Science.gov

Sample records for ctsl run cc-15

  1. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of coal-derived synthetic crude from HRI CTSL Run CC-15 and HRI Run CMSL-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Kim, J.; Shay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (US DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883), IIT Research Institute, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research applied a suite of petroleum inspection tests to two direct coal liquefactions net product oils produced in two direct coal liquefaction processing runs. Two technical reports, authored by NIPER, are presented here. The following assessment briefly describes the two coal liquefaction runs and highlights the major findings of the project. It generally is concluded that the methods used in these studies can help define the value of liquefaction products and the requirements for further processing. The application of these methods adds substantially to our understanding of the coal liquefaction process and the chemistry of coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract.

  2. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  4. SNP analysis of AMY2 and CTSL genes in Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    Glenn, K L; Grapes, L; Suwanasopee, T; Harris, D L; Li, Y; Wilson, K; Rothschild, M F

    2005-06-01

    Genetic studies in shrimp have focused on disease, with production traits such as growth left unexamined. Two shrimp species, Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon, which represent the majority of US shrimp imports, were selected for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in alpha-amylase (AMY2) and cathepsin-l (CTSL), both candidate genes for growth. In L. vannamei, four SNPs were found in AMY2 and one SNP was found in CTSL. In P. monodon, one SNP was identified in CTSL. The CTSL gene was mapped to linkage group 28 of P. monodon using the female map developed with the Australian P. monodon mapping population. Association analyses for the AMY2 and CTSL genes with body weight (BW) were performed in two L. vannamei populations. While neither gene was found to be significantly associated with BW in these populations, there was a trend in one population towards higher BW for allele G of CTSL SNP C681G. PMID:15932404

  5. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  6. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  7. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Exfoliative Toxin A-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Strains B-7772 and B-7777 (CC8/ST2993) and B-7774 (CC15/ST2126), Isolated in a Maternity Hospital in the Central Federal District of Russia

    PubMed Central

    Skryabin, Yury; Kislichkina, Angelina; Bogun, Alexandr; Korobova, Olga; Mayskaya, Nadezhda; Shemyakin, Igor; Dyatlov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 8 (CC8) has not been associated with staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS) in newborns and exfoliative toxin genes. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of exfoliative toxin A-producing B-7772, B-7777 (both CC8), and B-7774 (CC15) strains associated with SSSS in newborns. PMID:26941146

  9. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  10. Barefoot Running

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Scott; Cotton, Jon; Bechtold, Megan; Toby, E. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that running barefoot can lead to improved strength and proprioception. However, the duration that a runner must train barefoot to observe these changes is unknown. Hypothesis: Runners participating in a barefoot running program will have improved proprioception, increased lower extremity strength, and an increase in the volume or size of the intrinsic musculature of the feet. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In this 8-week study, 29 runners with a mean age of 36.34 years were randomized into either a control group (n = 10) who completed training in their regular running shoes or to an experimental barefoot group (n = 14). Pretraining tests consisted of a volumetric measurement of the foot followed by a strength and dynamic balance assessment. Five subjects completed the pretests but did not complete the study for reasons not related to study outcomes. Participants then completed 8 weeks of training runs. They repeated the strength and dynamic balance assessment after 8 weeks. Results: Significant changes from baseline to 8 weeks were observed within the barefoot group for single-leg hop (right, P = .0121; left, P = .0430) and reach and balance (right, P = .0029) and within the control group for single–left leg hop (P = .0286) and reach and balance (right, P = .0096; left, P = .0014). However, when comparing the differences in changes from baseline to 8 weeks between the barefoot and control groups, the improvements were not significant at the .05 level for all measures. Conclusion: Although statistically significant changes were not observed between the pre- and posttest evaluations in strength and proprioception with the 8-week low-intensity barefoot running regimen, this does not necessarily mean that these changes do not occur. It is possible that it may take months or years to observe these changes, and a short course such as this trial is insufficient. PMID:26535308

  11. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  12. Reading, Writing, and Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detherage, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Describes an English course that capitalizes on the popularity of running, integrating running with reading and writing activities. Notes the positive results of this interdisciplinary approach. Provides samples of student writings. (RL)

  13. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)

  14. Fun Fitness Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantling, Ed; Strand, Brad

    1997-01-01

    Fitness runs are planned activities that make running more interesting. The paper outlines five types of fitness runs, all of which can be modified to conform to different facilities, age groups, or available time. The activities have students playing detective, playing cards, deciphering words, learning about calories, and playing wolf. (SM)

  15. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  16. Who Runs Our Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inside the academy there is a cultural perspective that it should run itself, in the sense that "business as usual" should be done with no one's hands obviously on the levers. This theory reaches its high point in the "self-government" of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In this article, the author explores the question, "who runs our…

  17. Run Anyone?... Everyone!

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fitness and health have become bywords in the past decade, signifying increased emphasis on these factors as necessary for good psychological and physical health. Reasons are given why we should run and how to do it. There is a discussion of the technique of running, and equipment. Brief mention is made of complications. An attempt is made to interest the individual in the benefits of running as a sport as well as the best method for the average person to achieve fitness and health. PMID:20469054

  18. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  19. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  20. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  1. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  2. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  3. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  4. Runnings in the curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the scale-dependence, or the runnings, of linear and second order density perturbations generated in various curvaton scenarios. We argue that the second order perturbations, i.e. non-Gaussianity, can strongly depend on the scale, even when the linear perturbations are nearly scale-invariant. We present analytic formulae for the runnings from curvatons with general energy potentials, and clarify the conditions under which f{sub NL} becomes strongly scale-dependent. From the point of view of the f{sub NL} running, curvaton potentials can be classified into roughly two categories by whether the potential flattens or steepens compared to a quadratic one. As such examples, we study pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone curvatons, and self-interacting curvatons, respectively. The dynamics of non-quadratic curvatons and the behaviors of the resulting density perturbations are clarified by analytical methods. Then we also study models where multiple source can be responsible for density perturbations such as the multi-curvaton, and mixed curvaton and inflaton models where the running of f{sub NL} can also be large due to their multi-source nature. We make quantitative analysis for each curvaton scenario and discuss in what cases the scale-dependence, in particular, of f{sub NL} can be large enough to be probed with future CMB experiments.

