyl silicates showed unique, well-resolved fluorescence spectra. The symmetric O = U = O stretching frequency, as determined from the peak spacing of the vibronic bands in the emission spectra, were between 705 to 823 cm -1 for the uranyl silicates. These were lower than those reported for uranyl phosphate, carbonate, or oxy-hydroxides. The fluorescence emission spectra of all four sediment samples were similar to each other. Their spectra shifted minimally at different time delays or upon contact with basic Na/Ca-carbonate electrolyte solutions that dissolved up to 60% of the precipitated U(VI) pool. The well-resolved vibronic peaks in the fluorescence spectra of the sediments indicated that the major fluorescence species was a crystalline uranyl mineral phase, while the peak spacing of the vibronic bands pointed to the likely presence of uranyl silicate. Although an exact match was not found between the U(VI) fluorescence spectra of the sediments with that of any individual uranyl silicates, the major spectral characteristics indicated that the sediment U(VI) was a uranophane-type solid (uranophane, boltwoodite) or soddyite, as was concluded from microprobe, EXAFS, and solubility analyses.

Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.; Gassman, Paul L.; Liu, Chongxuan; Qafoku, Odeta; Yantasee, Wassana; Catalano, Jeff G.

2005-03-01

430

Effect of zeolite in surface discharge plasma on the decomposition of toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toluene was decomposed in a surface discharge plasma reactor packed with various zeolites. The positioning effect of the zeolite bed was also investigated Reactor-B, in which the zeolite bed was located upstream, performed much better than Reactor-A, in which the zeolite bed was located downstream. Furthermore, the decomposition efficiency in Reactor-B increased with the capacity for toluene adsorption on zeolite,

Seung-Min Oh; Hyun-Ha Kim; Atsushi Ogata; Hisahiro Einaga; Shigeru Futamura; Dong-Wha Park

2005-01-01

431

Role of subcolloidal (nanosized) precursor species in the early stage of the crystallization of zeolites in heterogeneous systems.  

PubMed

A critical analysis was carried out for the purpose of understanding the role of subcolloidal (nanosized) (alumino)silicate precursor species in the early stage of crystallization of zeolites in heterogeneous systems (hydrogels). The formation and evolution of these subcolloidal species in both the solid and the liquid phases were investigated by various experimental methods such a scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, particle size analysis, pH measurement, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering, after careful separation of intermediates from reaction mixture by two-step centrifugation treatment. The results revealed that a chain of processes (i) the formation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) silicate species, by dissolution of Al-enriched amorphous silica, and their aggregation into about 3 nm sized primary precursor species (PPSs), (ii) the formation of larger (?3 to ?15 nm sized) silicate precursor species (LSPSs) by a rapid aggregation/coalescence of PPSs, (iii) the formation of "gel" (primary amorphous precursor) by a random aggregation of LSPSs at room temperature, and (iv) the formation of the worm-like particles (secondary amorphous precursor) occurred in the solid phase during heating of the reaction mixture (hydrogel) from room temperature to 170 °C. It is interesting that almost the same processes occur in the liquid phase but with decreased rate according to the relative low concentration of LMW silicate species. With the above described findings, it is highly expected that the manipulation of crystallization pathway through controlling the formation/evolution of precursor species in the initial stage of the process can be achieved. PMID:24960175

Ren, Nan; Bosnar, Sanja; Broni?, Josip; Dutour Sikiri?, Maja; Miši?, Tea; Svetli?i?, Vesna; Mao, Jian-Jiang; Antoni? Jeli?, Tatjana; Hadžija, Mirko; Suboti?, Boris

2014-07-22

432

Charge Transport through a Novel Zeolite Y Membrane by a Self-Exchange Process Hyunjung Lee and Prabir K. Dutta*  

E-print Network

Charge Transport through a Novel Zeolite Y Membrane by a Self-Exchange Process Hyunjung Lee, and relatively pinhole-free zeolitic membranes is described. Nanocrystalline zeolite Y (100-200 nm) is used zeolite membranes toward this end.3 Zeolitic membranes are an active area of research because

Dutta, Prabir K.

