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Sample records for csti high capacity

  1. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  2. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  3. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems - Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 years lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operation as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  4. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems: Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability, and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operations as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  5. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements are presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  6. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  7. The NASA CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  8. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  9. Programmatic status of NASA's CSTI high capacity power Stirling space power converter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. The status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) is discussed. Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs were completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. An update of progress in these technologies is provided.

  10. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  11. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarze, G.E. ); Niedra, J.M. ); Frasca, A.J. ); Wieserman, W.R. )

    1993-01-15

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets.

  12. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.; Frasca, A.J.; Wieserman, W.R.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  13. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  14. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  15. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  16. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  17. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  18. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  19. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell has been designed and tested to deliver high capacity at a C/1.5 discharge rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet made at a discharge rate this high in the 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters, performance, and future test plans are described.

  20. High capacity image barcodes using color separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan; Oztan, Basak; Sharma, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional barcodes are widely used for encoding data in printed documents. In a number of applications, the visual appearance of the barcode constitutes a fundamental restriction. In this paper, we propose high capacity color image barcodes that encode data in an image while preserving its basic appearance. Our method aims at high embedding rates and sacrifices image fidelity in favor of embedding robustness in regions where these two goals conflict with each other. The method operates by utilizing cyan, magenta, and yellow printing channels with elongated dots whose orientations are modulated in order to encode the data. At the receiver, by using the complementary sensor channels to estimate the colorant channels, data is extracted in each individual colorant channel. In order to recover from errors introduced in the channel, error correction coding is employed. Our simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve high encoding rates while preserving the appearance of the base image.

  1. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Hodges, Richard; Orr, Richard S.; Sands, O. Scott; Schuchman, Leonard; Vyas, Hemali

    2007-01-01

    High capacity communications from Martian distances, required for the envisioned human exploration and desirable for data-intensive science missions, is challenging. NASA s Deep Space Network currently requires large antennas to close RF telemetry links operating at kilobit-per-second data rates. To accommodate higher rate communications, NASA is considering means to achieve greater effective aperture at its ground stations. This report, focusing on the return link from Mars to Earth, demonstrates that without excessive research and development expenditure, operational Mars-to-Earth RF communications systems can achieve data rates up to 1 Gbps by 2020 using technology that today is at technology readiness level (TRL) 4-5. Advanced technology to achieve the needed increase in spacecraft power and transmit aperture is feasible at an only moderate increase in spacecraft mass and technology risk. In addition, both power-efficient, near-capacity coding and modulation and greater aperture from the DSN array will be required. In accord with these results and conclusions, investment in the following technologies is recommended:(1) lightweight (1 kg/sq m density) spacecraft antenna systems; (2) a Ka-band receive ground array consisting of relatively small (10-15 m) antennas; (3) coding and modulation technology that reduces spacecraft power by at least 3 dB; and (4) efficient generation of kilowatt-level spacecraft RF power.

  2. Development of high-capacity antimatter storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Smith, Gerald A.

    2000-01-01

    Space is vast. Over the next few decades, humanity will strive to send probes farther and farther into space to establish long baselines for interferometry, to visit the Kuiper Belt, to identify the heliopause, or to map the Oort cloud. In order to solve many of the mysteries of the universe or to explore the solar system and beyond, one single technology must be developed-high performance propulsion. In essence, future missions to deep space will require specific impulses between 50,000 and 200,000 seconds and energy densities greater than 1014 j/kg in order to accomplish the mission within the career lifetime of an individual, 40 years. Only two technologies available to mankind offer such performance-fusion and antimatter. Currently envisioned fusion systems are too massive. Alternatively, because of the high energy density, antimatter powered systems may be relatively compact. The single key technology that is required to enable the revolutionary concept of antimatter propulsion is safe, reliable, high-density storage. Under a grant from the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts, we have identified two potential mechanisms that may enable high capacity antimatter storage systems to be built. We will describe planned experiments to verify the concepts. Development of a system capable of storing megajoules per gram will allow highly instrumented platforms to make fast missions to great distances. Such a development will open the universe to humanity. .

  3. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell was designed and tested to deliver high capacity at steady discharge rates up to and including a C rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet of any type in a 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters and performance are described. Also covered is an episode of capacity fading due to electrode swelling and its successful recovery by means of additional activation procedures.

  4. High capacity heat pipe performance demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A high capacity heat pipe which will operate in one-g and in zero-g is investigated. An artery configuration which is self-priming in one-g was emphasized. Two artery modifications were evolved as candidates to achieve one-g priming and will provide the very high performance: the four artery and the eight artery configurations. These were each evaluated analytically for performance and priming capability. The eight artery configuration was found to be inadequate from a performance standpoint. The four artery showed promise of working. A five-inch long priming element test article was fabricated using the four artery design. Plexiglas viewing windows were made on each end of the heat pipe to permit viewing of the priming activity. The five-inch primary element would not successfully prime in one-g. Difficulties on priming in one-g raised questions about zero-g priming. Therefore a small test element heat pipe for verifying that the proposed configuration will self-prime in zero-g was fabricated and delivered.

  5. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  6. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2011-09-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  7. Efficient high-capacity steganography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Alan A.; Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2013-05-01

    Performance indicators characterizing modern steganographic techniques include capacity (i.e. the quantity of data that can be hidden in the cover medium), stego quality (i.e. artifacts visibility), security (i.e. undetectability), and strength or robustness (intended as the resistance against active attacks aimed to destroy the secret message). Fibonacci based embedding techniques have been researched and proposed in the literature to achieve efficient steganography in terms of capacity with respect to stego quality. In this paper, we investigated an innovative idea that extends Fibonacci-like steganography by bit-plane(s) mapping instead of bit-plane(s) replacement. Our proposed algorithm increases embedding capacity using bit-plane mapping to embed two bits of the secret message in three bits of a pixel of the cover, at the expense of a marginal loss in stego quality. While existing Fibonacci embedding algorithms do not use certain intensities of the cover for embedding due to the limitation imposed by the Zeckendorf theorem, our proposal solve this problem and make all intensity values candidates for embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique double the embedding capacity when compared to existing Fibonacci methods, and it is secure against statistical attacks such as RS, POV, and difference image histogram (DIH).

  8. High Five: Building Capacity for School Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullen, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, five North Carolina school districts combined forces with five corporate foundations to leverage their collective wisdom and develop regional strategies for school improvement. The result was the High Five Regional Partnership for High School Excellence, a corporate-public sector effort that had the common goal of improving graduation…

  9. High-capacity pressurized continuous chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Byers, C.H.; Sisson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. The feed material is continuously introduced at a stationary point at the top of the bed, and eluent is allowed to flow everywhere else around the annulus. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6-m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effects of annulus width and diameter have been studied using the same device with annulus widths up to 114.3 mm. With this largest width, approximately 96% of the area available within the outer cylinder is devoted to the rotating sorbent bed. Further annulus-width studies have been pursued on units with 89- and 445-mm diameters. These geometric extensions to the basic concept allow extremely large capacity increases with minimal loss in separation and no increase in chromatograph diameter. The effects associated with increased feed concentration have also been studied. In this effort as well as in the annulus-width program, the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution was studied in detail. The nickel and cobalt components are found in the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Nominally 50-..mu..m-diam Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchange resin was used as the bed material. The nickel concentration of the feed was varied tenfold, from 136.1 to approximately 1400 meq/L. The combined effects of the bed loading and annulus width were studied and compared with nonlinear theory. 17 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  10. High-capacity pressurized continuous chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Byers, C.H.; Sisson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. The feed material is continuously introduced at a stationary point at the top of the bed, and eluent is allowed to flow everywhere else around the annulus. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effects of annulus width and diameter have been studied using the same device with annulus widths up to 114.3 mm. With this largest width, approximately 96% of the area available within the outer cylinder is devoted to the rotating sorbent bed. Further annulus-width studies have been pursued on units with 89- and 445-mm diameters. These geometric extensions to the basic concept allow extremely large capacity increases with minimal loss in separation and no increase in chromatograph diameter. The effects associated with increased feed concentration have also been studied. In this effort as well as in the annulus-width program, the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution was studied in detail. The nickel and cobalt components are found in the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Nominally 50-..mu..m-diam Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchange resin was used as the bed material. The nickel concentration of the feed was varied tenfold, from 136.1 to approximately 1400 meq/L. The combined effects of the bed loading and annulus width were studied and compared with nonlinear theory. 9 figures, 1 table.

  11. High-capacity pressurized continuous chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Byers, C.H.; Sisson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. The feed material is continuously introduced at a stationary point at the top of the bed, and eluent is allowed to flow everwhere else around the annulus. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separation components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6-m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effects of annulus width and diameter have been studied using the same device with annulus widths up to 114.3 mm. With this largest width, approximately 96% of the area available within the outer cylinder is devoted to the rotating sorbent bed. Further annulus-width studies have been pursued on units with 89- and 445-mm diameters. These geometric extensions to the basic concept allow extremely large capacity increases with minimal loss in separation and no increase in chromatograph diameter. The effects associated with increased feed concentration have also been studied. In this effort as well as in the annulus-width program, the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution was studied in detail. The nickel and cobalt components are found in the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Nominally 50-..mu..m0-diam Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchange resin was used as the bed material. The nickel concentration of the feed was varied tenfold, from 136.1 to approximately 1400 meq/L. The combined effects of the bed loading and annulus width were studied and compared with nonlinear theory.

  12. [High intellectual capacity: perfectionism and metacognitive regulation].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2012-02-29

    The aim of this study is a better understanding of the high intellectual abilities. From the emergent paradigm, high intellectual abilities are understood as multidimensional and as the result of the life-span development, this is to say, not only the result of their neurobiological bases but of the interrelation among opportunity, personality, psychosocial factors and individual effort. This theoretical study analyses the differences between excellence and perfectionism, their types and incidence on high intellectual ability functioning. We propose a comparative view of the state of the art through recent research and their results referred to different types of perfectionism, their measure and relation with high intellectual abilities, its metacognitive regulation and its goal orientation. Finally, we propose a starting research comparing the relationship between perfectionism as a multidimensional cognitive pattern of functioning (positive or negative) and the measures of metacognitive performance. PMID:22374769

  13. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  14. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, D.J.

    1988-10-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays or storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  15. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  16. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays or storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  17. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  18. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  19. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal–Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3. PMID:24661065

  20. High Capacity Data Hiding in Binary Document Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhan, N. B.; Ho, A. T. S.; Sattar, F.

    In this paper, we propose a high capacity data hiding method in binary document images towards semi-fragile authentication. Achieving high capacity in binary images with strict imperceptibility criterion is found to be a difficult task. In this method, noise type pixels are selected for pixel-wise data embedding using a secret key. The data hiding process through pixel flipping introduces some background noise in watermarked images and could preserve relevant information. The reversible nature of noise pixel patterns used in flipping process enables blind detection and provides high watermark capacity illustrated in different test images. After extraction process, the background noise is removed to generate the noise-free version of the watermarked image.

  1. A high-capacity streptavidin-coated microtitration plate.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Lasse; Pettersson, Kim; Vehniäinen, Markus; Karp, Matti; Lövgren, Timo

    2003-01-01

    A majority of current immunoassays rely on capturing a specific analyte on a solid phase to allow the separation of the bound analyte from nonbound components. Streptavidin-coated microtitration plates are widely used for immobilization of capturing antibodies, since they provide a generic surface for immobilization of any biotinylated molecule and preserve biomolecule activity much better than direct passive adsorption. Our trials to further improve the properties of the plates resulted in a development of a modified plate, which has higher binding capacity than currently used control plate. The modified coat was prepared by cross-linking streptavidin chemically prior to adsorption onto the microtitration well surfaces. The binding capacities of the plates were measured with biotinylated, europium-labeled molecules and labeled antigen. The immunoassay performance of the plates was studied with noncompetitive, sandwich-type assays of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The maximum immobilization capacity of the modified plate was up to 2.5 times higher than that of the control plate. The higher binding capacity was especially emphasized with small-size molecules. The modified high capacity plate increased the linear ranges of the immunoassays and thus delayed the high-dose hook effect. At high antigen concentrations the signal increased up to 59%, and at the conventional linear ranges of the assays, the increase was up to 29%. We conclude that the modified coating method will be valuable for the future miniaturized systems, where high immobilization capacity is needed at limited areas. PMID:12526699

  2. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  3. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  4. Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.

    1973-01-01

    The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.

  5. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes. PMID:23836636

  6. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 108 tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes. PMID:23836636

  7. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.; Cerza, M. R., Jr.; Hall, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    High capacity honeycomb panel heat pipes were investigated as heat rejection radiators on future space platforms. Starting with a remnant section of honeycomb panel measuring 3.05-m long by 0.127-m wide that was originally designed and built for high-efficiency radiator fins, features were added to increase thermal transport capacity and thus permit test evaluation as an integral heat transport and rejection radiator. A series of subscale panels were fabricated and reworked to isolate individual enhancement features. Key to the enhancement was the addition of a liquid sideflow that utilizes pressure priming. A prediction model was developed and correlated with measured data, and then used to project performance to large, space-station size radiators. Results show that a honeycomb panel with 5.08-cm sideflow spacing and core modification will meet the design load of a 50 kW space heat rejection system.

  8. A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.

  9. High Capacity Two-Stage Coaxial Pulse Tube Cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaco, C.; Nguyen, T.; Tward, E.

    2008-03-01

    The High Capacity Cryocooler Qualification unit (HCCQ) provides large capacity cooling at both 35 K and 85 K for space applications in which focal planes and optics require cooling. The compressor is scaled from the High Energy Cryocooler (HEC) compressor and is capable of using input powers up to 700 W. The two coaxial pulse tube cold heads are integrated with the compressor into an integral cryocooler. A thermal strap between the cold heads improves efficiency and can be positioned to provide cooling for a wide range of applied loads. The cooler will be acceptance tested at space qualification levels that include thermal performance mapping over a range of reject temperatures and power levels and launch vibration testing.

  10. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2014-08-14

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3.

  11. High capacity, easy release adhesives from renewable materials.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael D; Crosby, Alfred J

    2014-06-01

    Reversible adhesives composed of renewable materials are presented which achieve high force capacities (810 N) while maintaining easy release (∼ 0.25 N) and reusability. These simple, non-tacky adhesives consist of natural rubber impregnated into stiff natural fiber fabrics, including cotton, hemp, and jute. This versatile approach enables a clear method for designs of environmentally-responsible, reversible adhesives for a wide variety of applications. PMID:24504650

  12. High capacity aerodynamic air bearing (HCAB) for laser scanning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Sean M.

    2005-08-01

    A high capacity aerodynamic air bearing (HCAB) has been developed for the laser scanning market. The need for increasing accuracies in the prepress and print plate-making market is causing a shift from ball bearing to air bearing scanners. Aerostatic air bearings are a good option to meet this demand for better performance however, these bearings tend to be expensive and require an additional air supply, filtering and drying system. Commercially available aerodynamic bearings have been typically limited to small mirrors, on the order of 3.5" diameter and less than 0.5" thick. A large optical facet, hence a larger mirror, is required to generate the high number of pixels needed for this type of application. The larger optic necessitated the development of a high capacity 'self-generating' or aerodynamic air bearing that would meet the needs of the optical scanning market. Its capacity is rated up to 6.0" diameter and 1.0" thick optics. The performance of an aerodynamic air bearing is better than a ball bearing and similar to an aerostatic air bearing. It retains the low costs while eliminating the need for ancillary equipment required by an aerostatic bearing.

  13. High capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Icart, Y.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    Absolut System has built several 50 K remote helium cooling loops used as high capacity and very low vibration cooling source into large wavelength IR detectors electro-optical characterization test benches. MgB2 based superconducting electro-technical equipment's under development require also distributed high cooling power in the 20-30 K temperature range. Absolut System has designed, manufactured and tested a high capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop. The equipment consists of a CRYOMECH AL325 type cooler, a CP830 type compressor package used as room temperature circulator and an intermediate LN2 bath cooling used between two recuperator heat exchangers (300 K-77 K and 77 K-20 K). A cooling capacity of 30 W @ 20 K or 80 W @ 30 K has been demonstrated on the application heat exchanger, with a 4-meter remote distance ensured by a specifically designed gas circulation flexible line. The design and the performance will be reported in this paper.

  14. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27411083

  15. Charged fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Wang, Enge; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-09-01

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we explore systematically the capacity of charged carbon fullerenes Cn (20 high electric field generated near the surface of the charged fullerene. At full hydrogen coverage, these charged fullerenes can gain storage capacities of up to approximately 8.0 wt %. We also find that, contrary to intuitive expectation, fullerenes containing encapsulated metal atoms only exhibit negligible enhancement in the hydrogen binding strength, because the charge donated by the metal atoms is primarily confined inside the fullerene cages. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage media. PMID:17718530

  16. Charged Fullerenes as High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Media

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Wang, Enge; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we explore systematically the capacity of charged carbon fullerenes Cn (20≤n≤84) as hydrogen storage media. We find that the binding strength of molecular hydrogen on either positively or negatively charged fullerenes can be dramatically enhanced to 0.18-0.32 eV, a desirable range for potential room-temperature, near ambient applications. The enhanced binding is delocalized in nature, surrounding the whole surface of a charged fullerene, and is attributed to the polarization of the hydrogen molecules by the high electric field generated near the surface of the charged fullerene. At full hydrogen coverage, these charged fullerenes can gain storage capacities of up to ~8.0wt%. We also find that, contrary to intuitive expectation, fullerenes containing intercalated metal atoms only exhibit negligible enhancement in the hydrogen binding strength, because the charge donated by the metal atoms is primarily confined inside the fullerene cages. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high capacity hydrogen storage media.

  17. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  18. High thermal-transport capacity heat pipes for space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Albert W.; Gustafson, Eric; Roukis, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests of several dual-slot heat pipe test articles. The dual-slot configuration has a very high thermal transport capability and has been identified as a very promising candidate for the radiator system for the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. Two six-foot long aluminum heat pipes were built and tested with ammonia and acetone. A 20-ft long heat pipe was also built and tested with ammonia. The test results have been compared with performance predictions. A thermal transport capacity of 2000 W at an adverse tilt of 1 in. and a 1000 W capacity at an adverse tilt of 2 in. were achieved on the 20-ft long heat pipe. These values are in close agreement with the predicted performance limits.

  19. Colloidal silica films for high-capacity DNA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Marc Irving

    The human genome project has greatly expanded the amount of genetic information available to researchers, but before this vast new source of data can be fully utilized, techniques for rapid, large-scale analysis of DNA and RNA must continue to develop. DNA arrays have emerged as a powerful new technology for analyzing genomic samples in a highly parallel format. The detection sensitivity of these arrays is dependent on the quantity and density of immobilized probe molecules. We have investigated substrates with a porous, "three-dimensional" surface layer as a means of increasing the surface area available for the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes, thereby increasing the number of available probes and the amount of detectable bound target. Porous colloidal silica films were created by two techniques. In the first approach, films were deposited by spin-coating silica colloid suspensions onto flat glass substrates, with the pores being formed by the natural voids between the solid particles (typically 23nm pores, 35% porosity). In the second approach, latex particles were co-deposited with the silica and then pyrolyzed, creating films with larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area. For 0.3 mum films, enhancements of eight to ten-fold and 12- to 14-fold were achieved with the pure silica films and the films "templated" with polymer latex, respectively. In gene expression assays for up to 7,000 genes using complex biological samples, the high-capacity films provided enhanced signals and performed equivalently or better than planar glass on all other functional measures, confirming that colloidal silica films are a promising platform for high-capacity DNA arrays. We have also investigated the kinetics of hybridization on planar glass and high-capacity substrates. Adsorption on planar arrays is similar to ideal Langmuir-type adsorption, although with an "overshoot" at high solution concentration. Hybridization on high-capacity films is

  20. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  1. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  2. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  3. High-capacity quantum Fibonacci coding for key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, David S.; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2013-03-01

    Quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution (QKD) have been the most successful applications of quantum information processing, highlighting the unique capability of quantum mechanics, through the no-cloning theorem, to securely share encryption keys between two parties. Here, we present an approach to high-capacity, high-efficiency QKD by exploiting cross-disciplinary ideas from quantum information theory and the theory of light scattering of aperiodic photonic media. We propose a unique type of entangled-photon source, as well as a physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. The key-sharing protocol combines entanglement with the mathematical properties of a recursive sequence to allow a realization of the physical conditions necessary for implementation of the no-cloning principle for QKD, while the source produces entangled photons whose orbital angular momenta (OAM) are in a superposition of Fibonacci numbers. The source is used to implement a particular physical realization of the protocol by randomly encoding the Fibonacci sequence onto entangled OAM states, allowing secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike in polarization-based protocols, reference frame alignment is unnecessary, while the required experimental setup is simpler than other OAM-based protocols capable of achieving the same capacity and its complexity grows less rapidly with increasing range of OAM used.

  4. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  5. High capacity color barcodes using dot orientation and color separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan; Monga, Vishal; Sharma, Gaurav

    2009-02-01

    Barcodes are widely utilized for embedding data in printed format to provide automated identification and tracking capabilities in a number of applications. In these applications, it is desirable to maximize the number of bits embedded per unit print area in order to either reduce the area requirements of the barcodes or to offer an increased payload, which in turn enlarges the class of applications for these barcodes. In this paper, we present a new high capacity color barcode. Our method operates by embedding independent data in two different printer colorant channels via halftone-dot orientation modulation. In the print, the dots of the two colorants occupy the same spatial region. At the detector, however, by using the complementary sensor channels to estimate the colorant channels we can recover the data in each individual colorant channel. The method therefore (approximately) doubles the capacity of encoding methods based on a single colorant channel and provides an embedding rate that is higher than other known barcode alternatives. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by experiments conducted on Xerographic printers. Data embedded at a high density by using the two cyan and yellow colorant channels for halftone dot orientation modulation is successfully recovered by using the red and blue channels for the detection, with an overall symbol error rate that is quite small.

  6. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  7. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction.

  8. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of performance enhancing the sandwich panel heat pipe was investigated for moderate temperature range heat rejection radiators on future-high-power spacecraft. The hardware development program consisted of performance prediction modeling, fabrication, ground test, and data correlation. Using available sandwich panel materials, a series of subscale test panels were augumented with high-capacity sideflow and temperature control variable conductance features, and test evaluated for correlation with performance prediction codes. Using the correlated prediction model, a 50-kW full size radiator was defined using methanol working fluid and closely spaced sideflows. A new concept called the hybrid radiator individually optimizes heat pipe components. A 2.44-m long hybrid test vehicle demonstrated proof-of-principle performance.

  9. Work capacity of permanent residents of high altitude.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Claudio; Marzorati, Mauro; Cerretelli, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Tibetan and Andean natives at altitude have allegedly a greater work capacity and stand fatigue better than acclimatized lowlanders. The principal aim of the present review is to establish whether convincing experimental evidence supports this belief and, should this be the case, to analyze the possible underlying mechanisms. The superior work capacity of high altitude natives is not based on differences in maximum aerobic power (V(O2 peak)), mL kg(-1)min(-1)). In fact, average V (O2 peak) of both Tibetan and Andean natives at altitude is only slightly, although not significantly, higher than that of Asian or Caucasian lowlanders resident for more than 1 yr between 3400 and 4700 m (Tibetans, n = 152, vs. Chinese Hans, n = 116: 42.4 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.2 +/- 2.6 mL kg(-1)min(-1), mean +/- SE; Andeans, n = 116, vs. Caucasians, n = 70: 47.1 +/- 1.7 vs. 41.6 +/- 1.2 mL kg(-1)min(-1)). However, compared to acclimatized lowlanders, Tibetans appear to be characterized by a better economy of cycling, walking, and running on a treadmill. This is possibly due to metabolic adaptations, such as increased muscle myoglobin content and antioxidant defense. All together, the latter changes may enhance the efficiency of the muscle oxidative metabolic machinery, thereby supporting a better prolonged submaximal performance capacity compared to lowlanders, despite equal V(O2 peak). With regard to Andeans, data on exercise efficiency is scanty and controversial and, at present, no conclusion can be drawn as to the origin of their superior performance. PMID:16764524

  10. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  11. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  12. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  13. Metal-diboride nanotubes as high capacity hydrogen storage media

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Sheng; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the potential for hydrogen storage of a new class of nanomaterials, metal-diboride nanotubes. These materials have the merits of high density of binding sites on the tubular surfaces without the adverse effects of metal clustering. Using the TiB2 (8,0) and (5,5) nanotube as prototype examples, we show through first-principles calculations that each Ti atom can host two intact H2 units, leading to a retrievable hydrogen storage capacity of 5.5 wt%. Most strikingly, the binding energies fall in the desirable range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2 molecule, endowing these structures with the potential for room temperature, near ambient pressure applications.

  14. Testing of a high capacity research heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests were performed on a high-capacity channel-wick heat pipe to assess the transport limitations of v-grooves and the effects of boiling. The results showed that transport can vary significantly (less than 50 W) under similar conditions and the continuous boiling was observed at power levels as low as 40 W. In addition, some evidence was found to support the predictions using a groove transport model which shows that transport increases with lower groove densities and longer evaporators. However, due to transport variations, these results were not consistent throughout the program. When a glass fiber wick was installed over the grooves, a relatively low transport level was achieved (80 to 140 W). Based on these results and the identification of some potential causes for them, several design suggestions were recommended for reducing the possibility of boiling and improving groove transport.

  15. Stable high capacity, F-actin affinity column

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, E.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Branton, D.; Taylor, D.L.

    1982-11-10

    A high capacity F-actin affinity matrix is constructed by binding fluorescyl-actin to rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG that is covalently bound to Sepharose 4B. When stabilized with phalloidin, the actin remains associated with the Sepharose beads during repeated washes, activates the ATPase activity of myosin subfragment 1, and specifically binds /sup 125/I-heavy meromyosin and /sup 125/I-tropomyosin. The associations between the F-actin-binding proteins are monitored both by affinity chromatography and by a rapid, low speed sedimentation assay. Anti-fluorescein IgG-Sepharose should be generally useful as a matrix for the immobilization of proteins containing accessible, covalently bound fluorescein groups.

  16. [High intellectual capacity, problem-solving and creativity].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia; Pascual-Sufrate, M Teresa

    2013-02-22

    The aim of the study is focused on the characteristics and components of creativity as a multidimensional construct in the context of intelligence, divergent thinking and problem solving, and their incorporation into the definition and explanation of intellectual functioning of giftedness and talent. It shows the progress of the investigation from the initial postulates of Guilford about the nature and cognitive processes involved in the creative act, its features and components, development and differential expression in the high intellectual ability, and the neurological correlates neuropsychological research is beginning to show. We present the results obtained with 41 participants with high intellectual capacity profiles of giftedness or talent of 6 to 14 years. We measure their cognitive skills through BADyG or DAT tests, and creative skills by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in two measuring points. Analyses show comparatively among high ability profiles: 1) the creative measurement stability between the two time points, 2) statistically significant differences between the creative components of fluency, flexibility and originality, related to the profiles of giftedness or talent (convergent or divergent), 3) the statistically significant changes among the scores of the creative components, at all ages studied. PMID:23446726

  17. Trajectory Specification for High-Capacity Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    In the current air traffic management system, the fundamental limitation on airspace capacity is the cognitive ability of human air traffic controllers to maintain safe separation with high reliability. The doubling or tripling of airspace capacity that will be needed over the next couple of decades will require that tactical separation be at least partially automated. Standardized conflict-free four-dimensional trajectory assignment will be needed to accomplish that objective. A trajectory specification format based on the Extensible Markup Language is proposed for that purpose. This format can be used to downlink a trajectory request, which can then be checked on the ground for conflicts and approved or modified, if necessary, then uplinked as the assigned trajectory. The horizontal path is specified as a series of geodetic waypoints connected by great circles, and the great-circle segments are connected by turns of specified radius. Vertical profiles for climb and descent are specified as low-order polynomial functions of along-track position, which is itself specified as a function of time. Flight technical error tolerances in the along-track, cross-track, and vertical axes define a bounding space around the reference trajectory, and conformance will guarantee the required separation for a period of time known as the conflict time horizon. An important safety benefit of this regimen is that the traffic will be able to fly free of conflicts for at least several minutes even if all ground systems and the entire communication infrastructure fail. Periodic updates in the along-track axis will adjust for errors in the predicted along-track winds.

  18. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  19. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    DOEpatents

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Wu, Yan

    2010-03-16

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  20. High-temperature heat capacity of YVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Chumilina, L. G.; Denisov, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The molar heat capacity of YVO4 has been measured as a function of temperature (363-1000 K). The thermodynamic properties of the oxide compound have been calculated from the experimental data. The generalized equation describing the temperature effect on the heat capacity of yttrium orthovanadate in the range of 25-1000 K has been derived.

  1. Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.

  2. Design of high-capacity fiber-optic transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhi Ming

    2001-08-01

    We study the design of fiber-optic transport systems and the behavior of fiber amplifiers/lasers with the aim of achieving higher capacities with larger amplifier spacing. Solitons are natural candidates for transmitting short pulses for high-capacity fiber-optic networks because of its innate ability to use two of fiber's main defects, fiber dispersion and fiber nonlinearity to balance each other. In order for solitons to retain its dynamic nature, amplifiers must be placed periodically to restore powers to compensate for fiber loss. Variational analysis is used to study the long-term stability of a periodical- amplifier system. A new regime of operation is identified which allows the use of a much longer amplifier spacing. If optical fibers are the blood vessels of an optical communication system, then the optical amplifier based on erbium-doped fiber is the heart. Optical communication systems can avoid the use of costly electrical regenerators to maintain system performance by being able to optically amplify the weakened signals. The length of amplifier spacing is largely determined by the gain excursion experienced by the solitons. We propose, model, and demonstrate a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier which can drastically reduce the amount of gain excursion experienced by the solitons, therefore allowing a much longer amplifier spacing and superior stability. Dispersion management techniques have become extremely valuable tools in the design of fiber-optic communication systems. We have studied in depth the advantage of different arnplification schemes (lumped and distributed) for various dispersion compensation techniques. We measure the system performance through the Q factor to evaluate the added advantage of effective noise figure and smaller gain excursion. An erbium-doped fiber laser has been constructed and characterized in an effort to develop a test bed to study transmission systems. The presence of mode-partition noise in an erbium

  3. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  4. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  5. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  6. New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are within a factor of 2 or so from realizing the maximum practical transmission capacity of conventional single-mode fibre transmission technology. It is therefore timely to consider new technological approaches offering the potential for more cost-effective scaling of network capacity than simply installing more and more conventional single-mode systems in parallel. In this paper, I review physical layer options that can be considered to address this requirement including the potential for reduction in both fibre loss and nonlinearity for single-mode fibres, the development of ultra-broadband fibre amplifiers and finally the use of space division multiplexing. PMID:26809569

  7. New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J

    2016-03-01

    Researchers are within a factor of 2 or so from realizing the maximum practical transmission capacity of conventional single-mode fibre transmission technology. It is therefore timely to consider new technological approaches offering the potential for more cost-effective scaling of network capacity than simply installing more and more conventional single-mode systems in parallel. In this paper, I review physical layer options that can be considered to address this requirement including the potential for reduction in both fibre loss and nonlinearity for single-mode fibres, the development of ultra-broadband fibre amplifiers and finally the use of space division multiplexing. PMID:26809569

  8. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  9. What Builds Student Capacity in an Alternative High School Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Good mental health is a learning enabler for adolescents, demonstrating a reciprocal relationship between mental health and learning outcomes. This article describes a Canadian participatory action research partnership between students, staff and a nurse researcher working together to explore student capacity-building experiences at an alternative…

  10. High capacity cryogel-type adsorbents for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Dsouza, Roy N; Grasselli, Mariano; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2014-08-15

    Cryogel bodies were modified to obtain epoxy groups by graft-copolymerization using both chemical and gamma irradiation initiation techniques. The free epoxy adsorbents were reacted further to introduce diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) functionalities. The resulting weak anion-exchange cryogel adsorbents showed dynamic binding capacities of ca. 27±3mg/mL, which was significantly higher than previously reported for this type of adsorbent material. Gamma irradiated grafting initiation showed a 4-fold higher capacity for proteins than chemical grafting initiation procedures. The phosphate capacity for these DEAE cryogels was 119mmol/L and also showed similar column efficiency as compared to commercial adsorbents. The large pores in the cryogel structure ensure convective transport of the molecules to active binding sites located on the polymer-grafted surface of cryogels. However, as cryogels have relatively large pores (10-100μm), the BET area available for surface activation is low, and consequently, the capacity of the cryogels is relatively low for biomolecules, especially when compared to commercial beaded adsorbents. Nevertheless, we have shown that gamma ray mediated surface grafting of cryogel matrices greatly enhance their functional and adsorptive properties. PMID:24980092

  11. High accuracy heat capacity measurements through the lambda transition of helium with very high temperature resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, W. M.; Lipa, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement of the heat capacity singularity of helium at the lambda transition was performed with the aim of improving tests of the Renormalization Group (RG) predictions for the static thermodynamic behavior near the singularity. The goal was to approach as closely as possible to the lambda-point while making heat capacity measurements of high accuracy. To do this, a new temperature sensor capable of unprecedented resolution near the lambda-point, and two thermal control systems were used. A short description of the theoretical background and motivation is given. The initial apparatus and results are also described.

  12. An overview of the Lewis Research Center CSTI thermal management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated multi-element project effort, currently being carried out at NASA LeRC, for the development of space heat rejection subsystems, with special emphasis on lightweight radiators, in support of SEI power system technology, and in particular the SP-100 program, is reported. Principal project elements include both contracted and in-house efforts. Included in the first category are two contracts aimed at the development of advanced radiator concepts, and demonstration of a flexible fabric heat pipe radiator concept. In-house work is designed to guide and support the overall program by system integration studies, heat pipe testing and analytical code development, radiator surface morphology alteration for emissivity enhancement, and composite materials research focused on the development of lightweight high conductivity fins.

  13. CSTI Earth-to-orbit propulsion research and technology program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA supports a vigorous Earth-to-orbit (ETO) research and technology program as part of its Civil Space Technology Initiative. The purpose of this program is to provide an up-to-date technology base to support future space transportation needs for a new generation of lower cost, operationally efficient, long-lived and highly reliable ETO propulsion systems by enhancing the knowledge, understanding and design methodology applicable to advanced oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/hydrocarbon ETO propulsion systems. Program areas of interest include analytical models, advanced component technology, instrumentation, and validation/verification testing. Organizationally, the program is divided between technology acquisition and technology verification as follows: (1) technology acquisition; and (2) technology verification.

  14. A high-capacity hydrophobic adsorbent for human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Belew, M; Peterson, E A; Porath, J

    1985-12-01

    A simple method, based on salting out hydrophobic interaction chromatography, for the efficient removal of trace amounts of serum albumin from partially purified protein preparations is described. The method is also successfully applied for the purification of albumin from Cohn fraction IV, a by-product obtained from the commercial fractionation of human serum proteins by the ethanol precipitation procedure. About 70% of the adsorbed albumin can be eluted by buffer of low ionic strength and can thus be lyophilized directly, if required. The adsorbent can be used for several cycles of adsorption and desorption without affecting its selectivity or capacity. Its adsorption properties and capacity for serum albumin are compared with those of the commercially available adsorbent Blue Sepharose CL-6B. PMID:3879424

  15. Porous graphene for high capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Zhang, Qiaoli; Jia, Min; Yang, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on density functional theory calculations, we studied the Li dispersed on porous graphene (PG) for its application as Li ion battery anode material. The hybridization of Li atoms and the carbon atoms enhanced the interaction between Li atoms and the PG. With holes of specific size, the PG can provide excellent mobility with moderate barriers of 0.37-0.39 eV. The highest Li storage composite can be LiC0.75H0.38 which corresponds to a specific capacity of 2857.7 mA h/g. Both specific capacity and binding energy are significantly larger than the corresponding value of graphite, this makes PG a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications. The interactions between the Li atoms and PG can be easily tuned by an applied strain. Under biaxial strain of 16%, the binding energy of Li to PG is increased by 17% compared to its unstrained state.

  16. Bacteriorhodopsin as a high-resolution, high-capacity buffer for digital holographic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, D. H.; Koek, W. D.; Juchem, T.; Hampp, N.; Coupland, J. M.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2004-04-01

    Recent trends in optical metrology suggest that, in order for holographic measurement to become a widespread tool, it must be based on methods that do not require physical development of the hologram. While digital holography has been successfully demonstrated in recent years, unfortunately the limited information capacity of present electronic sensors, such as CCD arrays, is still many orders of magnitude away from directly competing with the high-resolution silver halide plates used in traditional holography. As a result, present digital holographic methods with current electronic sensors cannot record object sizes larger than several hundred microns at high resolution. In this paper, the authors report on the use of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) for digital holography to overcome these limitations. In particular, BR is a real-time recording medium with an information capacity (5000 line-pairs/mm) that even exceeds high resolution photographic film. As such, a centimetre-square area of BR film has the same information capacity of several hundred state-of-the-art CCD cameras. For digital holography, BR temporarily holds the hologram record so that its information content can be digitized for numeric reconstruction. In addition, this paper examines the use of BR for optical reconstruction without chemical development. When correctly managed, it is found that BR is highly effective, in terms of both quality and process time, for three-dimensional holographic measurements. Consequently, several key holographic applications, based on BR, are proposed in this paper.

  17. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  18. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  19. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-02-01

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state 13C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g-1) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g-1) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO2 adsorption.

  20. Experiences and challenges running CERN's high capacity tape archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Germán; Bahyl, Vladimír; Kruse, Daniele Francesco; Leduc, Julien; Cano, Eric; Murray, Steven

    2015-12-01

    CERN's tape-based archive system has collected over 70 Petabytes of data during the first run of the LHC. The Long Shutdown is being used for migrating the complete 100 Petabytes data archive to higher-density tape media. During LHC Run 2, the archive will have to cope with yearly growth rates of up to 40-50 Petabytes. In this contribution, we describe the scalable setup for coping with the storage and long-term archival of such massive data amounts. We also review the challenges resulting and mechanisms devised for measuring and enhancing availability and reliability, as well as ensuring the long-term integrity and bit-level preservation of the complete data repository. The procedures and tools for the proactive and efficient operation of the tape infrastructure are described, including the features developed for automated problem detection, identification and notification. Finally, we present an outlook in terms of future capacity requirements growth and how it matches the expected tape technology evolution.