  5. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  6. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  7. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  8. 198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE FROM POTOMAC RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  9. PDU Run 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  10. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  11. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  12. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A Text ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  13. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-10-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  14. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  15. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  16. Biodiversity conservation in running waters

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.D. ); Flecker, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    In the concerns about biodiversity conservation, fresh waters have received less attention than tropical forests and oceans. However, running waters harbor a diverse panoply of species, habitats, and ecosystems, including some of the most threatened and many having great value to human society. An overview of the biological diversity of running waters and the state of imperilment is presented. Six major factors that threaten destruction of running water species and ecosystems are discussed: habitat loss and degradation; species invasions; overharvesting; secondary extinctions; chemical and organic pollution; global climate change. General measures for recovery and restoration of running waters conclude the article.

  17. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  18. Stiffness adaptations in shod running.

    PubMed

    Divert, Carolyn; Baur, Heiner; Mornieux, Guillaume; Mayer, Frank; Belli, Alain

    2005-11-01

    When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m.s-1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe. PMID:16498177

  19. The Longest Run of Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mark F.

    1990-01-01

    Developed are simple recursion formulas for generating the exact distribution of the longest run of heads, both for a fair coin and for a biased coin. Discusses the applications of runs-related phenomena such as molecular biology, Markov chains, geometric variables, and random variables. (YP)

  20. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2010-01-08

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  1. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2009-04-13

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  2. Running of the running and entropy perturbations during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-07-01

    In single field slow-roll inflation, one expects that the spectral index ns-1 is first order in slow-roll parameters. Similarly, its running αs=d ns/d log k and the running of the running βs=d αs/d log k are second and third order and therefore expected to be progressively smaller, and usually negative. Hence, such models of inflation are in considerable tension with a recent analysis hinting that βs may actually be positive, and larger than αs. Motivated by this, in this work we ask the question of what kinds of inflationary models may be useful in achieving such a hierarchy of runnings, particularly focusing on two-field models of inflation in which the late-time transfer of power from isocurvature to curvature modes allows for a much more diverse range of phenomenology. We calculate the runnings due to this effect and briefly apply our results to assess the feasibility of finding |βs|≳|αs| in some specific models.

  3. RHIC Au beam in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    Au beam at the RHIC ramp in run 2014 is reviewed together with the run 2011 and run 2012. Observed bunch length and longitudinal emittance are compared with the IBS simulations. The IBS growth rate of the longitudinal emittance in run 2014 is similar to run 2011, and both are larger than run 2012. This is explained by the large transverse emittance at high intensity observed in run 2012, but not in run 2014. The big improvement of the AGS ramping in run 2014 might be related to this change. The importance of the injector intensity improvement in run 2014 is emphasized, which gives rise to the initial luminosity improvement of 50% in run 2014, compared with the previous Au-Au run 2011. In addition, a modified IBS model, which is calibrated using the RHIC Au runs from 9.8 GeV/n to 100 GeV/n, is presented and used in the study.

  4. How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911

  5. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  6. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  7. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  8. Running, or Stumbling Through, Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the difference between an educational simulation and other interactive learning events highlights the effects terminology can have on both facilitators and participants. Five common mistakes made in running simulations are identified, and gaming terminology used in Britain and in the United States is discussed. (three references)…

  9. Strategies to improve running economy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  10. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  11. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  12. Commitment and Dependence Upon Regular Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.; Pargman, David

    The linear relationship between intellectual commitment to running and psychobiological dependence upon running is examined. A sample of 540 regular runners (running frequency greater than three days per week for the past year for the majority) was surveyed with a questionnaire. Measures of commitment and dependence on running, as well as…

  13. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  14. Physiologic Responses to Treadmill and Water Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Phillip A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the physiological responses of uninjured runners to running on a treadmill and in water. Water running may lessen an injured athlete's rate of deconditioning, but indications are that the metabolic cost of water running is not significantly greater than that of treadmill running. (SM)

  15. What Keeps Us on the Run?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Lynn

    Running is a popular form of exercise which people do for different reasons. Competitive runners (N=99) and noncompetitive runners (N=28) responded to a survey of 10 reasons for running by choosing their most important reasons for running. Subjects also indicated their age, sex, how long they had been running, their average weekly mileage, how…

  16. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  17. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  18. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  19. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  20. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control...

  1. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  2. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  3. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  4. Adding run history to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  5. Diphoton excess and running couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Endo, Motoi; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-06-01

    The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-)scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that there is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section σ (pp → S → γγ) as a function of the cutoff scale Λ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop β functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on σ (pp → S → γγ) for explicit models.