433

[Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics  

SciTech Connect

To transform biomass into fermentable substrate for yeast, we are using zeolites instead of enzymes to catalyze the two bottleneck reactions in biomass conversion, xylose isomerization and ceuobiose hydrolysis. The experimental results on these reactions carried out over various zeolites and other catalysts are presented herein. The advantages and disadvantages of using these catalysts over enzymes are also discussed. Heterogeneous solid catalysts other than zeolites has been employed for cellobiose-to-glucose hydrolysis. The size and shape selectivity that makes zeoutes unique for some reactions can add diffusional hindrance. We have spent some time screening various known solid acidic catalysts. We report that a class of cationic ion exchange resins in the acidified form (e.g. Amberlite) has worked well as an acidic catalyst in hydrolyzing cellobiose to glucose. Our experimental results, together with those obtained from a homogeneous acid catalyst (e.g. sulfuric acid) for comparison are provided. Having succeeded in finding an alternative solid acid catalyst for hydrolysis, we explored other solid resin or other homogeneous but non-enzyme catalyst to carry out the xylose-to-xylulose isomerization. A fairly extensive search has been made. We explored the use of sodium aluminates in the homogeneous phase isomerization of glucose to fructose and obtained a very high conversion of glucose to fructose with the final mixture containing 85% of fructose instead of the common 45%. Fructose apparently complexes with aluminates, and its equilibrium concentration is shifted to considerably higher values than permitted by simple glucose/fructose equilibrium. We have recently found a number of catalysts capable of promoting isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. One solid resin, known as polyvinyl pyridine (PVP), is able to convert xylose to xylulose at a pH below 7. Our usage of alternative isomerization catalysts, including PVP, are described.

Tsao, G.T.

1992-01-01

434

[Zeolite catalysis in conversion of cellulosics  

SciTech Connect

To transform biomass into fermentable substrate for yeast, we are using zeolites instead of enzymes to catalyze the two bottleneck reactions in biomass conversion, xylose isomerization and ceuobiose hydrolysis. The experimental results on these reactions carried out over various zeolites and other catalysts are presented herein. The advantages and disadvantages of using these catalysts over enzymes are also discussed. Heterogeneous solid catalysts other than zeolites has been employed for cellobiose-to-glucose hydrolysis. The size and shape selectivity that makes zeoutes unique for some reactions can add diffusional hindrance. We have spent some time screening various known solid acidic catalysts. We report that a class of cationic ion exchange resins in the acidified form (e.g. Amberlite) has worked well as an acidic catalyst in hydrolyzing cellobiose to glucose. Our experimental results, together with those obtained from a homogeneous acid catalyst (e.g. sulfuric acid) for comparison are provided. Having succeeded in finding an alternative solid acid catalyst for hydrolysis, we explored other solid resin or other homogeneous but non-enzyme catalyst to carry out the xylose-to-xylulose isomerization. A fairly extensive search has been made. We explored the use of sodium aluminates in the homogeneous phase isomerization of glucose to fructose and obtained a very high conversion of glucose to fructose with the final mixture containing 85% of fructose instead of the common 45%. Fructose apparently complexes with aluminates, and its equilibrium concentration is shifted to considerably higher values than permitted by simple glucose/fructose equilibrium. We have recently found a number of catalysts capable of promoting isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. One solid resin, known as polyvinyl pyridine (PVP), is able to convert xylose to xylulose at a pH below 7. Our usage of alternative isomerization catalysts, including PVP, are described.

Tsao, G.T.

1992-12-31

435

Characteristics of Lead Sorption by Zeolite Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead adsorption behavior was investigated using four Zeolite minerals (clinoptilolite, analcime, phillipsite and chabazite). The used Pb2+ concentrations were 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5 µmol mL-1. Results indicated that Pb2+ sorption followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, but over limited concentration ranges for clinoptilolite and analcime. The bindg energy (Kd) reached, 2.400 and 0.875 g L-1 for phillipsite and chabazite, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity for such minerals reached 208.33 and 204.08 mg g-1 with correlation coefficient (R2) reached, 0.997 and 0.995, respectively. Meanwhile, two stages for Pb2+adsorption were observed with clinoptilolite and analcime in the low and high concentrations of the applied Pb2+. Data also was applicable to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm over the used entire Pb2+ concentration ranges. The binding energy (n) reached, 1.014, 1.005, 1.001 and 1.001 g L-1 for clinoptilolite, analcime, phillipsite and chabazite, respectively. However, the b values (maximum adsorption capacity) reached 202.582, 201.651, 207.062 and 206.871 mg g-1 with correlation coefficient (R2) nearly one for all studying minerals, respectively. Desorption data indicated that most of the sorbed Pb2+ was extractedin the 1st extraction following the adsorption experiment. The ability of the used zeolite minerals to retain Pb2+ was high and there were differences between the studied minerals in sorption of Pb2+. In conclusion, data eliminated that, zeolite minerals especially, philipsite and chabazite, could be successfully used as packing material in subsurface reactive barriers intercepting ground water plumes and for fixed bed reactors designed to remove Pb2+ from industrial wastewater.

Al-Sewailem, M. S.

436

Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products.  

PubMed

Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100 degrees C and 130 degrees C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g(-1), respectively. PMID:20421244

Pimraksa, Kedsarin; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Setthaya, Naruemon

2010-12-01

437

Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites  

SciTech Connect

Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

Chmelka, B.F.