  1. Retinal transduction profiles by high-capacity viral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, Agostina; Cesi, Giulia; Marrocco, Elena; Piccolo, Pasquale; Jacca, Sarah; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.; Parks, Robin J.; Davidson, Beverly L.; Colloca, Stefano; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Ng, Philip; Donofrio, Gaetano; Auricchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. However, the limited cargo capacity of AAV prevents their use for therapy of those inherited retinopathies (IRs) due to mutations in large (>5kb) genes. Viral vectors derived from Adenovirus (Ad), Lentivirus (LV) and Herpesvirus (HV) can package large DNA sequences but do not target efficiently retinal photoreceptors (PRs) where the majority of genes responsible for IRs are expressed. Here, we have evaluated the mouse retinal transduction profiles of vectors derived from 16 different Ad serotypes, 7 LV pseudotypes, and from a bovine HV. Most of the vectors tested transduced efficiently the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We found that LV-GP64 tends to transduce more PRs than the canonical LV-VSVG albeit this was restricted to a narrow region. We observed more extensive PR transduction with HdAd1, 2 and 5/F35++ than with LV, although none of them outperformed the canonical HdAd5 or matched the extension of PR transduction achieved with AAV2/8. PMID:24989814

  2. Superimposed nanostructured diffraction gratings as high capacity barcodes for biological and chemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birtwell, S. W.; Galitonov, G. S.; Morgan, H.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2008-04-01

    We describe a new non-contact high capacity optical tagging technique for bead based assays, based on the use of nanostructured barcodes. The tags are generated from a number of superimposed diffraction gratings. With one-dimensional diffraction, capacity for up to 68,000 distinguishable tags has been demonstrated, with a theoretical capacity of up to 10 9 tags. Extension into two dimensions increases this theoretical limit to 10 21 tags.

  3. Development of a high capacity longwall conveyor. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C

    1982-05-01

    The objectives of this program were to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a longwall conveying system capable of transporting coal at a rate of 9000 tons/day (1000 tons/hr) and capable of accommodating a surge rate of 20 tons/min. The equipment was required to have the structural durability to perform with an operating availability of 90%. A review of available literature and discussions with longwall operators identified the problem areas of conveyor design that required attention. The conveyor under this contract was designed and fabricated with special attention given to these areas, and also to be easily maintainable. The design utilized twin 300 hp drives and twin inboard 26-mm chain at 270 ft/min; predictions of capacity and reliability based on the design indicating that it would satisfy the program requirements. Conveyor components were critically tested and the complete conveyor was surface-tested, the results verifying the design specifications. In addition, an instrumentation system was developed with analysis by computer techniques to monitor the performance of the conveyor. The conveyor was installed at a selected mine site, and it was the intention to monitor its performance over the entire longwall panel. Monitoring of the conveyor performance was conducted over approximately one-third of the longwall panel, at which point further effort was suspended. However, during the monitored period, data collected from various sources showed the conveyor to have exhibited its capability of transporting coal at the desired rate, and also to have conformed to the program requirements of reliability and availability.

  4. Deceleration and acceleration capacities of heart rate associated with heart failure with high discriminating performance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Jin, Xian; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Qiang; Yin, Guizhi; Lu, Yi; Xiao, Hongbing; Chen, Yueguang; Zhang, Dadong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurements of autonomic nerve regulation in heart failure (HF) were unresolved. The discriminating performance of deceleration and acceleration capacities of heart rate in HF was evaluated in 130 HF patients and 212 controls. Acceleration capacity and deceleration capacity were independent risk factors for HF in males, evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, with odds ratios (ORs) of 5.94 and 0.13, respectively. Acceleration capacity was also an independent risk factor for HF in females, with an OR of 8.58. Deceleration capacity was the best cardiac electrophysiological index to classify HF in males, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.88. Deceleration capacity was the best classification factor of HF in females with an AUC of 0.97, significantly higher than even left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Acceleration capacity also showed high performance in classifying HF in males (0.84) and females (0.92). The cut-off values of deceleration capacity for HF classification in males and females were 4.55 ms and 4.85 ms, respectively. The cut-off values of acceleration capacity for HF classification in males and females were −6.15 ms and −5.75 ms, respectively. Our study illustrates the role of acceleration and deceleration capacity measurements in the neuro-pathophysiology of HF. PMID:27005970

  5. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  6. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  7. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Gang; Haran, Bala; Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade of Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled using different discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. The capacity losses were estimated after 300 cycles at 2 C and 3 C discharge rates and were found to be 13.2 and 16.9% of the initial capacity, respectively. At 1 C discharge rate the capacity lost was only 9.5%. The cell cycled at high discharge rate (3 C) showed the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of the fresh cells. The rate capability losses were proportional with the increase of discharge rates. Half-cell study and material and charge balances were used to quantify the capacity fade due to the losses of primary active material (Li +), the secondary active material (LiCoO 2/C)) and rate capability losses. It was found that carbon with 10.6% capacity loss after 300 cycles dominates the capacity fade of the whole cell at high discharge rates (3 C). A mechanism is proposed which explains the capacity fade at high discharge rates.

  8. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species.

    PubMed

    Krainyukova, Nina V; Zubarev, Evgeniy N

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from sp^{2}-bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites. PMID:26894716

  9. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  10. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  11. Large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, R.W.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.; Suehiro, S.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK8600 2048K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron x-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources.

  12. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

    2006-10-01

    This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

  13. Response of standard and high-capacity HEPA filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.

    1982-03-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the response of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients. Most of the tests were directed toward evaluating the structural response of high-capacity filters to explosive transients. Selected tests were performed to evaluate the effects of particulate loading on filtration efficiencies. Also, several of the high-capacity filters were subjected to simulated toronado transients. The results indicate that the upper structural limits of high-capacity filters for explosive loading is 6.89-kPa (1-psi) peak pressure and 100-kPa-ms (14.51-psi-ms) impulse. These limits are below the approximately 13.78-kPa (2-psi) peak pressure loadings found for standard HEPA filters. Tests of high-capacity filters preloaded with aerosol indicated that the structural limits were further degraded by approximately 40%. The filtration efficiencies were degraded to approximately 70% when the filters were subjected to aerosol entrained within the shock pulse. The effect of simulated tornado transients on high-capacity filters resulted in an upper structural limit of 11.02 kPa (1.6 psi) for peak pressure.

  14. High-Capacity Layered-Spinel Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Levi, Elena; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Mikhael; Markovsky, Boris; Munichandraiah, N; Sun, Yang Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Li and Mn-rich layered oxides with the general structure x Li2 MnO3 ⋅(1-x) LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacity, which may be greater than 250 mA h g(-1) . However, these materials suffer from high first-cycle irreversible capacity, gradual capacity fading, limited rate capability and discharge voltage decay upon cycling, which prevent their commercialization. The decrease in average discharge voltage is a major issue, which is ascribed to a structural layered-to-spinel transformation upon cycling of these oxide cathodes in wide potential ranges with an upper limit higher than 4.5 V and a lower limit below 3 V versus Li. By using four elements systems (Li, Mn, Ni, O) with appropriate stoichiometry, it is possible to prepare high capacity composite cathode materials that contain LiMn1.5 Ni0.5 O4 and Lix Mny Niz O2 components. The Li and Mn-rich layered-spinel cathode materials studied herein exhibit a high specific capacity (≥200 mA h g(-1) ) with good capacity retention upon cycling in a wide potential domain (2.4-4.9 V). The effect of constituent phases on their electrochemical performance, such as specific capacity, cycling stability, average discharge voltage, and rate capability, are explored here. This family of materials can provide high specific capacity, high rate capability, and promising cycle life. Using Co-free cathode materials is also an obvious advantage of these systems. PMID:27530465

  15. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ridenhour, Suzanne E; Shukla, Shivendra D; Thyfault, John P; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide "metabolic protection" from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  16. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R. Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M.; Ridenhour, Suzanne E.; Shukla, Shivendra D.; Thyfault, John P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide “metabolic protection” from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  17. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity... Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-10 High expansion... as high expansion foam for a period of approximately 20 minutes shall be not less than 0.06...

  18. High capacity image steganography method based on framelet and compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Moyan; He, Zhibiao

    2015-12-01

    To improve the capacity and imperceptibility of image steganography, a novel high capacity and imperceptibility image steganography method based on a combination of framelet and compressive sensing (CS) is put forward. Firstly, SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) transform to measurement values obtained by compressive sensing technique to the secret data. Then the singular values in turn embed into the low frequency coarse subbands of framelet transform to the blocks of the cover image which is divided into non-overlapping blocks. Finally, use inverse framelet transforms and combine to obtain the stego image. The experimental results show that the proposed steganography method has a good performance in hiding capacity, security and imperceptibility.

  19. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, Georg; George, E. Victor; Krupke, William F.; Sooy, Walter; Sutton, Steven B.

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  20. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  1. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  2. Highly precise experimental device for determining the heat capacity of liquids under pressure.

    PubMed

    González-Salgado, D; Valencia, J L; Troncoso, J; Carballo, E; Peleteiro, J; Romaní, L; Bessières, D

    2007-05-01

    An experimental device for making isobaric heat capacity measurements of liquids under pressure is presented. The device is an adaptation of the Setaram micro-DSC II atmospheric-pressure microcalorimeter, including modifications of vessels and a pressure line allowing the pressure in the measurement system to be set, controlled, and stabilized. The high sensitivity of the apparatus combined with a suitable calibration procedure allows very accurate heat capacity measurements under pressure to be made. The relative uncertainty in the isobaric molar heat capacity measurements provided by the new device is estimated to be 0.08% at atmospheric pressure and 0.2% at higher levels. The device was validated from isobaric molar heat capacity measurements for hexane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, and tridecane, all of which were highly consistent with reported data. It also possesses a high sensitivity as reflected in its response to changes in excess isobaric molar heat capacity with pressure, which were examined in this work for the first time by making heat capacity measurements throughout the composition range of the 1-hexanol+n-hexane system. Finally, preliminary measurements at several pressures near the critical conditions for the nitromethane+2-butanol binary system were made that testify to the usefulness of the proposed device for studying critical phenomena in liquids under pressure. PMID:17552856

  3. High-capacity, transient retention of direction-of-motion information for multiple moving objects

    PubMed Central

    Shooner, Christopher; Tripathy, Srimant P.; Bedell, Harold E.; Öğmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    The multiple-object tracking paradigm (MOT) has been used extensively for studying dynamic visual attention, but the basic mechanisms which subserve this capability are as yet unknown. Among the unresolved issues surrounding MOT are the relative importance of motion (as opposed to positional) information and the role of various memory mechanisms. We sought to quantify the capacity and dynamics for retention of direction-of-motion information when viewing a multiple-object motion stimulus similar to those used in MOT. Observers viewed three to nine objects in random linear motion and then reported motion direction after motion ended. Using a partial-report paradigm and varying the parameters of set size and time of retention, we found evidence for two complementary memory systems, one transient with high capacity and a second sustained system with low capacity. For the transient high-capacity memory, retention capacity was equally high whether object motion lasted several seconds or a fraction of a second. Also, a graded deterioration in performance with increased set size lends support to a flexible-capacity theory of MOT. PMID:20884557

  4. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostini, M.D.

    2000-06-02

    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  5. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  6. Silicon nano-trees as high areal capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveau, Lucie; Laïk, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre; Gohier, Aurélien; Tran-Van, Pierre; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin

    2016-06-01

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have attracted attention as a potential candidate for high capacity anode in lithium-ion batteries, thanks to their high specific capacity and their ability to accommodate silicon volume changes upon cycling. However, the silicon amount deposited on these nanostructured electrodes is generally low and leads to low surface capacities. Here, a new structure is proposed to increase the areal density of silicon on the electrode. A second growth of secondary nanowires on a silicon nanowires electrode leads to a "nano-tree" structure with surface capacities between 1.8 and 7.1 mAh cm-2. These high loaded electrodes maintain very good rate capabilities and a rather stable cycling is observed for the intermediate loadings, with a capacity maintained above 2 mAh cm-2 after 100 cycles at C/5. This paper provides evidence of a successful synthesis of high loaded silicon electrodes for practical applications, of which the electrochemical performances outperform those of graphite commercial anodes.

  7. Reversible anionic redox chemistry in high-capacity layered-oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sathiya, M; Rousse, G; Ramesha, K; Laisa, C P; Vezin, H; Sougrati, M T; Doublet, M-L; Foix, D; Gonbeau, D; Walker, W; Prakash, A S; Ben Hassine, M; Dupont, L; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-09-01

    Li-ion batteries have contributed to the commercial success of portable electronics and may soon dominate the electric transportation market provided that major scientific advances including new materials and concepts are developed. Classical positive electrodes for Li-ion technology operate mainly through an insertion-deinsertion redox process involving cationic species. However, this mechanism is insufficient to account for the high capacities exhibited by the new generation of Li-rich (Li(1+x)Ni(y)Co(z)Mn(1-x-y-z)O₂) layered oxides that present unusual Li reactivity. In an attempt to overcome both the inherent composition and the structural complexity of this class of oxides, we have designed structurally related Li₂Ru(1-y)Sn(y)O₃ materials that have a single redox cation and exhibit sustainable reversible capacities as high as 230 mA h g(-1). Moreover, they present good cycling behaviour with no signs of voltage decay and a small irreversible capacity. We also unambiguously show, on the basis of an arsenal of characterization techniques, that the reactivity of these high-capacity materials towards Li entails cumulative cationic (M(n+)→M((n+1)+)) and anionic (O(2-)→O₂(2-)) reversible redox processes, owing to the d-sp hybridization associated with a reductive coupling mechanism. Because Li₂MO₃ is a large family of compounds, this study opens the door to the exploration of a vast number of high-capacity materials. PMID:23852398

  8. Reversible anionic redox chemistry in high-capacity layered-oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiya, M.; Rousse, G.; Ramesha, K.; Laisa, C. P.; Vezin, H.; Sougrati, M. T.; Doublet, M.-L.; Foix, D.; Gonbeau, D.; Walker, W.; Prakash, A. S.; Ben Hassine, M.; Dupont, L.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2013-09-01

    Li-ion batteries have contributed to the commercial success of portable electronics and may soon dominate the electric transportation market provided that major scientific advances including new materials and concepts are developed. Classical positive electrodes for Li-ion technology operate mainly through an insertion-deinsertion redox process involving cationic species. However, this mechanism is insufficient to account for the high capacities exhibited by the new generation of Li-rich (Li1+xNiyCozMn(1-x-y-z)O2) layered oxides that present unusual Li reactivity. In an attempt to overcome both the inherent composition and the structural complexity of this class of oxides, we have designed structurally related Li2Ru1-ySnyO3 materials that have a single redox cation and exhibit sustainable reversible capacities as high as 230 mA h g-1. Moreover, they present good cycling behaviour with no signs of voltage decay and a small irreversible capacity. We also unambiguously show, on the basis of an arsenal of characterization techniques, that the reactivity of these high-capacity materials towards Li entails cumulative cationic (Mn+→M(n+1)+) and anionic (O2-→O22-) reversible redox processes, owing to the d-sp hybridization associated with a reductive coupling mechanism. Because Li2MO3 is a large family of compounds, this study opens the door to the exploration of a vast number of high-capacity materials.

  9. High Volumetric Capacity Three-Dimensionally Sphere-Caged Secondary Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Chen, Xi; Kim, Jinwoo; Zheng, Qiye; Ning, Hailong; Sun, Pengcheng; Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Niu, Junjie; Braun, Paul V

    2016-07-13

    High volumetric energy density secondary batteries are important for many applications, which has led to considerable efforts to replace the low volumetric capacity graphite-based anode common to most Li-ion batteries with a higher energy density anode. Because most high capacity anode materials expand significantly during charging, such anodes must contain sufficient porosity in the discharged state to enable the expansion, yet not excess porosity, which lowers the overall energy density. Here, we present a high volumetric capacity anode consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite formed in only a few steps which includes both a 3D structured Sn scaffold and a hollow Sn sphere within each cavity where all the free Sn surfaces are coated with carbon. The anode exhibits a high volumetric capacity of ∼1700 mA h cm(-3) over 200 cycles at 0.5C, and a capacity greater than 1200 mA h cm(-3) at 10C. Importantly, the anode can even be formed into a commercially relevant ∼100 μm thick form. When assembled into a full cell the anode shows a good compatibility with a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode. In situ TEM observations confirm the electrode design accommodates the necessary volume expansion during lithiation. PMID:27322627

  10. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  11. Potential impacts of advanced technologies on the ATC capacity of high-density terminal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.; Odoni, A. R.; Salas-Roche, F.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced technologies for airborne systems (automatic flight control, flight displays, navigation) and for ground ATC systems (digital communications, improved surveillance and tracking, automated decision-making) create the possibility of advanced ATC operations and procedures which can bring increased capacity for runway systems. A systematic analysis is carried out to identify certain such advanced ATC operations, and then to evaluate the potential benefits occurring over time at typical US high-density airports (Denver and Boston). The study is divided into three parts: (1) A Critical Examination of Factors Which Determine Operational Capacity of Runway Systems at Major Airports, is an intensive review of current US separation criteria and terminal area ATC operations. It identifies 11 new methods to increase the capacity of landings and takeoffs for runway systems; (2) Development of Risk Based Separation Criteria is the development of a rational structure for establishing reduced ATC separation criteria which meet a consistent Target Level of Safety using advanced technology and operational procedures; and (3) Estimation of Capacity Benefits from Advanced Terminal Area Operations - Denver and Boston, provides an estimate of the overall annual improvement in runway capacity which might be expected at Denver and Boston from using some of the advanced ATC procedures developed in Part 1. Whereas Boston achieved a substantial 37% increase, Denver only achieved a 4.7% increase in its overall annual capacity.

  12. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

  13. Transient response of a high-capacity heat pipe for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, J. H.; Holmes, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-capacity heat pipe radiator panels have been proposed as the primary means of heat rejection for Space Station Freedom. In this system, the heat pipe would interface with the thermal bus condensers. Changes in system heat load can produce large temperature and heat load variations in individual heat pipes. Heat pipes could be required to start from an initially cold state, with heat loads temporarily exceeding their low-temperature transport capacity. The present research was motivated by the need for accurate prediction of such transient operating conditions. In this work, the cold startup of a 6.7-meter long high-capacity heat pipe is investigated experimentally and analytically. A transient thermohydraulic model of the heat pipe was developed which allows simulation of partially-primed operation. The results of cold startup tests using both constant temperature and constant heat flux evaporator boundary conditions are shown to be in good agreement with predicted transient response.

  14. Enhanced Dissociation of Intact Proteins with High Capacity Electron Transfer Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Mullen, Christopher; Weisbrod, Chad R.; Sharma, Seema; Senko, Michael W.; Zabrouskov, Vlad; Westphall, Michael S.; Syka, John E. P.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-03-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a valuable tool for protein sequence analysis, especially for the fragmentation of intact proteins. However, low product ion signal-to-noise often requires some degree of signal averaging to achieve high quality MS/MS spectra of intact proteins. Here we describe a new implementation of ETD on the newest generation of quadrupole-Orbitrap-linear ion trap Tribrid, the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, for improved product ion signal-to-noise via ETD reactions on larger precursor populations. In this new high precursor capacity ETD implementation, precursor cations are accumulated in the center section of the high pressure cell in the dual pressure linear ion trap prior to charge-sign independent trapping, rather than precursor ion sequestration in only the back section as is done for standard ETD. This new scheme increases the charge capacity of the precursor accumulation event, enabling storage of approximately 3-fold more precursor charges. High capacity ETD boosts the number of matching fragments identified in a single MS/MS event, reducing the need for spectral averaging. These improvements in intra-scan dynamic range via reaction of larger precursor populations, which have been previously demonstrated through custom modified hardware, are now available on a commercial platform, offering considerable benefits for intact protein analysis and top down proteomics. In this work, we characterize the advantages of high precursor capacity ETD through studies with myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.

  15. Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. PMID:21916442

  16. Principals Fostering the Instructional Leadership Capacities of Department Chairs: A Strategy for Urban High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klar, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature has highlighted the affordances of distributive forms of instructional leadership as a means to broaden and deepen instructional leadership capacity within schools. Yet, specifically how the capabilities of such key leaders as high school department chairs can be fostered to realize enhanced instructional capacity…

  17. Rewritable multicolor fluorescent patterns for multistate memory devices with high data storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhisong; Liu, Yingshuai; Hu, Weihua; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-09-14

    We report a branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI)-quantum dot (QD) based rewritable fluorescent system with a multicolor recording mode, in which BPEI is both QD-multicolor patterning "writer" and data erasing "remover". This method could write distinct colors from size-tailored QDs to represent large numbers of logic states for high data storage capacity. PMID:21796321

  18. Printed microelectrodes for scalable, high-areal-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Milroy, Craig; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-03-10

    Printed microelectrodes for lithium-sulfur cathodes are produced with aqueous inks and a one-step printing process. The cathodes exhibit high areal capacities of ≥5 mA h cm(-2) for 50 cycles and withstand ≥500 cycles. This performance meets energy-storage benchmarks for powering microdevices, and presents a strategic option for future microbatteries. PMID:26833188

  19. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  20. A NbO-type metal-organic framework exhibiting high deliverable capacity for methane storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengling; Ling, Yajing; Feng, Yunlong; Zhou, Wei; Yildirim, Taner; He, Yabing

    2015-05-18

    A copper-based NbO-type metal-organic framework constructed from a tetracarboxylate incorporating phenylethyne as a spacer exhibited an exceptionally high methane working capacity of 184 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for methane storage. The value is among the highest reported for MOF materials. PMID:25892102

  1. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  2. Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Anqiang; Zhang, Jiguang; Cao, Guozhong; Liang, Shu-quan; Wang, Chong M.; Nie, Zimin; Arey, Bruce W.; Xu, Wu; Liu, Dawei; Xiao, Jie; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun

    2011-07-21

    Highly stable LiV3O8 with a nanosheet-structure was successfully prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer in the precursor solution as the structure modifying agent, followed by calcination in air at 400oC, 450oC, 500oC, and 550oC. These materials provide the best electrochemical performance ever reported for LiV3O8 crystalline electrodes, with a specific discharge capacity of 260 mAh g-1 and no capacity fading over 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1. The excellent cyclic stability and high specific discharge capacity of the material are attributed to the novel nanosheets structure formed in LiV3O8. These LiV3O8 nanosheets are good candidates for cathode materials for high-energy lithium battery applications.

  3. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks with High Methane Deliverable Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Martin, Richard; Simon, Cory; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend; Deem, Michael; Deem Team; Haranczyk Team; Smit Team

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a rapidly emerging class of nanoporous materials with largely tunable chemistry and diverse applications in gas storage, gas purification, catalysis, etc. Intensive efforts are being made to develop new MOFs with desirable properties both experimentally and computationally in the past decades. To guide experimental synthesis with limited throughput, we develop a computational methodology to explore MOFs with high methane deliverable capacity. This de novo design procedure applies known chemical reactions, considers synthesizability and geometric requirements of organic linkers, and evolves a population of MOFs with desirable property efficiently. We identify about 500 MOFs with higher deliverable capacity than MOF-5 in 10 networks. We also investigate the relationship between deliverable capacity and internal surface area of MOFs. This methodology can be extended to MOFs with multiple types of linkers and multiple SBUs. DE-FG02- 12ER16362.

  4. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    PubMed Central

    Britt, David; Tranchemontagne, David; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarks have been established for the performance of six metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs, which have the same underlying topology as MOF-5), MOF-5, IRMOF-3, MOF-74, MOF-177, MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measurements are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each “benchmark” MOF for each gas. The capacity of each MOF is compared to that of a sample of Calgon BPL activated carbon. We find that pore functionality plays a dominant role in determining the dynamic adsorption performance of MOFs. MOFs featuring reactive functionality outperform BPL carbon in all but one case and exhibit high dynamic adsorption capacities up to 35% by weight. PMID:18711128

  5. A Major Constituent of Brown Algae for Use in High-Capacity Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Igor; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Hertzberg, Benjamin; Milicev, Zoran; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Luzinov, Igor; Yushin, Gleb

    2011-10-01

    The identification of similarities in the material requirements for applications of interest and those of living organisms provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop better materials and design better devices. In our work, we harness this strategy to build high-capacity silicon (Si) nanopowder-based lithium (Li)-ion batteries with improved performance characteristics. Si offers more than one order of magnitude higher capacity than graphite, but it exhibits dramatic volume changes during electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, which typically leads to rapid anode degradation. We show that mixing Si nanopowder with alginate, a natural polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, yields a stable battery anode possessing reversible capacity eight times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes.

  6. In Silico Discovery of High Deliverable Capacity Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Martin, Richard; Simon, Cory; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend; Deem, Michael; Michael W. Deem Team; Maciej Haranczyk Team; Berend Smit Team

    2015-03-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are actively being explored as potential adsorbed natural gas storage materials for small vehicles. Experimental exploration of potential materials is limited by the throughput of synthetic chemistry. We here describe a computational methodology to complement and guide these experimental efforts. The method uses known chemical transformations in silico to identify MOFs with high methane deliverable capacity. The procedure explicitly considers synthesizability with geometric requirements on organic linkers. We efficiently search the composition and conformation space of organic linkers for nine MOF networks, finding 48 materials with higher predicted deliverable capacity (at 65 bar storage, 5.8 bar depletion, and 298 K) than MOF-5 in four of the nine networks. The best material has a predicted deliverable capacity 8% higher than that of MOF-5. US Department of Energy.

  7. Identification of carotenoids with high antioxidant capacity produced by extremophile microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Miranda, Viviane S; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the carotenoids produced by the extremophile microorganisms Halococcus morrhuae, Halobacterium salinarium and Thermus filiformis were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array detector and a tandem mass spectrometer. The in vitro scavenging capacity of the carotenoid extracts against radical and non-radical species was evaluated. In halophilic microorganisms, the following carotenoids were identified: bacterioruberin, bisanhydrobacterioruberin, trisanhydrobacterioruberin and their derivatives. In the thermophilic bacterium, the carotenoids all-trans-zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin monoglucoside, thermozeaxanthins and thermobiszeaxanthins were identified. The antioxidant capacities of the carotenoid extracts of H. morrhuae (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 5.07 and IC(50) = 0.85 μg mL(-1)) and H. salinarium (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 5.28 and IC(50) = 0.84 μg mL(-1)) were similar and higher than those of the bacterium T. filiformis (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 2.87 and IC(50) = 2.41 μg mL(-1)). This difference is related to the presence of acyclic carotenoids with both large numbers of conjugated double bounds and of hydroxyl groups in the major carotenoid of the halophilic microorganisms. PMID:22805960

  8. New High Capacity Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: Vanadate-Borate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afyon, Semih; Krumeich, Frank; Mensing, Christian; Borgschulte, Andreas; Nesper, Reinhard

    2014-11-01

    V2O5 based materials are attractive cathode alternatives due to the many oxidation state switches of vanadium bringing about a high theoretical specific capacity. However, significant capacity losses are eminent for crystalline V2O5 phases related to the irreversible phase transformations and/or vanadium dissolution starting from the first discharge cycle. These problems can be circumvented if amorphous or glassy vanadium oxide phases are employed. Here, we demonstrate vanadate-borate glasses as high capacity cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries for the first time. The composite electrodes of V2O5 - LiBO2 glass with reduced graphite oxide (RGO) deliver specific energies around 1000 Wh/kg and retain high specific capacities in the range of ~ 300 mAh/g for the first 100 cycles. V2O5 - LiBO2 glasses are considered as promising cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries fabricated through rather simple and cost-efficient methods.

  9. New high capacity cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries: vanadate-borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Afyon, Semih; Krumeich, Frank; Mensing, Christian; Borgschulte, Andreas; Nesper, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    V2O5 based materials are attractive cathode alternatives due to the many oxidation state switches of vanadium bringing about a high theoretical specific capacity. However, significant capacity losses are eminent for crystalline V2O5 phases related to the irreversible phase transformations and/or vanadium dissolution starting from the first discharge cycle. These problems can be circumvented if amorphous or glassy vanadium oxide phases are employed. Here, we demonstrate vanadate-borate glasses as high capacity cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries for the first time. The composite electrodes of V2O5 - LiBO(2) glass with reduced graphite oxide (RGO) deliver specific energies around 1000 Wh/kg and retain high specific capacities in the range of ~ 300 mAh/g for the first 100 cycles. V2O5 - LiBO(2) glasses are considered as promising cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries fabricated through rather simple and cost-efficient methods. PMID:25408200

  10. Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Demaree, Heath A

    2010-10-01

    Although previous evidence suggests that working memory capacity (WMC) is important for success at emotion regulation, that evidence may reveal simply that people with higher WMC follow instructions better than those with lower WMC. The present study tested the hypothesis that people with higher WMC more effectively engage in spontaneous emotion regulation following negative feedback, relative to those with lower WMC. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either no feedback or negative feedback about their emotional intelligence. They then completed a disguised measure of self-enhancement and a self-report measure of affect. Experimental condition and WMC interacted such that higher WMC predicted more self-enhancement and less negative affect following negative feedback. This research provides novel insight into the consequences of individual differences in WMC and illustrates that cognitive capacity may facilitate the spontaneous self-regulation of emotion. PMID:21038959

  11. The development of a high-capacity instrument module heat transport system, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data sheets provide temperature requirements for 82 individual instruments that are under development or planned for grouping on a space platform or pallet. The scientific objectives of these instrument packages are related to solar physics, space plasma physics, astronomy, high energy astrophysics, resources observations, environmental observations, materials processing, and life sciences. System specifications are given for a high capacity instrument module heat transport system to be used with future payloads.

  12. Implementation method of a core SONET/SDH switch with high capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JinQi

    2004-05-01

    An implementation method of a core SONET/SDH switch with high capacity is introduced in the paper. High-speed serial I/O, switching architectures and design considerations for switching unit are involved. It supports strictly non-blocking for unicast traffic and re-arrangeably non-blocking for dual-cast. Dualcast traffic allows for efficient scheduling of working and protection paths in UPSR(Unidirectional Path Switched Ring)/BLSR (Bidirectional Line Switched Ring) applications.

  13. In Situ Chemical Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride/Metal Nanocomposite for High Capacity Prelithiation of Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Sun, Jie; Li, Yanbin; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-10

    The initial lithium loss during the formation stage is a critical issue that significantly reduces the specific capacity and energy density of current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). An effective strategy to solve this problem is using electrode prelithiation additives that can work as a secondary lithium source and compensate the initial lithium loss. Herein we show that nanocomposites of lithium fluoride and metal (e.g., LiF/Co and LiF/Fe) can be efficient cathode prelithiation materials. The thorough mixing of ultrafine lithium fluoride and metal particles (∼5 nm) allows lithium to be easily extracted from the nanocomposites via an inverse conversion reaction. The LiF/Co nanocomposite exhibits an open circuit voltage (OCV, 1.5 V) with good compatibility with that of existing cathode materials and delivers a high first-cycle "donor" lithium-ion capacity (516 mA h g(-1)). When used as an additive to a LiFePO4 cathode, the LiF/Co nanocomposite provides high lithium compensation efficiency. Importantly, the as-formed LiF/metal nanocomposites possess high stability and good compatibility with the regular solvent, binder, and existing battery processing conditions, in contrast with the anode prelithiation materials that usually suffer from issues of high chemical reactivity and instability. The facile synthesis route, high stability in ambient and battery processing conditions, and high "donor" lithium-ion capacity make the LiF/metal nanocomposites ideal cathode prelithiation materials for LIBs. PMID:26784146

  14. Improvements on high voltage capacity and high temperature performances of Si-based Schottky potential barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongshun, Wang; Li, Rui; Ghaffar, Adnan; Zaixing, Wang; Chunjuan, Liu

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the reverse voltage capacity and low junction temperature characteristics of the traditional silicon-based Schottky diode, a Schottky diode with high reverse voltage capacity and high junction temperature was fabricated using ion implantation, NiPt60 sputtering, silicide-forming and other major technologies on an N-type silicon epitaxial layer of 10.6-11.4 μm and (2.2-2.4) × 1015 cm-3 doping concentration. The measurement results show that the junction temperature of the Schottky diode fabricated can reach 175 °C, that is 50 °C higher than that of the traditional one; the reverse voltage capacity VR can reach 112 V, that is 80 V higher than that of the traditional one; the leakage current is only 2 μA and the forward conduction voltage drop is VF = 0.71 V at forward current IF = 3 A.

  15. Bismuth sulfide: A high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenping; Rui, Xianhong; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Ziqi; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2016-03-01

    Exploring high-performance anode materials is currently one of the most urgent issues towards practical sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, Bi2S3 is demonstrated to be a high-capacity anode for SIBs for the first time. The specific capacity of Bi2S3 nanorods achieves up to 658 and 264 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively. A full cell with Na3V2(PO4)3-based cathode is also assembled as a proof of concept and delivers 340 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1. The sodium storage mechanism of Bi2S3 is investigated by ex-situ XRD coupled with high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and it is found that sodium storage is achieved by a combined conversion-intercalation mechanism.

  16. High-capacity method for hiding data in the discrete cosine transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Steganography is the art and science of hiding data in different media such as texts, audios, images, and videos. Data hiding techniques are generally divided into two groups: spatial and frequency domain techniques. Spatial domain methods generally have low security and, as a result, are less attractive to researchers. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the most common transform domain used in steganography and JPEG compression. Since a large number of the DCT coefficients of JPEG images are zero, the capacity of DCT domain-based steganography methods is not very high. We present a high-capacity method for hiding messages in the DCT domain. We describe the method in two classes where the receiver has and where the receiver does not have the cover image. In each class, we consider three cases for each coefficient. By considering n coefficients, there are 3n different situations. The method embeds ⌊log2 3n⌋ bits in these n coefficients. We show that the maximum reachable capacity by our method is 58% higher than the other general steganography methods. Experimental results show that the histogram-based steganalysis methods cannot detect the stego images produced by the proposed method while the capacity is increased significantly.

  17. A high-capacity steganography scheme for JPEG2000 baseline system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Haili; Wu, Renbiao

    2009-08-01

    Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography scheme is proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-bitstream can be decoded normally. Simulation shows that the proposed method is feasible, effective, and secure. PMID:19398405

  18. Intrinsic aerobic capacity impacts susceptibility to acute high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthew Morris, E.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Lopez, Jordan L.; Kearney, Monica L.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Meers, Grace M. E.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Stephen L.; Scott Rector, R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic capacity/fitness significantly impacts susceptibility for fatty liver and diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we utilized rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity to examine the mechanisms by which aerobic capacity impacts metabolic vulnerability for fatty liver following a 3-day high-fat diet (HFD). Indirect calorimetry assessment of energy metabolism combined with radiolabeled dietary food was employed to examine systemic metabolism in combination with ex vivo measurements of hepatic lipid oxidation. The LCR, but not HCR, displayed increased hepatic lipid accumulation in response to the HFD despite both groups increasing energy intake. However, LCR rats had a greater increase in energy intake and demonstrated greater daily weight gain and percent body fat due to HFD compared with HCR. Additionally, total energy expenditure was higher in the larger LCR. However, controlling for the difference in body weight, the LCR has lower resting energy expenditure compared with HCR. Importantly, respiratory quotient was significantly higher during the HFD in the LCR compared with HCR, suggesting reduced whole body lipid utilization in the LCR. This was confirmed by the observed lower whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation in LCR compared with HCR. Furthermore, LCR liver homogenate and isolated mitochondria showed lower complete fatty acid oxidation compared with HCR. We conclude that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity show greater susceptibility for dietary-induced hepatic steatosis, which is associated with a lower energy expenditure and reduced whole body and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation. PMID:24961240

  19. High-Capacity and Rapid Removal of Refractory NOM Using Nanoscale Anion Exchange Resin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Billy R; Eldred, Tim B; Nguyen, Andy T; Payne, William M; Schmidt, Emily E; Alansari, Amir Y; Amburgey, James E; Poler, Jordan C

    2016-07-20

    As human health concerns over disinfection byproducts (DBP) in drinking water increase, so does the need to develop new materials that remove them rapidly and at high capacity. Ion exchange (IEX) is an effective method for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), especially anion exchange resins (AERs) with quaternary ammonium functional groups. However, capacity is limited in existing commercial resin materials because adsorbates can only interact with the outermost surface area, which makes these products inefficient on a mass basis. We have synthesized a novel "NanoResin" exploiting the enhanced NOM removal of the quaternary ammonium resin while utilizing the vast surface area of SWCNTs, which act as scaffolding for the resin. Our nanomaterials show increased adsorption capacity compared to commercially available adsorbents, in a fraction of the time. This NanoResin requires only about 10 s to reach ion-exchange equilibrium. Comparatively, commercial AERs only achieved partial removal after more than 30 min. High capacity adsorption of a low molecular weight (MW) surrogate has been measured. NOM removal was demonstrated in solutions of both low and high specific UV absorbance (SUVA) composition with these nanomaterials. Additionally, the NanoResin showed enhanced removal of a NOM concentrate sample taken from Myrtle Beach, SC, demonstrating NanoResin is an effective method of removal for refractory NOM in a natural aqueous environment. Synthesis and characterization of the polymers and nanomaterials are presented below. Adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and the regeneration and reusability of these new materials for NOM removal are described. The open matrix microstructure precludes any intraparticle diffusion of adsorbates; thus, these nanomaterials act as a "contact resin". PMID:27348616

  20. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  1. High-capacity battery cathode prelithiation to offset initial lithium loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Seh, Zhi Wei; Liu, Nian; Sun, Jie; Li, Yuzhang; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of lithium in the initial cycles appreciably reduces the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. Anode prelithiation is a common approach to address the problem, although it faces the issues of high chemical reactivity and instability in ambient and battery processing conditions. Here we report a facile cathode prelithiation method that offers high prelithiation efficacy and good compatibility with existing lithium-ion battery technologies. We fabricate cathode additives consisting of nanoscale mixtures of transition metals and lithium oxide that are obtained by conversion reactions of metal oxide and lithium. These nanocomposites afford a high theoretical prelithiation capacity (typically up to 800 mAh g-1, 2,700 mAh cm-3) during charging. We demonstrate that in a full-cell configuration, the LiFePO4 electrode with a 4.8% Co/Li2O additive shows 11% higher overall capacity than that of the pristine LiFePO4 electrode. The use of the cathode additives provides an effective route to compensate the large initial lithium loss of high-capacity anode materials and improves the electrochemical performance of existing lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Inadequate food intake at high temperatures is related to depressed mitochondrial respiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Anderson, Graeme J; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-05-01

    Animals, especially ectotherms, are highly sensitive to the temperature of their surrounding environment. Extremely high temperature, for example, induces a decline of average performance of conspecifics within a population, but individual heterogeneity in the ability to cope with elevating temperatures has rarely been studied. Here, we examined inter-individual variation in feeding ability and consequent growth rate of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta acclimated to a high temperature (19°C), and investigated the relationship between these metrics of whole-animal performances and among-individual variation in mitochondrial respiration capacity. Food was provided ad libitum, yet intake varied ten-fold amongst individuals, resulting in some fish losing weight whilst others continued to grow. Almost half of the variation in food intake was related to variability in mitochondrial capacity: low intake (and hence growth failure) was associated with high leak respiration rates within liver and muscle mitochondria, and a lower coupling of muscle mitochondria. These observations, combined with the inability of fish with low food consumption to increase their intake despite ad libitum food levels, suggest a possible insufficient capacity of the mitochondria for maintaining ATP homeostasis. Individual variation in thermal performance is likely to confer variation in the upper limit of an organism's thermal niche and might affect the structure of wild populations in warming environments. PMID:26944497

  3. Synergistic Combinations of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents in High Capacity Poly(2-oxazoline) Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingchao; He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Jordan, Rainer; Luxenhofer, Robert; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Many effective drugs for cancer treatment are poorly water-soluble. In combination chemotherapy, needed excipients in additive formulations are often toxic and restrict their applications in clinical intervention. Here, we report on amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx) micelles as a promising high capacity delivery platform for multi-drug cancer chemotherapy. A variety of binary and ternary drugs combinations of paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DTX), 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), etoposide (ETO) and bortezomib (BTZ) were solubilized in defined polymeric micelles achieving unprecedented high total loading capacities of up to 50 wt.% drug per final formulation. Multi-drug loaded POx micelles showed enhanced stability in comparison to single-drug loaded micelles. Drug ratio dependent synergistic cytotoxicity of micellar ETO/17-AAG was observed in MCF-7 cancer cells and of micellar BTZ/17-AAG in MCF-7, PC3, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells. PMID:22681126

  4. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  5. Estimation of parameters obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on systems containing high capacities.