  6. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  7. A Star on the Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Usually stars that are born together tend to move together but sometimes stars can go rogue and run away from their original birthplace. A pair of astronomers have now discovered the first runaway red supergiant (RSG) ever identified in another galaxy. With a radial velocity discrepancy of 300 km/s, its also the fastest runaway massive star known. Discrepant Speeds: When massive stars form in giant molecular clouds, they create what are known as OB associations: groups of hot, massive, short-lived stars that have similar velocities because theyre moving through space together. But sometimes stars that appear to be part of an OB association dont have the same velocity as the rest of the group. These stars are called runaways.What causes an OB star to run away is still debated, but we know that a fairly significant fraction of OB stars are runaways. In spite of this, surprisingly few runaways have been found that are evolved massive stars i.e., the post-main-sequence state of OB stars. This is presumably because these evolved stars have had more time to move away from their birthplace, and its more difficult to identify a runaway without the context of its original group. An Evolved Runaway: Difference between observed velocity and expected velocity, plotted as a function of expected velocity. The black points are foreground stars. The red points are expected RSGs, clustered around a velocity difference of zero. The green pentagon is the runaway RSG J004330.06+405258.4. [Evans Massey 2015]Despite this challenge, a recent survey of RSGs in the galaxy M31 has led to the detection of a massive star on the run! Kate Evans (Lowell Observatory and California Institute of Technology) and Philip Massey (Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University) discovered that RSG J004330.06+405258.4 is moving through the Andromeda Galaxy with a radial velocity thats off by about 300 km/s from the radial velocity expected for its location.Evans and Massey discovered this rogue star

  8. Running coupling corrections to inclusive gluon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, W. A.; Kovchegov, Y. V.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. At leading order, there are three powers of fixed coupling; in our final answer, these three couplings are replaced by seven factors of running coupling: five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. We use our lowest-order result to conjecture how running coupling corrections may enter the full fixed-coupling kT-factorization formula for gluon production which includes nonlinear small-x evolution.

  9. Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

  10. The MICE Run Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, or a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The new MICE Run Control has been developed to ensure proper sequencing of equipment and use of system resources to protect data quality. A description of this system, its implementation, and performance during recent muon beam data collection will be discussed.

  11. Take the monkey and run

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  12. A Paradigm of Uphill Running

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas; Milia, Raffaele; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical management of bioenergetics of runners when running uphill was investigated. Several metabolic and mechanical variables have been studied simultaneously to spread light on the locomotory strategy operated by humans for effective locomotion. The studied variables were: heart rate, heart rate variability, oxygen intake and blood lactate, metabolic cost, kinematics, ground reaction force and muscular activity. 18 high-level competitive male runners ran at 70% VO2max on different uphill slope conditions: 0%, 2% and 7%. Modifications were significant in almost all variables studied, and were more pronounced with increasing incline. Step frequency/length and ground reaction force are adjusted to cope with both the task of uphill progression and the available (limited) metabolic power. From 0% to 7% slope, step frequency and ground reaction force and metabolic cost increased concurrently by 4%, 12% and 53%, respectively (with a 4% step length decrease as well). It is hypothesised that this biomechanical management is allowed by an environment-body communication performed by means of specific muscular activity. PMID:23874850

  13. Lidar observations of run-up (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, K. M.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2010-12-01

    The time dependent position of the run-up (the intersection of the shoreward edge of the water and the beach face), the maximum run-up, and the run-up duration measured with a terrestrial lidar will be compared with predictions of a ballistic model including friction (Holland and Puleo, J. Geophys. Res., 106(C3), 2001). Cross-shore water surface profiles were obtained on July 12, 2010, at South Beach, Martha’s Vineyard, MA at about 5.07 Hz with a lidar mounted on a 2-m tall frame situated approximately 5 m landward of the maximum run-up. The beach profile was estimated from lidar measurements during run-down (when the beach was uncovered by water). Wave heights, periods, and directions in 11-m water depth were 1.3 m, 7 s, and less than 5° relative to shore normal. Initial run-up velocity was estimated from the shoreward movement of the 3 run-up locations (spanning approximately 3 m in the cross-shore) immediately following the wave collapse. The foreshore slope was estimated from the beach profile between the wave collapse and the maximum run-up. The run-up edge thickness was estimated as the average of the water depth 1 m landward of the location of the run-up edge after the wave has collapsed and the depth 1 m seaward of the run-up edge at the time of maximum run-up. The friction factor used in the ballistic model was estimated as 0.005 by fitting the model predictions to the motion of a single run-up. For the 6 run-up events examined, the model predicted the maximum run-up and the run-up duration within about 20% of the observations. Interactions between the onshore propagating wave and the run-down from a prior wave sometimes caused discrepancies between the observed run-up position and the model predictions. The observations suggest that lidar may be a useful method to obtain high-frequency measurements of run-up water surfaces and bed level changes. Funded by ONR, NSF, and NSSEFF.

  14. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. PMID:26837933

  15. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Dennis M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-11-18

    Striding bipedalism is a key derived behaviour of hominids that possibly originated soon after the divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages. Although bipedal gaits include walking and running, running is generally considered to have played no major role in human evolution because humans, like apes, are poor sprinters compared to most quadrupeds. Here we assess how well humans perform at sustained long-distance running, and review the physiological and anatomical bases of endurance running capabilities in humans and other mammals. Judged by several criteria, humans perform remarkably well at endurance running, thanks to a diverse array of features, many of which leave traces in the skeleton. The fossil evidence of these features suggests that endurance running is a derived capability of the genus Homo, originating about 2 million years ago, and may have been instrumental in the evolution of the human body form. PMID:15549097

  16. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  17. Running spectral index from inflation with modulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: fuminobu.takahashi@ipmu.jp

    2011-01-01

    We argue that a large negative running spectral index, if confirmed, might suggest that there are abundant structures in the inflaton potential, which result in a fairly large (both positive and negative) running of the spectral index at all scales. It is shown that the center value of the running spectral index suggested by the recent CMB data can be easily explained by an inflaton potential with superimposed periodic oscillations. In contrast to cases with constant running, the perturbation spectrum is enhanced at small scales, due to the repeated modulations. We mention that such features at small scales may be seen by 21 cm observations in the future.