1989-12-01

438

Potential of Sustainable Hierarchical Zeolites in the Valorization of ?-Pinene.  

PubMed

In the valorization of ?-pinene, which is an important biomass intermediate derived from turpentine oil, hierarchical (mesoporous) zeolites represent a superior class of catalysts. Hierarchical USY, ZSM-5, and beta zeolites have been prepared, characterized, and catalytically evaluated, with the aim of combining the highest catalytic performance with the most sustainable synthetic protocol. These zeolites are prepared by alkaline treatment in aqueous solutions of NH4 OH, NaOH, diethylamine, and NaOH complemented with tetrapropylammonium bromide. The hierarchical USY zeolite is the most attractive catalyst of the tested series, and is able to combine an overall organic-free synthesis with an up to sixfold activity enhancement and comparable selectivity over the conventional USY zeolite. This superior performance relates to a threefold greater activity than that of the commercial standard, namely, H2 SO4 /TiO2 . Correlation of the obtained benefits to the amount of solid lost during the postsynthetic modifications highlights that the highest activity gains are obtained with minor leaching. Furthermore, a highly zeolitic character, as determined by bulk XRD, is beneficial, but not crucial, in the conversion of ?-pinene. The alkaline treatments not only result in a higher overall activity, but also a more functional external surface area, attaining up to four times the pinene conversions per square nanometer. The efficiency of the hierarchical USY zeolite is concomitantly demonstrated in the conversion of limonene and turpentine oil, which emphasizes its industrial potential. PMID:25736719

Nuttens, Nicolas; Verboekend, Danny; Deneyer, Aron; Van Aelst, Joost; Sels, Bert F

2015-04-13

439

Structure and properties of metal-exchanged zeolites studied using gradient-corrected and hybrid functionals. I. Structure and energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and energetic properties of purely siliceous, proton-, and Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite have been studied using periodic density-functional (DFT) calculations with both conventional gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals and hybrid functionals mixing exact (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and DFT exchange. Spin-polarized and fixed-moment calculations have been performed to determine the equilibrium and excited spin-configurations of the metal-exchanged chabazites. For the purely siliceous chabazite, hybrid functionals predict a slightly more accurate cell volume and lattice geometry. For isolated Al/Si substitution sites, gradient-corrected functionals predict that the lattice distortion induced by the substitution preserves the local tetrahedral symmetry, whereas hybrid functionals lead to a distorted Al coordination with two short and two long Al-O bonds. Hybrid functionals yield a stronger cation-framework binding that conventional functionals in metal-exchanged zeolites, they favor shorter cation-oxygen bonds and eventually also a higher coordination of the cation. Both types of functionals predict the same spin in the ground-state. The structural optimization of the excited spin-states shows that the formation of a high-spin configuration leads to a strong lattice relaxation and a weaker cation-framework bonding. For both Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite, the prediction of a preferred location of the cation in a six-membered ring of the zeolite agrees with experiment, but the energy differences between possible cation locations and the lattice distortion induced by the Al/Si substitution and the bonding of the cation depends quite significantly on the choice of the functional. All functionals predict similar energy differences for excited spin states. Spin-excitations are shown to be accompanied by significant changes in the cation coordination, which are more pronounced with hybrid functionals. The consequences of electronic spectra and chemical reactivity are analyzed in the following papers.

Göltl, Florian; Hafner, Jürgen

2012-02-01

440

Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

2010-01-01

441

Compositional dependence of infrared absorption spectra of crystalline silicates. III. Melilite solid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared optical properties and absorption spectra of the melilite solid solution series are reported. Melilite is a high-temperature condensate, and is expected to condense during the early phase of the condensation sequence. In this study, samples of the melilite solid solution series were newly synthesized between the aluminium end member (gehlenite) and the magnesium end member (åkermanite) at ~10% intervals in chemical composition, and the infrared absorption spectra of their samples were measured. Variation in the absorption features were detected: such variations include changes in numbers of absorption peaks, peak intensity, peak position, and peak width. The prominent absorption peaks appeared at 10-13 micron, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 30, 37 and in the 60 micron region. In particular, the 10 micron feature complex and the 60 micron broad features are very sensitive to chemical composition. For application to and implications for astronomical data, we focused on the 60 micron feature, and carried out a comparison with ISO data of NGC 6302. Our data set will supply the spectroscopic basis for the interpretation of astronomical data accumulated by space and ground based observatories such as ISO, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the AKARI (ASTRO-F) and the Subaru telescope.

Chihara, H.; Koike, C.; Tsuchiyama, A.