    PubMed

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  6. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  7. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  8. Grafting glycidyl methacrylate to Sepharose gel for fabricating high-capacity protein anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Yu, Linling; Sun, Yan

    2016-04-22

    To develop ion exchangers of high protein adsorption capacity, we have herein introduced atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto Sepharose FF gel. GMA-grafted Sepharose FF resins of four grafting densities and different grafting chain lengths were obtained by adjusting reaction conditions. The epoxy groups on the grafted chains were functionalized by modification with diethylamine (DEA), leading to the fabrication of Sepharose-based anion exchangers of 14 different grafting densities and/or grafting chain lengths. The resins were first characterized for the effects of grafting density, chain length and ionic strength on pore sizes by inverse size exclusion chromatography. Then, the resins were evaluated by adsorption equilibria of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a function of ionic capacity (IC) (chain length) at individual grafting densities. It was observed that at each grafting density there was a specific IC value (chain length) that offered the maximum equilibrium capacity. Of the resins with maximum values at individual grafting densities, the resin of the second grafting density with an IC value of 330 mmol/L (denoted as FF-Br2-pG-D330) showed the highest capacity, 264 mg/mL, about two times higher than that of the traditional ungrafted resin Q Sepharose FF (137 mg/mL). This resin also showed the most favorable uptake kinetics among the resins of similar IC values but different grafting densities, or of the same grafting density but different IC values. Effects of ionic strength showed that the capacities of FF-Br2-pG-D330 were much higher than Q Sepharose FF at a wide range of NaCl concentrations (0-200 mmol/L), and the uptake rates of the two resins were similar in the ionic strength range. Therefore, the dynamic binding capacity values of BSA on FF-Br2-pG-D330 were much higher than Q Sepharose FF as demonstrated at different residence times and ionic strengths. Taken together, the research has proved the

  9. High mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic capacity represent a metabolic phenotype of human tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Malinarich, Frano; Duan, Kaibo; Hamid, Raudhah Abdull; Bijin, Au; Lin, Wu Xue; Poidinger, Michael; Fairhurst, Anna-Marie; Connolly, John E

    2015-06-01

    Human dendritic cells (DCs) regulate the balance between immunity and tolerance through selective activation by environmental and pathogen-derived triggers. To characterize the rapid changes that occur during this process, we analyzed the underlying metabolic activity across a spectrum of functional DC activation states, from immunogenic to tolerogenic. We found that in contrast to the pronounced proinflammatory program of mature DCs, tolerogenic DCs displayed a markedly augmented catabolic pathway, related to oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, and glycolysis. Functionally, tolerogenic DCs demonstrated the highest mitochondrial oxidative activity, production of reactive oxygen species, superoxide, and increased spare respiratory capacity. Furthermore, assembled, electron transport chain complexes were significantly more abundant in tolerogenic DCs. At the level of glycolysis, tolerogenic and mature DCs showed similar glycolytic rates, but glycolytic capacity and reserve were more pronounced in tolerogenic DCs. The enhanced glycolytic reserve and respiratory capacity observed in these DCs were reflected in a higher metabolic plasticity to maintain intracellular ATP content. Interestingly, tolerogenic and mature DCs manifested substantially different expression of proteins involved in the fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway, and FAO activity was significantly higher in tolerogenic DCs. Inhibition of FAO prevented the function of tolerogenic DCs and partially restored T cell stimulatory capacity, demonstrating their dependence on this pathway. Overall, tolerogenic DCs show metabolic signatures of increased oxidative phosphorylation programing, a shift in redox state, and high plasticity for metabolic adaptation. These observations point to a mechanism for rapid genome-wide reprograming by modulation of underlying cellular metabolism during DC differentiation. PMID:25917094

  10. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  11. The application of windows multithread in high-speed continual large-capacity data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tai-Yong; Zeng, Ju-Xiang; He, Hui-Long; Deng, Hui

    2005-12-01

    Three modes of Windows Multithread techniques in data acquisition system are explored in this paper. In the first mode, data acquisition is in one thread while the processing and display of data and the large-capacity data saving share another thread. In the second mode, data acquisition and the data processing and display are in one thread, and the large-capacity data saving in another thread. In the third mode, double level buffer queue technology is added based on the first mode technique. Experiments on the data acquisition system reveal that the third mode is the optimal alternative. It fully utilizes the capacity of data acquisition card and makes access to high-speed continual data acquisition and large-capacity data saving. The monitoring system which adopts the third mode has been developed and applied to some urban waterworks in Shanghai which has been in good mode during the past two years and saved a vast sum of costs on system maintenance and monitoring.

  12. Free space optical communications for ultra high-capacity PON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpari, Ali; Sousa, Artur N.; Ferreira, Ricardo; Lima, Mário; Teixeira, António

    2014-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a set of ultra-high capacity free space passive optical networks (PONs) using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) Nyquist pulse shaped and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulations. Moreover, these technologies support up to 10 Gb/s services per user and allow a smooth and full integration between fiber and optical wireless access networks.

  13. Synthesis of metal-adeninate frameworks with high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Nan; Tan, Yan-Xi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    By introducing isophthalic acid or 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid to assemble with adenine and cadmium salt, two isostructural and anionic porous metal-organic frameworks (1 and 2) possessing the novel (4,8)-connected sqc topology are presented here. 1 shows permanent porosity with Langmuir surface area of 770.1 m2/g and exhibits high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons.

  14. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S.; Elliman, R. G.; Volinsky, A. A.

    2012-02-20

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  15. High methane storage and working capacities in a NbO-type metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengling; Liu, Huimin; Jiao, Jingjing; Bai, Dongjie; Zhou, Wei; Yildirim, Taner; He, Yabing

    2016-05-01

    To improve methane adsorption by pore structure optimization, we developed a new organic linker and used it to construct a NbO-type metal-organic framework ZJNU-53 that, after activation, exhibits exceptionally high methane storage and working capacities of 241 and 190 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) at 298 K and 65 bar, respectively, if the packing loss is not considered, which are among the highest reported for MOF materials. PMID:27083013

  16. A new benzimidazole based covalent organic polymer having high energy storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Patra, Bidhan C; Khilari, Santimoy; Satyanarayana, Lanka; Pradhan, Debabrata; Bhaumik, Asim

    2016-06-18

    We report the synthesis of a new benzimidazole-based covalent organic polymer (TpDAB) via solvothermal Schiff base condensation between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (Tp) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). TpDAB showed high energy storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 335 F g(-1) at 2 mV s(-1) scan rate and good cyclic stability with 93% retention of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. PMID:27222226

  17. High-capacity push-pickling lines and acid recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Groessl, C. )

    1993-07-01

    High-capacity, 1.2 million ton/year, pushing-pickling lines capable of processing strip up to 76 in. wide in gages between 0.060 and 0.500 in. are a viable alternative in replacing older continuous pickling lines: space requirements are less (up to 40%) and capital costs lower (up to 60%). Installation of an acid regeneration plant provides major reductions in acid purchases as well as minimizing waste acid and rinse water disposal costs.

  18. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich

    2016-04-01

    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  19. Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Giraldo, Juan C; Henao-Zuluaga, Kelly; Gallardo, Cecilia; Atehortúa, Lucia; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). B. antioquensis and P. pulchella extracts showed the best results over a broad spectrum UVA-UVB with antioxidant capacity in vitro. However, B. antioquensis extracts presented the highest absorption coefficient in UVB-UVA range among plants under study. Furthermore, the gel formulation containing the crude extract of B. antioquensis showed significant values of UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength (λc ) and SPF (3, 0.78 380 nm and 4.73 ± 0.26; respectively), indicating interesting photostability and antiradical capacities. All of these properties could be improve in order to satisfy the requirements for broad-spectrum UVB/UVA protection. Finally, P. pulchella and B. antioquensis extracts could be a potential source of a new natural sunscreen compounds with photostable and antiradical properties. PMID:26481216

  20. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  1. Pulmonary vascular reserve and exercise capacity at sea level and at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Pavelescu, Adriana; Faoro, Vitalie; Guenard, Hervé; de Bisschop, Claire; Martinot, Jean-Benoit; Mélot, Christian; Naeije, Robert

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that increased pulmonary vascular reserve, as defined by reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and increased pulmonary transit of agitated contrast measured by echocardiography, might be associated with increased exercise capacity. Thus, at altitude, where PVR is increased because of hypoxic vasoconstriction, a reduced pulmonary vascular reserve could contribute to reduced exercise capacity. Furthermore, a lower PVR could be associated with higher capillary blood volume and an increased lung diffusing capacity. We reviewed echocardiographic estimates of PVR and measurements of lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DL(NO)) and for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) at rest, and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests in 64 healthy subjects at sea level and during 4 different medical expeditions at altitudes around 5000 m. Altitude exposure was associated with a decrease in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), from 42±10 to 32±8 mL/min/kg and increases in PVR, ventilatory equivalents for CO2 (V(E)/VCO2), DL(NO), and DL(CO). By univariate linear regression VO2max at sea level and at altitude was associated with V(E)/VCO2 (p<0.001), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPpa, p<0.05), stroke volume index (SVI, p<0.05), DL(NO) (p<0.02), and DL(CO) (p=0.05). By multivariable analysis, VO2max at sea level and at altitude was associated with V(E)/VCO2, mPpa, SVI, and DL(NO). The multivariable analysis also showed that the altitude-related decrease in VO2max was associated with increased PVR and V(E)/VCO2. These results suggest that pulmonary vascular reserve, defined by a combination of decreased PVR and increased DL(NO), allows for superior aerobic exercise capacity at a lower ventilatory cost, at sea level and at high altitude. PMID:23537256

  2. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace. PMID:25814332

  3. High Capacity Communications From Martian Distances. Part 1; Spacecraft Link Design Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Hemali N.; Schuchman, Leonard; Orr, Richard; Williams, Wallace Dan; Collins, Michael; Noreen, Gary

    2006-01-01

    High capacity space communications has been a desire for Human Exploration and Science missions. Current Mars missions operate at data rates of 120 kbps for telemetry downlink and it is desirable to study high rate communication links in the range of 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps data rates from Martian distances. This paper will present some assumed scenarios along with link design assumptions and link analysis for high capacity communications from Mars. The paper will focus on RF subsystems namely antenna and power for the downlink communication from a relay orbiter at Mars. The relay orbiter will communicate with the low orbit spacecrafts at Mars or any Martian surface elements such as robots, and relay the data back to the ground networks on Earth. The study will dive into the spacecraft downlink system design and communication link analysis between the relay orbiter and ground network on Earth for data rates ranging from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps based on the assumed scenarios and link assumptions. With high rate links at larger distances, there will be a significant impact on the antenna and power requirements and the link design will make an attempt to minimize the mass of the RF subsystem on the spacecraft. The results of this study will be presented for three data rates 1 Gbps, 500 Mbps and 100 Mbps at maximum Mars to Earth distance of 2.67AU. The design will use a Ka-band downlink with 90% link availability, along with various ground network G/T assumptions and possible bandwidth efficient modulations. The paper will conclude with what types of high rate communication links are feasible from Martian distances and also identify a range of requirements for antenna and power technologies for these high capacity communications from Mars.

  4. High capacity group-15 alloy anodes for Na-ion batteries: Electrochemical and mechanical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Majid; Ye, Qiongjie; Birbilis, Nick; Medhekar, Nikhil V.

    2015-07-01

    Group-15 elements phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth offer the prospect of serving as functional alloying elements for developing high-capacity alloy anodes for sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). Here we obtain concentration-dependent electrochemical properties of sodium (Na) alloys with group-15 elements using first principles calculations. Since Na intercalation in these alloys is accompanied by a substantial volume expansion that can lead to mechanical failure and loss of capacity, we have also obtained a full set of concentration-dependent elastic properties for a single crystal as well as a polycrystalline microstructure. We find that sodiation of these alloys results in their significant elastic softening by as large as 60%. In contrast to the group-14 alloys that are also being explored as anodes of NIBs, the elastic softening in group-15 alloys varies in a non-monotonic manner with Na concentration, and more importantly, the maximum degradation of elastic properties does not necessarily occur at full sodiation. Our results provide crucial insights into the electrochemical and mechanical response of these alloys to Na intercalation, thus contributing to the design of failure-resistant architectures of high capacity NIBs.

  5. Universal roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: high rate capacity and atomistic origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jianchao; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue; Shin, Swanee J.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Y. Morris

    2015-11-01

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes in graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. These findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes.

  6. Optimising molecular diagnostic capacity for effective control of tuberculosis in high-burden settings.

    PubMed

    Sabiiti, W; Mtafya, B; Kuchaka, D; Azam, K; Viegas, S; Mdolo, A; Farmer, E C W; Khonga, M; Evangelopoulos, D; Honeyborne, I; Rachow, A; Heinrich, N; Ntinginya, N E; Bhatt, N; Davies, G R; Jani, I V; McHugh, T D; Kibiki, G; Hoelscher, M; Gillespie, S H

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's 2035 vision is to reduce tuberculosis (TB) associated mortality by 95%. While low-burden, well-equipped industrialised economies can expect to see this goal achieved, it is challenging in the low- and middle-income countries that bear the highest burden of TB. Inadequate diagnosis leads to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. The roll-out of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay has demonstrated that molecular diagnostics can produce rapid diagnosis and treatment initiation. Strong molecular services are still limited to regional or national centres. The delay in implementation is due partly to resources, and partly to the suggestion that such techniques are too challenging for widespread implementation. We have successfully implemented a molecular tool for rapid monitoring of patient treatment response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in three high TB burden countries in Africa. We discuss here the challenges facing TB diagnosis and treatment monitoring, and draw from our experience in establishing molecular treatment monitoring platforms to provide practical insights into successful optimisation of molecular diagnostic capacity in resource-constrained, high TB burden settings. We recommend a holistic health system-wide approach for molecular diagnostic capacity development, addressing human resource training, institutional capacity development, streamlined procurement systems, and engagement with the public, policy makers and implementers of TB control programmes. PMID:27393531

  7. High capacity embedding with indexed data recovery using adjunctive numerical relations in multimedia signal covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a technique for covertly embedding data throughout an audio file using redundant number system decomposition across non-standard digital bit-lines. This bit-line implementation integrates an index recoverable embedded algorithm with an extended bit level representation that achieves a high capacity data channel within an audio multimedia file. It will be shown this new steganography method has minimal aural distortive affects while preserving both first and second order cover statistics, making it less susceptible to most steganalysis attacks. Our research approach involves reviewing the common numerical methods used in common binary-based algorithms. We then describe basic concepts and challenges when attempting to implement complex embedding algorithms that are based on redundant number systems. Finally, we introduce a novel class of numerical based multiple bit-line decomposition systems, which we define as Adjunctive Numerical Representations. The system is primarily described using basic PCM techniques in uncompressed audio files however extended applications for alternate multimedia is addressed. This new embedding system will not only provide the statistical stability required for effective steganography but will also give us an improvement in the embedding capacity in this class of multimedia carrier files. This novelty of our approach is demonstrated by an ability to embed high capacity covert data while simultaneously providing a means for rapid, indexed data recovery.

  8. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  9. Universal roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: high rate capacity and atomistic origins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jianchao; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue; Shin, Swanee J.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R.I.; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Y. Morris

    2015-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes in graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. These findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes. PMID:26536830

  10. All-solid-state sodium batteries using amorphous TiS3 electrode with high capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanibata, Naoto; Matsuyama, Takuya; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    All-solid-state sodium cells (Na15Sn4/Na3PS4 glass-ceramic/a-TiS3) showed a high capacity of over 300 mAh per gram of TiS3 at the 1st discharge-charge cycle. The capacity was gradually decreased to 100 mAh g-1 at the 10th cycle. Nyquist plots of the cell showed that the resistance of the a-TiS3 composite electrode became larger with the discharge-charge cycles. The XRD patterns of the a-TiS3 composite electrode before and after the 1st cycle indicated that the a-TiS3 was still amorphous during discharge-charge process. The Raman bands attributable to a-TiS3 were also observed after the 1st cycle. The SEM images and EDX mapping indicated that the a-TiS3 particles aggregated in the electrode after the 10th cycle. The all-solid-state sodium cell using a-TiS3 composite electrode with acetylene black as a conductive additive showed the high capacity of over 300 mAh g-1 for 5 cycles.

  11. Paradoxical roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: High rate capacity and atomistic origins

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Jianchao C.; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue Y.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Y. Morris; Shin, Swanee J.

    2015-11-05

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes in graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. Furthermore, these findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes.

  12. Paradoxical roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: High rate capacity and atomistic origins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Jianchao C.; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue Y.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; et al

    2015-11-05

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes inmore » graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. Furthermore, these findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes.« less

  13. A high capacity multiple watermarking scheme based on Fourier descriptor and Sudoku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Huimin

    2015-12-01

    Digital watermark is a type of technology to hide some significant information which is mainly used to protect digital data. A high capacity multiple watermarking method is proposed, which adapts the Fourier descriptor to pre-process the watermarks, while a Sudoku puzzle is used as a reference matrix in embedding process and a key in extraction process. It can dramatically reduce the required capacity by applying Fourier descriptor. Meanwhile, the security of watermarks can be guaranteed due to the Sudoku puzzle. Unlike previous algorithms applying Sudoku puzzle in spatial domain, the proposed algorithm works in transformed domain by applying LWT2.In addition, the proposed algorithm can detect the temper location accurately. The experimental results demonstrated that the goals mentioned above have been achieved.

  14. High-temperature heat capacity of Co3O4 spinel: thermally induced spin unpairing transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mocala, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Sherman, David M.

    1992-01-01

    A strong anomaly was found in the heat capacity of Co3O4 between 1000 K and the decomposition temperature. This anomaly is not related to the decomposition of Co3O4 to CoO. The measured entropy of transition, ??S=46??4 J mol-1 K-1 of Co3O4, supports the interpretation that this anomaly reflects a spin unpairing transition in octahedrally coordinated Co3+ cations. Experimental values of heat capacity, heat content and entropy of Co3O4 in the high temperature region are provided. The enthalpy of the spin unpairing transition is 53??4 kJ mol-1 of Co3O4. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  15. A high-capacity model for one shot association learning in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Hafsteinn; Lengler, Johannes; Steger, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-capacity model for one-shot association learning (hetero-associative memory) in sparse networks. We assume that basic patterns are pre-learned in networks and associations between two patterns are presented only once and have to be learned immediately. The model is a combination of an Amit-Fusi like network sparsely connected to a Willshaw type network. The learning procedure is palimpsest and comes from earlier work on one-shot pattern learning. However, in our setup we can enhance the capacity of the network by iterative retrieval. This yields a model for sparse brain-like networks in which populations of a few thousand neurons are capable of learning hundreds of associations even if they are presented only once. The analysis of the model is based on a novel result by Janson et al. on bootstrap percolation in random graphs. PMID:25426060

  16. Geometrically invariant and high capacity image watermarking scheme using accurate radial transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandan; Ranade, Sukhjeet K.

    2013-12-01

    Angular radial transform (ART) is a region based descriptor and possesses many attractive features such as rotation invariance, low computational complexity and resilience to noise which make them more suitable for invariant image watermarking than that of many transform domain based image watermarking techniques. In this paper, we introduce ART for fast and geometrically invariant image watermarking scheme with high embedding capacity. We also develop an accurate and fast framework for the computation of ART coefficients based on Gaussian quadrature numerical integration, 8-way symmetry/anti-symmetry properties and recursive relations for the calculation of sinusoidal kernel functions. ART coefficients so computed are then used for embedding the binary watermark using dither modulation. Experimental studies reveal that the proposed watermarking scheme not only provides better robustness against geometric transformations and other signal processing distortions, but also has superior advantages over the existing ones in terms of embedding capacity, speed and visual imperceptibility.

  17. DTCWT based high capacity steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathisha, N.; Priya, R.; Babu, K. Suresh; Raja, K. B.; Venugopal, K. R.; Patnaik, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The steganography is used for secure communication. In this paper we propose Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) based high capacity steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling. The DTCWT is applied on cover image and Lifting Wavelet Transform2 (LWT2) is applied on payload to convert spatial domain into transform domain. The new concept of replacing HH sub band coefficients of DTCWT of cover image by LL sub band coefficients of payload is introduced to generate intermediate stego object. The adaptive scaling factor is used based on entropy of cover image to scale down intermediate stego object coefficient values to generate final stego object. It is observed that the capacity and security are increased in the proposed algorithm compared to existing algorithms.

  18. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2013-12-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp2 hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C6Li7.31 and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g-1/2032 mAh cm-3, much greater than the values of ˜372 mAh g-1/˜818 mAh cm-3, ˜1117 mAh g-1/˜1589 mAh cm-3, and ˜744 mAh g-1 for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  19. High-capacity stationary phases containing heavy atoms for HPLC separation of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimata, Kazuhiro |; Hirose, Tsunehisa; Moriuchi, Kouji; Hosoya, Ken; Araki, Takeo; Tanaka, Nobuo

    1995-08-01

    A high-capacity stationary phase for the separation of fullerenes was prepared by immobilizing 3-[(pentabromobenzyl)oxy]propylsilyl (PBB) groups onto silica surfaces. The stationary phase was developed by a reciprocal approach. This was possible by finding the structure of solvents that provided high solubilities as well as high eluent strength for chromatographic elution of fullerenes. The increased solubility and increased eluent strength for C{sub 60} seen with solvents containing heavy heteroatoms suggested the preferential interaction of C{sub 60} with such solvent molecules. The stationary phases containing sulfur, chlorine, or bromine in fact resulted in longer retention of fullerenes. The PBB silica showed high retentivity with excellent efficiency for fullerenes, permitting the use of solvents providing high solubilities, such as carbon disulfide and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene for gramscale separations with ordinary HPLC equipment. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g(-1) at 30 mA g(-1) and ∼420 mAh g(-1) at 30 A g(-1), which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  1. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ~1,100 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and ~420 mAh g-1 at 30 A g-1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage.

  2. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g−1 at 30 mA g−1 and ∼420 mAh g−1 at 30 A g−1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  3. Sensing protein antigen and microvesicle analytes using high-capacity biopolymer nano-carriers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Milani, Gloria; Takatsuki, Hideyo; Lana, Tobia; Persson, Malin; Frasson, Chiara; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Månsson, Alf

    2016-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems with molecular motor driven transport of analytes attached to cytoskeletal filament shuttles (actin filaments, microtubules) circumvent challenges with nanoscale liquid transport. However, the filaments have limited cargo-carrying capacity and limitations either in transportation speed (microtubules) or control over motility direction (actin). To overcome these constraints we here report incorporation of covalently attached antibodies into self-propelled actin bundles (nanocarriers) formed by cross-linking antibody conjugated actin filaments via fascin, a natural actin-bundling protein. We demonstrate high maximum antigen binding activity and propulsion by surface adsorbed myosin motors. Analyte transport capacity is tested using both protein antigens and microvesicles, a novel class of diagnostic markers. Increased incubation concentration with protein antigen in the 0.1-100 nM range (1 min) reduces the fraction of motile bundles and their velocity but maximum transportation capacity of >1 antigen per nm of bundle length is feasible. At sub-nanomolar protein analyte concentration, motility is very well preserved opening for orders of magnitude improved limit of detection using motor driven concentration on nanoscale sensors. Microvesicle-complexing to monoclonal antibodies on the nanocarriers compromises motility but nanocarrier aggregation via microvesicles shows unique potential in label-free detection with the aggregates themselves as non-toxic reporter elements. PMID:26617251

  4. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. PMID:26609636

  5. High Methane Storage Working Capacity in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Acrylate Links.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-17

    High methane storage capacity in porous materials is important for the design and manufacture of vehicles powered by natural gas. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structures and methane adsorption properties of five new zinc metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-905, MOF-905-Me2, MOF-905-Naph, MOF-905-NO2, and MOF-950. All these MOFs consist of the Zn4O(-CO2)6 secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tri-β-acrylate, BTAC. The permanent porosity of all five materials was confirmed, and their methane adsorption measured up to 80 bar to reveal that MOF-905 is among the best performing methane storage materials with a volumetric working capacity (desorption at 5 bar) of 203 cm(3) cm(-3) at 80 bar and 298 K, a value rivaling that of HKUST-1 (200 cm(3) cm(-3)), the benchmark compound for methane storage in MOFs. This study expands the scope of MOF materials with ultrahigh working capacity to include linkers having the common acrylate connectivity. PMID:27442620

  6. The H60Si6C54 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C60 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H60Si6C54 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H2 molecules can be stored inside the H60Si6C54 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H2@H60Si6C54 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si6C54 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  7. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications. PMID:26316179

  8. Inheritance of human skeletal muscle and anaerobic capacity adaptation to high-intensity intermittent training.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, J A; Lortie, G; Boulay, M R; Marcotte, M; Thibault, M C; Bouchard, C

    1986-06-01

    The role of heredity in the response of maximal anaerobic capacities and skeletal muscle histochemical and biochemical characteristics to a 15-week cycle ergometer training program involving both continuous and interval work patterns was investigated in 14 pairs of monozygotic twins. The training program consisted mainly of series of ergocycle supramaximal exercises lasting from 15 s to 90 s and performed 4 and 5 times a week. The subjects were submitted to 10 s and 90 s all-out ergocycle tests to estimate maximal anaerobic alactacid (AAC) and lactacid (ALC) capacities, respectively. Muscle fiber types and creatine kinase (CK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HADH), and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) activities were determined in a biopsy from the vastus lateralis. Training increased AAC, ALC, fiber type I proportion, MDH, HADH, and OGDH (P less than 0.05) and decreased fiber type IIb proportion and the PFK/OGDH ratio. No significant change was observed for CK, HK, PFK, and LDH. Large interindividual differences in the response to training were observed for all variables. However, intraclass correlations indicated that the extent of the response of ALC and CK, HK, LDH, MDH, and OGDH activities and of the PFK/OGDH activity ratio to training were significantly similar within pairs of twins. Although the role of heredity appeared absent for the changes in fiber type proportions and in anaerobic alactacid capacity, the present results suggest that the response of anaerobic lactacid capacity and most enzyme activities to high-intensity intermittent training is significantly determined by the genotype. PMID:3733313

  9. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the “adult time-window” related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in

  10. Low haemoglobin concentration in Tibetan males is associated with greater high-altitude exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Simonson, T S; Wei, G; Wagner, H E; Wuren, T; Qin, G; Yan, M; Wagner, P D; Ge, R L

    2015-07-15

    Tibetans living at high altitude have adapted genetically such that many display a low erythropoietic response, resulting in near sea-level haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. We hypothesized that absence of the erythropoietic response would be associated with greater exercise capacity compared to those with high [Hb] as a result of beneficial changes in oxygen transport. We measured, in 21 Tibetan males with [Hb] ranging from 15.2 g dl(-1) to 22.9 g dl(-1) (9.4 mmol l(-1) to 14.2 mmol l(-1) ), [Hb], ventilation, volumes of O2 and CO2 utilized at peak exercise (V̇O2 and V̇CO2), heart rate, cardiac output and arterial blood gas variables at peak exercise on a cycle ergometer at ∼4200 m. Lung and muscle O2 diffusional conductances were computed from these measurements. [Hb] was related (negatively) to V̇O2 kg(-1) (r = -0.45, P< 0.05), cardiac output kg(-1) (QT kg(-1) , r = -0.54, P < 0.02), and O2 diffusion capacity in muscle (DM kg(-1) , r = -0.44, P<0.05), but was unrelated to ventilation, arterial partial pressure of O2 (PaO2) or pulmonary diffusing capacity. Using multiple linear regression, variance in peak V̇O2 kg(-1) was primarily attributed to QT, DM, and PCO2 (R(2) = 0.88). However, variance in pulmonary gas exchange played essentially no role in determining peak V̇O2. These results (1) show higher exercise capacity in Tibetans without the erythropoietic response, supported mostly by cardiac and muscle O2 transport capacity and ventilation rather than pulmonary adaptations, and (2) support the emerging hypothesis that the polycythaemia of altitude, normally a beneficial response to low cellular PO2, may become maladaptive if excessively elevated under chronic hypoxia. The cause and effect relationships among [Hb], QT, DM, and PCO2 remain to be elucidated. PMID:25988759

  11. Nanostructured Membranes from Triblock Polymer Precursors as High Capacity Copper Adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jacob L; Mulvenna, Ryan A; Boudouris, Bryan W; Phillip, William A

    2015-10-13

    Membrane adsorbers are a proposed alternative to packed beds for chromatographic separations. To date, membrane adsorbers have suffered from low binding capacities and/or complex processing methodologies. In this work, a polyisoprene-b-polystyrene-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PI-PS-PDMA) triblock polymer is cast into an asymmetric membrane that possesses a high density of nanopores (d ∼ 38 nm) at the upper surface of the membrane. Exposing the membrane to a 6 M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution converts the PDMA brushes that line the pore walls to poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, which are capable of binding metal ions (e.g., copper ions). Using mass transport tests and static binding experiments, the saturation capacity of the PI-PS-PAA membrane was determined to be 4.1 ± 0.3 mmol Cu(2+) g(-1). This experimental value is consistent with the theoretical binding capacity of the membranes, which is based on the initial PDMA content of the triblock polymer precursor and assumes a 1:1 stoichiometry for the binding interaction. The uniformly sized nanoscale pores provide a short diffusion length to the binding sites, resulting in a sharp breakthrough curve. Furthermore, the membrane is selective for copper ions over nickel ions, which permeate through the membrane over 10 times more rapidly than copper during the loading stage. This selectivity is present despite the fact that the sizes of these two ions are nearly identical and speaks to the chemical selectivity of the triblock polymer-based membrane. Furthermore, addition of a pH 1 solution releases the bound copper rapidly, allowing the membrane to be regenerated and reused with a negligible loss in binding capacity. Because of the high binding capacities, facile processing method implemented, and ability to tailor further the polymer brushes lining the pore walls using straightforward coupling reactions, these membrane adsorbers based on block polymer precursors have potential as a separation media that can

  12. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity. PMID:26866666

  13. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides. PMID:22873406

  14. Very high-capacity short-reach VCSEL systems exploiting multicarrier intensity modulation and direct detection.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Alberto; Argenio, Debora; Boffi, Pierpaolo

    2016-06-13

    Multicarrier intensity modulation of a bandwidth-limited long-wavelength VCSEL is exploited combined to direct detection to achieve very high capacity simple systems for short-reach applications. Tailored FDM subcarriers modulation and allocation allow to match the non-uniform frequency response of the system induced by the direct modulation and detection of the FDM signal and by the uncompensated SSMF propagation, overcoming the VCSEL bandwidth limitations. A whole transported throughput ranging from 34 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s from few hundreds meters to 20 km of SSMF propagation is experimentally demonstrated even by employing a 5-GHz band VCSEL source. PMID:27410296

  15. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  16. Very high-resolution heat-capacity measurements near the lambda point of helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.; Chui, T. C. P.

    1983-01-01

    New measurements of the heat capacity of a sample of helium 3-mm high are reported, which extend to within 5 x 10 to the -8th deg of the lambda transition at the vapor pressure. From an analysis of the results allowing for the effect of gravity, the values -0.0127 + or - 0.0026 (2 sigma) for the exponent alpha (= alpha-prime) and 1,058 + or - 0.004 for the leading singularity ratio A/A-prime are obtained. These values are in closer agreement with the theoretical predictions than those reported previously.

  17. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  18. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  19. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  20. Preparation and characterization of high capacity, strong cation-exchange fiber based adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Schwellenbach, Jan; Taft, Florian; Villain, Louis; Strube, Jochen

    2016-05-20

    Motivated by the demand for more economical capture and polishing steps in downstream processing of protein therapeutics, a novel strong cation-exchange chromatography stationary phase based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) high surface area short-cut fibers is presented. The fiber surface is modified by grafting glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and a subsequent derivatization leading to sulfonic acid groups. The obtained cation-exchange fibers have been characterized and compared to commercially available resin and membrane based adsorbers. High volumetric static binding capacities for lysozyme (90mg/mL) and polyclonal human IgG (hIgG, 92mg/mL) were found, suggesting an efficient multi-layer binding within the grafted hydrogel layer. A packed bed of randomly orientated fibers has been tested for packing efficiency, permeability and chromatographic performance. High dynamic binding capacities for lysozyme (50mg/mL) and hIgG (54mg/mL) were found nearly independent of the bed-residence time, revealing a fast mass-transport mechanism. Height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) values in the order of 0.1 cm and a peak asymmetry factor (AF) of 1.8 have been determined by tracer experiments. Additionally inverse size-exclusion chromatography (iSEC) revealed a bimodal structure within the fiber bed, consisting of larger transport channels, formed by the voidage between the fibers, and a hydrogel layer with porous properties. PMID:27106396

  1. Regular Arrays of Germanium Nanoparticles Assisted by Thermoset Polymer Composites for High Capacity Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2012-02-01

    In recent years Li-batteries have attracted significant interests for a variety of applications such as portable electronics and electric vehicle (EV) batteries due to their high energy densities. Key challenges in advancing the technology lie in specific energy density, the long term cycle properties, and durability at elevated temperature. In present study, we were motivated to prepare high capacity Li-battery by creating regular arrays of germanium nanoparticles (GeNPs, 1600 mAh/g) to replace commercial graphite anode (370 mAh/g). Thermoset polymers were employed to prepare GeNPs/polymer composites with tunable NP loadings and spacings, followed by carbonization process to prepare GeNPs/carbon composite anode material. Due to the large volume change of GeNPs with charge/discharge cycles, the regular arrays of GeNPs are turned out to be a crucial parameter in obtaining enhanced cyclability. The GeNPs/carbon anode materials were cycle tested in a half cell configuration using Lithium foil as a counter electrode and lithium salt doped PS-PEO block copolymers as electrolytes. High capacity and rate capability were achieved, which demonstrate the role of nano-sized and regularly-arrayed anode active materials in obtaining the improved battery performance.

  2. Strengthening of Graphene Aerogels with Tunable Density and High Adsorption Capacity towards Pb2+

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhuo; Tang, Zhihong; Shen, Shuling; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Guangping; Yang, Junhe

    2014-01-01

    Graphene aerogels (GAs) with high mechanical strength, tunable density and volume have been prepared only via soaking graphene hydrogels (GHs) in ammonia solution. The density and volume of the obtained GAs are controlled by adjusting the concentration of ammonia solution. Although volume of the GAs decreases with increasing the concentration of ammonia solution, its specific surface area maintains at about 350 m2 g−1, and the inner structure changes to radial after ammonia solution treatment. Thus, GAs are particularly suitable for the adsorption and energy storage applications owing to their high specific surface area and unique porous structure. The adsorption capacity of GAs for Pb2+ from aqueous solution maintains at about 80 mg g−1, which could reach as high as 5000 g m−3 per unit volume and they can be separated easily from water after adsorption. PMID:24848100

  3. Progress in High-Capacity Core-Shell Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Yoon, Sung-June; Lee, Eung-Ju; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-02-20

    High-energy-density rechargeable batteries are needed to fulfill various demands such as self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology (SMART) devices, energy storage systems, and (hybrid) electric vehicles. As a result, high-energy electrode materials enabling a long cycle life and reliable safety need to be developed. To ensure these requirements, new material chemistries can be derived from combinations of at least two compounds in a secondary particle with varying chemical composition and primary particle morphologies having a core-shell structure and spherical cathode-active materials, specifically a nanoparticle core and shell, nanoparticle core and nanorod shell, and nanorod core and shell. To this end, several layer core-shell cathode materials were developed to ensure high capacity, reliability, and safety. PMID:26270835

  4. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle. PMID:26035740

  5. Pulsed sonication for alumina coatings on high-capacity oxides: Performance in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Li, Yan; Dogan, Fulya; Secor, Ethan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2014-07-01

    High-capacity xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) oxides show relatively rapid performance degradation when cycled at voltages >4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Previous research has indicated that modifying the oxide surfaces with coatings, such as alumina, reduces cell impedance rise and improves capacity retention. In this article, we demonstrate pulsed-sonication as a rapid and effective approach for coating alumina on Li1.2Ni0.175Mn0.525Co0.1O2 (0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.44Mn0.31Co0.25O2) particles. Oxide integrity and morphology is maintained after the sonochemical process and subsequent heat-treatment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray elemental maps show uniform coating of all secondary particles. 27Al Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR data confirm the presence of alumina and mainly indicate octahedral aluminum occupancy in a six-coordinate environment with oxygen. Full cells containing electrodes with the alumina-coated particles demonstrate lower initial impedance rise and better capacity retention during extended cycling to high voltages. However, the coating has a negligible effect on the voltage hysteresis and voltage fade behavior displayed by these oxides. The various data indicate that the pulsed sonochemical technique is a viable approach for coating oxide particles. The methodology described herein can easily be extended beyond alumina to include coatings such as AlF3, MgO, and MgF2.