  18. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  19. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  20. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  1. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  2. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  3. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following...

  4. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following...

  5. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  6. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following...

  7. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following...

  8. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following...

  9. First Run II results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    S. Donati

    2002-06-04

    In this paper we report on the first run II results from the CDF experiment. A brief description of the Tevatron collider and CDF detector upgrades and performance achieved in the first part of run II is followed by the CDF expectations in the fields of beauty, top, electroweak and Higgs physics.

  10. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  11. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  12. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  13. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Sarah T.; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key points Running in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  14. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration. PMID:26808173

  15. A Runs-Test Algorithm: Contingent Reinforcement and Response Run Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food,…

  16. Characterization of running with compliant curved legs.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Yun; Clark, Jonathan E

    2015-08-01

    Running with compliant curved legs involves the progression of the center of pressure, the changes of both the leg's stiffness and effective rest length, and the shift of the location of the maximum stress point along the leg. These phenomena are product of the geometric and material properties of these legs, and the rolling motion produced during stance. We examine these aspects with several reduced-order dynamical models to relate the leg's design parameters (such as normalized foot radius, leg's effective stiffness, location of the maximum stress point and leg shape) to running performance (such as robustness and efficiency). By using these models, we show that running with compliant curved legs can be more efficient, robust with fast recovery behavior from perturbations than running with compliant straight legs. Moreover, the running performance can be further improved by tuning these design parameters in the context of running with rolling. The results shown in this work may serve as potential guidance for future compliant curved leg designs that may further improve the running performance. PMID:26151098

  17. Study on Running Safety with Gauge Widening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Masakazu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Akira; Iwamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Minoru

    Gauge widening has been set in order that rolling stock runs safely and smoothly on curved tracks. Recently gauge widening has been reduced due to the change of vehicle structures and track maintenance. The reduction of gauge widening may lead the decrease of steering ability of wheelsets and running safety of vehicles. The purpose of this study is to grasp curving performance and running safety when gauge widening was varied. Stand tests were carried out by a bogie test stand, and the authors concluded that the curving performance can be increased according to gauge widening, but the effect is limited in perfect rolling region, and not so effective for normal setting range.

  18. Social network structures and bank runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; Li, Jiaheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social network structures of depositors on bank runs. The analyzed network structures include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. Simulation results show that the probability of bank run occurrence in random networks is larger than that in small-world networks, but the probability of bank run occurrence in scale-free networks drops from the highest to the lowest among the three types of network structures with the increase of the proportion of impatient depositors. The average degree of depositor networks has a significant impact on bank runs, but this impact is related to the proportion of impatient depositors and the confidence levels of depositors in banks.

  19. Flood-plain delineation for Horsepen Run, Sugarland Run, Nichols Run, Pond Branch, Clarks Branch, and Mine Run Branch basins, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps have a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Horsepen Run, Sugarland Run, Nichols Run, and Pond Branch basins in Fairfax County. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Smarter running can keep buildings fit.

    PubMed

    England, Simon

    2011-09-01

    Simon England, director at Accenture Health UK, outlines the benefits of an "assessment-based" approach to creating "smarter" healthcare buildings with reduced running costs and a lower carbon footprint. PMID:21961394

  1. The Ssart of Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Rescigno

    2002-10-29

    After a hiatus of almost 6 years and an extensive upgrade, Tevatron, the world largest proton-antiproton collider, has resumed the operation for the so called RUN II. In this paper we give a brief overview of the many new features of the Tevatron complex and of the upgraded CDF experiment, and show the presently achieved detector performances as well as highlights of the RUN II physics program in the beauty and electroweak sector.

  2. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; D. Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-10-06

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  3. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, R. M.; Gallas, E. J.; C-L Tseng, J.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called "runBrowser" makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  4. Calcaneal loading during walking and running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  5. Negative running can prevent eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Freese, Katherine E-mail: ktfreese@umich.edu

    2015-01-01

    Current data from the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 telescope favor, at around the 2 σ level, negative running of the spectral index of curvature perturbations from inflation. We show that for negative running α < 0, the curvature perturbation amplitude has a maximum on scales larger than our current horizon size. A condition for the absence of eternal inflation is that the curvature perturbation amplitude always remain below unity on superhorizon scales. For current bounds on n{sub S} from Planck, this corresponds to an upper bound of the running α < −9 × 10{sup −5}, so that even tiny running of the scalar spectral index is sufficient to prevent eternal inflation from occurring, as long as the running remains negative on scales outside the horizon. In single-field inflation models, negative running is associated with a finite duration of inflation: we show that eternal inflation may not occur even in cases where inflation lasts as long as 10{sup 4} e-folds.

  6. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P < .01). We conclude that 2 major roadblocks to designing successful lower limb robotic exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton. PMID:26694976

  7. Sex differences in running mechanics and patellofemoral joint kinetics following an exhaustive run.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Loss, Justin R; Willy, Richard W; Meardon, Stacey A

    2015-11-26

    Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females demonstrate unique changes in running mechanics associated with PFP following an exhaustive run. For this study, 18 females and 17 males ran to volitional exhaustion. Peak PFJ contact force and stress, PFJ contact force and stress loading rates, hip adduction excursion, and hip and knee joint frontal plane angular impulse were analyzed between females and males using separate 2 factor ANOVAs (2 (male/female)×2 (before/after exhaustion)). We observed similar changes in running mechanics among males and females over the course of the exhaustive run. Specifically, greater peak PFJ contact force loading rate (5%, P=.01), PFJ stress loading rate (5%, P<.01), hip adduction excursion (1.3°, P<.01), hip abduction angular impulse (4%, P<.01), knee abduction angular impulse (5%, P=.03), average vertical ground reaction force loading rate (10%, P<.01) and step length (2.1cm, P=.001) were observed during exhausted running. These small changes in suspected PFP pathomechanical factors may increase a runner׳s propensity for PFP. However, unique changes in female running mechanics due to exhaustion do not appear to contribute to the sex bias for PFP. PMID:26525514