2007-03-01

442

Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

2003-01-01

443

29Si and 17O NMR investigation of the structure of some crystalline calcium silicate hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the structure of 17O-enriched, hydrothermally synthesized 1.1-nm tobermorite, 1.4-nm tobermorite, jennite, calciochondrodite, xonotlite, and hillebrandite, using 29Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, 1H-29Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR, and 17O MAS NMR. The 17O and most of the 1H-29Si CPMAS results are the first reported for these phases. Six

Xiandong Cong; R. James Kirkpatrick

1996-01-01

444

New Laboratory-Based Optical Functions of Cosmic Abundance Glass: Comparison to “Astronomical Silicates” and Application to Post-AGB Object HD 161796  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex refractive indices (optical functions) for amorphous silicates are used to model and interpret a wide variety of astrophysical environments including H II regions, circumstellar dust around evolved stars and in disks around young stellar objects (YSOs), and active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, the most widely-used optical functions in the literature have been derived using compositionally and structurally disparate materials, and were prepared with inconsistent methodology, kludging observational data and laboratory data with different experimental methods to populate the wavelength space. Furthermore, these previous optical functions often include portions derived from astronomical observations rather than laboratory spectra. New quantitative laboratory data are available to build up wavelength coverage for amorphous silicates in a more systematic way. We present optical functions and extinction cross-sections derived from mid-UV to far-IR laboratory transmission spectra of cosmic abundance silicate glass. The advantages of using these data are that our glass sample was synthesized especially with cosmic (solar) abundances in mind and excludes iron. We compare these results to other popular optical functions used to model amorphous silicates (e.g., “astronomical” or “cosmic” silicate by Draine & Lee 1984, Draine 2003, Ossenkopf et al. 1992), both directly and in application to HD 161796, a spherically symmetric, O-rich system with a visible central star, optically thin dust shell, and radiation field intermediate to AGB and PN class targets. The new cosmic silicate optical functions have much lower UV-vis and NIR opacity than the traditionally used functions necessitating significantly more dust (1 or 2 orders of magnitude for mass) to model an object like HD 161796. Furthermore, the lower opacity has an impact on the fraction of crystalline material needed to match the observed spectrum. Previous models produced using older optical functions will underestimate the dust mass and overestimate the importance of crystalline silicates. This work is supported through NSF AST-1009544 and NASA APRA04-000-0041.

Speck, Angela; Pitman, K. M.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.

2013-06-01

445

Silicate mineral dissolution during heap bioleaching.  

PubMed

Silicate minerals are present in association with metal sulfides in ores and their dissolution occurs when the sulfide minerals are bioleached in heaps for metal recovery. It has previously been suggested that silicate mineral dissolution can affect mineral bioleaching by acid consumption, release of trace elements, and increasing the viscosity of the leach solution. In this study, the effect of silicates present in three separate samples in conjunction with chalcopyrite and a complex multi-metal sulfide ore on heap bioleaching was evaluated in column bioreactors. Fe(2+) oxidation was inhibited in columns containing chalcopyrite samples A and C that leached 1.79 and 1.11 mM fluoride, respectively but not in sample B that contained 0.14 mM fluoride. Microbial Fe(2+) oxidation inhibition experiments containing elevated fluoride concentrations and measurements of fluoride release from the chalcopyrite ores supported that inhibition of Fe(2+) oxidation during column leaching of two of the chalcopyrite ores was due to fluoride toxicity. Column bioleaching of the complex sulfide ore was carried out at various temperatures (7-50 degrees C) and pH values (1.5-3.0). Column leaching at pH 1.5 and 2.0 resulted in increased acid consumption rates and silicate dissolution such that it became difficult to filter the leach solutions and for the leach liquor to percolate through the column. However, column temperature (at pH 2.5) only had a minor effect on the acid consumption and silicate dissolution rates. This study demonstrates the potential negative impact of silicate mineral dissolution on heap bioleaching by microbial inhibition and liquid flow. PMID:17705245

Dopson, Mark; Halinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rahunen, Nelli; Boström, Dan; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

2008-03-01

446

State of molybdenum ions in ultrastable Y zeolite  

SciTech Connect

The methods of diffuse-reflection optical spectroscopy and EPR were used to study the state of molybdenum in catalysts prepared by impregnating ultrastable zeolite with molybdenum salt solutions and by mixing in the solid phase with MoCl/sub 5/. It has been shown that molybdenum introduced into zeolites in small amounts is found basically in the form of isolated hexavalent ions of molybdenum. In addition, Mo/sup 5 +/ and Mo/sup 4 +/ ions are also present. Heteropolycompounds also form. The molybdenum ions are most readily reduced in the zeolite prepared by impregnation with a solution of ammonium paramolybdate.

Kupcha, L.A.; Rusak, M.F.; Kozlov, N.S.; Potapovich, A.K.; Urbanovich, I.I.

1987-10-01

447

Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite  

DOEpatents

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

1997-03-18

448

Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite  

DOEpatents

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

1997-01-01