  6. High-capacity magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers for specific extraction of protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2015-07-24

    Magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers (HPMIPs) with high binding capacity, fast mass transfer, and easy magnetic separation have been fabricated for the first time. In this method, HPMIPs was firstly synthesized using protocatechuic acid (PCA) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as co-monomer, and MCM-48 as sacrificial support. After that, epoxide ring of GMA was opened for chemisorbing Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare magnetic HPMIPs. The results of characterization indicated that magnetic HPMIPs exhibited large surface area (548m(2)/g) with hollow porous structure and magnetic sensitivity (magnetic saturation at 2.9emu/g). The following adsorption characteristics investigation exhibited surprisingly higher adsorption capacity (37.7mg/g), and faster kinetic binding (25min) than any previously reported PCA imprinted MIPs by traditional or surface imprinting technology. The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir equation and the adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second order model. The selective recognition experiments also demonstrated the high selectivity of magnetic HPMIPs towards PCA over analogues. The results of the real sample analysis confirmed the superiority of the proposed magnetic HPMIPs for selective and efficient enrichment of trace PCA from complex matrices. PMID:26044378

  7. Generating high peak capacity 2-D maps of complex proteomes using PMMA microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Osiri, John K; Shadpour, Hamed; Park, Sunjung; Snowden, Brandy C; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Soper, Steven A

    2008-12-01

    A high peak capacity 2-D protein separation system combining SDS micro-CGE (SDS micro-CGE) with microchip MEKC (micro-MEKC) using a PMMA microfluidic is reported. The utility of the 2-D microchip was demonstrated by generating a 2-D map from a complex biological sample containing a large number of constituent proteins using fetal calf serum (FCS) as the model system. The proteins were labeled with a thiol-reactive AlexaFluor 633 fluorophore (excitation/emission: 633/652 nm) to allow for ultra-sensitive on-chip detection using LIF following the 2-D separation. The high-resolution separation of the proteins was accomplished based on their size in the SDS micro-CGE dimension and their interaction with micelles in the micro-MEKC dimension. A comprehensive 2-D SDS micro-CGE x micro-MEKC separation of the FCS proteins was completed in less than <30 min using this 2-D microchip format, which consisted of 60 mm and 50 mm effective separation lengths for the first and second separation dimensions, respectively. Results obtained from the microchip separation were compared with protein maps acquired using conventional 2-D IEF and SDS-PAGE of a similar FCS sample. The microchip 2-D separation was found to be approximately 60x faster and yielded an average peak capacity of 2600 (+/- 149), nearly three times larger than that obtained using conventional IEF/SDS-PAGE. PMID:19130578

  8. Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chiwon; Patel, Mumukshu; Rangasamy, Baskaran; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Xia, Changlei; Shi, Sheldon; Choi, Wonbong

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered as a potential anode material for next generation Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conductivity, flexibility, surface area, and lithium-ion insertion ability. However, the low mass loading and bulk density of carbon nanomaterials hinder their use in large-scale energy storage because their high specific capacity may not scale up linearly with the thickness of the electrode. To address this issue, a novel three-dimensional (3D) architecture is rationally designed by stacking layers of free-standing CNTs with the increased areal density to 34.9 mg cm-2, which is around three-times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes. Furthermore, a thermal compression process renders the bulk density of the multi-stacked 3D CNTs to be increased by 1.85 g cm-3, which yields an excellent volumetric capacity of 465 mAh cm-3 at 0.5C. Our proposed strategy involving the stacking of 3D CNT based layers and post-thermal compression provides a powerful platform for the utilization of carbon nanomaterials in the advanced LIB technology.

  9. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  10. Integration and flight demonstration of a high-capacity monogroove heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The cancellation of the TDRS-B satellite as the payload for the eighth Space Shuttle mission provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate on-orbit operation of the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe used in the space constructible radiator subsystem. In less than 4 months, a flight experiment was conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, integrated with a payload carrier, installed in the Orbiter Challenger payload bay, and successfully operated in flight. Still color photographs and direct crew visual observation of color changes in a pattern of temperature-sensitive liquid-crystal tapes provided the temperature data necessary to verify successful on-orbit startup and orbital transient response of the heat pipe when subjected to a heat load from its attached electrical heaters. This successful on-orbit demonstration verified analytical design tools and provided confidence in the use of high-capacity heat pipes for future space applications. The flight experiment hardware and the integration and test activities that led to the flight are described, and the actual flight results are compared to analytical performance predictions.

  11. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandra M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Foster, Clifton E.; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T.; Slater, Steven C.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy. PMID:20885794

  12. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    PubMed

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandra M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Foster, Clifton E; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J; Barry, Kerrie W; Goodwin, Lynne A; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T; Slater, Steven C; Donohue, Timothy J; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy. PMID:20885794

  13. Impact of a lowered water table on water holding capacity of high elevation meadow soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Meadow degradation, as a product of overgrazing or disruption of hydrologic regime, is a critical problem facing a variety of environments, including high elevation ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, California and has become a focus of major research and restoration efforts. Within the historic range of water level in a meadow, it is hypothesized that a meadow will retain its water holding capacity and resiliency. However, if the water table drops below a historic level, due to climate change and/or management practices, the process of soil consolidation will influence the resiliency of the meadow through the irreversible plastic deformation of the soil pores. The subsequent change in soil structure results in decreased porosity, increased bulk density, and a reduction in permeability of the meadow. Such changes can adversely impact the overall water holding capacity of the meadow. This study utilizes a modified triaxial system combined with a multiphysics modeling approach to quantify the historic limit of dryness experienced in a high elevation meadow and degree of consolidation the meadow would experience if that limit was exceeded.

  14. High-Capacity Conductive Nanocellulose Paper Sheets for Electrochemically Controlled Extraction of DNA Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Razaq, Aamir; Nyström, Gustav; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy)-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg−1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30–50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m2 g−1) of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT)6, (dT)20, and (dT)40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules. PMID:22195031

  15. Vanadium Nitride Nanowire Supported SnS2 Nanosheets with High Reversible Capacity as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Qiu, Weitao; Jian, Junhua; Huang, Yongchao; Luo, Yang; Yang, Hao; Liang, Chaolun; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang

    2015-10-21

    The vulnerable restacking problem of tin disulfide (SnS2) usually leads to poor initial reversible capacity and poor cyclic stability, which hinders its practical application as lithium ion battery anode (LIB). In this work, we demonstrated an effective strategy to improve the first reversible capacity and lithium storage properties of SnS2 by growing SnS2 nanosheets on porous flexible vanadium nitride (VN) substrates. When evaluating lithium-storage properties, the three-dimensional (3D) porous VN coated SnS2 nanosheets (denoted as CC-VN@SnS2) yield a high reversible capacity of 75% with high specific capacity of about 819 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.65 A g(-1). Remarkable cyclic stability capacity of 791 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles with excellent capacity retention of 97% was also achieved. Furthermore, discharge capacity as high as 349 mAh g(-1) is still retained after 70 cycles even at a elevated current density of 13 A g(-1). The excellent performance was due to the conductive flexible VN substrate support, which provides short Li-ion and electron pathways, accommodates large volume variation, contributes to the capacity, and provides mechanical stability, which allows the electrode to maintain its structural stability. PMID:26439604

  16. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO{sub 2} uptake capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-02-15

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, N{sub 2} sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO{sub 2} uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g{sup −1}) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g{sup −1}) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g{sup −1}) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g{sup −1}) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO{sub 2} adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Exceptionally high CO2 uptake (85.8 wt % at 273 K) has been observed over a high surface area porous organic polymer PDVTA-1 synthesized through copolymerization of divinylbenzene and triallyl amine. - Highlights: • Designing the synthesis of a new N-rich cross-linked porous organic polymer PDVTA-1. • PDVTA-1 showed mesoporosity with very high surface area of 903 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • High surface area and presence of basic sites facilitates the CO{sub 2} uptake. • PDVTA-1 showed exceptionally high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 85.8 wt% at 273 K, 3 bar pressure.

  17. An FDMA system concept for 30/20 GHz high capacity domestic satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berk, G.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.; White, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    The paper summarizes a feasibility study of a multibeam FDMA satellite system operating in the 30/20 GHz band. The system must accommodate a very high volume of traffic within the restrictions of a 5 kW solar cell array and a 2.5 GHz bandwidth. Multibeam satellite operation reduces the DC power demand and allows reuse of the available bandwidth. Interferences among the beams are brought to acceptable levels by appropriate frequency assignments. A transponder design is presented; it is greatly simplified by the application of a regional concept. System analysis shows that MSK modulation is appropriate for a high-capacity system because it conserves the frequency spectrum. Rain attenuation, a serious problem in this frequency band, is combatted with sufficient power margins and with coding. Link budgets, cost analysis, and weight and power calculations are also discussed. A satellite-routed FDMA system compares favorably in performance and cost with a satellite-switched TDMA system.

  18. High capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zekun; Yin, Zhaoxia; Hu, Honghe; Gao, Xiangping; Wang, Liangmin

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to embed large amount of data while minimize the sum of costs of all changed pixels, a novel high capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code is realized by a family of algorithms. Firstly, n (n = 1, 2, 3) cover pixels are assigned to one set according to the payload. Then, 128 binary strings of length seven are divided into eight sets according to the syndrome of every binary string. Binary strings that share the same syndrome are classified into one set. Finally, a binary string in a certain set determined by the data to be embedded is chosen to modify some of the least significant bits of the n cover pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the image quality of the proposed method with high embedding payload is superior to those of the related schemes. PMID:27026872

  19. Radiator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    Radiator technology is discussed in the context of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative's (CSTI's) high capacity power-thermal management project. The CSTI project is a subset of a project to develop a piloted Mars nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: advanced radiator concepts; heat pipe codes and testing; composite materials; radiator design and integration; and surface morphology.

  20. Radiator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiator technology is discussed in the context of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative's (CSTI's) high capacity power-thermal management project. The CSTI project is a subset of a project to develop a piloted Mars nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: advanced radiator concepts; heat pipe codes and testing; composite materials; radiator design and integration; and surface morphology.

  1. Preparation of sub-micron skeletal monoliths with high capacity for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunhe; Qi, Li; Yang, Gengliang; Wang, Fuyi

    2010-03-01

    A novel kind of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)-based monolithic column was developed for LC by directing supramolecular self-assembly of high internal phase emulsion. Mercury intrusion porosimetry characterization and scanning electron microscope pictures showed that these monoliths presented micrometer-sized throughpores, unique sub-micron skeletons and relatively large specific surface area. Additionally, porosity of monoliths could be adjusted while skeletons remained in the size range of 100.0-1000.0 nm. The new monoliths demonstrated not only better column efficiency, but also larger binding capacity. Dynamic binding capacity for protein (BSA) was evaluated to be 42.5 mg/mL, above two times higher than that of the general monoliths (19.1 mg/mL) and higher than that of commercial "Convective Interaction Media" monolithic columns (30.0 mg/mL). Moreover, their chromatographic behaviors were also evaluated in detail by chemical stability and swelling characterization of the monolithic column. Separation of proteins mixture (cytochrome c, myoglobin, ribonuclease A, lysozyme and BSA) on the monolith was achieved within 4 min at velocity of 1440.0 cm/h. Those unique properties made the novel monolithic column a promising alternative to commercially available monolithic supports in LC applications. PMID:20063358

  2. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26970098

  3. Invited Article: Polarization diversity and modulation for high-speed optical communications: architectures and capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, William; Khodakarami, Hamid; Che, Di

    2016-07-01

    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of optical waves. To cope with the exponential growth of the Internet traffic, optical communications has advanced by leaps and bounds within the last decade. For the first time, the polarization domain has been extensively explored for high-speed optical communications. In this paper, we discuss the general principle of polarization modulation in both Jones and Stokes spaces. We show that there is no linear optical device capable of transforming an arbitrary input polarization into one that is orthogonal to itself. This excludes the receiver self-polarization diversity architecture by splitting the signal into two branches, and then transferring one of the branches into orthogonal polarization. We next propose a novel Stokes vector (SV) detection architecture using four single-ended photodiodes (PD) that can recover a full set of SV. We then derive a closed-form expression for the information capacity of different SV detection architectures and compare the capacity of our proposed architectures with that of intensity-modulated directly-detected (IM/DD) method. We next study the 3-PD SV detection architecture where a subset of SV is detected, and devise a novel modulation algorithm that can achieve 2-dimensional modulation with the 3-PD detection. By using cost-effective SV receivers, polarization modulation and multiplexing offers a powerful solution for short-reach optical networks where the wavelength domain is quickly exhausted.

  4. Origin of voltage decay in high-capacity layered oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiya, M.; Abakumov, A. M.; Foix, D.; Rousse, G.; Ramesha, K.; Saubanère, M.; Doublet, M. L.; Vezin, H.; Laisa, C. P.; Prakash, A. S.; Gonbeau, D.; Vantendeloo, G.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Although Li-rich layered oxides (Li1+xNiyCozMn1-x-y-zO2 > 250 mAh g-1) are attractive electrode materials providing energy densities more than 15% higher than today’s commercial Li-ion cells, they suffer from voltage decay on cycling. To elucidate the origin of this phenomenon, we employ chemical substitution in structurally related Li2RuO3 compounds. Li-rich layered Li2Ru1-yTiyO3 phases with capacities of ~240 mAh g-1 exhibit the characteristic voltage decay on cycling. A combination of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveals that the migration of cations between metal layers and Li layers is an intrinsic feature of the charge-discharge process that increases the trapping of metal ions in interstitial tetrahedral sites. A correlation between these trapped ions and the voltage decay is established by expanding the study to both Li2Ru1-ySnyO3 and Li2RuO3; the slowest decay occurs for the cations with the largest ionic radii. This effect is robust, and the finding provides insights into new chemistry to be explored for developing high-capacity layered electrodes that evade voltage decay.

  5. Phosphorus recycling in photorespiration maintains high photosynthetic capacity in woody species.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, David S; Crous, Kristine Y; Lambers, Hans; Cooke, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Leaf photosynthetic CO2 responses can provide insight into how major nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), constrain leaf CO2 assimilation rates (Anet). However, triose-phosphate limitations are rarely employed in the classic photosynthesis model and it is uncertain as to what extent these limitations occur in field situations. In contrast to predictions from biochemical theory of photosynthesis, we found consistent evidence in the field of lower Anet in high [CO2] and low [O2 ] than at ambient [O2 ]. For 10 species of trees and shrubs across a range of soil P availability in Australia, none of them showed a positive response of Anet at saturating [CO2] (i.e. Amax) to 2 kPa O2. Three species showed >20% reductions in Amax in low [O2], a phenomenon potentially explained by orthophosphate (Pi) savings during photorespiration. These species, with largest photosynthetic capacity and Pi  > 2 mmol P m(-2), rely the most on additional Pi made available from photorespiration rather than species growing in P-impoverished soils. The results suggest that rarely used adjustments to a biochemical photosynthesis model are useful for predicting Amax and give insight into the biochemical limitations of photosynthesis rates at a range of leaf P concentrations. Phosphate limitations to photosynthetic capacity are likely more common in the field than previously considered. PMID:25311401

  6. Rapid microplate high-throughput methodology for assessment of Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Luís M; Santos, Fernando; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette; Lima, José L F C

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, a rapid and high-throughput Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reducing capacity assay adapted to routine/screening analysis was developed. In order to attain a fast F-C reducing kinetic reaction, the reaction conditions of the classical time-consuming F-C assay were modified and the influence of alkali and F-C reagent concentration was evaluated using gallic acid as standard. The proposed method was performed in a 96-well microplate format and it was applied to several phenolic compounds and food products (wines, beers, infusions and juices) providing F-C reducing capacity results after 3 min of reaction similar to those obtained by the time-consuming (120 min) conventional method. The additive and synergistic effect of reducing nonphenolic compounds usually found in food samples was also investigated. Ascorbic acid and ferrous sulfate provided an additive effect, while for fructose, glucose and sodium sulfite a synergistic effect was obtained. The detection limit was 0.25 mg L(-1) (as gallic acid) and the repeatability was <1.6% (n=12). PMID:21111158

  7. Ovariectomy results in differential shifts in gut microbiota in low versus high aerobic capacity rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sheflin, Amy M; Foster, Michelle T; Gentile, Christopher L; Kahl, Amber; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Weir, Tiffany L

    2015-01-01

    The increased risk for cardiometabolic disease with the onset of menopause is widely studied and likely precipitated by the decline in endogenous estradiol (E2), yet the precise mechanisms are unknown. The gut microbiome is involved in estrogen metabolism and has been linked to metabolic disease, suggesting its potential involvement in the postmenopausal phenotype. Furthermore, menopause-associated risk factors, as well as gut ecology, are altered with exercise. Therefore, we studied microbial changes in an ovariectomized (OVX vs. Sham) rat model of high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity (n = 8–10/group) in relation to changes in body weight/composition, glucose tolerance, and liver triglycerides (TG). Nine weeks after OVX, HCR rats were moderately protected against regional adipose tissue gain and liver TG accumulation (P < 0.05 for both). Microbial diversity and number of the Bacteroidetes phylum were significantly increased in LCR with OVX, but unchanged in HCR OVX relative to Sham. Plasma short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), produced by bacteria in the gut and recognized as metabolic signaling molecules, were significantly greater in HCR Sham relative to LCR Sham rats (P = 0.05) and were decreased with OVX in both groups. These results suggest that increased aerobic capacity may be protective against menopause-associated cardiometabolic risk and that gut ecology, and production of signaling molecules such as SCFA, may contribute to the mediation. PMID:26265751

  8. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  9. Flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of spinach genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonoids in different spinach genotypes were separated, identified, and quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. The antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were also measured using two antioxidant assays - oxygen radica...

  10. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-11-01

    Intramuscular acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Many nutritional strategies aiming to increase intra- and extracellular buffering capacity have been investigated. Among these, supplementation of beta-alanine (~3-6.4 g/day for 4 weeks or longer), the rate-limiting factor to the intramuscular synthesis of carnosine (i.e. an intracellular buffer), has been shown to result in positive effects on exercise performance in which acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue. Furthermore, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and sodium/calcium lactate supplementation have been employed in an attempt to increase the extracellular buffering capacity. Although all attempts have increased blood bicarbonate concentrations, evidence indicates that sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g/kg body mass) is the most effective in improving high-intensity exercise performance. The evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of sodium citrate and lactate remain weak. These nutritional strategies are not without side effects, as gastrointestinal distress is often associated with the effective doses of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and calcium lactate. Similarly, paresthesia (i.e. tingling sensation of the skin) is currently the only known side effect associated with beta-alanine supplementation, and it is caused by the acute elevation in plasma beta-alanine concentration after a single dose of beta-alanine. Finally, the co-supplementation of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may result in additive ergogenic gains during high-intensity exercise, although studies are required to investigate this combination in a wide range of sports. PMID:26553493

  11. Spongelike Nanosized Mn3O4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruna, Hector D.

    2011-07-12

    Mn₃O₄ has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn₃O₄ was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn₃O₄ exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles.

  12. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  13. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  14. Development of a process for high capacity-arc heater production of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.; Meyer, T. N.; Fey, M. G.; Harvey, F. J.; Arcella, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    The realization of low cost, electric power from large-area silicon, photovoltaic arrays will depend on the development of new methods for large capacity production of solar grade (SG) silicon with a cost of less than $10 per kilogram by 1986 (established Department of Energy goal). The objective of the program is to develop a method to produce SG silicon in large quantities based on the high temperature-sodium reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) to yield molten silicon and the coproduct salt vapor (NaCl). Commercial ac electric arc heaters will be utilized to provide a hyper-heated mixture of argon and hydrogen which will furnish the required process energy. The reactor is designed for a nominal silicon flow rate of 45 kg/hr. Analyses and designs have been conducted to evaluate the process and complete the initial design of the experimental verification unit.

  15. Extended-capacity high-speed-disk recording system for TREAT hodoscope

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.A.; Travis, D.; DeVolpi, A.; Burrows, D.; Ray, D.; Stanford, G.

    1983-01-01

    New requirements for time resolution, test duration, field of view, and recording redundancy in dynamic digital radiographic imaging of fuel motion in TREAT and TREAT-Upgrade (TU) in-pile experiments have been formulated. This has necessitated the design and fabrication of a new hodoscope high-speed data acquisition system. Recently an array of proportional counters was installed to operate in tandem with the Hornyak-button array. The full implementation of this new array, together with the increased field-of-view needed for future TU 37-pin experiments, required a separate recording system operting in parallel with that for the Hornyak buttons. The new recording system was required to have substantially higher capacity than the earlier recording system in use, in order to record sufficient data channels and samples with adequately small collection intervals, for some new types of experiments.

  16. Study on the Structures of Two Booster Pellets Having High Initiation Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang-Qi, Hu; Hong-Rong, Liu; Li-shuang, Hu; Xiong, Cao; Xiang-Chao, Mi; Hai-Xia, Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Insensitive munitions (IM) improve the survivability of both weapons and their associated platforms, which can lead to a reduction in casualties, mission losses, and whole life costs. All weapon systems contain an explosive train that needs to meet IM criteria but reliably initiate a main charge explosive. To ensure that these diametrically opposed requirements can be achieved, new highly effective booster charge structures were designed. The initiation capacity of the two booster pellets was studied using varied composition and axial-steel-dent methods. The results showed that the two new booster pellets can initiate standard main charge pellets with less explosive mass than the ordinary cylindrical booster pellet. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with the experiment results.

  17. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn; Rao, Dewei E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  18. Design of a Two-stage High-capacity Stirling Cryocooler Operating below 30K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    The high capacity cryocooler working below 30K can find many applications such as superconducting motors, superconducting cables and cryopump. Compared to the GM cryocooler, the Stirling cryocooler can achieve higher efficiency and more compact structure. Because of these obvious advantages, we have designed a two stage free piston Stirling cryocooler system, which is driven by a moving magnet linear compressor with an operating frequency of 40 Hz and a maximum 5 kW input electric power. The first stage of the cryocooler is designed to operate in the liquid nitrogen temperature and output a cooling power of 100 W. And the second stage is expected to simultaneously provide a cooling power of 50 W below the temperature of 30 K. In order to achieve the best system efficiency, a numerical model based on the thermoacoustic model was developed to optimize the system operating and structure parameters.

  19. Contamination-free high capacity converging waves sonoreactors for the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Dion, Jean-Luc

    2009-02-01

    A new sonoreactor technology is presented here which should give a decisive impulse to sonochemistry in various areas of chemical processing. These exclusive systems use high power converging acoustic waves in a tube to produce a relatively large volume confined acoustic cavitation zone in flowing liquid reagents under pressure. It is well known that numerous chemical reactions are strongly accelerated when they take place inside such a zone. The new cylindrical sonoreactors do not contaminate the processed liquids with erosion products as most other devices do since the cavitation zone is maintained away from the wall of the tube. The processing conditions can be widely varied with pressure, power, temperature, and flow rate. The processing capacity of the largest models may be up to several tons per hour, depending on the required cavitation energy per unit volume to produce the desired process enhancement, using an electric power input of about 50 kW. PMID:18789748

  20. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  1. Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  2. Laboratory Development of A High Capacity Gas-Fired paper Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr; Sherrow, Lester

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laparrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300ºF range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400ºF were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  3. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  4. Octahedral tin dioxide nanocrystals as high capacity anode materials for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Wang, Chengyin; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-08-14

    Single crystalline SnO2 nanocrystals (~60 nm in size) with a uniform octahedral shape were synthesised using a hydrothermal method. Their phase and morphology were characterized by XRD and FESEM observation. TEM and HRTEM analyses identified that SnO2 octahedral nanocrystals grow along the [001] direction, consisting of dominantly exposed {221} high energy facets. When applied as anode materials for Na-ion batteries, SnO2 nanocrystals exhibited high reversible sodium storage capacity and excellent cyclability (432 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles). In particular, SnO2 nanocrystals also demonstrated a good high rate performance. Ex situ TEM analysis revealed the reaction mechanism of SnO2 nanocrystals for reversible Na ion storage. It was found that Na ions first insert into SnO2 crystals at the high voltage plateau (from 3 V to ~0.8 V), and that the exposed (1 × 1) tunnel-structure could facilitate the initial insertion of Na ions. Subsequently, Na ions react with SnO2 to form NaxSn alloys and Na2O in the low voltage range (from ~0.8 V to 0.01 V). The superior cyclability of SnO2 nanocrystals could be mainly ascribed to the reversible Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying reactions. Furthermore, the reduced Na2O "matrix" may help retard the aggregation of tin nanocrystals, leading to an enhanced electrochemical performance. PMID:23793542

  5. Graphene Folding in Si Rich Carbon Nanofibers for Highly Stable, High Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ling; Williams, Brian P; Yoo, Sang H; Kim, Jangwoo; Shoorideh, Ghazal; Joo, Yong Lak

    2016-03-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) wrapped by graphene in carbon nanofibers were obtained via electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In this study, water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with low carbon yield is selected to make the process water-based and to achieve a high silicon yield in the composite. It was also found that increasing the amount of graphene helps keep the PVA fiber morphology after carbonization, while forming a graphene network. The fiber SEM and HRTEM images reveal that micrometer graphene is heavily folded into sub-micron scale fibers during electrospinning, while Si NPs are incorporated into the folds with nanospace in between. When applied to lithium-ion battery anodes, the Si/graphene/carbon nanofiber composites show a high reversible capacity of ∼2300 mAh g(-1) at a charging rate of 100 mA/g and a stable capacity of 1191 mAh g(-1) at 1 A/g after more than 200 cycles. The interconnected graphene network not only ensures the excellent conductivity but also serves as a buffering matrix for the mechanic stress caused by volume change; the nanospace between Si NPs and folded graphene provides the space needed for volume expansion. PMID:26853163

  6. Volume server: A scalable high speed and high capacity magnetic tape archive architecture with concurrent multi-host access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybczynski, Fred

    1993-01-01

    A major challenge facing data processing centers today is data management. This includes the storage of large volumes of data and access to it. Current media storage for large data volumes is typically off line and frequently off site in warehouses. Access to data archived in this fashion can be subject to long delays, errors in media selection and retrieval, and even loss of data through misplacement or damage to the media. Similarly, designers responsible for architecting systems capable of continuous high-speed recording of large volumes of digital data are faced with the challenge of identifying technologies and configurations that meet their requirements. Past approaches have tended to evaluate the combination of the fastest tape recorders with the highest capacity tape media and then to compromise technology selection as a consequence of cost. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses both of these challenges and proposes a cost effective solution based on robots, high speed helical scan tape drives, and large-capacity media.

  7. High fatty acid oxidation capacity and phosphorylation control despite elevated leak and reduced respiratory capacity in northern elephant seal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chicco, Adam J; Le, Catherine H; Schlater, Amber; Nguyen, Alex; Kaye, Spencer; Beals, Joseph W; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Bell, Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E; Kanatous, Shane B

    2014-08-15

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are extreme, hypoxia-adapted endotherms that rely largely on aerobic metabolism during extended breath-hold dives in near-freezing water temperatures. While many aspects of their physiology have been characterized to account for these remarkable feats, the contribution of adaptations in the aerobic powerhouses of muscle cells, the mitochondria, are unknown. In the present study, the ontogeny and comparative physiology of elephant seal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function was investigated under a variety of substrate conditions and respiratory states. Intact mitochondrial networks were studied by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fiber bundles obtained from primary swimming muscles of pup, juvenile and adult seals, and compared with fibers from adult human vastus lateralis. Results indicate that seal muscle maintains a high capacity for fatty acid oxidation despite a progressive decrease in total respiratory capacity as animals mature from pups to adults. This is explained by a progressive increase in phosphorylation control and fatty acid utilization over pyruvate in adult seals compared with humans and seal pups. Interestingly, despite higher indices of oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, juvenile and adult seals also exhibit a ~50% greater capacity for respiratory 'leak' compared with humans and seal pups. The ontogeny of this phenotype suggests it is an adaptation of muscle to the prolonged breath-hold exercise and highly variable ambient temperatures experienced by mature elephant seals. These studies highlight the remarkable plasticity of mammalian mitochondria to meet the demands for both efficient ATP production and endothermy in a cold, oxygen-limited environment. PMID:24902742

  8. The design, performance and analysis of a high work capacity transonic turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, J.D.; Leversuch, N.P.; Litchfield, M.R.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a high work capacity single-stage transonic turbine of aerodynamic duty tailored to the requirements of driving the high-pressure core of a low cost turbofan engine. Aerodynamic loading was high for this duty (..delta..H/U/sup 2/ = 2.1) and a major objective in the design was the control of the resulting transonic flow to achieve good turbine performance. Practical and coolable blading was a design requirement. At the design point (pressure ratio = 4.48), a turbine total to total efficiency of 87.0 percent was measured - this being based on measured shaft power and a tip clearance of 1.4 percent of blade height. In addition, the turbine was comprehensively instrumented to allow measurement of aerofoil surface static pressures on both stator and rotor - the latter being expedited via a rotating scanivalve system. Downstream area traverses were also conducted. Analysis of these measurements indicates that the turbine operates at overall reaction levels lower than design but the rotor blade performs efficiently.

  9. Relation of the multilocus genetic composite reflecting high dopamine signaling capacity to future increases in BMI☆

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Marti, C. Nathan; Smolen, Andrew; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Because food intake exerts its rewarding effect by increasing dopamine (DA) signaling in reward circuitry, it theoretically follows that individuals with a greater number of genotypes putatively associated with high DA signaling capacity are at increased risk for overeating and subsequent weight gain. We tested the association between the multilocus genetic composite risk score, defined by the total number of genotypes putatively associated with greater DA signaling capacity (i.e. TaqIA A2 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Del and Del/Del genotypes, DRD4-S allele, DAT1-S allele, and COMT Val/Val genotype), and future increases in Body Mass Index (BMI) in three prospective studies. Participants in Study 1 (N = 30; M age = 15.2; M baseline BMI = 26.9), Study 2 (N = 34; M age = 20.9; M baseline BMI = 28.2), and Study 3 (N = 162; M age = 15.3, M baseline BMI = 20.8) provided saliva samples from which epithelial cells were collected, permitting DNA extraction. The multilocus genetic composite risk score was associated with future increases in BMI in all three studies (Study 1, r = 0.37; Study 2, r = 0.22; Study 3, r = 0.14) and the overall sample (r = 0.19). DRD4-S was associated with increases in BMI in Study 1 (r = 0.42), Study 2 (r = 0.27), and in the overall sample (r = 0.17). DAT1-S was associated with increases in BMI in Study 3 (r = 0.17) and in the overall sample (r = 0.12). There were no associations between the other genotypes (TaqIA, COMT, and DRD2-141C) and change in BMI over 2-year follow-up. Data suggest that individuals with a genetic propensity for greater DA signaling capacity are at risk for future weight gain and that combining alleles that theoretically have a similar function may provide a more reliable method of modeling genetic risk associated with future weight gain than individual genotypes. PMID:25523644

  10. The Sediment Yield of High Mountain Environment Watersheds: Strong Evidence of Transport Capacity Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, N.; Lane, S. N.; Lambiel, C.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine landscapes are likely to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of: (1) the vulnerability of permafrost and glacial and nival processes to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation; (2) their history, which may have led to high rates of sediment production, and hence high rates of sediment supply; and (3) the steep slopes that may sustain sediment transport. Assessing the effects of climate change upon these processes over the timescale of recent rapid warming (i.e. decades) is difficult because of the lack of available data. Here, we use two unique data sources to assess the relative importance of these three processes for two high mountain basins (altitude range 2'000 to 3'500 m asl): (1) histories of surface change from the late 1950s, based upon construction of digital elevation models from archival imagery; and (2) a long term record, beginning in the early 1960s, of sediment export based upon the flushing of sediment from hydropower intakes. The two basins contain glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost and the legacy of past glacial activity. These data show that the level of geomorphic activity within both basins is orders of magnitude higher than the volume of sediment exported from the basins. Decadal scale changes in elevation and surface displacement velocities suggest an acceleration of landscape dynamics from the 1980s. Changes in atmospheric temperature remain a key control of this process, but precipitation and snow cover prove critical in controlling rock glacier behaviour and can induce acceleration of surface displacements even under cold atmospheric conditions. However, the analysis of the sediment export data show that despite generally greater within basin dynamics, the rate of export of sediment remains orders of magnitude lower than rates of sediment production. Calculations of sediment transport capacity suggest that this is because the fundamental limit upon sediment yield is the capacity of the stream to

  11. High-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects for high-capacity removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Gao, Song; Wu, Liqiong; Qiu, Shengqiang; Guo, Yufen; Geng, Xiumei; Chen, Mingliang; Liao, Shutian; Zhu, Chao; Gong, Youpin; Long, Mingsheng; Xu, Jianbao; Wei, Xiangfei; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fabrication of high-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects (3D-GMOs) with a relatively low porosity has not yet been realized, although they are desirable for applications in which high mechanical and electrical properties are required. Here, we explore a method to rapidly prepare the high-density 3D-GMOs using nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl₂·6H₂O) as a catalyst precursor by CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Further, the free-standing 3D-GMOs are employed as electrolytic electrodes to remove various heavy metal ions. The robust 3D structure, high conductivity (~12 S/cm) and large specific surface area (~560 m²/g) enable ultra-high electrical adsorption capacities (Cd²⁺ ~ 434 mg/g, Pb²⁺~ 882 mg/g, Ni²⁺ ~ 1,683 mg/g, Cu²⁺ ~ 3,820 mg/g) from aqueous solutions and fast desorption. The current work has significance in the studies of both the fabrication of high-density 3D-GMOs and the removal of heavy metal ions. PMID:23821107

  12. High-Density Three-Dimension Graphene Macroscopic Objects for High-Capacity Removal of Heavy Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Gao, Song; Wu, Liqiong; Qiu, Shengqiang; Guo, Yufen; Geng, Xiumei; Chen, Mingliang; Liao, Shutian; Zhu, Chao; Gong, Youpin; Long, Mingsheng; Xu, Jianbao; Wei, Xiangfei; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fabrication of high-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects (3D-GMOs) with a relatively low porosity has not yet been realized, although they are desirable for applications in which high mechanical and electrical properties are required. Here, we explore a method to rapidly prepare the high-density 3D-GMOs using nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O) as a catalyst precursor by CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Further, the free-standing 3D-GMOs are employed as electrolytic electrodes to remove various heavy metal ions. The robust 3D structure, high conductivity (~12 S/cm) and large specific surface area (~560 m2/g) enable ultra-high electrical adsorption capacities (Cd2+ ~ 434 mg/g, Pb2+ ~ 882 mg/g, Ni2+ ~ 1,683 mg/g, Cu2+ ~ 3,820 mg/g) from aqueous solutions and fast desorption. The current work has significance in the studies of both the fabrication of high-density 3D-GMOs and the removal of heavy metal ions. PMID:23821107

  13. Sn(78)Ge(22)@carbon core-shell nanowires as fast and high-capacity lithium storage media.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyojin; Cho, Jaephil

    2007-09-01

    Branched Sn78Ge22@carbon core-shell nanowires were prepared by thermal annealing of butyl-capped Sn78Ge22 clusters at 600 degrees C in a vacuum. The first discharge and charge capacities are 1250 and 1107 mA h/g, showing a Coulombic efficiency of 88%. Such a one-dimensional core-shell design exploits the benefits of the Sn78Ge22 nanowire to produce an exceptional high rate lithium reactivity (93% Coulombic efficiency at 8C (=6400 mA/g) rate) as well as excellent capacity retention after extended cycles (capacity retention of 94%). PMID:17661523

  14. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  15. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-01-01

    Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel “core-shell” porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities. PMID:23963328

  16. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-04-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m2/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  17. MEO based secured, robust, high capacity and perceptual quality image watermarking in DWT-SVD domain.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration. PMID:25830081

  18. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  19. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Population of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells With High Myogenic Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Vauchez, Karine; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Schmid, Michel; Khattar, Patricia; Chapel, Alain; Catelain, Cyril; Lecourt, Séverine; Larghéro, Jérôme; Fiszman, Marc; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH) activity is one hallmark of human bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and peripheral blood (PB) primitive progenitors presenting high reconstitution capacities in vivo. In this study, we have identified ALDH+ cells within human skeletal muscles, and have analyzed their phenotypical and functional characteristics. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of human muscle tissue sections revealed rare endomysial cells. Flow cytometry analysis using the fluorescent substrate of ALDH, Aldefluor, identified brightly stained (ALDHbr) cells with low side scatter (SSClo), in enzymatically dissociated muscle biopsies, thereafter abbreviated as SMALD+ (for skeletal muscle ALDH+) cells. Phenotypical analysis discriminated two sub-populations according to CD34 expression: SMALD+/CD34− and SMALD+/CD34+ cells. These sub-populations did not initially express endothelial (CD31), hematopoietic (CD45), and myogenic (CD56) markers. Upon sorting, however, whereas SMALD+/CD34+ cells developed in vitro as a heterogeneous population of CD56− cells able to differentiate in adipoblasts, the SMALD+/CD34− fraction developed in vitro as a highly enriched population of CD56+ myoblasts able to form myotubes. Moreover, only the SMALD+/CD34− population maintained a strong myogenic potential in vivo upon intramuscular transplantation. Our results suggest that ALDH activity is a novel marker for a population of new human skeletal muscle progenitors presenting a potential for cell biology and cell therapy. PMID:19738599

  20. The Ideal and Real Gas Heat Capacity of Potassium Atoms at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolsi, Louis; Biolsi, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The ideal gas heat capacity, Cp, of potassium atoms is calculated to high temperatures using statistical mechanics. Since there are a large number of electronic energy levels in the partition function (Boltzmann sum) below the first ionization potential, the partition function and Cp will become very large as the temperature increases unless the number of energy levels contributing to the partition function is constrained. Two primary categories of arguments are used to do this. First, at high temperatures, the increased size of the atoms constrains the sum (Bethe method). Second, an argument based on the existence of interacting charged species at higher temperatures is used to constrain the sum (ionization potential lowering method). When potassium atoms are assumed to constitute a real gas that obeys the virial equation of state, the lowest non-ideal contribution to Cp depends on the second derivative of the second virial coefficient, B( T), which depends on the interaction potential energy curves between two potassium atoms. When two ground-state (2{S}) atoms interact, they can follow either of the two potential energy curves. When a 2{S} atom interacts with an atom in the first electronically excited (2{P}) state, they can follow any of the eight potential energy curves. The values of B( T) for the ten states are determined, then averaged, and used to calculate the nonideal contribution to Cp.