  8. Compare 100 GeV/n Au Run 2010 with Run 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    With the very successful commissioning of the vertical stochastic cooling in 100 GeV/n Au Run 2010, the IBS (intra-beam scattering) is no longer the dominant factor in terms of the integrated luminosity. A new luminosity model is needed, where the beam intensity lifetime is more important and the burn-off needs to be accounted for. Toward this goal, a brief review of the Run 2010, compared with Run 2007, is presented.

  9. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  10. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloth, Martin S.

    2014-09-01

    While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 Collaboration as an alternative explanation of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 Collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some additional new information about the UV completion of inflation. However, before we would be able to draw such strong conclusions with confidence, we would first have to also carefully exclude all the alternatives. Assuming monomial chaotic inflation is the right theory of inflation, we therefore explore the possibility that the running could be due to some other less UV sensitive degree of freedom. As an example, we ask if it is possible that the curvature perturbation spectrum has a contribution from a curvaton, which makes up for the large running in the spectrum. We find that this effect could mask the information we can extract about the UV physics. We also study different models, which might lead to a large negative intrinsic running of the curvaton.

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    Dideriksen, M, Soegaard, C, and Nielsen, RO. Validity of self-reported running distance. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1592-1596, 2016-It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level. PMID:26479023

  12. Holographic Ricci dark energy as running vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Paxy; Mathew, Titus K.

    2016-04-01

    Holographic Ricci dark energy (DE) that has been proposed ago has faced problems of future singularity. In the present work, we consider the Ricci DE with an additive constant in its density as running vacuum energy. We have analytically solved the Friedmann equations and also the role played by the general conservation law followed by the cosmic components together. We have shown that the running vacuum energy status of the Ricci DE helps to remove the possible future singularity in the model. The additive constant in the density of the running vacuum played an important role, such that, without that, the model predicts either eternal deceleration or eternal acceleration. But along with the additive constant, equivalent to a cosmological constant, the model predicts a late time acceleration in the expansion of the universe, and in the far future of the evolution it tends to de Sitter universe.

  13. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  14. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    SciTech Connect

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

    1986-03-07

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

  15. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A.; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback. PMID:26488484

  16. Tevatron Run II performance and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D Church

    2002-07-12

    The Fermilab accelerator complex has been operating Run II for approximately one year. In this mode 36 proton bunches collide with 36 antiproton bunches at 2 interaction regions in the Tevatron at 980 GeV beam energy. The long range goal in Run II is to obtain a total integrated luminosity of 15 pb{sup -1}. The current status and performance of the accelerator complex is described, including the Tevatron, Main Injector, Antiproton Source, and Recycler Ring. Future upgrade plans and prospects for reaching the admittedly ambitious long range goal are presented.

  17. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  18. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  19. Run Run Run.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Fred

    This guidebook is written for coaches of runners competing in both crosscountry and track. The techniques of training athletes in this sport are described with emphasis placed on why certain methods are successful as well as how they are accomplished. The methods of training runners of different ages and varying experience are discussed. Articles…

  20. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. Validation of Distance Run Tests for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Andrew S.; Coleman, A. Eugene

    1976-01-01

    The author reports that 9- and 12-minute distance runs proved to be significantly correlated with maximum oxygen uptake and that the runs were suitable tests of the distance running ability of elementary school boys and girls. (GW)

  2. Strategies for reducing the climate noise in model simulations: ensemble runs versus a long continuous run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decremer, Damien; Chung, Chul E.; Räisänen, Petri

    2015-03-01

    Climate modelers often integrate the model with constant forcing over a long time period, and make an average over the period in order to reduce climate noise. If the time series is persistent, as opposed to rapidly varying, such an average does not reduce noise efficiently. In this case, ensemble runs, which ideally represent independent runs, can reduce noise more efficiently. We quantify the noise reduction gain by using ensemble runs over a long continuous run in constant-forcing simulations. We find that in terms of the amplitude of the noise, a continuous simulation of 30 years may be equivalent to as few as five 3-year long ensemble runs in a slab ocean-atmosphere coupled model and as few as two 3-year long ensemble runs in a fully coupled model. The outperformance of ensemble runs over a continuous run is strictly a function of the persistence of the time series. We find that persistence depends on model, location and variable, and that persistence in surface air temperature has robust spatial structures in coupled models. We demonstrate that lag-1 year autocorrelation represents persistence fairly well, but the use of lag-1 year-lag-5 years autocorrelations represents the persistence far more sufficiently. Furthermore, there is more persistence in coupled model output than in the output of a first-order autoregressive model with the same lag-1 autocorrelation.

  3. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance. PMID:27328725

  4. B PHYSICS AT THE TEVATRON RUN II.

    SciTech Connect

    YIP,K.

    2004-03-27

    We present the B physics results from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II at Fermilab and their future prospect. This includes various B mass and lifetime measurements, B mixing, the confirmation of the discovery of the X particle, rare decays, CP violation, and spectroscopy.

  5. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  6. An Orthopedic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Mark; Grana, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the development of osteoarthritis and whether running and other impact loading sports promote it. Although these sports do not cause arthritis in normal weight bearing limbs, they can accelerate it in damaged joints. It is important to identify people with preeexisting joint disease so they can choose nonimpact-loading aerobic exercise.…

  7. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Hubbard and Stephan Lammel

    2001-11-02

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard.