  1. Kinetics of Oligonucleotide Hybridization to DNA Probe Arrays on High-Capacity Porous Silica Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Marc I.; Fidanza, Jacqueline A.; McGall, Glenn H.; Trulson, Mark O.; Forman, Jonathan E.; Frank, Curtis W.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the kinetics of DNA hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays on high-capacity porous silica films that were deposited by two techniques. Films created by spin coating pure colloidal silica suspensions onto a substrate had pores of ∼23 nm, relatively low porosity (35%), and a surface area of 17 times flat glass (for a 0.3-μm film). In the second method, latex particles were codeposited with the silica by spin coating and then pyrolyzed, which resulted in larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area (26 times flat glass for a 0.3-μm film). As a result of these favorable properties, the templated silica hybridized more quickly and reached a higher adsorbed target density (11 vs. 8 times flat glass at 22°C) than the pure silica. Adsorption of DNA onto the high-capacity films is controlled by traditional adsorption and desorption coefficients, as well as by morphology factors and transient binding interactions between the target and the probes. To describe these effects, we have developed a model based on the analogy to diffusion of a reactant in a porous catalyst. Adsorption values (ka, kd, and K) measured on planar arrays for the same probe/target system provide the parameters for the model and also provide an internally consistent comparison for the stability of the transient complexes. The interpretation of the model takes into account factors not previously considered for hybridization in three-dimensional films, including the potential effects of heterogeneous probe populations, partial probe/target complexes during diffusion, and non-1:1 binding structures. The transient complexes are much less stable than full duplexes (binding constants for full duplexes higher by three orders of magnitude or more), which may be a result of the unique probe density and distribution that is characteristic of the photolithographically patterned arrays. The behavior at 22°C is described well by the predictive equations for

  2. High-buffering capacity, hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes for isoelectric trapping separations.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Sanjiv; Shave, Evan; Vigh, Gyula

    2004-10-01

    Hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been synthesized from low-pI ampholytic components, poly(vinyl alcohol), and a bifunctional cross-linker, glycerol-1,3-diglycidyl ether. The low-pI ampholytic components used contain one amino group and at least two weakly acidic functional groups. The acidic functional groups are selected such that the pI value of the ampholytic component is determined by the pK(a) values of the acidic functional groups. When the concentration of the ampholytic component incorporated into the membrane is higher than a required minimum value, the pI of the membrane becomes independent of variations in the actual incorporation rate of the ampholytic compound. The new, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been successfully used as anodic membranes in isoelectric trapping separations with pH < 1.5 anolytes and replaced the hydrolytically less stable polyacrylamide-based isoelectric membranes. The new low-pI isoelectric membranes have excellent mechanical stability, low electric resistance, good buffering capacity, and long life time, even when used with as much as 50 W power and current densities as high as 33 mA/cm(2) during the isoelectric trapping separations. PMID:15490454

  3. The infectious BAC genomic DNA expression library: a high capacity vector system for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Lufino, Michele M P; Edser, Pauline A H; Quail, Michael A; Rice, Stephen; Adams, David J; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Gene dosage plays a critical role in a range of cellular phenotypes, yet most cellular expression systems use heterologous cDNA-based vectors which express proteins well above physiological levels. In contrast, genomic DNA expression vectors generate physiologically-relevant levels of gene expression by carrying the whole genomic DNA locus of a gene including its regulatory elements. Here we describe the first genomic DNA expression library generated using the high-capacity herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon technology to deliver bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) into cells by viral transduction. The infectious BAC (iBAC) library contains 184,320 clones with an average insert size of 134.5 kb. We show in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) disease model cell line and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that this library can be used for genetic rescue studies in a range of contexts including the physiological restoration of Ldlr deficiency, and viral receptor expression. The iBAC library represents an important new genetic analysis tool openly available to the research community. PMID:27353647

  4. Towards practical, high-capacity, low-maintenance information storage in synthesized DNA.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nick; Bertone, Paul; Chen, Siyuan; Dessimoz, Christophe; LeProust, Emily M; Sipos, Botond; Birney, Ewan

    2013-02-01

    Digital production, transmission and storage have revolutionized how we access and use information but have also made archiving an increasingly complex task that requires active, continuing maintenance of digital media. This challenge has focused some interest on DNA as an attractive target for information storage because of its capacity for high-density information encoding, longevity under easily achieved conditions and proven track record as an information bearer. Previous DNA-based information storage approaches have encoded only trivial amounts of information or were not amenable to scaling-up, and used no robust error-correction and lacked examination of their cost-efficiency for large-scale information archival. Here we describe a scalable method that can reliably store more information than has been handled before. We encoded computer files totalling 739 kilobytes of hard-disk storage and with an estimated Shannon information of 5.2 × 10(6) bits into a DNA code, synthesized this DNA, sequenced it and reconstructed the original files with 100% accuracy. Theoretical analysis indicates that our DNA-based storage scheme could be scaled far beyond current global information volumes and offers a realistic technology for large-scale, long-term and infrequently accessed digital archiving. In fact, current trends in technological advances are reducing DNA synthesis costs at a pace that should make our scheme cost-effective for sub-50-year archiving within a decade. PMID:23354052

  5. Structural originations of irreversible capacity loss from highly lithiated copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Corey T.; Dmowski, Wojtek; Johannes, Michelle D.; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2012-02-07

    We use electrochemistry, high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) with pair-distribution function analysis (PDF), and density functional theory (DFT) to study the instabilities of Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} at varying state of charge. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns revealed phase evolution from pure Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} body-centered orthorhombic (Immm) space group to multiphase compositions after cycling. The PDF showed CuO{sub 4} square chains with varying packing during electrochemical cycling. Peaks in the G(r) at the Cu-O distance for delithiated, LiCuO{sub 2}, showed CuO{sub 4} square chains with reduced ionic radius for Cu in the 3+ state. At full depth of discharge to 1.5 V, CuO was observed in fractions greater than the initial impurity level which strongly affects the reversibility of the lithiation reactions contributing to capacity loss. DFT calculations showed electron removal from Cu and O during delithiation of Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}.

  6. Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva in High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Mahmoud; Ghoorchi, Vahideh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Raygani, Asad Vaisi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Imbalance between oxidative stress and saliva antioxidants plays a major role in initiation and spread of dental caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva in dental caries. Methods: In this case-control study which employed high school students (14-18 years), the un-stimulated saliva samples of 60 students without dental caries (control group) and 60 students with dental caries (with at least 5 teeth levels of dental caries) were gathered. Each group comprised of males (half of cases) and females (half of cases). TAC of saliva was measured by Zellbio® (Netherlands) in terms of micmol/L. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 17.0) and t-test with considering significance level at 0.05. Results: TAC of saliva was significantly lower in cases with dental caries (0.256±0.106) compared to those without dental caries (0.396±0.077); P< 0.001. There was no statistically significant difference of TAC of saliva between males (0.319±0.119) and females (0.333±0.113) irrespective of dental caries (P=0.507). Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that there was a reverse association between dental caries and TAC of saliva.

  7. High-dynamic-range texture compression for rendering systems of different capacities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Lu, Yan; Wu, Feng; Li, Shipeng; Tardif, John

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for high-dynamic-range (HDR) texture compression (TC) suitable for rendering systems of different capacities. Based on the previously proposed DHTC scheme, we first work out an improved joint-channel compression framework, which is robust and flexible enough to provide compressed HDR textures at different bit rates. Then, two compressed HDR texture formats based on the proposed framework are developed. The 8 bpp format is of near lossless visual quality, improving upon known state-of-the-art algorithms. And, to our knowledge, the 4 bpp format is the first workable 4 bpp solution with good quality. We also show that HDR textures in the proposed 4 bpp and 8 bpp formats can compose a layered architecture in the texture consumption pipeline, to significantly save the memory bandwidth and storage in real-time rendering. In addition, the 8 bpp format can also be used to handle traditional low dynamic range (LDR) RGBA textures. Our scheme exhibits a practical solution for compressing HDR textures at different rates and LDR textures with alpha maps. PMID:19910661

  8. Ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids as CO₂ absorbents of high capacity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing-Wen; Zhou, Zheng; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, You-Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Li, Ai-Min

    2011-12-15

    By grafting butyl or ethyl onto tetramethylethylenediamine, quaternary ammonium salts with two positive charge centers were formed at the first step. Metathesis with Ag(2)O followed. Through neutralization with glycine, l-alanine, or valine, a series of new ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids (DILs) for CO(2) capture were generated. The structures of DILs, as shown in Figure 1, were verified by using (1)H NMR and EA. These DILs were found to be of quite high viscosity which militated against their industrial application in CO(2) removal. Drawing on the experience of mixed amines' aqueous solutions, these DILs were blended with water or N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous solutions to act as special absorbents of CO(2). Using a Double-Tank Absorption System, the absorption performance of these DIL solutions was investigated in detail. The experimental results indicated that among the three aqueous solutions of DILs (20%, 40%, and 80 wt %), the solution of 40% DIL had a higher absorption rate of CO(2) than the other two, demonstrating the different effects of concentration and viscosity on the absorption. The solution of 40% DIL or the 15% DIL + 15% MDEA had much higher capacity for CO(2) than the corresponding monocation tetraalkylammonium AAILs, due to the special structure of the dication which could influence the solubility of CO(2) in the aqueous solution. PMID:22066493

  9. Magnetic carbon nanotubes with particle-free surfaces and high drug loading capacity.

    PubMed

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Pilatos, George; Romanos, George E; Devlin, Eamon; Kanellopoulos, Nick K; Karanikolos, Georgios N

    2011-09-01

    Open-ended, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated within their graphitic walls (magCNTs) were fabricated by a combined action of templated growth and a ferrofluid catalyst/carbon precursor, and tested as drug hosts. The hybrid nanotubes are stable under extreme pH conditions due to particle protection provided by the graphitic shell. The magCNTs are promising for high capacity drug loading given that the magnetic functionalization did not block any of the active sites available for drug attachment, either from the CNT internal void or on the internal and external surfaces. This is in contrast to typical approaches of loading CNTs with particles that proceed through surface attachment or capillary filling of the tube interior. Additionally, the CNTs exhibit enhanced hydrophilic character, as shown by water adsorption measurements, which make them suitable for biological applications. The morphological and structural characteristics of the hybrid CNTs are evaluated in conjunction to their magnetic properties and ability for drug loading (diaminophenothiazine). The fact that the magnetic functionality is provided from 'inside the walls' can allow for multimode functionalization of the graphitic surfaces and makes the magCNTs promising for targeted therapeutic applications. PMID:21817779

  10. The infectious BAC genomic DNA expression library: a high capacity vector system for functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lufino, Michele M. P.; Edser, Pauline A. H.; Quail, Michael A.; Rice, Stephen; Adams, David J.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Gene dosage plays a critical role in a range of cellular phenotypes, yet most cellular expression systems use heterologous cDNA-based vectors which express proteins well above physiological levels. In contrast, genomic DNA expression vectors generate physiologically-relevant levels of gene expression by carrying the whole genomic DNA locus of a gene including its regulatory elements. Here we describe the first genomic DNA expression library generated using the high-capacity herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon technology to deliver bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) into cells by viral transduction. The infectious BAC (iBAC) library contains 184,320 clones with an average insert size of 134.5 kb. We show in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) disease model cell line and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that this library can be used for genetic rescue studies in a range of contexts including the physiological restoration of Ldlr deficiency, and viral receptor expression. The iBAC library represents an important new genetic analysis tool openly available to the research community. PMID:27353647

  11. Differential expression of HDACs and KATs in high and low regeneration capacity neurons during spinal cord regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Laramore, Cindy; Shifman, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, injured axons fail to regenerate. By contrast, lampreys recover from complete spinal transection and axons regenerate selectively in their correct paths. Yet the large, identified reticulospinal neurons in the lamprey brain vary greatly in their regenerative abilities - some have high regeneration capacity (probability of regeneration >50%) and others have low regeneration capacity (<30%) - even though they have similar projection paths. The presence of both regenerating and non-regenerating neurons located in the same brain region and projecting to the same axon tracts suggests that differences in their regenerating abilities depend upon factors intrinsic to the neurons. Previous work has suggested that axon regeneration, especially in PNS, could depend on epigenetic mechanisms of histone modifications, such as the acetylation of histone tails. Our data indicated that expression of the enzymes responsible for regulating the acetylation of histone (KATs and HDACs) - KAT2A, KAT5 and P300 and HDAC3 did not change after SCI in either high regeneration capacity or low regeneration capacity neurons. In the present report, we show a novel and unexpected relationship between neuron regeneration abilities and expression of HDAC1. While HDAC1 expression was downregulated in both high and low regeneration capacity neurons 2 and 4weeks after SCI, it was upregulated at 7weeks at almost all RS neurons. However, at 10weeks post-transection only high regeneration capacity neurons displayed elevated HDAC1 mRNA expression and HDAC1 expression was again downregulated in low regeneration capacity neurons. Moreover, we show that HDAC1 is preferentially expressed in regenerated neurons, but not in non-regenerating neurons. Together, these results suggest that SCI causes significant changes in HDAC1 expression and that HDAC1 expression in regenerating neurons may modulates a survival or regeneration programs. PMID:27059134

  12. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  13. Binder-free Ge-three dimensional graphene electrodes for high-rate capacity Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. D.; Chui, Y. S.; Chen, X. F. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Zhang, W. J. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Li, Y.

    2013-12-16

    A binder-free, high-rate Ge-three dimensional (3D) graphene composite was synthesized by directly depositing Ge film atop 3D graphene grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Ni substrate. The Ge-3D graphene structure demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode with a reversible capacity of 1140 mAh g{sup −1} at 1/3C over 100 cycles and 835 mAh g{sup −1} at 8C after 60 cycles, and significantly a discharge capacity of 186 mAh g{sup −1} was still achieved at 32C. The high capacity and outstanding stability of the Ge-3D graphene composite propose it as a promising electrode in high-performance thin film LIBs.

  14. Peptide immobilized monolith containing tentacle-type functionalized polymer chains for high-capacity binding of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng

    2014-12-29

    A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL(-1), up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL(-1)). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL(-1) for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification. PMID:25476688

  15. First Clinical Experience with a High-Capacity Implantable Infusion Pump for Continuous Intravenous Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Damascelli, Bruno; Patelli, Gianluigi; Frigerio, Laura F.; Lanocita, Rodolfo; Di Tolla, Giuseppe; Marchiano, Alfonso; Spreafico, Carlo; Garbagnati, Francesco; Bonalumi, Maria G.; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Ticha, Vladimira; Prino, Aurelio

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a new high-capacity pump for systemic venous chemotherapy and to verify the quality of implantation by interventional radiology staff. Methods: A total of 47 infusion pumps with a 60-ml reservoir and variable flow rates (2, 6, 8, or 12 ml/24 hr) were implanted by radiologists in 46 patients with solid tumor metastases requiring treatment with a single, continuously infused cytostatic agent. The reservoir was refilled transcutaneously, usually once weekly. The flow accuracy of the pump was assessed from actual drug delivery recorded on 34 patients over a minimum observation period of 180 days. Results: No early complications occurred in any of the 47 implants in 46 patients. A total of 12 (25.53%) complications occurred between 3 and 24 months after implantation. Seven (14.90%) of these were due to the external design of the pump, while five (10.63%) were related to the central venous catheter. In the 34 patients available for pump evaluation (follow-up of at least 180 days), the system was used for a total of 14,191 days (range 180-911 days, mean 417.38 days), giving an overall complication rate of 0.84 per 1000 days of operation. The mean flow rate accuracy was 90.26%. Conclusion: The new implantable pump showed good flow rate accuracy and reliable operation. The pump-related complications were related to its external design and have now been corrected by appropriate modifications. From a radiologic and surgical viewpoint, the venous implantation procedure is identical to that of conventional vascular access devices and can be performed by radiologists familiar with these techniques. The current limitations lie in the high cost of the pump and, for certain drugs, the short time between refills.

  16. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  17. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability. PMID:25097883

  18. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Driever, Steven M.; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock’s and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses. PMID:26860066

  19. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume.

  20. Ion intercalation into two-dimensional transition-metal carbides: global screening for new high-capacity battery materials.

    PubMed

    Eames, Christopher; Islam, M Saiful

    2014-11-19

    Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (termed MXenes) are a new family of compounds generating considerable interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Intercalation of ions into MXenes has recently been demonstrated with good electrochemical performance, making them viable electrode materials for rechargeable batteries. Here we have performed global screening of the capacity and voltage for a variety of intercalation ions (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+)) into a large number of M2C-based compounds (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta) with F-, H-, O-, and OH-functionalized surfaces using density functional theory methods. In terms of gravimetric capacity a greater amount of Li(+) or Mg(2+) can be intercalated into an MXene than Na(+) or K(+), which is related to the size of the intercalating ion. Variation of the surface functional group and transition metal species can significantly affect the voltage and capacity of an MXene, with oxygen termination leading to the highest capacity. The most promising group of M2C materials in terms of anode voltage and gravimetric capacity (>400 mAh/g) are compounds containing light transition metals (e.g., Sc, Ti, V, and Cr) with nonfunctionalized or O-terminated surfaces. The results presented here provide valuable insights into exploring a rich variety of high-capacity MXenes for potential battery applications. PMID:25310601

  1. Dual-Size Silicon Nanocrystal-Embedded SiO(x) Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Lithium Storage Material.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Yoo, Hyundong; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-07-28

    SiOx-based materials attracted a great deal of attention as high-capacity Li(+) storage materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity and good cycle performance. However, these materials still suffer from low initial Coulombic efficiency as well as high production cost, which are associated with the complicated synthesis process. Here, we propose a dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite as a high-capacity Li(+) storage material prepared via cost-effective sol-gel reaction of triethoxysilane with commercially available Si nanoparticles. In the proposed nanocomposite, dual-size Si nanocrystals are incorporated into the amorphous SiOx matrix, providing a high capacity (1914 mAh g(-1)) with a notably improved initial efficiency (73.6%) and stable cycle performance over 100 cycles. The highly robust electrochemical and mechanical properties of the dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite presented here are mainly attributed to its peculiar nanoarchitecture. This study represents one of the most promising routes for advancing SiOx-based Li(+) storage materials for practical use. PMID:26132999

  2. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 Cells Exhibit Characteristics of Oncogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Highly Metastatic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yanhong; Tschudy-Seney, Benjamin; Ramsamooj, Rajen; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne; Theise, Neil D.; Zern, Mark A.; Duan, Yuyou

    2014-01-01

    Background SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells) derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity. Methods and Principal Findings We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC) and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC), and that their derivatives also function as CSCs. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of

  3. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  4. Nutrient Limitations Constrain the Feedback Capacity of Landscapes in the High Arctic: Nonlinearities and Synergism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, S. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Rogers, M. C.; Holland, K.; Schimel, J.; Persson, K.

    2006-12-01

    of N alone causes a nonlinear response. The rapidity by which these dramatic changes occurred indicates that increases in atmospheric N deposition or the stimulation of organic matter decomposition and the mineralization of N due to warmer air and soil temperatures has the capacity to completely alter surface dynamics and feedback processes in the High Arctic.

  5. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the 'umbilical scar' in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) 'umbilical scar' healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status. PMID:27293741

  6. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the ‘umbilical scar’ in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) ‘umbilical scar’ healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status. PMID:27293741

  7. High Capacity Nanoporous Silicon Carrier for Systemic Delivery of Gene Silencing Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2013-01-01

    Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91% and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of sub-acute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. PMID:24131405

  8. High-Density Lipoprotein Function Measurement in Human Studies: Focus on Cholesterol Efflux Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-01-01

    A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, several observations have highlighted the shortcomings of using cholesterol content as the sole reflection of HDL metabolism. In particular, several large randomized controlled trials of extended release niacin and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on background statin therapy have failed to show improvement in ASCVD outcomes despite significant increases in HDL-C. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the principal HDL function that impacts macrophage foam cell formation and other functions such as endothelial activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, monocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma/serum reflects the first critical step of RCT and is considered a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL. Whether this function is operative in humans remains to be seen, but recent studies assessing cholesterol efflux in humans suggest that the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of human plasma or serum is a potent marker of ASCVD risk. This review describes the methodology of measuring CEC ex vivo from human samples and the findings to date linking CEC to human disease. Studies to date confirm that CEC can be reliably measured using stored human blood samples as cholesterol acceptors and suggest that CEC may be a promising new biomarker for atherosclerotic and metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize measurements and clarify the role CEC may play in predicting risk of developing disease and response to therapies. PMID:25968932

  9. High-Density Lipoprotein Function Measurement in Human Studies: Focus on Cholesterol Efflux Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-01-01

    A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, several observations have highlighted the shortcomings of using cholesterol content as the sole reflection of HDL metabolism. In particular, several large randomized controlled trials of extended release niacin and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on background statin therapy have failed to show improvement in ASCVD outcomes despite significant increases in HDL-C. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the principal HDL function that impacts macrophage foam cell formation and other functions such as endothelial activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, monocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma/serum reflects the first critical step of RCT and is considered a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL. Whether this function is operative in humans remains to be seen, but recent studies assessing cholesterol efflux in humans suggest that the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of human plasma or serum is a potent marker of ASCVD risk. This review describes the methodology of measuring CEC ex vivo from human samples and the findings to date linking CEC to human disease. Studies to date confirm that CEC can be reliably measured using stored human blood samples as cholesterol acceptors and suggest that CEC may be a promising new biomarker for atherosclerotic and metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize measurements and clarify the role CEC may play in predicting risk of developing disease and response to therapies. PMID:25968932

  10. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux. PMID:26863442

  11. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Leigang; Lee, Seung-Yul; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2015-11-01

    Safety and high energy density are the two focus issues for current lithium ion batteries. For safety, it has been demonstrated that sulfone electrolytes are much less flammable than the prevailing all-carbonate type, and they are also promising for high voltage batteries due to the high oxidization resistance. However, the high melting points and viscosities greatly restricted their application. Based on our previous work on use of fluidity-enhancing cosolvents to make binary sulfone-carbonate electrolytes, we report here a three-component system that is more conductive and should be even less flammable while additionally having better low temperature stability. The conductivity-viscosity relations have been determined for this electrolyte and are comparable to those of the "standard" carbonate electrolyte. The additional component also produces much improved capacity retention for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. As with carbonate electrolytes, increase of temperature to 55 °C leads to rapid capacity decrease during cycling, but the capacity loss is due to the salt, not the solvent. The high discharge capacity observed at 25 °C when LiBF4 replaces LiPF6, is fully retained at 55 °C.

  12. Demonstration of a high-capacity turboalternator for a 20 K, 20 W space-borne Brayton cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarola, M.; Cragin, K.; Deserranno, D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is considering multiple missions involving long-term cryogenic propellant storage in space. Liquid hydrogen and oxygen are the typical cryogens as they provide the highest specific impulse of practical chemical propellants. Storage temperatures are nominally 20 K for liquid hydrogen and 90 K for liquid oxygen. Heat loads greater than 10 W at 20 K are predicted for hydrogen storage. Current space cryocoolers have been developed for sensor cooling with refrigeration capacities less than 1 W at 20 K. In 2011, Creare Inc. demonstrated an ultra-low-capacity turboalternator for use in a turbo-Brayton cryocooler. The turboalternator produced up to 5 W of turbine refrigeration at 20 K; equivalent to approximately 3 W of net cryocooler refrigeration. This turboalternator obtained unprecedented operating speeds and efficiencies at low temperatures benefitting from new rotor design and fabrication techniques, and new bearing fabrication techniques. More recently, Creare applied these design and fabrication techniques to a larger and higher capacity 20 K turboalternator. The turboalternator was tested in a high-capacity, low temperature test facility at Creare and demonstrated up to 42 W of turbine refrigeration at 20 K; equivalent to approximately 30 W of net cryocooler refrigeration. The net turbine efficiency was the highest achieved to date at Creare for a space-borne turboalternator. This demonstration was the first step in the development of a high-capacity turbo-Brayton cryocooler for liquid hydrogen storage. In this paper, we will review the design, development and testing of the turboalternator.

  13. Silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid material with low expansion for high capacity and long cycle life lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Inden, Yuki; Endo, Morinobu

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims at developing a silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid material for high performance lithium-ion battery (LIB). It is composed of micronized silicon coated with so-called "soft-carbon" dispersed in soft-carbon matrix at nanometer level. This material is characterized with abundant nanosized voids with diameter of ca. 70 nm and hard bulk skeletal structure. It exhibited a long cycle life of 163 charging and discharging cycles with a large capacity of 850 mAh/g and retention rate up to 90% of the initial capacity in a half cell with Li-metal counter electrode. For this new material, the volume expansion ratio was 6.9% at a capacity level of 1100 mAh/g. This electrode capacity is approximately three times larger than that of graphite-based electrode currently used in LIB. Furthermore, this electrode retained 80.9% of its capacity at 250 cycles in a full cell with a LiCoO2 counter electrode. Addition of 5 wt % fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte improved the retention up to 81.3% after 300 cycles. These results demonstrate the usefulness and high possibility of this material as the negative electrode of LIB.

  14. Yttrium-dispersed C60 fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le

    2014-02-01

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C60 is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C60 decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H2 molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H2 molecule. Consequently, the C60Y12 complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ˜6.30 wt. %.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Marine Bacterium, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain S1, with High Mercury Resistance and Bioaccumulation Capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Bian, Chao; Huang, Huiwei; Yin, Zhiwei; Shi, Qiong; Deng, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes S1, a marine bacterium, exhibited strong resistance to a high concentration of Hg(2+) and remarkable Hg(2+) bioaccumulation capacity. Here, we report the 6.9-Mb genome sequence of P. pseudoalcaligenes S1, which may help clarify its phylogenetic status and provide further understanding of the mechanisms of mercury bioremediation in a marine environment. PMID:27198018

  16. Taking a Look at a School's Leadership Capacity: The Role and Function of High School Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines and critiques the leadership capacity of department leaders in a high school and attempts to gain a deeper understanding of how department leaders perceive their role as teacher leaders, making a distinction between what an individual department leader does in his or her position and teacher leadership as a form of continuous…

  17. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose. PMID:27434682

  18. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  19. Graphene-encapsulated Si on ultrathin-graphite foam as anode for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Zhao, Xin; Bai, Xin; Fan, Xiaobin; Zhang, Fengbao; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2013-09-01

    A Si/graphene composite is drop-casted on an ultrathin-graphite foam (UGF) with three dimensional conductive network. The Si/graphene/UGF composite presents excellent stability and relatively high overall capacity when tested as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. PMID:23847098

  20. Facile fabrication of binder-free NiO electrodes with high rate capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Bai, Shuai; Liu, Boli; Xue, Song; Li, Qun; He, Deyan

    2016-04-01

    NiO nanocone arrays are fabricated on nickel foam substrate by a simple hydrothermal synthesis and a subsequent annealing in air. The obtained architecture is directly used as an anode for lithium-ion batteries without any binder. It delivers a capacity of 969 mAh g-1 in the 120th cycle at a current density of 0.5 C. Even at 10 C, the electrode can still deliver a capacity as high as 605.9 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance could be ascribed to the integrity and porosity of the cycled electrodes.

  1. Apparent molar heat capacity and other thermodynamic properties of aqueous KCL solutions to high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Heat capacities of KCl solutions have been measured from 413 to 573 K at 200 bar over the molality range of 0.05-3.0 mol kg/sup -1/. These were combined with literature data on volumes, heat capacities, enthalpies, and osmotic coefficients up to a temperature of 599 K and a pressure of 500 bar to yield comprehensive equations for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of KCl(aq) to high temperatures and pressures by using ion-interaction approach of Pitzer.

  2. High-temperature heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. M.; Denisova, L. T.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Volkov, N. V.; Patrin, G. S.; Chumilina, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    The molar heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4 has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range 339-1086 K. It has been found that the dependence C p = f( T) exhibits an extremum at a temperature of 401 K due to the structural transition.

  3. Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles as new high capacity anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Franziska; Bresser, Dominic; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Herein, Fe-doped tin oxide is presented for the first time as new high-capacity lithium-ion anode material. Pure SnO2, Fe-doped SnO2 (Sn0.9Fe0.1O2, SFO), and carbon-coated SFO (SFO-C) were synthesized and morphologically and electrochemically characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, and galvanostatic (dis-)charge measurements. Doping SnO2 with Fe results in a substantially enhanced reversible specific capacity and coulombic efficiency. After ten cycles the reversible capacity of SFO-C was about 1519 mAh g-1, i.e., almost twice the specific capacity obtained for pure SnO2 (764 mAh g-1). Moreover, limiting the reversible capacity to 600 mAh g-1 shows the great potential of SFO-C for application in lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Exploring highly-efficient routing strategy on scale-free networks with limited and diverse node capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; He, Xuan; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Since the delivery capacity of each node is neither uniform nor strictly proportional to the degree in many real networked systems such as the Internet, we consider the node capacity is composed of a small uniform fraction and a large degree dependent proportion. By comparing the optimal routing strategy [B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 046106; B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Chaos 17 (2007) 026102] with the shortest path routing (SPR), the results show that the OR appears to be not efficient enough to enhance network traffic capacity. Then the efficient betweenness defined as the average betweenness for per delivery capacity is employed, and a so-called highly-efficient routing (HER) strategy is proposed. By iteratively minimizing the maximum efficient betweenness of any node in the network, the highest traffic capacity is achieved at the cost of a little average path lengthening. This work is very useful for network service providers to optimize the weight of each link incrementally to improve whole network transport ability.

  5. Towards high peak capacity separations in normal pressure nanoflow liquid chromatography using meter long packed capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Ye, Linquan; Xu, Lingjia; Zhou, Zhuoheng; Gao, Fan; Xiao, Zhiliang; Wang, Qiuquan; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-10

    Single shot proteomics is a promising approach to high throughput proteomics analysis. In this strategy, long capillary columns are needed to perform long and shallow gradients to achieve high peak capacity and good peak width for informative mass spectrometric detection. Herein, we report that meter long capillary columns, packed with 5 μm particulate material, can be facilely fabricated based on single particle fritting technology. The long columns could reliably generate high peak capacities of 800 in 10 h long gradients for protein digest separations. The operation was within the pressure range (40 MPa) of the most widely used normal pressure nanoLC systems. Due to the excellent life time (>100 injections) and inter-column performance consistency, the meter long capillary columns reported here should be of practical usefulness in single shot proteomics without the need for ultra-high pressure instrumentation. PMID:25441907

  6. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water. PMID:25697373

  7. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ∼90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26258909

  8. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles. PMID:27203558

  9. High-Capacity Te Anode Confined in Microporous Carbon for Long-Life Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-12-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative energy-storage technology in recent years. Developing advanced sodium storage anode materials with appropriate working potential, high capacity, and good cycling performance is very important. Herein, we demonstrate a nanostructured tellurium@carbon (nano-Te@C) composite by confining nano-Te molecules in the space of carbon micropores as an attractive anode material for SIBs. The nano-Te@C anode presents an appropriate redox potential in the range of 1.05-1.35 V (vs Na(+)/Na), which avoids the Na dendrite problem and achieves a high reversible capacity of 410 mA h g(-1) on the basis of a two-electron redox reaction mechanism. Notably, the nano-Te@C exhibits an admirable long-term cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 90% for 1000 cycles (i.e., ultralow capacity decay of 0.01% per cycle). The excellent electrochemical property of nano-Te@C benefits from the high electroactivity from the nanostructure design and the effective confinement of the microporous carbon host. In addition, a Na-ion full cell by using nano-Te@C as anode and Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 as cathode is demonstrated for the first time and exhibits a remarkable capacity retention up to 95% after 150 cycles. The results put new insights for the development of advanced SIBs with long-cycle lifespan. PMID:26618232

  10. HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity are reduced in patients with very high HDL-C and coronary disease

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Anandita P.; Rodrigues, Amrith; Risman, Marjorie; McCoy, Mary; Trindade, Kevin; Qu, Liming; Cuchel, Marina; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), and high HDL-C is generally associated with reduced risk of CAD. Extremely high HDL-C with CAD is an unusual phenotype, and we hypothesized that the HDL in such individuals may have an altered composition and reduced function when compared to controls with similarly high HDL-C and no CAD. Approach 55 subjects with very high HDL-C (mean 86 mg/dL) and onset of CAD around age 60 with no known risk factors for CAD (‘cases’) were identified through systematic recruitment. 120 control subjects without CAD, matched for race, gender, and HDL-C level (‘controls’), were identified. In all subjects, HDL composition was analyzed and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was assessed. Results HDL phospholipid composition was significantly lower in cases (92 ± 37 mg/dL) than in controls (109 ± 43 mg/dL, p= 0.0095). HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly lower in cases (1.96 ± 0.39) compared with controls (2.11 ± 0.43, p= 0.04). Conclusions In persons with very high HDL-C, reduced HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with the paradoxical development of CAD. PMID:25838421

  11. [Impact of high-technology teaching systems on the formation of gymnasia pupils' adaptive capacities].

    PubMed

    Sosnina, E V; Setko, A G

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the adaptive capacities in first-, fourth-, and fifth-form gymnasia pupils taught by the system developed by L. V. Zankov (Group 1) and M. Montessori (Group 2), by evaluating the functional status of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and determining the level of biological adaptation. The findings are suggestive of the better adaptation and functional status of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems in the gymnasia pupils taught by the educational-and-developing program worked out by L. V. Zankov, which is likely to be explained by the training effect of functional capacities and by the formation of a long-acting effect that is shown in the better adaptation values on transition to the middle link of education. PMID:19802950

  12. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  13. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  14. High-capacity adsorption of aniline using surface modification of lignocellulose-biomass jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Hu, Qi; Pan, Hongyu; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified jute fiber (MJF) were prepared with microwave treatment to generate a biosorbent for aniline removal. The characterization of the biosorbent was investigated by SEM, BET and FT-IR analysis to discuss the adsorption mechanism. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the optimum dosage for aniline adsorption was 3g/L, the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 7.0 and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The aniline adsorption follows the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated through the desorption of aniline by using 0.5M HCl solution, and the adsorption capacity after regeneration is even higher than that of virgin MJF. All these results prove MJF is a promising adsorbent for aniline removal in wastewater. PMID:26172392

  15. Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le

    2014-02-28

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ∼6.30 wt. %.

  16. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  17. Tissue-like Silicon Nanowires-Based Three-Dimensional Anodes for High-Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Peled, Emanuel; Patolsky, Fernando; Golodnitsky, Diana; Freedman, Kathrin; Davidi, Guy; Schneier, Dan

    2015-06-10

    Here, we report on the scalable synthesis and characterization of novel architecture three-dimensional (3D) high-capacity amorphous silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based anodes with focus on studying their electrochemical degradation mechanisms. We achieved an unprecedented combination of remarkable performance characteristics, high loadings of 3-15 mAh/cm(2), a very low irreversible capacity (10% for the 3-4 mAh/cm(2) anodes), current efficiency greater than 99.5%, cycle stability (both in half cells and a LiFePO4 battery), a total capacity of 457 mAh/cm(2) over 204 cycles and fast charge-discharge rates (up to 2.7C at 20 mA/cm(2)). These SiNWs-based binder-free 3D anodes have been cycled for over 200 cycles, exhibiting a stable cycle life. Notably, it was found that the growth of the continuous SEI layer thickness, and its concomitant increase in resistivity, represents the major reason for the observed capacity loss of the SiNWs-based anodes. Importantly, these NWs-based anodes of novel architecture meet the requirements of lithium batteries for future portable, and electric-vehicle, applications. PMID:25970605

  18. Label-free profiling of white adipose tissue of rats exhibiting high or low levels of intrinsic exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Bowden-Davies, Kelly; Connolly, Joanne; Burghardt, Paul; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2015-07-01

    Divergent selection has created rat phenotypes of high- and low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that have differences in aerobic capacity and correlated traits such as adiposity. We analyzed visceral adipose tissue of HCR and LCR using label-free high-definition MS (elevated energy) profiling. The running capacity of HCR was ninefold greater than LCR. Proteome profiling encompassed 448 proteins and detected 30 significant (p <0.05; false discovery rate <10%, calculated using q-values) differences. Approximately half of the proteins analyzed were of mitochondrial origin, but there were no significant differences in the abundance of proteins involved in aerobic metabolism. Instead, adipose tissue of LCR rats exhibited greater abundances of proteins associated with adipogenesis (e.g. cathepsin D), ER stress (e.g. 78 kDa glucose response protein), and inflammation (e.g. Ig gamma-2B chain C region). Whereas the abundance antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] was greater in HCR tissue. Putative adipokines were also detected, in particular protein S100-B, was 431% more abundant in LCR adipose tissue. These findings reveal low running capacity is associated with a pathological profile in visceral adipose tissue proteome despite no detectable differences in mitochondrial protein abundance. PMID:25758023

  19. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  20. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  1. An in situ self-developed graphite as high capacity anode of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengyao; Liu, Naiqiang; Chen, Yilei; Guan, Yuepeng; Wang, Weikun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Huang, Yaqin

    2015-08-01

    Graphite with a large inter-planar distance (0.357 nm) was obtained from pig bone. It delivered an improving specific capacity which increased continuously to 538 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) after 1000 cycles. With microscopic characterization, it has been found that the pig-bone-based graphite was exfoliated to graphene during the charge-discharge process. PMID:26125069

  2. AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Hiesgen, Renate; Sörgel, Seniz; Costa, Rémi; Carlé, Linus; Galm, Ines; Cañas, Natalia; Pascucci, Brigitta; Friedrich, K Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur)(-1) after 43 cycles. PMID:24205455

  3. Modeling high adsorption capacity and kinetics of organic macromolecules on super-powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Kurotobi, Ryuji; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    The capacity to adsorb natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) on small particle-size activated carbon (super-powdered activated carbon, SPAC) is higher than that on larger particle-size activated carbon (powdered-activated carbon, PAC). Increased adsorption capacity is likely attributable to the larger external surface area because the NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle; they preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle. In this study, we propose a new isotherm equation, the Shell Adsorption Model (SAM), to explain the higher adsorption capacity on smaller adsorbent particles and to describe quantitatively adsorption isotherms of activated carbons of different particle sizes: PAC and SPAC. The SAM was verified with the experimental data of PSS adsorption kinetics as well as equilibrium. SAM successfully characterized PSS adsorption isotherm data for SPACs and PAC simultaneously with the same model parameters. When SAM was incorporated into an adsorption kinetic model, kinetic decay curves for PSSs adsorbing onto activated carbons of different particle sizes could be simultaneously described with a single kinetics parameter value. On the other hand, when SAM was not incorporated into such an adsorption kinetic model and instead isotherms were described by the Freundlich model, the kinetic decay curves were not well described. The success of the SAM further supports the adsorption mechanism of PSSs preferentially adsorbing near the outer surface of activated carbon particles. PMID:21172719

  4. AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li–S batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sörgel, Seniz; Costa, Rémi; Carlé, Linus; Galm, Ines; Cañas, Natalia; Pascucci, Brigitta; Friedrich, K Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Summary In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium–sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur)−1 after 43 cycles. PMID:24205455

  5. Renal function and hyperfiltration capacity in lead smelter workers with high bone lead.

    PubMed Central

    Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Konings, J; Buchet, J P; Bernard, A; Green, S; Bradley, D; Morgan, W; Chettle, D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The study was undertaken to assess whether the changes in urinary excretion of eicosanoids (a decrease of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and PGF2 and an increase of thromboxane) previously found in lead (Pb) exposed workers may decrease the renal haemodynamic response to an acute oral protein load. METHODS--The renal haemodynamic response was estimated by determining the capacity of the kidney to increase the glomerular filtration rate (in terms of creatinine clearance) after an acute consumption of cooked red meat (400 g). A cross sectional study was carried out in 76 male Pb workers (age range 30 to 60 years) and 68 controls matched for age, sex, socioeconomic state, general environment (residence), and workshift characteristics. RESULTS--The Pb workers had been exposed to lead on average for 18 (range 6-36) years and showed a threefold higher body burden of Pb than the controls as estimated by in vivo measurements of tibial Pb concentration (Pb-T) (geometric mean 66 v 21 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral). The geometric mean concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and Pb in urine (Pb-U) were also significantly higher in the Pb group (Pb-B: 430 v 141 micrograms Pb/l; Pb-U: 40 v 7.5 micrograms Pb/g creatinine). These conditions of chronic exposure to Pb did not entail any significant changes in the concentration of blood borne and urinary markers of nephrotoxicity, such as urinary low and high molecular weight plasma derived proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein, albumin, transferrin), urinary activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and kallikrein, and serum concentrations of creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin, urea, and uric acid. All participants also had normal baseline creatinine clearances (> 80 ml/min/1.73 m2) amounting on average to 115.5 in the controls v 121.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 in the Pb group. Both control and Pb exposed workers showed a significant increment in creatinine clearance (on average 15%) after oral protein load suggesting that the

  6. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, Frank; Grevendonk, Lotte; Verboven, Kenneth; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type II (+23±7%) and IIa (+23±6%,) CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13±7% and +45±20%) and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9±2.0% and HCTR: -2.5±1.2%). Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21±4%, time to exhaustion +24±5%, VO2max +17±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:26418222

  7. ZK-5: a CO₂-selective zeolite with high working capacity at ambient temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingling; Pham, Trong; Porosoff, Marc D; Lobo, Raul F

    2012-11-01

    The increased carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere caused by combustion of fossil fuels has been a leading contributor to global climate change. The adsorption-driven pressure or vacuum swing (PSA/VSA) processes are promising as affordable means for the capture and separation of CO₂. Herein, an 8-membered-ring zeolite ZK-5 (Framework Type Code: KFI) exchanged with different cations (H⁺, Li⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺) was synthesized as novel CO₂ adsorbent. The samples were characterized by SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), XRD, and gas adsorption (CO₂ and N₂). The Toth adsorption model was used to describe the CO₂ adsorption isotherms, and the isosteric heats of adsorption were calculated. CO₂ capture adsorbent evaluation criteria such as working capacity, regenerability and CO₂/N₂ selectivity were applied to evaluate the zeolite adsorbents for PSA/VSA applications. The in situ FTIR CO₂ adsorption spectra show that physisorption accounts for the largest fraction of the total CO₂ adsorbed. The CO₂ adsorption analysis shows that Mg-ZK-5 is the most promising adsorbent for PSA applications with the highest working capacity (ΔN(CO₂)=2.05 mmol g⁻¹), excellent selectivity (α(CO₂/N₂)=121), and low isosteric heat. Li-, Na- and K-ZK-5 with good working capacity (ΔN(CO₂)=1.55-2.16 mmol g⁻¹) and excellent selectivity (α(CO₂/N₂)=103-128) are promising CO₂ adsorbents for the VSA working region. PMID:22907818

  8. Manganese hexacyanomanganate open framework as a high-capacity positive electrode material for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Richard Y.; Pasta, Mauro; Woo Lee, Seok; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Potential applications of sodium-ion batteries in grid-scale energy storage, portable electronics and electric vehicles have revitalized research interest in these batteries. However, the performance of sodium-ion electrode materials has not been competitive with that of lithium-ion electrode materials. Here we present sodium manganese hexacyanomanganate (Na2MnII[MnII(CN)6]), an open-framework crystal structure material, as a viable positive electrode for sodium-ion batteries. We demonstrate a high discharge capacity of 209 mAh g-1 at C/5 (40 mA g-1) and excellent capacity retention at high rates in a propylene carbonate electrolyte. We provide chemical and structural evidence for the unprecedented storage of 50% more sodium cations than previously thought possible during electrochemical cycling. These results represent a step forward in the development of sodium-ion batteries.

  9. Manganese hexacyanomanganate open framework as a high-capacity positive electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Richard Y; Pasta, Mauro; Woo Lee, Seok; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Potential applications of sodium-ion batteries in grid-scale energy storage, portable electronics and electric vehicles have revitalized research interest in these batteries. However, the performance of sodium-ion electrode materials has not been competitive with that of lithium-ion electrode materials. Here we present sodium manganese hexacyanomanganate (Na2MnII[MnII(CN)6]), an open-framework crystal structure material, as a viable positive electrode for sodium-ion batteries. We demonstrate a high discharge capacity of 209 mAh g(-1) at C/5 (40 mA g(-1)) and excellent capacity retention at high rates in a propylene carbonate electrolyte. We provide chemical and structural evidence for the unprecedented storage of 50% more sodium cations than previously thought possible during electrochemical cycling. These results represent a step forward in the development of sodium-ion batteries. PMID:25311066

  10. Ab initio Design of Ca-Decorated Organic Frameworks for High Capacity Molecular Hydrogen Storage with Enhanced Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. Y.; Lee, K.; Kim, Y. H.; Zhang, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that Ca can decorate organic linkers of metal-organic framework, MOF-5, with a binding energy of 1.25 eV. The Ca-decorated MOF-5 can store molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in both high gravimetric (4.6 wt %) and high volumetric (36 g/l) capacities. Even higher capacities (5.7 wt % and 45 g/l) can be obtained in a rationally designed covalent organic framework system, COF-{alpha}, with decorated Ca. Both density functional theory and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation calculations show that the H{sub 2} binding in these systems is significantly stronger than the van der Waals interactions, which is required for H{sub 2} storage at near ambient conditions.

  11. Protein imprinted ionic liquid polymer on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes with high binding capacity for lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shifang; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Wu, Jianhua; Li, Wangwang; Wang, Shuo

    2014-06-01

    In this research, ionic liquid as functional monomer to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for protein recognition was for the first time demonstrated, in which, 1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium chloride was selected as functional monomer, acrylamide as co-functional monomer and lysozyme (Lyz) as template protein to synthesize imprinted polymers on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes in aqueous medium. The results indicated that ionic liquid was helpful to improve binding capacity of imprinted polymers, which had a maximum binding capacity of 763.36 mg/g in the optimum adsorption conditions. The prepared imprinted polymers had a fast adsorption rate and a much higher adsorption capacity than the corresponding non-imprinted polymers, with the difference in adsorption capacity up to 258.31 mg/g. The obtained polymer was evaluated by Lyz, bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine hemoglobin (BHb), equine myoglobin (MB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c). The selectivity factor (β) for Lyz/BSA, Lyz/Mb, Lyz/BHb, and Lyz/Cyt c were 7.17, 2.12, 1.76 and 1.57, respectively, indicating the imprinted polymers had a good selectivity. Easy preparation of the imprinted polymers as well as high ability and selectivity to adsorb template proteins makes this polymer attractive and broadly applicable in biomacromolecular separation, biotechnology and sensors. PMID:24835511

  12. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  13. Powder-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-05-03

    A powder-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The powder-based adsorbent includes polymer powder with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the powder-based adsorbent includes irradiating polymer powder, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Powder-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  14. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.

    1994-12-31

    Solid state laser technology is a very well developed field and numerous embodiments and modes of operation have been demonstrated. A more recent development has been the pumping of a solid state laser active medium with an array of diode lasers (diode pumping, for short). These diode pump packages have previously been developed to pump solid state lasers with good efficiency, but low average power. This invention is a method and the resulting apparatus for operating a solid state laser in the heat capacity mode. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself.

  15. Lithographically encoded polymer microtaggant using high-capacity and error-correctable QR code for anti-counterfeiting of drugs.

    PubMed

    Han, Sangkwon; Bae, Hyung Jong; Kim, Junhoi; Shin, Sunghwan; Choi, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Sunghoon; Park, Wook

    2012-11-20

    A QR-coded microtaggant for the anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide high capacity and error-correction capability. It is fabricated lithographically in a microfluidic channel with special consideration of the island patterns in the QR Code. The microtaggant is incorporated in the drug capsule ("on-dose authentication") and can be read by a simple smartphone QR Code reader application when removed from the capsule and washed free of drug. PMID:22930454

  16. A systematic approach to high and stable discharge capacity for scaling up the lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mohammad Rejaul; Wang, Jiazhao; Liang, Xin; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2015-04-01

    A systematic approach to improving the performance of the Li-S battery is presented, based on applying high energy ball milling to create a porous sulfur-carbon composite, insertion of a free-standing layer, and adoption of a new charging method. Surface area analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope imaging show that the ball-milled sulfur powder has a porous structure and very high specific surface area. A vacuum-filtrated single-walled carbon nanotube free-standing layer is inserted in between the sulfur cathode and the separator. It is believed that high-surface-area porous sulfur will help to increase the conductivity of the elemental sulfur due to better adhesion between the conducting carbon and the sulfur, while the free-standing layer will sequester longer chain polysulfides, which are responsible for the well-known shuttling phenomenon. By the combination of these methods, we have achieved excellent capacity and cycle life. Finally, a new charging method which will largely prevent the formation of longer chain polysulfides is also applied to increase the capacity retention. It is believed that with the combination of ball milling, the free-standing layer, and the new charging method, it is possible to commercialize the Li-S battery with better capacity and cycle life.

  17. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g−1 at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na+, Mg2+, or Fe3+) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water. PMID:26843015

  18. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g(-1) at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na(+), Mg(2+), or Fe(3+)) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na(+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+) were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na(+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+). We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water. PMID:26843015

  19. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g-1 at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na+, Mg2+, or Fe3+) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water.

  20. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley. PMID:25583309

  1. Divergent role of nitric oxide in insulin-stimulated aortic vasorelaxation between low- and high-intrinsic aerobic capacity rats.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Jacqueline M; Padilla, Jaume; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Thorne, Pamela K; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold

    2015-07-01

    Low-intrinsic aerobic capacity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and is a strong predictor of early mortality. The effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity on the vascular response to insulin are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rats selectively bred for a low capacity to run (LCR) exhibit vascular dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity to insulin compared to high capacity running (HCR) rats. Mature female LCR (n = 21) and HCR (n = 17) rats were maintained under sedentary conditions, and in vitro thoracic aortic vascular function was assessed. LCR exhibited greater body mass (13%), body fat (35%), and subcutaneous, perigonadal, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue mass, than HCR. During an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different but insulin AUC was 2-fold greater in LCR than HCR. Acetylcholine and insulin-stimulated aortic vasorelaxation was significantly greater in LCR (65.2 ± 3.8%, and 32.7 ± 4.1%) than HCR (55.0 ± 3.3%, and 16.7 ± 2.8%). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with L-NAME entirely abolished insulin-mediated vasorelaxation in the aorta of LCR, with no effect in HCR. LCR rats exhibited greater expression of Insulin Receptor protein, lower Endothelin Receptor-A protein, a down-regulation of transcripts for markers of immune cell infiltration (CD11C, CD4, and F4/80) and up-regulation of pro-atherogenic inflammatory genes (VCAM-1 and MCP-1) in the aorta wall. Contrary to our hypothesis, low-aerobic capacity was associated with enhanced aortic endothelial function and NO-mediated reactivity to insulin, despite increased adiposity and evidence of whole body insulin resistance. PMID:26197933

  2. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  3. Toward high specific capacity and high cycling stability of pure tin nanoparticles with conductive polymer binder for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kehua; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vince; Liu, Gao

    2014-10-01

    Pure Sn nanoparticles electrode with Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-fluorenone-co-methylbenzoic ester) (PFM) conductive binder was prepared and tested in sodium ion battery. It showed higher specific capacity and higher cycling stability without any carbon black compared with Sn/CMC (carboxy methylated cellulose) and Sn/PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) electrode. The Sn in Sn/PFM electrodes delivered 806 mAh g-1 at C/50 and 610 mAh g-1 at C/10. After 10 cycles at C/10, the capacity of Sn had no decay. SEM and TEM images showed that the Sn particles in Sn/PFM electrode were still in good conductive network despite big volume change, but parts of Sn particles in Sn/CMC or Sn/PVDF electrode are electrically isolated.

  4. Sc-coated Si@Al12 as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q. L.; Wan, J. G.

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen molecules adsorption and storage in Sc coated Si@Al12 cluster were investigated using density functional theory methods. Scandium atoms can bind strongly to the surfaces of Si@Al12 due to the charge transfer between Sc and Si@Al12, and do not suffer from clustering on the substrate. Si@Al12 cluster coated with three and four Sc atoms can adsorb 16 and 18 H2 molecules with a binding energy of 0.28-0.63 eV/H2, corresponding to hydrogen storage capacity of 6.0 and 6.3 wt %, respectively. The stable Si@Al12 can be applied as one of candidates for hydrogen storage materials at ambient conditions.

  5. Li and Ca Co-decorated carbon nitride nanostructures as high-capacity hydrogen storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Ji, Yong; Li, Meng; Yuan, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2011-11-01

    Using first-principles method based on density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Ca co-decorated graphene-like carbon nitride (g-CN) nanostructures. The results show that the average adsorption energy of the molecular hydrogen is ˜0.26 eV/H2, which is acceptable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. Moreover, the findings also show that the storage capacity of the Li and Ca co-decorated g-CN can reach up to 9.17 wt %, presenting a good potential as hydrogen storage material. Regarding the H2 adsorption mechanism, it is demonstrated that the Li adatoms become positively charged through charge transferring to g-CN and then bind hydrogen molecules via the polarization mechanism.

  6. Raising the Bar, Building Capacity: Driving Improvement in California's Continuation High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Velasco, Jorge Ruiz; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2012-01-01

    California's approximately 500 continuation high schools are estimated to serve more than 115,000 California high school students each year--a number that approaches almost 10 percent of all high school students and as many as one of every seven high school seniors. Continuation schools are, however, more racially and ethnically concentrated than…

  7. High adsorption capacity of heavy metals on two-dimensional MXenes: an ab initio study with molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xun; Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Huang, Qing; Xue, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is employed to study the adsorption properties of Pb and Cu on recently synthesized two-dimensional materials MXenes, including Ti3C2, V2C1 and Ti2C1. The influence of surface decoration with functional groups such as H, OH and F have also been investigated. Most of these studied MXenes exhibit excellent capability to adsorb Pb and Cu, especially the adsorption capacity of Pb on Ti2C1 is as high as 2560 mg g(-1). Both the binding energies and the adsorption capacities are sensitive to the functional groups attached to the MXenes' surface. Ab initio molecular dynamics (ab-init MD) simulation confirms that Ti2C1 remains stable at room temperature after adsorbing Pb atoms. Our calculations imply that these newly emerging two-dimensional MXenes are promising candidates for wastewater treatment and ion separation. PMID:26602974

  8. Design and numerical simulation of a high power capacity relativistic backward wave oscillator with an electron collection cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoze; Ye, Hu; Zhang, Yuchuan; Song, Wei; Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Ligang; Tan, Weibing; Hu, Xianggang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Shen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-01

    A high power capacity relativistic backward wave oscillator with an electron collection cavity (ECC) placed at the downstream of the slow wave structure (SWS) is presented. The breakdown threshold is increased, and the density of seed electron is suppressed by preventing the secondary electron, plasma, and powder generated from the bombardment of spent electron beam on the surface of the collector drifting to the extractor and beam-wave interaction region. The maximum longitudinal electric field in the device is reduced through extension of the span between electron beam and slow wave structure and weakening the Cerenkov radiation. The conversion efficiency reaches up to 52% owing to enhanced transit time radiation taking place at the entrance of the ECC. The maximum longitudinal electric field is 1.1 MV/cm on the surface of SWSs when the output power is 7.3 GW and the power capacity improves significantly.

  9. Intercalation of PF 6 - anion into graphitic carbon with nano pore for dual carbon cell with high capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Tatsumi; Yokoyama, Yuji; Kozono, Futoshi; Hayashi, Hidemi

    Intercalation property of PF 6 - into graphitic carbon was studied for a hybrid capacitor with different ratio of cathode and anode amount. Graphene sheet distance increased with increasing PF 6 - intercalation amount and it saturated at 0.4 nm at high applied potential, which is corresponded to stage 2 structure. On the other hand, it was found that nano size pore into graphene sheet was introduced at higher applied potential with 20 times larger anode carbon and this nano porous carbon shows a large capacity for intercalation capacity of 147 mAh g -1. The estimated energy density of the hybrid capacitor using carbon with nano bubble structure was ca. 400 Wh kg -1.

  10. The mechanisms governing low denitrification capacity and high nitrogen oxide gas emissions in subtropical forest soils in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinbo; Yu, Yongjie; Zhu, Tongbin; Cai, Zucong

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that denitrification rates are low in subtropical forest soils. However, the mechanisms governing this process are not well known. This study seeks to identify the mechanisms responsible for the low denitrification capacity and high nitrogen oxide gas ratio in subtropical forest soils in China. The denitrification capacity and nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N2) emission rates were measured using the acetylene inhibition method under conditions of added nitrate and anoxia. The abundance of nitrate reductase (narG), nitrite reductase (nirK), nitric oxide reductase (cnorB), and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) was measured using real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of the nirK and norB products was performed to analyze the population structure of denitrifying bacteria. These results showed that the denitrification capacity in subtropical forest soils was lower than in temperate forest soils (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that redox potential at the start of incubation (Ehi), rather than soil pH or soil organic C, was the key soil variable influencing denitrification, and Ehi alone could explain 68% of the variations in denitrification capacity. The high Ehi in subtropical soils led to a low abundance of nirK and significant differences in the population structure of denitrifying bacteria between subtropical and temperate soils. Therefore, Ehi was responsible for the low denitrification capacity in subtropical forest soils. The ratio of NO to total denitrification gas products (p < 0.01) and the ratio of NO and N2O to total denitrification gas products (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in subtropical forest soils than in temperate forest soils, while the reverse trend was observed for the ratio of N2 to total denitrification gas products (p < 0.05). A high Ehi reduced the specific reduction activity of each nosZ copy and, in turn, resulted in a large ratio of NO

  11. High-purity iron pyrite (FeS2) nanowires as high-capacity nanostructured cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; Girard, Steven N.; Jin, Song

    2014-01-01

    Iron pyrite is an earth-abundant and inexpensive material that has long been interesting for electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion. A large-scale conversion synthesis of phase-pure pyrite nanowires has been developed for the first time. Nano-pyrite cathodes exhibited high Li-storage capacity and excellent capacity retention in Li/pyrite batteries using a liquid electrolyte, which retained a discharge capacity of 350 mAh g-1 and a discharge energy density of 534 Wh kg-1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C rate.Iron pyrite is an earth-abundant and inexpensive material that has long been interesting for electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion. A large-scale conversion synthesis of phase-pure pyrite nanowires has been developed for the first time. Nano-pyrite cathodes exhibited high Li-storage capacity and excellent capacity retention in Li/pyrite batteries using a liquid electrolyte, which retained a discharge capacity of 350 mAh g-1 and a discharge energy density of 534 Wh kg-1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 C rate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, estimated Gibbs energy of formation of pyrite and SF6, a comparison between the simulated [110] ZAP for pyrite and its most similar ZAP for marcasite, measurements of diffusion coefficients of lithium ions, cyclic voltammogram of a nano-pyrite cathode, and a voltage profile of a Li/nano-pyrite cell cycled in 2.5-1.1 V. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05851d

  12. A lithium-sulfur cathode with high sulfur loading and high capacity per area: a binder-free carbon fiber cloth-sulfur material.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiao; Wang, Weikun; Yuan, Keguo; Yang, Yusheng; Wang, Anbang

    2014-11-11

    A sulfur cathode with high capacity per area (>7 mA h cm(-2)) and high sulfur loading (6.7 mg cm(-2)) was fabricated by synthesizing a carbon fiber cloth-sulfur composite via a simple method. It is worth noting that an ingenious method is adopted which can improve the performance of Li-S batteries by forming in situ polysulfide ions. PMID:24978617

  13. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  14. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J.; Willner, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front ‘twisting’ indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s−1 millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s−1 Hz−1 using four independent orbital–angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10−3. In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than −12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s−1 link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. PMID:25224763

  15. High-capacity anion exchangers based on poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Wang, Yong; Cheng, Heli; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres were prepared by the two-staged swelling and polymerization method and applied to prepare anion exchange stationary phases. Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, diethylamine and triethylamine were selected to prepare the quaternary ammonium groups of anion exchangers, respectively. The diameters and surface characteristics of microspheres were measured by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The anion exchangers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, elemental analysis and breakthrough curve methods. The chromatographic performances of anion exchangers were illustrated by separating conventional anions, organic weak acids and carbohydrates. The results indicated that the anion exchange capacities were controllable by changing either the content of glycidylmethacrylate in microspheres or the number of bonded quaternary ammonium layer. Meanwhile, the substituents of quaternary ammonium groups greatly influenced the separation properties of anion exchangers. Finally, the three-layer methylamine-quaternized anion exchanger was successfully applied for the determination of fluoride in tea sample. The content of fluoride was detected to be 0.13mgg(-1) without the interference of acetate and formate. PMID:27474308

  16. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  17. [Ironman and cardiac transplantation. High sporting exercise capacity before and after cardiac transplantation].

    PubMed

    Brune, Stephan; Kroidl, Rolf F

    2006-09-01

    The case of a 45-year-old man is reported who was an active competitive sportsman up to his 38th year. In fall of 1998, exercise limitation was noted. The cardiologic work-up revealed dilated cardiomyopathy. In spite of intensive medical therapy clinical course deteriorated within the next 3 years, cardiologic findings and a follow-up in CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise testing) showed a rapid decline. In May 2002, he was listed for cardiac transplantation. In August 2003, an orthotopic bicaval cardiac transplantation was performed at the University of Göttingen, Germany. The patient was followed regularly in the office. Physical exercise capacity increased significantly and he was able to participate in the 10-km New Year's run of 2003. Since 2004, he has been working very successfully as a coach for competitive swimmers. Based on CPET findings, actual views and concepts regarding the pathophysiology and training of chronic heart failure are discussed and the question is raised whether and in which respect a sportive predisposition favors the clinical outcome. PMID:17036190

  18. Silicon-based materials as high capacity anodes for next generation lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bo; Liu, Yanping; Xu, Yunhua

    2014-12-01

    Silicon (Si)-based materials have the highest capacity among the investigated anode materials and have been recognized as one of the most promising materials for lithium-ion batteries. However, it is still a significant challenge to obtain good performance for practical applications due to the huge volume change during the electrochemical process. To date, the most successful strategy is to introduce other components into Si to form composite or alloy materials. In this review, the recent progress in Si-based materials utilized in lithium-ion batteries is reviewed in terms of composite systems, nano-structure designs, material synthesis methods, and electrochemical performances. The merits and disadvantages of different Si-based materials, the understanding of the mechanisms behind the performance enhancement as well as the challenges faced in Si anodes are also discussed. We are trying to present a full scope of the Si-based materials, and help understand and design future structures of Si anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  19. High-capacity adsorption of dissolved hexavalent chromium using amine-functionalized magnetic corn stalk composites.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Zhang, Tengge; Xu, Xing; Huang, Xin; Yu, Huan; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-08-01

    Easily separable amine-functionalized magnetic corn stalk composites (AF-MCS) were employed for effective adsorption and reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to nontoxic Cr(III). The saturated magnetization of AF-MCS reached 6.2emu/g, and as a result, it could be separated from aqueous solution by a magnetic process for its superparamagnetism. The studies of various factors influencing the sorption behavior indicated that the optimum AF-MCS dosage for Cr(VI) adsorption was 1g/L, and the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 3.0. The chromium adsorption perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. Furthermore, characterization of AF-MCS was investigated by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, BET, VSM and XPS analysis to discuss the uptake mechanism. Basically, these results demonstrated that AF-MCS prepared in this work has shown its merit in effective removal of Cr(VI) and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously. PMID:25690680

  20. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  1. Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction of PEO/MoS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Wang, Xaojian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Xun, Shidi; Liu, Gao; Koech, Phillip K.; Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P.

    2011-08-09

    MoS2/PEO/graphene composite is successfully prepared and the discharge mechanism of MoS2 as an anode material for Li-ion batteries has been investigated systematically in this work. The simultaneous formation of Li2S and Mo at deep discharge depth has been shown for the first time. The deposition of Mo metal with Li residing on the defects after the first discharge increases the intrinsic electronic conductivity of the electrode leading to a superior cycling stability for over 185 cycles. After the first discharge the amorphous Mo matrix allows a large amount of Li+ ions to repeatedly deposit and being oxidized during cycling while the transition between Li2S and S contribute to the capacity above 2.0 V. The interactions between as-formed Mo and S prevents the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfide thus providing clues to immobilize the soluble species in a Li-S battery. Excellent rate performances are achieved in this MoS2/PEO/graphene composite indicating a fast diffusion path of Li+ ions existing not only in the bulk material but also in the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte.

  2. Li2CuVO4: A high capacity positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The new compound Li2CuVO4 was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li2CuVO4 was characterized by galvanometric cycling, cycle voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structure of Li2CuVO4 is isotypic to Pmn21-Li3VO4. It can be described as a disordered wurtzite structure with rows of Li1/Cu1 atoms alternating with rows of (Li2/Cu2)-V-(Li2/Cu2) atoms along [100]. All cations are tetrahedrally coordinated. The lithium and copper atoms are statistically disordered over two crystallographic sites. The electrochemical cycling between 2.0 and 4.7 V indicates that almost two lithium atoms could be extracted and re-intercalated. This delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 257 mA h g-1 at a C/50 rate (theoretical capacity = 139 mA h g-1 for one lithium). Li2CuVO4 shows also high rate capability with a capacity of 175 mA h g-1 at 1C rate. This demonstrates that Cu-based compounds can be very interesting as electrodes for Li-ion batteries if Cu-dissolution is avoided.

  3. Thermal-Diffusivity and Heat-Capacity Measurements of Sandstone at High Temperatures Using Laser Flash and DSC Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, I. M.; Abdulagatova, Z. Z.; Kallaev, S. N.; Bakmaev, A. G.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-04-01

    The well-known contact-free, laser-flash method was used for measurement of the thermal diffusivity of natural sandstone samples. The experimental procedure was conducted using the microflash apparatus (LFA 457). The measurements have been made over the temperature range from (302.9 to 774.3) K. The isobaric heat capacities of the same sample were measured over the temperature range from (308 to 763) K using DSC 204 F1. Uncertainties are 3 % and 1 % for and , respectively. Measured values of and together with density data were used to calculate the thermal conductivity of sandstone. Theoretically based correlations for the thermal diffusivity (damped harmonic oscillator, DHO) and heat capacity (Debye and Einstein theories) were adopted to accurately represent the measured data. Correlation equations for the thermal diffusivity and heat capacity have been developed using the well-known theoretical asymptotic behavior of and for various temperature ranges (low- and high-temperature limits). The microscopic nature of the effect of temperature on and behavior of sandstone is discussed. Detailed interpretation and testing of the measured property data for sandstone using various existing theoretical and empirical models, in order to check their accuracy, predictive capability, and applicability, are provided.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and potential applicability of rhombohedral siderite as a high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Yu, Yue; Wei, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxi; Zhao, Chenhao; Liu, Rui; Shen, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Natural siderite is a valuable iron mineral composed of ferrous carbonate (FeCO3), which is commonly found in hydrothermal veins and contains no sulfur or phosphorus. In this paper, micro-sized FeCO3 crystallites are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route, and almost all of them possess a rhombohedral shape similar to that of natural products. When applied as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the synthetic siderite can deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of ∼1587 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of 68% at 200 mA g-1, remaining a reversible value of 1018 mAh g-1 over 120 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, after 120 cycles the residual specific capacity (812 mAh g-1) is still higher than the theoretical capacity of FeCO3 (463 mAh g-1). Moreover, a novel reversible conversion mechanism accounts for the excellent electrochemical performances of rhombohedral FeCO3 to a great extent, implying the potential applicability of synthetic siderite as lithium ion battery anodes.

  5. Mesoporous biocompatible and acid-degradable magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters with sustainable stability and high hydrophobic drug loading capacity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Xu, Shuai; Luo, An; Wang, Wen-Rui; Wang, Shi-Long; Guo, Jia; Lin, Yao; Zhao, Dong-Yuan; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2011-02-22

    Fabrication of magnetic particles (MPs) with high magnetization and large surface area simultaneously is critical for the application of MPs in bioseparation and drug delivery but remains a challenge. In this article, we describe an unprecedented approach to synthesize mesoporous magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) stabilized by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) with high magnetization, large surface area (136 m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.57 cm(3)/g), excellent colloidal stability, prominent biocompatibility, and acid degradability. This result provides the important step toward the construction of a new family of MCNCs and demonstrates its capacity in a "magnetic motor" drug delivery system. Here, as an example, we explore the applicability of as-prepared mesoporous MCNCs as hydrophobic drug delivery vehicles (paclitaxel as model drug), and the resultant loading capacity is as high as 35.0 wt %. The antitumor efficacy measured by MTT assay is significantly enhanced, compared with free drugs. Thus, combined with their inherent high magnetization, the mesoporous MCNCs pave the way for applying magnetic targeting drug carriers in antitumor therapeutics. PMID:21284377

  6. Doubly-Amphiphilic Poly(2-oxazoline)s as High-Capacity Delivery Systems for Hydrophobic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Anita; Roques, Caroline; Li, Shu; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Batrakova, Elena V.; Jordan, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Solubilization of highly hydrophobic drugs with carriers that are non-toxic, non-immunogenic and well-defined remains a major obstacle in pharmaceutical sciences. Well defined amphiphilic di- and triblock copolymers based on poly(2-oxazolines) were prepared and used for the solubilization of Paclitaxel (PTX) and other water-insoluble drugs. Probing the polymer micelles in water with the fluorescence probe pyrene, an unusual high polar microenvironment of the probe was observed. This coincides with an extraordinary large loading capacity for PTX of 45 wt.% active drug in the formulation as well as high water solubility of the resulting formulation. Physicochemical properties of the formulations, ease of preparation and stability upon lyophilization, low toxicity and immunogenicity suggest that poly(2-oxazoline)s are promising candidates for the delivery of highly challenging drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PTX is fully active and provides superior tumor inhibition as compared to the commercial micellar formulation. PMID:20346493

  7. An Isoreticular Series of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Dendritic Hexacarboxylate Ligands and Exceptionally High Gas-Uptake Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Daqiang; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Daofeng; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-10-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are newly emerging porous materials. Owing to their large surface area and tunable pore size and geometry, they have been studied for applications in gas storage and separation, especially in hydrogen and methane storage and carbon dioxide capture. It has been well established that the high-pressure gravimetric hydrogen-adsorption capacity of an MOF is directly proportional to its surface area. However, MOFs of high surface areas tend to decompose upon activation. In our previous work, we described an approach toward stable MOFs with high surface areas by incorporating mesocavities with microwindows. To extend this work, we now present an isoreticular series of (3,24)-connected MOFs made from dendritic hexacarboxylate ligands, one of which has a Langmuir surface area as high as 6033 m2 g-1. In addition, the gas-adsorption properties of this new isoreticular MOF series have been studied.

  8. Constructing Highly Graphitized Carbon-Wrapped Li3VO4 Nanoparticles with Hierarchically Porous Structure as a Long Life and High Capacity Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Cao, Minhua

    2015-11-18

    Li3VO4 nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a continuous, highly graphitized carbon network with an interconnected hierarchically porous structure (HP-Li3VO4/C) were prepared using a facile, green freeze-drying method followed by in situ carbonizing. Because of its unique microstructure, the resultant HP-Li3VO4/C exhibits excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability when used as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Specifically, it delivers an extremely high capacity of 381 mAh g(-1) for up to 300 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1), and even at a rate as high as 4 A g(-1), a high reversible capacity of 275 mAh g(-1) can be retained after testing for 500 cycles. This excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to Li3VO4 NPs wrapped with highly graphitized carbon conductive framework and hierarchically porous structure. This work may offer a new methodology for the preparation of other electrode materials for LIBs. PMID:26502345

  9. Sepiolite-sulfur as a high-capacity, high-rate performance, and low-cost cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Junan; Wu, Cheng; Cheng, Juanjuan; Pan, Yong; Ma, Zengsheng; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have the theoretical energy density of up to 2600 Wh/kg, though its commercialization is limited by high material cost and poor cyclic performance. In this work, we show that sepiolite-sulfur is a high-capacity, high-rate performance, and low-cost cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Sepiolite is a porous mineral with specific structure, outstanding physical and chemical adsorption characteristics, and excellent ion exchange capability, making it an ideal matrix material for lithium-sulfur batteries. It is shown that the first specific discharge capacity of sepiolite-sulfur cathode is about 1436 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C current rate, and it remains as high as 901 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles. Under 1 C current density, the first discharge capacity is 1206 mAh g-1, and maintains a high value of 601 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles. The raw materials are abundant and low cost, and the manufacturing process is simple and scalable, making it promising for the commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  10. NOVEL POLY-GLUTAMIC ACID FUNCTIONALIZED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AT HIGH CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various sorbent/ion exchange materials have been reported in the literature for metal ion entrapment. We have developed a highly innovative and new approach to obtain high metal pick-up utilizing poly-amino acids (poly-L-glutamic acid, 14,000 MW) covalently attached to membrane p...

  11. School Reform in a High Poverty Elementary School: A Grounded Theory Case Study of Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodman, Stephanie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There is a persistent and significant gap in the achievement of students who attend high-poverty schools and those who attend low-poverty schools. Students in high-poverty schools, the majority of whom are African American and Hispanic, are not achieving the same levels of academic success as their low-poverty or White counterparts. Retention…

  12. Evaluating the Capacity to Generate and Preserve Nitric Oxide Bioactivity in Highly Purified Earthworm Erythrocruorin

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Camille J.; Talwar, Abhinav; Palmer, Andre F.; Cabrales, Pedro; Gerfen, Gary; Friedman, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    The giant extracellular hemoglobin (erythrocruorin) from the earth worm (Lumbricus terrestris) has shown promise as a potential hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) in in vivo animal studies. An important beneficial characteristic of this hemoglobin (LtHb) is the large number of heme-based oxygen transport sites that helps overcome issues of osmotic stress when attempting to provide enough material for efficient oxygen delivery. A potentially important additional property is the capacity of the HBOC either to generate nitric oxide (NO) or to preserve NO bioactivity to compensate for decreased levels of NO in the circulation. The present study compares the NO-generating and NO bioactivity-preserving capability of LtHb with that of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) through several reactions including the nitrite reductase, reductive nitrosylation, and still controversial nitrite anhydrase reactions. An assignment of a heme-bound dinitrogen trioxide as the stable intermediate associated with the nitrite anhydrase reaction in both LtHb and HbA is supported based on functional and EPR spectroscopic studies. The role of the redox potential as a factor contributing to the NO-generating activity of these two proteins is evaluated. The results show that LtHb undergoes the same reactions as HbA and that the reduced efficacy for these reactions for LtHb relative to HbA is consistent with the much higher redox potential of LtHb. Evidence of functional heterogeneity in LtHb is explained in terms of the large difference in the redox potential of the isolated subunits. PMID:25371199

  13. Development of a Process for a High Capacity Arc Heater Production of Silicon for Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant (sodium) are injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection were developed. Included in this report are: test system preparation; testing; injection techniques; kinetics; reaction demonstration; conclusions; and the project status.

  14. High Capacity Hydrogen Absorption in Transition Metal-Ethylene Complexes Observed via Nanogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. B.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2008-03-01

    Using a surface acoustic wave based high resolution gravimetric technique where samples close to a monolayer are measured we observe high weight percentage hydrogen (H2) uptake with rapid kinetics at room temperature in transition metal (TM) ethylene (C2H4) complexes formed by laser ablation. By ablating titanium (Ti) in C2H4 we obtain a complex that exhibits 12 wt % uptake of H2 with substitution by deuterium providing a doubling. Mass spectroscopic studies during ablation of Ti show presence of a species, with a mass=78amu, a likely candidate for the high H2 uptake.

  15. Functionalized graphene sheets with poly(ionic liquid)s and high adsorption capacity of anionic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weifeng; Tang, Yusheng; Xi, Jia; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphene sheets were covalently functionalized with poly(1-vinylimidazole) (PVI) type poly(ionic liquid), by utilizing a diazonium addition reaction and the subsequent grafting of PVI polymers onto the graphene sheet surface by a quaternarization reaction. The resultant modified graphene sheets showed improved dispersion property when being dissolved in DMF and ethanol. FTIR, XPS, XRD and TEM observations confirmed the success of the covalent functionalization, and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the grafting ratio of PVI was ∼12 wt%. The obtained PVI-functionalized graphene showed a high capability for removing anionic dyes such as methyl blue (MB) from water solution. The experimental data of isotherm fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption capacity of 1910 mg g-1 for methyl blue (MB) dye was observed for functionalized graphene sheets with poly(ionic liquid)s, which was higher than that of unmodified graphene. The high adsorption capacity observed in this study emphasizes that poly(ionic liquid)s-modified graphene materials have a great potential for water purification as they are highly efficient and stable adsorbents for sustainability.