  8. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth

    PubMed Central

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth. PMID:22198759

  9. The running athlete: Roentgenograms and remedies

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have put together an atlas of radiographs of almost every conceivable running injury to the foot, ankle, leg, knee, femur, groin, and spine. Text material is limited to legends which describe the figures, and the remedies listed are brief. The text indicates conservative versus surgical treatment and, in some instances, recommends a surgical procedure.

  10. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  11. Running Clubs--A Combinatorial Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Phillip; Taylor, John

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a combinatorial problem based on the Hash House Harriers rule which states that the route of the run should not have previously been traversed by the club. Discovered is how many weeks the club can meet before the rule has to be broken. (KR)

  12. Utah CTE: Running in New Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Kristine; Fischio, Shannon; Thomas, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Although the authors admit that they do not have any fool-proof formulas to offer for using Web site, blog, Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube in order to more successfully share one's career and technical education (CTE) story, they share a story of their own journey and hope that it may help people to run faster and more effectively in these new…

  13. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  14. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  15. Working against gravity: horizontal honeybee waggle runs have greater angular scatter than vertical waggle runs

    PubMed Central

    Couvillon, Margaret J.; Phillipps, Hunter L. F.; Schürch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of noise in a communication system may be adaptive or may reflect unavoidable constraints. One communication system where these alternatives are debated is the honeybee (Apis mellifera) waggle dance. Successful foragers communicate resource locations to nest-mates by a dance comprising repeated units (waggle runs), which repetitively transmit the same distance and direction vector from the nest. Intra-dance waggle run variation occurs and has been hypothesized as a colony-level adaptation to direct recruits over an area rather than a single location. Alternatively, variation may simply be due to constraints on bees' abilities to orient waggle runs. Here, we ask whether the angle at which the bee dances on vertical comb influences waggle run variation. In particular, we determine whether horizontal dances, where gravity is not aligned with the waggle run orientation, are more variable in their directional component. We analysed 198 dances from foragers visiting natural resources and found support for our prediction. More horizontal dances have greater angular variation than dances performed close to vertical. However, there is no effect of waggle run angle on variation in the duration of waggle runs, which communicates distance. Our results weaken the hypothesis that variation is adaptive and provide novel support for the constraint hypothesis. PMID:22513277

  16. The influence of a new sole geometry while running.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  17. The influence of a new sole geometry while running

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  18. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, p<0.001]). These data suggest that even low running velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  19. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-12-23

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb{sup -1} could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at {radical}s {le} 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e{sup -}e{sup -} runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab{sup -1} program, expected to take the first 6-7 years

  20. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  1. CMS Full Simulation for Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, M.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Lange, D. J.; Kortelainen, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    During LHC shutdown between run-1 and run-2 intensive developments were carried out to improve performance of CMS simulation. For physics improvements migration from Geant4 9.4p03 to Geant4 10.0p02 has been performed. CPU performance has been improved by introduction of the Russian roulette method inside CMS calorimeters, optimization of CMS simulation sub-libraries, and usage of statics build of the simulation executable. As a result of these efforts, CMS simulation has been speeded up by about factor two. In this work we provide description of updates for different software components of CMS simulation. Development of a multi-threaded (MT) simulation approach for CMS will be also discuss.

  2. Impact of running away on girls' pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Lisa E; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data from Waves 1 and 2. The odds of pregnancy in the next year were 1.67 times greater for runaways net of other factors. A history of sexual assault and romantic involvement increased the likelihood of pregnancy. The relationship between pregnancy and runaway behavior in the general population is understudied. Our findings suggest that runaway youth have a multiplicity of needs that require a complex array of medical, social, emotional, and academic resources to promote positive sexual health outcomes. PMID:21794907

  3. Running with the radius in RS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Adam; May, Michael J.; Sundrum, Raman

    2003-01-01

    We derive a renormalization group formalism for the Randall-Sundrum scenario, where the renormalization scale is set by a floating compactification radius. While inspired by the AdS-CFT conjecture, our results are derived concretely within higher-dimensional effective field theory. Matching theories with different radii leads to running hidden brane couplings. The hidden brane Lagrangian consists of four-dimensional local operators constructed from the induced value of the bulk fields on the brane. We find hidden Lagrangians which are nontrivial fixed points of the RG flow. Calculations in RS1 can be greatly simplified by “running down” the effective theory to a small radius. We demonstrate these simplifications by studying the Goldberger-Wise stabilization mechanism. In this paper, we focus on the classical and tree-level quantum field theory of bulk scalar fields, which demonstrates the essential features of the RG in the simplest context.

  4. The Physics Case for Extended Tevatron Running

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Darien R.

    2010-11-01

    Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is currently scheduled to end late in 2011. Given the current performance of the collider and of the CDF and D0 detectors, it is estimated that the current data set could be approximately doubled with a run extended into 2014. A few examples are presented of the physics potential of these additional statistics. These are discussed in the context of the expected reach of the LHC 7 TeV data and the existing Tevatron data. In particular, an extraordinary opportunity is described which could probe the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the currently preferred region between 115 GeV and 150 GeV.

  5. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.; Edwards, H.; Finley, D.A.; Fowler, W.B.; Harrison, M.; Holmes, S.; Makara, J.N.; Malamud, E.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-..beta.. quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements.

  6. Jet physics in Run 2 at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.; /Florida U.

    2005-01-01

    New CDF Run 2 results on the inclusive jet cross section (K{sub T} algorithm) and the b-jet cross section (MidPoint algorithm) are presented and compared with theory. We also study the ''underlying event'' by using the direction of the leading jet to isolate regions of {eta}-{phi} space that are very sensitive to the ''beam-beam'' remnants and to multiple parton interactions.