  16. Dual hybrid strategy towards achieving high capacity and long-life lithium storage of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a facile and efficient strategy for mitigating capacity fading of ZnO by co-hybridization of cobalt (Co) and N-doped carbon (C-N). The ZnO-based hybrid (ZnO/Co/C-N) is prepared by calcining metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under a vacuum condition. In view of the unique microstructure of MOFs used in our case, the resultant hybrid displays a three dimensional (3D) spherical morphology with abundant pore structure. The electrochemical tests indicate that the ZnO/Co/C-N nanospheres exhibit excellent cycling stability, high specific capacity, and good rate capability. This work proposes a facile strategy for the synthesis of nanomaterials with unique microstructure, desired composition and high surface area, endowing an excellent lithium storage performance. The current route is convenient and cost-effective, and therefore it is highly promising for scaled-up production. Moreover, the method we adopted may be extended to synthesize other porous nanomaterials with desired composition.

  17. A novel method of identification of high-yield crop cultivars using correlation between delayed fluorescence and photosynthesis capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Xu, Wenhai; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lingrui

    2008-12-01

    Crop breeding and variety analysis play the important role in the national economy. A lot of sample data and typical probability distribution are needed in the conventional methods to evaluate the high-yield crop cultivars such as correlation analysis, regression analysis and grey relational grade analysis etc, which are difficult to be realized. Delayed fluorescence (DF) can be used to evaluate plant photosynthesis. The current investigation has revealed that there is a good linear correlation between DF and photosynthesis capacity. More importantly, the slopes of linear fit of the correlationship for different yield varieties are different. Four known yield crop cultivars from each of the two different species (Maize and Soybean) are selected as samples to be analyzed. The statistical results show that the slope of high-yield variety is smaller than that of low-yield. We thus conclude that the slope of linear fit of correlation between DF and photosynthesis capacity is an excellent marker for high-yield crop cultivars identification. Compared with the conventional methods, the presented method needs less samples and it's fast and easy to be measured.

  18. High-capacity and low-cost long-reach OFDMA PON based on distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Wu, Jiayang; Mao, Junming; Lv, Jianxin; Jiang, Yuling; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2015-01-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation scheme to realize high-capacity long-reach orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA PON) with cost-effective electro-absorption modulator (EAM). In our scheme, the subcarriers in downstream OFDM signal are properly allocated to the optical network units (ONUs) with different fiber transmission lengths. By this means, the detrimental influence of power fading induced by dispersion and chirp can be avoided, thus all OFDM subcarriers can be modulated with high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) format, leading to a high transmission capacity. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, in which three ONUs with transmission distances of 25, 50, and 100 km are assigned with different subcarriers, respectively. By using distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation technique, an OFDM signal of 34.5 Gb/s is successfully delivered to the ONUs with a bit error ratio (BER) lower than 2 × 10(-3). PMID:25835883

  19. Terahertz oscillators and receivers using electron devices for high-capacity wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Recent progress in room-temperature resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) terahertz (THz) oscillators and high-electron-mobility- transistor (HEMT) THz receivers is reported in this paper. In this study, oscillations up to 1.86 THz were obtained using an optimized antenna and RTD. Using a two-element oscillator array, high output power of 0.6 mW at 620 GHz was obtained. THz communication up to 3 Gbps was demonstrated. A structure for high-speed direct modulation was fabricated, and the intensity modulation up to 30 GHz was achieved. A novel oscillator structure was proposed and fabricated for extraction of output power without using a Si lens. A short-gate InGaAs HEMT detector integrated with a broadband bow-tie antenna was fabricated, and a high current sensitivity of ~5 A/W was obtained at 280 GHz.

  20. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  1. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  2. Small-capacity valve-regulated lead/acid battery with long life at high ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, T.; Maeda, M.; Iwata, M.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries are widely used as back-up power sources for telecommunications and UPS. These applications require high-reliability under severe environmental conditions. To meet this demand, the authors' company have developed small capacity (12 V, 15-65 A h at C 20/20 rate), long-life VRLA batteries which can endure high ambient temperature. These batteries make use of a new alloy and grid design which has improved resistance to corrosion at the positive plate, while at the same time reduce float current at high temperature. As a result, these batteries have a life expectancy of 13 years at 25°C, and inhibited thermal runaway even under ambient temperatures up to 75°C. The batteries can be installed in outdoor and underground environments.

  3. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices.

  4. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices. PMID:26201747

  5. Propogation of the 1(mu) High-Power Beam from a Solid-State Heat-Capacity Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C B; Moriss, J R; Rubenchik, A M; Boley, C D

    2002-06-25

    A solid-state laser system, used as a directed energy defensive weapon, possesses many compelling logistical advantages over high-average-power chemical laser systems. As an electrically-powered laser, it uses no chemicals, generates no effluents, and requires no specialized logistics support--the laser is recharged by running the vehicle engine. It provides stealth, having low signature operation without the generation of temperature, smoke, or visible light. It is silent in operation, limited only by the onboard vehicle electrical charging and propulsion system. Using the heat-capacity mode of operation, scaling of average power from a solid-state laser has been demonstrated beyond 10kW and work in progress will result in the demonstration of a 100 kW solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL). The heat-capacity approach provides unprecedented power-to-weight ratios in a compact platform that is readily adapted to mobile operation. A conceptual engineering and packaging study has resulted in a 100kW SSHCL design that we believe can be integrated onto a hybrid-electric HMMWV or onto new vehicle designs emerging from the future combat system (FCS) development. 100 kW has been proposed as a power level that demonstrates a significant scaling beyond what has been demonstrated for a solid-state laser system and which could have a significant lethality against target sets of interest. However, the characteristics of heat-capacity laser scaling are such that designs with output powers in excess of 1 MW can be readily formulated. An important question when addressing the military utility of a high-power solid-state laser system is that of the required average power during engagement with a target. The answer to this question is complex, involving atmospheric propagation, beam interaction with the target, and the damage response of the target. Successful target shoot-downs with the THEL deuterium fluoride (DF) laser system provide what is probably the best understanding of

  6. High Content Imaging of Early Morphological Signatures Predicts Long Term Mineralization Capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells upon Osteogenic Induction.

    PubMed

    Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bellayr, Ian H; Godil, Saniya A; Puri, Raj K; Bauer, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), represent an attractive cell source for many regenerative medicine applications due to their potential for multi-lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine factor secretion. A major complication for current MSC-based therapies is the lack of well-defined characterization methods that can robustly predict how they will perform in a particular in vitro or in vivo setting. Significant advances have been made with identifying molecular markers of MSC quality and potency using multivariate genomic and proteomic approaches, and more recently with advanced techniques incorporating high content imaging to assess high-dimensional single cell morphological data. We sought to expand upon current methods of high dimensional morphological analysis by investigating whether short term cell and nuclear morphological profiles of MSCs from multiple donors (at multiple passages) correlated with long term mineralization upon osteogenic induction. Using the combined power of automated high content imaging followed by automated image analysis, we demonstrated that MSC morphology after 3 days was highly correlated with 35 day mineralization and comparable to other methods of MSC osteogenesis assessment (such as alkaline phosphatase activity). We then expanded on this initial morphological characterization and identified morphological features that were highly predictive of mineralization capacities (>90% accuracy) of MSCs from additional donors and different manufacturing techniques using linear discriminant analysis. Together, this work thoroughly demonstrates the predictive power of MSC morphology for mineralization capacity and motivates further studies into MSC morphology as a predictive marker for additional in vitro and in vivo responses. Stem Cells 2016;34:935-947. PMID:26865267

  7. Ternary MgTiX-alloys: a promising route towards low-temperature, high-capacity, hydrogen-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Paul; van Thiel, Emile F M J; Notten, Peter H L

    2007-01-01

    In the search for hydrogen-storage materials with a high gravimetric capacity, Mg(y)Ti((1-y)) alloys, which exhibit excellent kinetic properties, form the basis for more advanced compounds. The plateau pressure of the Mg--Ti--H system is very low (approximately 10(-6) bar at room temperature). A way to increase this pressure is by destabilizing the metal hydride. The foremost effect of incorporating an additional element in the binary Mg--Ti system is, therefore, to decrease the stability of the metal hydride. A model to calculate the effect on the thermodynamic stability of alloying metals was developed by Miedema and co-workers. Adopting this model offers the possibility to select promising elements beforehand. Thin films consisting of Mg and Ti with Al or Si were prepared by means of e-beam deposition. The electrochemical galvanostatic intermittent titration technique was used to obtain pressure-composition isotherms for these ternary materials and these isotherms reveal a reversible hydrogen-storage capacity of more than 6 wt. %. In line with the calculations, substitution of Mg and Ti by Al or Si indeed shifts the plateau pressure of a significant part of the isotherms to higher pressures, while remaining at room temperature. It has been proven that, by controlling the chemistry of the metal alloy, the thermodynamic properties of Mg-based hydrides can be regulated over a wide range. Hence, the possibility to increase the partial hydrogen pressure, while maintaining a high gravimetric capacity creates promising opportunities in the field of hydrogen-storage materials, which are essential for the future of the hydrogen economy. PMID:17879246

  8. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  9. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  10. Effects of growth, diving history, and high altitude on blood oxygen capacity in harbor seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodama, A. M.; Elsner, R.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    Blood volume and body composition for diving and nondiving harbor seals were measured at six-week intervals during a 10-month period of captitivity. Whole body hematocrit, red cell volume per kg of lean body mass, and total circulating hemoglobin per kg lean body mass were significantly higher in the diving group, but relatively large blood volumes expressed in terms of body weight (11-12%) were found in both groups. A pair of harbor seals exposed to high altitude for about three months registered significant increases in red cell volume, blood hemoglobin levels, and blood volume expressed in terms of body weight; results of alveolar gas analyses indicate that hyperventilation also occurred. These typical mammalian responses to hypoxia suggest that the harbor seal's large blood volume and high hemoglobin content are an expression of phylogenetic control, and that in spite of its adaptability to apnea during its diving life, the animal cannot be considered preacclimatized to high altitude.

  11. Capitalizing on Leadership Capacity: Gifted African American Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Fred A., II; Jennings, Michael E.; Marbley, Aretha F.; Brown, Lesley-Ann

    2008-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most underemphasized dimensions of high ability cited in the current federal definition of giftedness. This particular ability area is highlighted here in an effort to offer helpful information and recommendations to administrators, educators, parents, and policymakers who seek plausible solutions to the problem of…

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per minute per square foot of surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate... surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate shall be not less than 5 gallons... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per minute per square foot of surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate... surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate shall be not less than 5 gallons... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per minute per square foot of surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate... surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate shall be not less than 5 gallons... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per minute per square foot of surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate... surface area of the equipment protected; however, the minimum total rate shall be not less than 5 gallons... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum...

  16. TASSEL-GBS: a high capacity genotyping by sequencing analysis pipeline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a next generation sequencing based method that takes advantage of reduced representation to enable high throughput genotyping of large numbers of individuals at a large number of SNP markers. The relatively straightforward, robust, and cost-effective GBS protocol is...

  17. Metallurgically lithiated SiOx anode with high capacity and ambient air compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Sun, Jie; Yan, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhenda; Lin, Dingchang; Zhou, Guangmin; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    A common issue plaguing battery anodes is the large consumption of lithium in the initial cycle as a result of the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase followed by gradual loss in subsequent cycles. It presents a need for prelithiation to compensate for the loss. However, anode prelithiation faces the challenge of high chemical reactivity because of the low anode potential. Previous efforts have produced prelithiated Si nanoparticles with dry air stability, which cannot be stabilized under ambient air. Here, we developed a one-pot metallurgical process to synthesize LixSi/Li2O composites by using low-cost SiO or SiO2 as the starting material. The resulting composites consist of homogeneously dispersed LixSi nanodomains embedded in a highly crystalline Li2O matrix, providing the composite excellent stability even in ambient air with 40% relative humidity. The composites are readily mixed with various anode materials to achieve high first cycle Coulombic efficiency (CE) of >100% or serve as an excellent anode material by itself with stable cyclability and consistently high CEs (99.81% at the seventh cycle and ∼99.87% for subsequent cycles). Therefore, LixSi/Li2O composites achieved balanced reactivity and stability, promising a significant boost to lithium ion batteries. PMID:27313206

  18. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  19. Ti₃C₂ MXene as a high capacity electrode material for metal (Li, Na, K, Ca) ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Er, Dequan; Li, Junwen; Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2014-07-23

    Two-dimensional (2-D) materials are capable of handling high rates of charge in batteries since metal ions do not need to diffuse in a 3-D lattice structure. However, graphene, which is the most well-studied 2-D material, is known to have no Li capacity. Here, adsorption of Li, as well as Na, K, and Ca, on Ti3C2, one representative MXene, is predicted by first-principles density functional calculations. In our study, we observed that these alkali atoms exhibit different adsorption energies depending on the coverage. The adsorption energies of Na, K, and Ca decrease as coverage increases, while Li shows little sensitivity to variance in coverage. This observed relationship between adsorption energies and coverage of alkali ions on Ti3C2 can be explained by their effective ionic radii. A larger effective ionic radius increases interaction between alkali atoms, thus lower coverage is obtained. Our calculated capacities for Li, Na, K, and Ca on Ti3C2 are 447.8, 351.8, 191.8, and 319.8 mAh/g, respectively. Compared to materials currently used in high-rate Li and Na ion battery anodes, MXene shows promise in increasing overall battery performance. PMID:24979179

  20. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: A new class of high capacity chelating agents for Cu(II) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, M.S. |; Balogh, L.; Shafagati, A.; Johnson, J.H. Jr.; Goddard, W.A. III; Tomalia, D.A. |

    1999-03-01

    This communication describes preliminary results of an experimental investigation of the binding of Cu(II) ions to poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers in aqueous solutions. Dendrimers are highly branched polymers with controlled composition and architecture consisting of three structural components: a core, interior branch cells, and terminal branch cells. PAMAM dendrimers possess functional nitrogen and amide groups arranged in regular branched upon branched patterns which are displayed in geometrically progressive numbers as a function of generation level. Terminal groups of PAMAM dendrimers may be any organic substituent such as primary amines, carboxylic groups, etc. In aqueous solutions, PAMAM dendrimers can serve as high capacity nanoscale containers for toxic metal ions such as Cu(II). Compared to traditional chelating agents with nitrogen donors, which can typically bind only one Cu(II) ion per molecule, a generation eight (G8) PAMAM dendrimer can bind up 153 {+-} 20 Cu(II) ions per molecule. This clearly illustrates a distinct advantage of dendrimers over traditional chelating agents and macrocycles; that is the covalent attachment of nitrogen ligands to conformationally flexible PAMAM chains enclosed within a nanoscopic structure results in a substantial increase in binding capacity.

  1. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development. PMID:24483341

  2. Imbalance between oxygen photoreduction and antioxidant capacities in Symbiodinium cells exposed to combined heat and high light stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberty, S.; Fransolet, D.; Cardol, P.; Plumier, J.-C.; Franck, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, coral reefs have been affected by several large-scale bleaching events, and such phenomena are expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future, thus compromising their survival. High sea surface temperature accompanied by high levels of solar irradiance has been found to be responsible for the induction of oxidative stress ultimately ending with the disruption of the symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium. For two decades, many studies have pointed to the water-water cycle (WWC) as being one of the primary mediators of this phenomenon, but the impacts of environmental stress on the O2 reduction by PSI and the associated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes remain to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the impacts of acute thermal and light stress on the WWC in the model Symbiodinium strain A1. We observed that the high light treatment at 26 °C resulted in the up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and an increased production of ROS with no significant change in O2-dependent electron transport. Under high light and at 33 °C, O2-dependent electron transport was significantly increased relative to total electron transport. This increase was concomitant with a twofold increase in ROS generation compared with the treatment at 26 °C, while enzymes involved in the WWC were largely inactivated. These data show for the first time that combined heat and light stress inactivate antioxidant capacities of the WWC and suggests that its photoprotective functions are overwhelmed under these conditions. This study also indicates that cnidarians may be more prone to bleach if they harbor Symbiodinium cells having a highly active Mehler-type electron transport, unless they are able to quickly up-regulate their antioxidant capacities.

  3. Pulsed neutron powder diffraction at high pressure by a capacity-increased sapphire anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuchi, Takuo; Yoshida, Masashi; Ohno, Yoshiki; Tomioka, Naotaka; Purevjav, Narangoo; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Harjo, Stefanus; Abe, Jun; Aizawa, Kazuya; Sasaki, Shigeo

    2013-12-01

    A new design of opposed anvil cell for time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction was prepared for use at advanced pulsed sources. A couple of single-crystal sapphire sphere anvils and a gasket of fully hardened Ti-Zr null alloy were combined to compress 35 mm3 of sample volume to 1 GPa and 11 mm3 to 2 GPa of pressures, respectively. A very high-quality powder diffraction pattern was obtained at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex for a controversial high pressure phase of methane hydrate. The counting statistics, resolution, absolute accuracy and d-value range of the pattern were all improved to be best suitable for precise structure refinement. The sample is optically accessible to be measured by Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy during and after compression. The current cell will be an alternative choice to study hydrogenous materials of complex structures that are stable at the described pressure regime.

  4. Differential tolerance capacity to unfavourable low and high temperatures between two invasive whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Na; Pan, Li-Long; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Thermal response and tolerance to ambient temperature play important roles in determining the geographic distribution and seasonal abundance of insects. We examined the survival and performance, as well as expression of three heat shock protein related genes, of two species of invasive whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), of the Bemisia tabaci species complex following exposure to a range of low and high temperatures. Our data demonstrated that the MED species was more tolerant to high temperatures than the MEAM1 species, especially in the adult stage, and this difference in thermal responses may be related to the heat shock protein related genes hsp90 and hsp70. These findings may assist in understanding and predicting the distribution and abundance of the two invasive whiteflies in the field. PMID:27080927

  5. Differential tolerance capacity to unfavourable low and high temperatures between two invasive whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Na; Pan, Li-Long; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Thermal response and tolerance to ambient temperature play important roles in determining the geographic distribution and seasonal abundance of insects. We examined the survival and performance, as well as expression of three heat shock protein related genes, of two species of invasive whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), of the Bemisia tabaci species complex following exposure to a range of low and high temperatures. Our data demonstrated that the MED species was more tolerant to high temperatures than the MEAM1 species, especially in the adult stage, and this difference in thermal responses may be related to the heat shock protein related genes hsp90 and hsp70. These findings may assist in understanding and predicting the distribution and abundance of the two invasive whiteflies in the field. PMID:27080927

  6. Investigation of heat transfer in high-capacity power transformers having modifications preventing explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Kudimov, N. F.; Son, E. E.; Savitskii, D. V.; Tretiyakova, O. N.; Shishaeva, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation of complex conjugate heat transfer in a high power electric transformer are presented. Simulation of the flow and heat transfer inside a transformer with static blast protection was carried out. Analysis of test calculations performed in the FlowVision software suit was carried out. Comparison of the performance of created numerical model against the real experimental data from the thermal tests of the transformer was made.

  7. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances Part 2: Spacecraft Antennas and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Richard E.; Kodis, Mary Anne; Epp, Larry W.; Orr, Richard; Schuchman, Leonard; Collins, Michael; Sands, O. Scott; Vyas, Hemali; Williams, W. Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent advances in antenna and power systems technology to enable a high data rate Ka-band Mars-to-Earth telecommunications system. Promising antenna technologies are lightweight, deployable space qualified structures at least 12-m in diameter (potentially up to 25-m). These technologies include deployable mesh reflectors, inflatable reflectarray and folded thermosetting composite. Advances in 1kW-class RF power amplifiers include both TWTA and SSPA technologies.

  8. New, high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents: Calcium silicate sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.E.; Chiang, Ray-Kuang

    1993-09-30

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives of the past year were to study the sorption of SO{sub 2} by representative calcium silicates, to study the composition of the Ca(OH){sub 2}-fly ash sorbent, and to install a humidity sensor in the sorption system.

  9. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  10. Global Distribution of Polaromonas Phylotypes - Evidence for a Highly Successful Dispersal Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, John L.; Lynch, Ryan C.; King, Andrew J.; Robeson, Michael S.; Schmidt, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Polaromonas are dominant phylotypes in clone libraries and culture collections from polar and high-elevation environments. Although Polaromonas has been found on six continents, we do not know if the same phylotypes exist in all locations or if they exhibit genetic isolation by distance patterns. To examine their biogeographic distribution, we analyzed all available, long-read 16S rRNA gene sequences of Polaromonas phylotypes from glacial and periglacial environments across the globe. Using genetic isolation by geographic distance analyses, including Mantel tests and Mantel correlograms, we found that Polaromonas phylotypes are globally distributed showing weak isolation by distance patterns at global scales. More focused analyses using discrete, equally sampled distances classes, revealed that only two distance classes (out of 12 total) showed significant spatial structuring. Overall, our analyses show that most Polaromonas phylotypes are truly globally distributed, but that some, as yet unknown, environmental variable may be selecting for unique phylotypes at a minority of our global sites. Analyses of aerobiological and genomic data suggest that Polaromonas phylotypes are globally distributed as dormant cells through high-elevation air currents; Polaromonas phylotypes are common in air and snow samples from high altitudes, and a glacial-ice metagenome and the two sequenced Polaromonas genomes contain the gene hipA, suggesting that Polaromonas can form dormant cells. PMID:21897856

  11. Improved power capacity in a high efficiency klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator by distributed energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Renzhen; Chen, Changhua; Cao, Yibing; Sun, Jun

    2013-12-07

    With the efficiency increase of a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator, the maximum axial electric field and harmonic current simultaneously appear at the end of the beam-wave interaction region, leading to a highly centralized energy exchange in the dual-cavity extractor and a very high electric field on the cavity surface. Thus, we present a method of distributed energy extraction in this kind of devices. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with the microwave power of 5.1 GW and efficiency of 70%, the maximum axial electric field is decreased from 2.26 MV/cm to 1.28 MV/cm, indicating a threefold increase in the power capacity.

  12. Interconnected MoO2 nanocrystals with carbon nanocoating as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Zhiyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2011-12-01

    A facile one-pot hydrothermal method has been developed for the preparation of carbon-coated MoO(2) nanocrystals. The annealed MoO(2)-C nanocomposite consists of interconnected MoO(2)@C nanocrystals. When evaluated for lithium storage capabilities, these MoO(2)@C nanocrystals exhibit high specific capacities (~640 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) and ~575 mA h g(-1) at 400 mA g(-1)) and excellent cycling stability. In view of the excellent lithium storage properties and the ease in large-scale preparation, the as-synthesized MoO(2)-C nanocomposite might be used as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:22077330

  13. Certification challenges in the development of an innovative high payload capacity spent fuel transportation cask

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.R.; Severson, M.J.; Ciez, A.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The design approach and certification strategy used in the development of an innovative transportation cask for legal weight truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel is presented. The proposed approach represents a significant departure from conventional cask designs in that it uses titanium alloy, a material with a high strength-to-weight ratio which has no precedent in transportation cask certification. The significant increase in payload obtainable with the proposed approach, and the associated benefits such as reduced life cycle costs, lower personnel exposure, and lower transportation accident risks are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. High-capacity burst communications modem for LMDS and VSAT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebetreu, John M.; Cochran, Bruce A.; Savalle, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Emerging wireless telecommunication systems, including the terrestrial LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System) and next-generation communication satellite systems (e.g., SpacewaySM, et al.) are driven by economics to require a burst-transmission protocol for their return links (i.e., subscriber-to-hub or subscriber-to-satellite links). Limited spectral bandwidth to support these return links demands that they achieve high spectrum efficiency, measured in terms of bps/Hz (bits-per-second-per-Hertz). High-order modulations offer practical spectrum-efficient solutions for continuous links, but technical difficulties associated with phase- coherent demodulation of high-order burst signals have previously precluded these modulations as a viable option. In fact, state-of-art burst signal demodulation is currently limited to differentially-detected QPSK (DQPSK). Although so- called block-coherent demodulators generate acceptable symbol- error rates, they introduce such strong symbol-to symbol correlation as to preclude efficient soft-decision decoding. In summary, new wireless links demand burst modems with bandwidth-efficiency and power-efficiency superior to currently available technology. SiCOM research has developed a practical burst demodulator compatible with both high-order modulations and soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding. This paper describes the capabilities and characterizes the performance of this revolutionary demodulator. In particular, detailed performance comparisons are provided between the current state-of-art burst demodulator/decoder, using DQPSK and Reed-Solomon FEC (forward error correction), and SiCOM's new burst demodulator using 8PSK with concatenated TCM (trellis-coded modulation) and Reed-Solomon FEC. For ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) cell transfer, with identical link constraints, (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio, bandwidth, and bit-error rate), the new modem supports fully 25% higher information transfer rates. For message traffic

  15. A novel high-throughput image based rapid Folin-Ciocalteau assay for assessment of reducing capacity in foods.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Mohamed; M Arribas, Silvia; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the presented work was to develop and validate a novel high-throughput rapid Folin-Ciocalteau assay for the quantification of reducing capacity of foods based on image scanner (Image-F-C assay). The original rapid F-C assay using a 96-well plate was improved by adding a neutralization step that stabilizes the formed color, enabling image acquisition using a flatbed scanner. Although the scanner has been already used in other analytical applications, no analysis has been reported regarding the effect of the scanner model, the plate orientation or the reaction volume. In the present study, we establish that the mentioned parameters do affect the linearity and precision of image based Folin-Ciocalteau assay, and provide the optimal scanning conditions for the analyzed scanner models. Euclidean distance calculated from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) values was chosen, based on linearity and sensitivity, in order to quantify the reducing capacity. An in-house program using free ImageJ macro language was written to calculate automatically the RGB values of each well. The Image-F-C assay is linear within the range of 0-20 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (R(2)≥0.9939). We compared reducing capacity values from real samples quantified by the image F-C assay and by a microplate reader and an inter-day relative standard error<8% was observed. Bland-Altman and correlation analyzes showed that there were no significant differences between the two methods. PMID:26992497

  16. High areal capacity, micrometer-scale amorphous Si film anode based on nanostructured Cu foil for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Wenping; Sun, Xiaolei; Liu, Xianghong; Xi, Lixia; Jia, Yandong; Yan, Chenglin; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-12-01

    We report a feasible design to fabricate micrometer-scale Si films deposited on nanostructured Cu foil as high areal capacity anodes for Li-ion batteries with excellent cycling performance. Nanostructured copper oxides are prepared by anodic oxidation of Cu foil in alkaline solution. The resultant copper oxide nanofibers function as matrix for thick Si films (1-2 μm) loading. Metallic Cu nanofibers are obtained by in-situ electrochemical reduction at low potentials, which work as electrical highways for fast electron transport and a reliable mechanical matrix to accommodate volume changes during lithium-silicon alloy/dealloy processes. The engineered thick Si film anode exhibit both high areal capacity (0.48 mAh cm-2 for 1 μm Si film and 0.6 mAh cm-2 for 2 μm Si film after 200 cycles at 0.225 mA cm-2) and excellent rate capability (0.52 mAh cm-2 at 1.05 mA cm-2 for 2 μm Si film). The 2 μm silicon film electrode is able to recover to the initial value of 1 mAh cm-2 when the current rate is set back to 0.15 mA cm-2 even after cycling at high current rates. The reported concept can be a general method for high-loading-film electrodes, which is industrial scalable and compatible with current battery manufacturing processes.

  17. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-03-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g-1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g-1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g-1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g-1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g-1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage.

  18. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g−1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g−1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g−1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g−1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g−1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage. PMID:25761938

  19. Design and prototyping of a large capacity high frequency pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, E.; Poncet, J. M.; Charles, I.; Duband, L.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.

    2008-09-01

    This document describes the design and the prototyping performed at CEA/SBT in partnership with AIR LIQUIDE of a high frequency large cooling power pulse tube. Driven at 58 Hz by a 7.5 kW flexure bearing pressure wave generator, this system provides a net heat lift of 210 W at 65 K. The phase shift is obtained by an inertance and a buffer volume. This type of cryogenic cooler can be used for on site gas liquefaction or drilling site and for high temperature superconductivity power device cooling (transmission lines, large generators, fault current limiters). In this paper, we focus on two essential points, the regenerator and the flow straightener. The regenerator is a key component for good performance of the pulse tube cooler. It must have a large thermal inertia, a low dead volume, a good heat transfer gas/matrix and at the same time, small pressure drop. In the present case and unlike typical moderate cooling power pulse tubes, the regenerator is very compact. However, the resulting conductive losses remain negligible compared to the cooling power targeted. The goal of the flow straightener is to avoid as much as possible any jet stream effect and to guarantee the uniformity of the velocity field at both ends of the pulse tube. Indeed multi-dimensional flow effects can significantly impact the performances of the machine.

  20. Separation of intact proteins on γ-ray-induced polymethacrylate monolithic columns: A highly permeable stationary phase with high peak capacity for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simone, Patrizia; Pierri, Giuseppe; Foglia, Patrizia; Gasparrini, Francesca; Mazzoccanti, Giulia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Ursini, Ornella; Ciogli, Alessia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary columns, prepared by γ-radiation-induced polymerization, were used to optimize the experimental conditions (nature of the organic modifiers, the content of trifluoroacetic acid and the column temperature) in the separation of nine standard proteins with different hydrophobicities and a wide range of molecular weights. Because of the excellent permeability of the monolithic columns, an ion-pair reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry method has been developed by coupling the column directly to the mass spectrometer without a flow-split and using a standard electrospray interface. Additionally, the high working flow and concomitant high efficiency of these columns allowed us to employ a longer column (up to 50 cm) and achieve a peak capacity value superior to 1000. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for high-resolution chromatographic separation that combine chemical stability at elevated temperatures (up to 75°C) and a broad pH range, with a high peak capacity value. The advantage of the γ-ray-induced monolithic column lies in the batch-to-batch reproducibility and long-term high-temperature stability. Their proven high loading capacity, recovery, good selectivity and high permeability, moreover, compared well with that of a commercially available poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monolithic column, which confirms that such monolithic supports might facilitate analysis in proteomics. PMID:26530449

  1. Designing high-performance electrochemical energy-storage nanoarchitectures to balance rate and capacity.

    PubMed

    Sassin, Megan B; Hoag, Cheyne P; Willis, Bradley T; Kucko, Nathan W; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2013-02-21

    The impressive specific capacitance and high-rate performance reported for many nanometric charge-storing films on planar substrates cannot impact a technology space beyond microdevices unless such performance translates into a macroscale form factor. In this report, we explore how the nanoscale-to-macroscale properties of the electrode architecture (pore size/distribution, void volume, thickness) define energy and power performance when scaled to technologically relevant dimensions. Our test bed is a device-ready electrode architecture in which scalable, manufacturable carbon nanofoam papers with tunable pore sizes (5-200 nm) and thickness (100-300 μm) are painted with ~10 nm coatings of manganese oxide (MnOx). The quantity of capacitance and the rate at which it is delivered for four different MnOx-C variants was assessed by fabricating symmetric electrochemical capacitors using a concentrated aqueous electrolyte. Carbon nanofoam papers containing primarily 10-20 nm mesopores support high MnOx loadings (60 wt%) and device-level capacitance (30 F g(-1)), but the small mesoporous network hinders electrolyte transport and the low void volume restricts the quantity of charge-compensating ions within the electrode, making the full capacitance only accessible at slow rates (5 mV s(-1)). Carbon nanofoam papers with macropores (100-200 nm) facilitate high rate operation (50 mV s(-1)), but deliver significantly lower device capacitance (13 F g(-1)) as a result of lower MnOx loadings (41 wt%). Devices comprising MnOx-carbon nanofoams with interconnecting networks of meso- and macropores balance capacitance and rate performance, delivering 33 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1) and 23 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1). The use of carbon nanofoam papers with size-tunable pore structures and thickness provides the opportunity to engineer the electrode architecture to deliver scalable quantities of capacitance (F cm(-2)) in tens of seconds with a single device. PMID:23334529

  2. Charge/discharge characteristics of high-capacity methane adsorption storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.; Tiller, A.J. ); Gauthier, S.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The physical and economic barriers restricting a broad acceptance of natural gas as an alternative fuel in the transportation market have proven to be formidable. In order to succeed in the marketplace, systems for storing, dispensing, and utilizing natural gas which are low-cost, lightweight, compact, and efficient must be developed and evaluated. Experiments and numerical modeling indicate that methane storage and delivery are enhanced by low flow rates, high pressures, and designs with low adsorbent-to-cylinder mass ratios. When the adsorbent-to-cylinder mass ratio is greater than 0.3, systems behavior changes from near isothermal to adiabatic. Incorporation and utilization of in-situ thermal energy storage (TES) aids heat management, maintains near isothermal conditions and improves overall performance. TES thermally buffers the charging and discharging of an adsorbent system at or near the phase change temperature of the TES media thereby, enhancing storage and delivery of methane. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Graphite-coated ZnO nanosheets as high-capacity, highly stable, and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Dall'Asta, Valentina; Resmini, Alessandro; Tealdi, Cristina; Tredici, Ilenia Giuseppina; Tamburini, Umberto Anselmi; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2016-07-01

    ZnO is one of the materials of choice as anode for lithium batteries, due to its high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, low toxicity, and low cost. At present, however, its industrial exploitation is impeded by massive capacity fading, and by cycling instability due to the drastic volume expansions during the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process. Herein, we present a novel graphite coated-ZnO anode for LiBs based on films of nanosheets, coated with graphite. The electrode is obtained by a simple and inexpensive solution hydrothermal synthesis, whereas the graphite is deposited by thermal evaporation, which is easier to perform than a wet chemistry technique. Our approach leads to a substantial increase of the permanent specific capacity, obtaining values of 600 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 1 Ag-1. This represents the best performance for long-cycled, ZnO-based anodes obtained so far. Such result derives from the peculiar porous structure of the nanosheets film (pore diameter < 1 nm), as well as by the graphite coating that works as a dimensional buffer and preserves its morphology during cycling. This appears a very promising strategy for designing more stable ZnO-based anodes for Li batteries and microbatteries.

  4. Catalyst-free synthesis of Si-SiOx core-shell nanowire anodes for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Jieun; Kim, Young-Ki; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Soojin; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2014-05-14

    Si-SiOx core-shell nanowires (NWs) ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter are prepared by a simple evaporation of silicon monoxide and control of substrate temperatures without any catalyst. The Si-SiOx NWs grown at 735 and 955 °C are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector by forming copper silicide at the interface between Si and Cu, and subsequently used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, in which no binder or conducting materials are used. The Si-SiOx NWs anodes show excellent electrochemical performances in terms of capacity retention and rate capability. In particular, the Si-SiOx NW anode grown at 955 °C shows a reversible capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) even at a high-rate of 50 C. This catalyst-free synthetic route of Si-SiOx NWs that are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector opens up an effective process for fabricating other high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). PMID:24754908

  5. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Craig; McGrady, Sean; Severa, Godwin; Eliseo, Jennifer; Chong, Marina

    2015-02-08

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH₃), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH₃ and γ-AlD₃. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190ºC). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the dehydrogenation making re

  6. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; et al

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more » When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  7. A complete carbon-nanotube-based on-chip cooling solution with very high heat dissipation capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yifeng; Nabiollahi, Nabi; Wang, Teng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Zhili; Carlberg, Björn; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the factors limiting the continuous miniaturization of electronics. In the study presented in this paper, we designed an ultra-thin heat sink using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as micro cooling fins attached directly onto a chip. A metal-enhanced CNT transfer technique was utilized to improve the interface between the CNTs and the chip surface by minimizing the thermal contact resistance and promoting the mechanical strength of the microfins. In order to optimize the geometrical design of the CNT microfin structure, multi-scale modeling was performed. A molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was carried out to investigate the interaction between water and CNTs at the nanoscale and a finite element method (FEM) modeling was executed to analyze the fluid field and temperature distribution at the macroscale. Experimental results show that water is much more efficient than air as a cooling medium due to its three orders-of-magnitude higher heat capacity. For a hotspot with a high power density of 5000 W cm-2, the CNT microfins can cool down its temperature by more than 40 °C. The large heat dissipation capacity could make this cooling solution meet the thermal management requirement of the hottest electronic systems up to date.

  8. A complete carbon-nanotube-based on-chip cooling solution with very high heat dissipation capacity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yifeng; Nabiollahi, Nabi; Wang, Teng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Zhili; Carlberg, Björn; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the factors limiting the continuous miniaturization of electronics. In the study presented in this paper, we designed an ultra-thin heat sink using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as micro cooling fins attached directly onto a chip. A metal-enhanced CNT transfer technique was utilized to improve the interface between the CNTs and the chip surface by minimizing the thermal contact resistance and promoting the mechanical strength of the microfins. In order to optimize the geometrical design of the CNT microfin structure, multi-scale modeling was performed. A molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was carried out to investigate the interaction between water and CNTs at the nanoscale and a finite element method (FEM) modeling was executed to analyze the fluid field and temperature distribution at the macroscale. Experimental results show that water is much more efficient than air as a cooling medium due to its three orders-of-magnitude higher heat capacity. For a hotspot with a high power density of 5000 W cm(-2), the CNT microfins can cool down its temperature by more than 40 °C. The large heat dissipation capacity could make this cooling solution meet the thermal management requirement of the hottest electronic systems up to date. PMID:22222357

  9. CD90- (Thy-1-) High Selection Enhances Reprogramming Capacity of Murine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Koichi; Konno, Masamitsu; Nagano, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Shimpei; Tomimaru, Yoshito; Akita, Hirofumi; Hama, Naoki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Tanemura, Masahiro; Ito, Toshinori; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC), are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types possessing unique immunomodulatory features. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and possible efficacy of MSCs in organ transplantation. Thus, stem cell therapy is promising for tolerance induction. In this study, we assessed the reprogramming capacity of murine ADSCs and found that CD90 (Thy-1), originally discovered as a thymocyte antigen, could be a useful marker for cell therapy. Method. Murine ADSCs were isolated from B6 mice, sorted using a FACSAria cell sorter by selection of CD90Hi or CD90Lo, and then transduced with four standard factors (4F; Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc). Results. Unsorted, CD90Hi-sorted, and CD90Lo-sorted murine ADSCs were reprogrammed using standard 4F transduction. CD90Hi ADSCs showed increased numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies compared with CD90Lo ADSCs. The relative reprogramming efficiencies of unsorted, CD90Hi-sorted, and CD90Lo-sorted ADSCs were 100%, 116.5%, and 74.7%, respectively. CD90Hi cells were more responsive to reprogramming. Conclusion. CD90Hi ADSCs had greater reprogramming capacity than CD90Lo ADSCs, suggesting that ADSCs have heterogeneous subpopulations. Thus, CD90Hi selection presents an effective strategy to isolate a highly suppressive subpopulation for stem cell-based tolerance induction therapy. PMID:24282338

  10. Criticality safety and shielding design issues in the development of a high-capacity cask for truck transport

    SciTech Connect

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) will be submitting an application for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the GA-4 and GA-9 Casks In 1992. The GA-4 and GA-9 Casks are high-capacity legal weight truck casks designed to transport light water reactor spent fuel assemblies. To maintain a capacity of four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies, the GA-4 Cask uses burnup credit as part of the criticality control for initial enrichments over 3.0 wt% U-235. Using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Burnup Credit Program as a basis, GA has performed burnup credit analysis which is included in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The GA-9 Cask can meet the criticality safety requirements using the fresh fuel'' assumption. Our approach to shielding design is to optimize the GA-4 and GA-9 Cask shielding configurations for minimum weights and maximum payloads. This optimization involves the use of the most effective shielding material, square cross-section geometry with rounded corners and tapered neutron shielding sections in the non-fuel regions.