  7. Footwear and running cardio-respiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D A; Butler, R J; Beckman, B; Hackney, A C

    2009-05-01

    This study compared cardio-respiratory responses during running wearing a motion control shoe (MC) or a cushioning shoe (CU) in a cross-over single blinded design. Fourteen runners (10F/4M, age=27.3+/-5.1 years, body mass=64.1+/-12.2 kg, height=167.8+/-7.5 cm, VO (2)max=52.3+/-8.8 ml/kg/min) completed a 40-min run at approximately 65% VO (2) max under both shoe conditions. Oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min; L/min), minute ventilation (L/min), respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured at minutes 8-10, 18-20, 28-30 and 38-40 of exercise. Rating of perceived exertion was obtained at minutes 10, 20, 30 and 40. Two (footwear) by four (time) repeated measures ANOVAs showed no differences between footwear conditions in overall oxygen consumption (MC=36.8+/-1.5 vs. CU=35.3+/-1.4 mL/kg/min, p=0.143), minute ventilation (MC=50.4+/-4 vs. CU=48.5+/-3.8, p=0.147), respiratory exchange ratio (MC=0.90+/-0.01 vs. CU=0.89+/-0.01, p=0.331), heart rate (MC=159+/-3 vs. CU=160+/-3, p=0.926), or rate of perceived exertion. The design of motion control footwear does not appear to affect cardio-respiratory or perceived exertion responses during submaximal running. The findings are specific to the shoes tested. Nonetheless, the outcomes suggest that footwear selection to reduce certain overuse injuries does not increase the work of running. PMID:19199221

  8. First Run II results from ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toia, Alberica

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is collecting data with both Minimum Bias and Muon triggers with pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV in the ongoing LHC Run II. An excellent performance of tracking and PID in the central barrel and in the muon spectrometer has been obtained. First results on the charged-particle pseudorapidity density and on identified particle transverse momentum spectra at √s = 13 TeV is presented.

  9. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain. PMID:27355182

  10. Constructing predictive models of human running

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Horst-Moritz; Revzen, Shai; Guckenheimer, John; Ludwig, Christian; Reger, Johann; Seyfarth, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Running is an essential mode of human locomotion, during which ballistic aerial phases alternate with phases when a single foot contacts the ground. The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) provides a starting point for modelling running, and generates ground reaction forces that resemble those of the centre of mass (CoM) of a human runner. Here, we show that while SLIP reproduces within-step kinematics of the CoM in three dimensions, it fails to reproduce stability and predict future motions. We construct SLIP control models using data-driven Floquet analysis, and show how these models may be used to obtain predictive models of human running with six additional states comprising the position and velocity of the swing-leg ankle. Our methods are general, and may be applied to any rhythmic physical system. We provide an approach for identifying an event-driven linear controller that approximates an observed stabilization strategy, and for producing a reduced-state model which closely recovers the observed dynamics. PMID:25505131

  11. Constructing predictive models of human running.

    PubMed

    Maus, Horst-Moritz; Revzen, Shai; Guckenheimer, John; Ludwig, Christian; Reger, Johann; Seyfarth, Andre

    2015-02-01

    Running is an essential mode of human locomotion, during which ballistic aerial phases alternate with phases when a single foot contacts the ground. The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) provides a starting point for modelling running, and generates ground reaction forces that resemble those of the centre of mass (CoM) of a human runner. Here, we show that while SLIP reproduces within-step kinematics of the CoM in three dimensions, it fails to reproduce stability and predict future motions. We construct SLIP control models using data-driven Floquet analysis, and show how these models may be used to obtain predictive models of human running with six additional states comprising the position and velocity of the swing-leg ankle. Our methods are general, and may be applied to any rhythmic physical system. We provide an approach for identifying an event-driven linear controller that approximates an observed stabilization strategy, and for producing a reduced-state model which closely recovers the observed dynamics. PMID:25505131

  12. The mechanics of running in children.

    PubMed

    Schepens, B; Willems, P A; Cavagna, G A

    1998-06-15

    1. The effect of age and body size on the bouncing mechanism of running was studied in children aged 2-16 years. 2. The natural frequency of the bouncing system (fs) and the external work required to move the centre of mass of the body were measured using a force platform. 3. At all ages, during running below approximately 11 km h-1, the freely chosen step frequency (f) is about equal to fs (symmetric rebound), independent of speed, although it decreases with age from 4 Hz at 2 years to 2.5 Hz above 12 years. 4. The decrease of step frequency with age is associated with a decrease in the mass-specific vertical stiffness of the bouncing system (k/m) due to an increase of the body mass (m) with a constant stiffness (k). Above 12 years, k/m and f remain approximately constant due to a parallel increase in both k and m with age. 5. Above the critical speed of approximately 11 km h-1, independent of age, the rebound becomes asymmetric, i.e. f < fs. 6. The maximum running speed (Vf, max) increases with age while the step frequency at remains constant (approximately 4 Hz), independent of age. 7. At a given speed, the higher step frequency in preteens results in a mass-specific power against gravity less than that in adults. The external power required to move the centre of mass of the body is correspondingly reduced. PMID:9596810