  11. Criticality safety and shielding design issues in the development of a high-capacity cask for truck transport

    SciTech Connect

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1992-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) will be submitting an application for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the GA-4 and GA-9 Casks In 1992. The GA-4 and GA-9 Casks are high-capacity legal weight truck casks designed to transport light water reactor spent fuel assemblies. To maintain a capacity of four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies, the GA-4 Cask uses burnup credit as part of the criticality control for initial enrichments over 3.0 wt% U-235. Using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Burnup Credit Program as a basis, GA has performed burnup credit analysis which is included in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The GA-9 Cask can meet the criticality safety requirements using the ``fresh fuel`` assumption. Our approach to shielding design is to optimize the GA-4 and GA-9 Cask shielding configurations for minimum weights and maximum payloads. This optimization involves the use of the most effective shielding material, square cross-section geometry with rounded corners and tapered neutron shielding sections in the non-fuel regions.

  12. Two dimensional layered Co0.85Se nanosheets as a high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jisheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Tupei; Song, Huaihe; Yang, Hui Ying

    2016-08-11

    In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) layered transitional metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have received much attention as promising electrode materials in energy storage. Although recent reports on 2D TMC nanostructures have demonstrated promising electrochemical performances, the major scientific challenge is to develop a viable synthesis process to produce layered structures of chalcogenides (Co, Ni or Fe based TMCs) as anode materials. In this work, we propose the synthesis of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets in a solution based method by using a 2D oriented attachment strategy. The as-prepared Co0.85Se nanosheets exhibit specific capacities as high as 675 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1). When the current densities were further increased to 200, 500 and 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacities can still reach up to 645, 574 and 493 mA h g(-1) with excellent cycling life of 95, 85 and 73%, respectively. Li-ion storage performance of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets is higher than that of Co0.85Se microspheres as well as cobalt sulfide. The superior electrochemical performance of Co0.85Se nanosheets is attributed to their 2D layered structure which enhances electrical conductivity and improves diffusion pathways of the Li-ion within the host material. The synthesis method described in this work serves as a general route for the design and preparation of other 2D layered TMCs. PMID:27471135

  13. Chemical forces and water holding capacity study of heat-induced myofibrillar protein gel as affected by high pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziye; Yang, Yuling; Tang, Xiaozhi; Chen, Yinji; You, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The effects of high pressure (100-500 MPa) on chemical forces and water holding capacity of heat-induced myofibrillar protein (MP) gel were investigated. As pressure increased, total sulfhydryl (SH) group content decreased and absolute value of zeta potential increased, which suggested the formation of disulfide bonds and increased the strength of electrostatic repulsion. Surface hydrophobicity and normalized intensity of the 760 cm(-1) band showed a maximum value at 200 MPa, indicating that 200 MPa was the optimum pressure for hydrophobic interactions. Hydrogen bonding of MP gel was strengthened at pressures of 300 MPa and above. Bound water (T2b) had lower water mobility and was more closely associated with proteins. Free water (T22) had higher water mobility. More free water was attracted by proteins or trapped in gel structure, and transferred to bound or immobilized water as pressure increased. A value of 200 MPa was the optimum pressure for the water holding capacity of MP gel. PMID:26041172

  14. High-capacity antimony sulphide nanoparticle-decorated graphene composite as anode for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denis Y W; Prikhodchenko, Petr V; Mason, Chad W; Batabyal, Sudip K; Gun, Jenny; Sladkevich, Sergey; Medvedev, Alexander G; Lev, Ovadia

    2013-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are an alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes are the main bottlenecks to future developments. Here we report a uniform coating of antimony sulphide (stibnite) on graphene, fabricated by a solution-based synthesis technique, as the anode material for sodium-ion batteries. It gives a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1), an excellent rate capability up to 6C and a good cycle performance. The promising performance is attributed to fast sodium ion diffusion from the small nanoparticles, and good electrical transport from the intimate contact between the active material and graphene, which also provides a template for anchoring the nanoparticles. We also demonstrate a battery with the stibnite-graphene composite that is free from sodium metal, having energy density up to 80 Wh kg(-1). The energy density could exceed that of some lithium-ion batteries with further optimization. PMID:24322450

  15. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. PMID:24107276

  16. A multi scale multi-dimensional thermo electrochemical modelling of high capacity lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourani, Abbas; White, Peter; Ivey, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium manganese oxide (LMO) are competitive and complementary to each other as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, especially for use in electric vehicles. A multi scale multi-dimensional physic-based model is proposed in this paper to study the thermal behaviour of the two lithium-ion chemistries. The model consists of two sub models, a one dimensional (1D) electrochemical sub model and a two dimensional (2D) thermo-electric sub model, which are coupled and solved concurrently. The 1D model predicts the heat generation rate (Qh) and voltage (V) of the battery cell through different load cycles. The 2D model of the battery cell accounts for temperature distribution and current distribution across the surface of the battery cell. The two cells are examined experimentally through 90 h load cycles including high/low charge/discharge rates. The experimental results are compared with the model results and they are in good agreement. The presented results in this paper verify the cells temperature behaviour at different operating conditions which will lead to the design of a cost effective thermal management system for the battery pack.

  17. Ultrahigh capacity and high-speed DWDM optical devices for telecom and datacom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Andrew; Chon, Joseph C.

    2001-10-01

    The next generation fiber optical communication systems can be characterized in three trends: higher speed, better spectrum efficiency and longer transmission reach. To meet the requirement of next generation systems, passive DWDM components must have the following characteristics, low dispersion, small channel spacing, low insertion loss and high isolation. In this paper, we discuss one of the most important passive components: interleaver. Interleavers have been widely used in fiber optical communications systems. Their main functions include mux, demux, optical add/drop and bi-directional noise reduction. As data rate of fiber optical communication systems increases to 10Gb/s or higher, chromatic dispersion (CD) of interleavers becomes increasingly important. It has been shown that chromatic dispersion of interleavers could significantly limit the transmission reach. In this paper, we discuss 25GHz and 50GHz interleavers and their applications. Chromatic dispersion of several interleavers available on the market are discussed. We explain the generic relation between CD and channel spacing. The CD and CD slope of some interleavers can be reduced or completely compensated by innovative designs. We present an interleaver design with extremely low CD and CD slope. Finally, we present a 10Gb/s 160-channel transport application by using the low-CD 25GHz and 50GHz interleavers. The eye diagram and bit error rate of the 10Gb/s system will be discussed.

  18. New Bioactive Fungal Molecules with High Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Capacity Isolated from Cerrena unicolor Idiophasic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Matuszewska, Anna; Sulej, Justyna; Polak, Jolanta; Ruminowicz, Marta; Grzywnowicz, Krzysztof; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Three bioactive fractions, extracellular laccase (ex-LAC), crude endopolysaccharides (c-EPL), and a low molecular subfraction of secondary metabolites (ex-LMS), were isolated from the idiophasic cultures of the white rot fungus Cerrena unicolor. For the first time, we determined the antioxidant properties of these samples by chemiluminometric measurement (a) and assessment of the scavenging effect on ABTS (b) and the DPPH reduction rate (c). The highest reducing capability was found for the ex-LMS fraction: 39–90% for (a), 20–90% for (b), and 10–59% for (c) at the concentration of 6.25–800 µg/mL. The scavenging abilities of the C. unicolor c-EPL were between 36 and 70% for (a), 2 and 60% for (b), and 28 and 32% for (c) at the concentration of 6.25–800 µg/mL. A very high prooxidative potential was observed for the ex-LAC probes. The preliminary toxicity tests were done using the Microtox system and revealed the following percentage of the toxic effect against Vibrio fischeri: 85.37% for c-EPL, 50.67% for ex-LAC, and 99.8% for ex-LMS, respectively. The ex-LAC sample showed the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, c-EPL against Staphylococcus aureus, and ex-LMS against both bacterial strains, respectively, but the stronger inhibitory effect was exerted on S. aureus. PMID:23936810

  19. Feasibility assessment of optical technologies for reliable high capacity feeder links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witternigg, Norbert; Schönhuber, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Plank, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Space telecom scenarios like data relay satellite and broadband/broadcast service providers require reliable feeder links with high bandwidth/data rate for the communication between ground station and satellite. Free space optical communication (FSOC) is an attractive alternative to microwave links, improving performance by offering abundant bandwidth at small apertures of the optical terminals. At the same time Near-Earth communication by FSOC avoids interference with other services and is free of regulatory issues. The drawback however is the impairment by the laser propagation through the atmosphere at optical wavelengths. Also to be considered are questions of eye safety for ground personnel and aviation. In this paper we assess the user requirements for typical space telecom scenarios and compare these requirements with solutions using optical data links through the atmosphere. We suggest a site diversity scheme with a number of ground stations and a switching scheme using two optical terminals on-board the satellite. Considering the technology trade-offs between four different optical wavelengths we recommend the future use of 1.5 μm laser technology and calculate a link budget for an atmospheric condition of light haze on the optical path. By comparing link budgets we show an outlook to the future potential use of 10 μm laser technology.

  20. High Temperature Heat Capacity of Alloy D9 Using Drop Calorimetry Based Enthalpy Increment Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Raju, S.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2007-02-01

    Alloy D9 is a void-swelling resistant nuclear grade austenitic stainless steel (SS) based on AISI type 316-SS in which titanium constitutes an added predetermined alloying composition. In the present study, the high-temperature enthalpy values of alloy D9 with three different titanium-to-carbon mass percent ratios, namely Ti/C = 4, 6, and 8, have been measured using inverse drop calorimetry in the temperature range from 295 to 1323 K. It is found that within the level of experimental uncertainty, the enthalpy values are independent of the Ti-C mass ratio. The temperature dependence of the isobaric specific heat C P is obtained by a linear regression of the measured enthalpy data. The measured C P data for alloy D9 may be represented by the following best-fit expression: C_P(J \\cdot kg^{-1}\\cdot K^{-1})= 431 + 17.7 × 10^{-2}T + 8.72 × 10^{-5}/T^2. It is found that the measured enthalpy and specific heat values exhibit good agreement with reported data on 316 and other related austenitic stainless steels.

  1. Heat-treated Escherichia coli as a high-capacity biosorbent for tungsten anions.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Takashi; Makino, Takahiko; Iskandar, Ferry; Tanabe, Eishi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2016-10-01

    Adsorption performance in the biosorption of tungsten using Escherichia coli cells can be significantly improved by using cell suspensions that have been heat-treated at ⩽100°C. In the case of E. coli cells suspension heated at 100°C, the aqueous tungsten ions concentration rapidly decreased from 0.8mmol/L to practically zero within 1h. This biosorption time is much shorter than that of non-heat treated E. coli cells (7h). Furthermore, the adsorption saturation amount for cells heat-treated at 100°C was significantly increased up to 1.62mmol-W/g-E. coli compared to the unheated E. coli cells case (0.62mmol-W/g-E. coli). Determination of the surface potential and surface structure along with quantitative analyses of free amino acids of heat-treated E. coli cells were also carried out and revealed that heated cells have a high zeta potential and express a higher concentration of amino acids on the cell surface. PMID:27359063

  2. Mechanism for high hydrogen storage capacity on metal-coated carbon nanotubes: A first principle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jinlian; Xiao, Hong; Cao, Juexian

    2012-12-15

    The hydrogen adsorption and binding mechanism on metals (Ca, Sc, Ti and V) decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that those metals coated on SWCNTs can uptake over 8 wt% hydrogen molecules with binding energy range -0.2--0.6 eV, promising potential high density hydrogen storage material. The binding mechanism is originated from the electrostatic Coulomb attraction, which is induced by the electric field due to the charge transfer from metal 4s to 3d. Moreover, we found that the interaction between the H{sub 2}-H{sub 2} further lowers the binding energy. - Graphical abstract: Five hydrogen molecules bound to individual Ca decorated (8, 0) SWCNT : a potential hydrogen-storage material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each transition metal atom can adsorb more than four hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interation between metal and hydrogen molecule is electrostatic coulomb attraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electric field is induced by the charge transfer from metal 4s to metal 3d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbed hydrogen molecules which form supermolecule can further lower the binding energy.

  3. Test results for a high capacity cryocooler with internal thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertele, Ted; Glaister, Dave; Gully, Wilfred; Hendershott, Paul; Levenduski, Robert; Marquardt, Eric; Wilson, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Redstone Aerospace are developing a space cryocooler for cooling complex optical systems whose loads are intermittent. An example of such a system would be an Earth observation satellite that images for only a fraction of its orbit. If a cooler can store refrigeration during the lull and provide it when the system is active, the cooler can be considerably smaller than one sized to provide the full load continuously. Our cooler provides two stages of refrigeration, a stage of intermittent cooling at 35 K for a focal plane assembly and a stage of continuous cooling at 85 K for the surrounding thermal shields. The cooler provides the intermittent cooling by collecting liquid neon in a unique internal thermal storage tank and forwarding it to the focal plane when the heat loads are high. Our paper presents extensive performance data for neon at 35 K. It carries 2 W at 35 K for 30 minutes plus the 8.5 W of continuous cooling at 85 K for less than 300 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in an hour. For contrast, the same hardware was filled with nitrogen and tested at 82 K. It carries 5 W for 25 minutes plus 15 W of continuous cooling at 130 K for less than 220 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in a little over an hour. The system has many features for space system compatibility. Because the storage is located within an active control loop, the cooler can maintain the 35 K interface temperature to better than ± 0.1 K. Because it circulates liquid it can be located remotely, which solves many compatibility issues. And with careful liquid management, it can work in any orientation and in 0-g. In this paper our flight like equipment will be described, and its continuing evolution to flight will be discussed.

  4. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  5. High-pressure gas quenching in cold chambers for increased cooling capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, S.; Troell, E.

    1996-12-31

    Gas quenching for the hardening of steel parts is a lower-pollution alternative to quenching in quenchants such as oil or salt. As the surfaces of the cooled parts remain clean after gas quenching, there is no need to wash them after heat treatment, which reduces the consumption of oils and detergents. The fire risk and ventilation requirements of oil quenching are eliminated. In addition, some trials have shown that gas quenching has a positive effect on distortion, representing a saving in finishing work and thus a reduction in costs. Today, gas quenching is used almost solely in vacuum furnaces. Quenching is normally performed in the same chamber as heating, which means that besides quenching the batch, the quenching system must also remove heat from the heating elements and insulation of the furnace. Previous trials performed by IVF have shown that gas quenching with helium of ball bearing and carburizing steels (and other steels) in sizes up to 25 mm at pressures up to 20 bar in a vacuum furnace can achieve quenching rates and hardnesses similar to those achieved by hot quenching oils. This quenching performance is not, however, capable of dealing with larger sizes or lower-alloy steels. At IVF`s request, ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH has developed a cold high-pressure gas quenching chamber that is independent of the furnace. As a result, there is no need to cool insulation or heating elements. Quenching can be carried out in the chamber at pressures of up to 40 bar for helium or up to 10 bar for nitrogen. The quenching chamber has been supplied to IVF, and has been used for experimental quenching of steel test pieces and components. Temperatures have been recorded by using some Inconel 600 test probes, {phi} 12,5 x 60 mm, with thermocouples in their centers.

  6. High-Capacity Molecular Scale Conversion Anode Enabled by Hybridizing Cluster-Type Framework of High Loading with Amino-Functionalized Graphene.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junjie; Zhang, Ye; Han, Yanlin; Li, Chilin

    2016-05-24

    Exploring high-capacity anodes with multielectron reaction, sufficient charge/mass transfer, and suppressed volume expansion is highly desired. The open frameworks consisting of independent structure units, which possess conversion reaction potentiality, can meet these demands and show advantages over routine insertion-type open frameworks with at most one-electron transfer or conversion materials with compact ligand linkage. Here, we report a class of electrochemically stable cluster-like polyoxometalates (POMs) as such open framework anodes. Their high loading and low solubility are enabled by Al- or Si-driven polymerization and hybridization with positively charged graphene, which immobilizes polyanions of POMs and improves their electric contact. Al-based POM composite (NAM-EDAG) for Li-storage achieves a high reversible capacity above 1000 mAh g(-1) and tolerates a long-term cycling with more than 1100 cycles and a current density up to 20 A g(-1). A six-electron conversion reaction occurring at molecular scale and the consequent optimized distribution of products benefiting from original open framework are also responsible for the high electroactivity. POM-based open frameworks give inspiration for exploring advanced, less soluble (or insoluble) framework materials made up of electroactive molecule or cluster moieties for Li- and Na-storage. PMID:27116433

  7. Exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongchang; Kang, Hongyan; Jiao, Lifang; Chen, Chengcheng; Cao, Kangzhe; Wang, Yijing; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-01-01

    Designed as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries, exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene is prepared by the hydrolysis of lithiated SnS2 followed by a facile hydrothermal method. Structural and morphological characterizations demonstrate that ultrasmall SnS2 nanoplates (with a typical size of 20-50 nm) composed of 2-5 layers are homogeneously decorated on the surface of graphene, while the hybrid structure self-assembles into a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture. The obtained SnS2/graphene nanocomposite delivers a remarkable capacity as high as 650 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1. More impressively, the capacity can reach 326 mA h g-1 even at 4000 mA g-1 and remains stable at ~610 mA h g-1 without fading up to 300 cycles when the rate is brought back to 200 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effects between the ultrasmall SnS2 and the highly conductive graphene network. The unique structure can simultaneously facilitate Na+ ion diffusion, provide more reaction sites, and suppress aggregation and volume fluctuation of the active materials during prolonged cycling.Designed as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries, exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene is prepared by the hydrolysis of lithiated SnS2 followed by a facile hydrothermal method. Structural and morphological characterizations demonstrate that ultrasmall SnS2 nanoplates (with a typical size of 20-50 nm) composed of 2-5 layers are homogeneously decorated on the surface of graphene, while the hybrid structure self-assembles into a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture. The obtained SnS2/graphene nanocomposite delivers a remarkable capacity as high as 650 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1. More impressively, the capacity can reach 326 mA h g-1 even at 4000 mA g-1 and remains stable at ~610 mA h g-1 without fading up to 300 cycles when the rate is

  8. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bosquet, Laurent; Gouadec, Kenan; Berryman, Nicolas; Duclos, Cyril; Gremeaux, Vincent; Croisier, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT) could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC), such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT). Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s-1, and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge’s g = 4.27). Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83), and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J) was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52). By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09), and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J) did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26), a moderate association (r = 0.65) and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability. Key points Total work performed during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test can be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (as determined by total work performance during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test). The 95% limits of agreement are two large to allow a direct comparison between both measures. In other words, it is not possible to estimate the magnitude of performance improvement during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test from that observed during a

  9. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Gouadec, Kenan; Berryman, Nicolas; Duclos, Cyril; Gremeaux, Vincent; Croisier, Jean Louis

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT) could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC), such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT). Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s(-1), and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge's g = 4.27). Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83), and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J) was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52). By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09), and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J) did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26), a moderate association (r = 0.65) and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability. Key pointsTotal work performed during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test can be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (as determined by total work performance during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test).The 95% limits of agreement are two large to allow a direct comparison between both measures. In other words, it is not possible to estimate the magnitude of performance improvement during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test from that observed during a high

  10. An extremely simple method for fabricating 3D protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and high protein capacity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifeng; Ma, Yuhong; Zhao, Changwen; Chen, Ruichao; Zhu, Xing; Zhang, Lihua; Yan, Xu; Yang, Wantai

    2014-07-21

    Protein microarrays have become vital tools for various applications in biomedicine and bio-analysis during the past decade. The intense requirements for a lower detection limit and industrialization in this area have resulted in a persistent pursuit to fabricate protein microarrays with a low background and high signal intensity via simple methods. Here, we report on an extremely simple strategy to create three-dimensional (3D) protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and a high protein capacity by photo-induced surface sequential controlled/living graft polymerization developed in our lab. According to this strategy, "dormant" groups of isopropyl thioxanthone semipinacol (ITXSP) were first introduced to a polymeric substrate through ultraviolet (UV)-induced surface abstraction of hydrogen, followed by a coupling reaction. Under visible light irradiation, the ITXSP groups were photolyzed to initiate surface living graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate (PEGMMA), thus introducing PEG brushes to the substrate to generate a full anti-fouling background. Due to the living nature of this graft polymerization, there were still ITXSP groups on the chain ends of the PEG brushes. Therefore, by in situ secondary living graft cross-linking copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), we could finally plant height-controllable cylinder microarrays of a 3D PEG network containing reactive epoxy groups onto the PEG brushes. Through a commonly used reaction of amine and epoxy groups, the proteins could readily be covalently immobilized onto the microarrays. This delicate design aims to overcome two universal limitations in protein microarrays: a full anti-fouling background can effectively eliminate noise caused by non-specific absorption and a 3D reactive network provides a larger protein-loading capacity to improve signal intensity. The results of non-specific protein absorption tests

  11. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Holscher, Hannah D; Padilla, Jaume; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Welly, Rebecca; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) high capacity (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk) were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat) ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX) or without (sedentary, SED) running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group). We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05) line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026) in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05) with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially impacts

  12. Solid Electrolyte Lithium Phosphous Oxynitride as a Protective Nanocladding Layer for 3D High-Capacity Conversion Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Fu; Noked, Malachi; Kozen, Alexander C; Liu, Chanyuan; Zhao, Oliver; Gregorczyk, Keith; Hu, Liangbing; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-02-23

    Materials that undergo conversion reactions to form different materials upon lithiation typically offer high specific capacity for energy storage applications such as Li ion batteries. However, since the reaction products often involve complex mixtures of electrically insulating and conducting particles and significant changes in volume and phase, the reversibility of conversion reactions is poor, preventing their use in rechargeable (secondary) batteries. In this paper, we fabricate and protect 3D conversion electrodes by first coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with a model conversion material, RuO2, and subsequently protecting them with conformal thin-film lithium phosphous oxynitride (LiPON), a well-known solid-state electrolyte. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the RuO2 and the LiPON, thus forming core double-shell MWCNT@RuO2@LiPON electrodes as a model system. We find that the LiPON protection layer enhances cyclability of the conversion electrode, which we attribute to two factors. (1) The LiPON layer provides high Li ion conductivity at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode. (2) By constraining the electrode materials mechanically, the LiPON protection layer ensures electronic connectivity and thus conductivity during lithiation/delithiation cycles. These two mechanisms are striking in their ability to preserve capacity despite the profound changes in structure and composition intrinsic to conversion electrode materials. This LiPON-protected structure exhibits superior cycling stability and reversibility as well as decreased overpotentials compared to the unprotected core-shell structure. Furthermore, even at very low lithiation potential (0.05 V), the LiPON-protected electrode largely reduces the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase. PMID:26820038

  13. All You Can Eat: High Performance Capacity and Plasticity in the Common Big-Eared Bat, Micronycteris microtis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Geipel, Inga; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Kalka, Margareta B.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5–7 g) animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards), which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats. PMID:22164308

  14. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-18

    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density. PMID:27502997

  15. An open, parallel I/O computer as the platform for high-performance, high-capacity mass storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abineri, Adrian; Chen, Y. P.

    1992-01-01

    APTEC Computer Systems is a Portland, Oregon based manufacturer of I/O computers. APTEC's work in the context of high density storage media is on programs requiring real-time data capture with low latency processing and storage requirements. An example of APTEC's work in this area is the Loral/Space Telescope-Data Archival and Distribution System. This is an existing Loral AeroSys designed system, which utilizes an APTEC I/O computer. The key attributes of a system architecture that is suitable for this environment are as follows: (1) data acquisition alternatives; (2) a wide range of supported mass storage devices; (3) data processing options; (4) data availability through standard network connections; and (5) an overall system architecture (hardware and software designed for high bandwidth and low latency). APTEC's approach is outlined in this document.

  16. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Cam, J.-F.; Chauveau, P.; Daudin, L.; Delahaye, P.; Delalee, F.; Dupré, P.; El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H.; Lunney, D.; Metz, F.; Naimi, S.; Perrot, L.; de Roubin, A.; Serani, L.; Thomas, B.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 105 ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 105 is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  17. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  18. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  19. Engineering of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain with High Neutral Protease Producing Capacity and Optimization of Its Fermentation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Lian; Ping, Yanhai; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The neutral protease has high potential for industrial applications, and attempts to improve enzyme expression level have important application values. In the present study, a neutral protease-encoding gene, Banpr, was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain K11, and a genetic manipulation method specific for this difficult-to-transform strain was developed for the high-level expression of neutral protease. The recombinant plasmid pUB110-Banpr was constructed in Bacillus subtilis strain WB600 and then transformed into strain K11 under optimized conditions. A positive transformant 110N-6 with the highest protease secreting capacity on skim milk plates and great genetic stability for more than 100 generations was selected for further study. Optimization of the fermentation conditions increased the enzyme activity of strain 110N-6 to 8995 ± 250 U/ml in flask culture and 28084 ± 1282 U/ml in 15-l fermentor, which are significantly higher than that of the native strain K11 and industrial strain B. subtilis AS.1398, respectively. The high expression level and extreme genetic stability make B. amyloliquefaciens strain 110N-6 more favorable for mass production of neutral protease for industrial uses. PMID:26752595

  20. Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise

    PubMed Central

    An, Sang Min; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink. [Methods] The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce protocol. Each of five subject was divided 3 groups (CON, ECGⅠ, ECGⅡ) by matched method based on weight and VO2max per weight what gained of primary test for minimize the differences of exercise capacity and ingestion of each groups. For the secondary tests, the groups of subjects were taken their materials before and after exercise as a blind test. After the ingestion, subjects were experimented on exercise test of VO2max 80% by treadmill until the all-out. Heart rate was measured by 1minute interval, and respiratory variables were analyzed VO2, VE, VT, RR and so on by automatic respiratory analyzer. And exercise exhaustion time was determined by stopwatch. Moreover, HRV was measured after exercise and recovery 3 min. [Results] Among the intake groups, ECGⅡ was showed the longest of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p = .05). Result of heart rate during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p < .001), however, not significant differences of each groups and group verse time (p > .05). Result of RPE during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p < .001), however, not significant differences of each groups and group verse time (p > .05). [Conclusion] In conclusion, EDGⅡ showed the significant increase of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p=.05) and not significant differences in HR, RPE, RER, HRV, HRR, blood pressure (p > .05). Therefore, 2.5 mg/kg-1 ingestion

  1. Zeolite Y adsorbents with high vapor uptake capacity and robust cycling stability for potential applications in advanced adsorption heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS. When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  3. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G.; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S.; Griffin, Robert G.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, 27Al/29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick’s 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. PMID:25395877

  4. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg(2+) ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, (27)Al/(29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2(nd) law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. PMID:25395877

  5. Improved positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries: Exploring the high specific capacity of lithium cobalt dioxide and the high rate capability of lithium iron phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaohui

    During the past decade, the search for better electrode materials for Li-ion batteries has been of a great commercial interest, especially since Li-ion technology has become a major rechargeable battery technology with a market value of $3 billion US dollars per year. This thesis focuses on improving two positive electrode materials: one is a traditional positive electrode material--LiCoO2; the other is a new positive electrode material--LiFePO 4. Cho et al. reported that coating LiCoO2 with oxides can improve the capacity retention of LiCoO2 cycled to 4.4 V. The study of coatings in this thesis confirms this effect and shows that further improvement (30% higher energy density than that used in a commercial cell with excellent capacity retention) can be obtained. An in-situ XRD study proves that the mechanism of the improvement in capacity retention by coating proposed by Cho et al. is incorrect. Further experiments identify the suppression of impedance growth in the cell as the key reason for the improvement caused by coating. Based on this, other methods to improve the energy density of LiCoO2, without sacrificing capacity retention, are also developed. Using an XRD study, the structure of the phase between the O3-phase Li 1-xCoO2 (x > 0.5) and the O1 phase CoO2 was measured experimentally for the first time. XRD results confirmed the prediction of an H1-3 phase by Ceder's group. Apparently, because of the structural changes between the O3 phase and the H1-3 phase, good capacity retention cannot be attained for cycling LiCoO2 to 4.6 V with respect to Li metal. An effort was also made to reduce the carbon content in a LiFePO 4/C composite without sacrificing its rate capability. It was found that about 3% carbon by weight maintains both a good rate capability and a high pellet density for the composite.

  6. Simultaneous Measurements of Eight Oxyanions Using High-Capacity Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Zr-Oxide DGT) with a High-Efficiency Elution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yan; Li, Yangyang; Gong, Mengdan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-07-19

    A zirconium oxide binding gel-based diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) was developed for simultaneous measurements of P(V), As(V), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), Sb(V), Se(VI), V(V), and W(VI). All of the oxyanions were rapidly bound to Zr-oxide gel with differences in binding affinity. The eight bound oxyanions were successfully recovered by one-step elution using a mild reagent of 0.2 M NaOH-0.5 M H2O2 by overcoming the problems in analyses of the oxyanions. The optimized elution time was reduced to 3-5 h from 24-48 h required by other DGTs. DGT uptakes of all the oxyanions were independent of pH (4.42-8.45) and ionic strength (0.1-500 mM). The DGT capacities for six oxyanions detected in multioxyanion solution were only 0.19 to 0.35 times of those detected in single-oxyanion solution, reflecting a strong competition among the oxyanions during DGT uptake. Except for Se(VI) in seawater, Zr-oxide DGT accurately measured all of the oxyanions in synthetic freshwater and seawater, with the capacities ∼29 to >2397 times and ∼7.5 to 232 times those of two commonly used DGTs (Metsorb and precipitated ferrihydrite (PF) DGTs) in freshwater and seawater, respectively. Measurements by Zr-oxide DGT in contaminated sediments were in agreement with only two oxyanions with the two commonly used DGTs; the two DGTs accumulated less or no mass of other oxyanions. This study demonstrates significant advantage of Zr-oxide DGT over the other DGTs in simultaneous measurements of the eight oxyanions due to the former's high capacity and a wide tolerance to environmental interferences, together with a high efficiency in elution. PMID:27303914

  7. High power TiO2 and high capacity Sn-doped TiO2 nanomaterial anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübke, Mechthild; Johnson, Ian; Makwana, Neel M.; Brett, Dan; Shearing, Paul; Liu, Zhaolin; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2015-10-01

    A range of phase-pure anatase TiO2 (∼5 nm) and Sn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the formula Ti1-xSnxO2 (where x = 0, 0.06, 0.11 and 0.15) were synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) reactor. Charge/discharge cycling tests were carried out in two different potential ranges of 3 to 1 V and also a wider range of 3 to 0.05 V vs Li/Li+. In the narrower potential range, the undoped TiO2 nanoparticles display superior electrochemical performance to all the Sn-doped titania crystallites. In the wider potential range, the Sn-doped samples perform better than undoped TiO2. The sample with composition Ti0.85Sn0.15O2, shows a capacity of ca. 350 mAh g-1 at an applied constant current of 100 mA g-1 and a capacity of 192.3 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1500 mA g-1. After 500 charge/discharge cycles (at a high constant current rate of 382 mA g-1), the same nanomaterial anode retains a relatively high specific capacity of 240 mAh g-1. The performance of these nanomaterials is notable, particularly as they are processed into electrodes, directly from the CHFS process (after drying) without any post-synthesis heat-treatment, and they are made without any conductive surface coating.

  8. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students-that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status-a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals-as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison-the higher the students' WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  9. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  10. Effect of high-pressure processing and milk on the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of strawberry-based beverages.

    PubMed

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Banaszewski, Katarzyna; Patazca, Eduardo; Edirisinghe, Indika; Cappozzo, Jack; Jackson, Lauren; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2012-06-13

    The present study investigated processing strategies and matrix effects on the antioxidant capacity (AC) and polyphenols (PP) content of fruit-based beverages: (1) strawberry powder (Str) + dairy, D-Str; (2) Str + water, ND-Str; (3) dairy + no Str, D-NStr. Beverages were subjected to high-temperature-short-time (HTST) and high-pressure processing (HPP). AC and PP were measured before and after processing and after a 5 week shelf-life study. Unprocessed D-Str had significantly lower AC compared to unprocessed ND-Str. Significant reductions in AC were apparent in HTST- compared to HPP-processed beverages (up to 600 MPa). PP content was significantly reduced in D-Str compared to ND-Str and in response to HPP and HTST in all beverages. After storage (5 weeks), AC and PP were reduced in all beverages compared to unprocessed and week 0 processed beverages. These findings indicate potentially negative effects of milk and processing on AC and PP of fruit-based beverages. PMID:22224588

  11. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-06-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  12. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm(2). The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm(2), a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  13. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  14. Flexible NiO-Graphene-Carbon Fiber Mats Containing Multifunctional Graphene for High Stability and High Specific Capacity Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongqi; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2016-05-11

    An electrode's conductivity, ion diffusion rate, and flexibility are critical factors in determining its performance in a lithium-ion battery. In this study, NiO-carbon fibers were modified with multifunctional graphene sheets, resulting in flexible mats. These mats displayed high conductivities, and the transformation of active NiO to inert Ni(0) was effectively prevented at relatively low annealing temperatures in the presence of graphene. The mats were also highly flexible and contained large gaps for the rapid diffusion of ions, because of the addition of graphene sheets. The flexible NiO-graphene-carbon fiber mats achieved a reversible capacity of 750 mA h/g after 350 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g as the binder-free anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The mats' rate capacities were also higher than those of either the NiO-carbon fibers or the graphene-carbon fibers. This work should provide a new route toward improving the mechanical properties, conductivities, and stabilities of mats using multifunctional graphene. PMID:27088813

  15. Cloning and Large-Scale Production of High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors Based on the Human Adenovirus Type 5.

    PubMed

    Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Zhang, Wenli; Schiwon, Maren; Bergmann, Thorsten; Solanki, Manish; Liu, Jing; Boehme, Philip; Leitner, Theo; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdV) devoid of all viral coding sequences represent one of the most advanced gene delivery vectors due to their high packaging capacity (up to 35 kb), low immunogenicity and low toxicity. However, for many laboratories the use of HCAdV is hampered by the complicated procedure for vector genome construction and virus production. Here, a detailed protocol for efficient cloning and production of HCAdV based on the plasmid pAdFTC containing the HCAdV genome is described. The construction of HCAdV genomes is based on a cloning vector system utilizing homing endonucleases (I-CeuI and PI-SceI). Any gene of interest of up to 14 kb can be subcloned into the shuttle vector pHM5, which contains a multiple cloning site flanked by I-CeuI and PI-SceI. After I-CeuI and PI-SceI-mediated release of the transgene from the shuttle vector the transgene can be inserted into the HCAdV cloning vector pAdFTC. Because of the large size of the pAdFTC plasmid and the long recognition sites of the used enzymes associated with strong DNA binding, careful handling of the cloning fragments is needed. For virus production, the HCAdV genome is released by NotI digest and transfected into a HEK293 based producer cell line stably expressing Cre recombinase. To provide all adenoviral genes for adenovirus amplification, co-infection with a helper virus containing a packing signal flanked by loxP sites is required. Pre-amplification of the vector is performed in producer cells grown on surfaces and large-scale amplification of the vector is conducted in spinner flasks with producer cells grown in suspension. For virus purification, two ultracentrifugation steps based on cesium chloride gradients are performed followed by dialysis. Here tips, tricks and shortcuts developed over the past years working with this HCAdV vector system are presented. PMID:26863087

  16. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Conclusion Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  17. High-areal-capacity lithium storage of the Kirkendall effect-driven hollow hierarchical NiSx nanoarchitecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan Woo; Seo, Seung-Deok; Park, Hoon Kee; Park, Sangbaek; Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Kug Sun

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) architectures can provide significant advantages as lithium ion microbattery electrodes by lengthening the vertical dimension. In addition, the nanoscale hierarchy and hollow properties are important factors for enhancing the performance. Here, we prepared a 3-D nickel sulfide nanoarchitecture via a facile low-temperature solution route. A Kirkendall effect-driven sulfidation of a 3-D nickel electrode was used to produce a hollow 3-D structure. Moreover, a nanoscale hierarchy can be formed with the use of highly concentrated sulfur species. The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the 3-D nickel sulfide electrode are characterized in detail, and the formation mechanism is discussed based on a time-resolved study. The 3-D nickel sulfide electrodes show an outstanding areal capacity (1.5 mA h cm-2 at a current rate of 0.5 mA cm-2), making this electrode a potential electrode for 3-D lithium ion microbatteries with a large energy density. Moreover, this strategy is expected to provide a general fabrication method for transition metal sulfide nanoarchitectures.Three-dimensional (3-D) architectures can provide significant advantages as lithium ion microbattery electrodes by lengthening the vertical dimension. In addition, the nanoscale hierarchy and hollow properties are important factors for enhancing the performance. Here, we prepared a 3-D nickel sulfide nanoarchitecture via a facile low-temperature solution route. A Kirkendall effect-driven sulfidation of a 3-D nickel electrode was used to produce a hollow 3-D structure. Moreover, a nanoscale hierarchy can be formed with the use of highly concentrated sulfur species. The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the 3-D nickel sulfide electrode are characterized in detail, and the formation mechanism is discussed based on a time-resolved study. The 3-D nickel sulfide electrodes show an outstanding areal capacity (1.5 mA h cm-2 at a current rate of 0.5 mA cm-2), making

  18. Influence of particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in Ultra-high speed hybrid bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aibin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Yefan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  19. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  20. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.