  13. Injury and Illness Rates During Ultratrail Running.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, G; Savoldelli, A; La Torre, A; Skafidas, S; Bortolan, L; Schena, F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe injury/illness rates in ultratrail runners competing in a 65-km race to build a foundation for injury prevention and help race organizers to plan medical provision for these events. Prospectively transcribed medical records were analysed for 77 athletes at the end of the race. Number of injuries/illnesses per 1 000 runners and per 1 000-h run, overall injury/illness rate and 90% confidence intervals and rates for major and minor illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, and skin disorders were analysed. A total of 132 injuries/illnesses were encountered during the race. The overall injuries/illnesses were 1.9 per runner and 13.1 per 1 000-h run. Medical illnesses were the most prominent medical diagnoses encountered (50.3%), followed by musculoskeletal injuries (32.8%), and skin-related disorders (16.9%). Despite the ultra-long nature of the race, the majority of injuries/illnesses were minor in nature. Medical staff and runners should prepare to treat all types of injuries and illnesses, especially the fatigue arising throughout the course of an ultratrail run and injuries to the lower limbs. Future studies should attempt to systematically identify injury locations and mechanisms in order to better direct injury prevention strategies and plan more accurate medical care. PMID:27116340

  14. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  15. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  16. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  17. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  18. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  19. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  20. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  1. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  2. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  3. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  4. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  5. Midsole thickness affects running patterns in habitual rearfoot strikers during a sustained run.

    PubMed

    TenBroek, Trampas M; Rodrigues, Pedro A; Frederick, Edward C; Hamill, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate how kinematic patterns are adjusted while running in footwear with THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsole thicknesses and (2) determine if these patterns are adjusted over time during a sustained run in footwear of different thicknesses. Ten male heel-toe runners performed treadmill runs in specially constructed footwear (THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsoles) on separate days. Standard lower extremity kinematics and acceleration at the tibia and head were captured. Time epochs were created using data from every 5 minutes of the run. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used (P < .05) to determine differences across footwear and time. At touchdown, kinematics were similar for the THIN and MEDIUM conditions distal to the knee, whereas only the THIN condition was isolated above the knee. No runners displayed midfoot or forefoot strike patterns in any condition. Peak accelerations were slightly increased with THIN and MEDIUM footwear as was eversion, as well as tibial and thigh internal rotation. It appears that participants may have been anticipating, very early in their run, a suitable kinematic pattern based on both the length of the run and the footwear condition. PMID:24615336

  6. Running induces nausea in rats: Kaolin intake generated by voluntary and forced wheel running.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted showing rats' pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) due to running in activity wheels. The amount of kaolin consumed was a positive function of the available time of voluntary running (20, 40, or 60 min), although this relationship was blunted by a descending (i.e., 60 → 40 → 20 min) test series of execution (Experiment 1). Pica was also generated by forced running in a motorized wheel for 60 min as a positive function of the speed of wheel rotations at 98, 185, or 365 m/h, independent of the order of execution (Experiment 2). Voluntary running generated more pica than did forced running at 80 m/h, although the distance travelled in the former condition was 27% lesser than that in the latter condition (Experiment 3). Because kaolin intake is regarded as a reliable measure of nausea in rats, these results show that wheel running, either voluntary or forced, induces nausea in rats. PMID:27191407

  7. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy. PMID:26332781

  8. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics. PMID:26816209

  9. Effect of chiropractic treatment on hip extension ability and running velocity among young male running athletes☆

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, Jörgen; Palmgren, Per J.; Björndahl, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigates the effect of chiropractic treatment on hip joint extension ability and running velocity. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled experimental pilot study. Seventeen healthy male junior athletes (age, 17-20 years) training in middle distance running were recruited from local Swedish athletic associations. Hip extension ability and running velocity were measured before and after the study period. Chiropractic investigations comprised motion palpation of the sacroiliac and hip joints and modified Thomas test of the ability to extend the leg. In the treatment group, findings of restrictive joint dysfunctions formed the basis for the choice of chiropractic treatment. The interventions were based on a pragmatic approach consisting of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulations targeted toward, but not exclusively to, the sacroiliac joints. Results The treatment group showed significantly greater hip extension ability after chiropractic treatment than did controls (P < .05). Participants in the treatment group did not show a significant decrease in time for running 30 m after treatment (average, −0.065 seconds; P = .0572), whereas the difference was even smaller for the control subjects (average, −0.003; P = .7344). Conclusions The results imply that chiropractic treatment can improve hip extensibility in subjects with restriction as measured by the modified Thomas test. It could be speculated that the running step was amplified by increasing the angle of step through facilitated hip joint extension ability. The possible effect of chiropractic treatment to enhance the running velocity, by increasing the hip joint extension ability and thereby increasing the running step, remains unproven. PMID:19674719

  10. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  11. Repeatability of a running heat tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Mee, Jessica A; Doust, Jo; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    At present there is no standardised heat tolerance test (HTT) procedure adopting a running mode of exercise. Current HTTs may misdiagnose a runner's susceptibility to a hyperthermic state due to differences in exercise intensity. The current study aimed to establish the repeatability of a practical running test to evaluate individual's ability to tolerate exercise heat stress. Sixteen (8M, 8F) participants performed the running HTT (RHTT) (30 min, 9 km h(-1), 2% elevation) on two separate occasions in a hot environment (40 °C and 40% relative humidity). There were no differences in peak rectal temperature (RHTT1: 38.82 ± 0.47 °C, RHTT2: 38.86 ± 0.49 °C, Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.93, typical error of measure (TEM) = 0.13 °C), peak skin temperature (RHTT1: 38.12 ± 0.45, RHTT2: 38.11 ± 0.45 °C, ICC = 0.79, TEM = 0.30 °C), peak heart rate (RHTT1: 182 ± 15 beats min(-1), RHTT2: 183 ± 15 beats min(-1), ICC = 0.99, TEM = 2 beats min(-1)), nor sweat rate (1721 ± 675 g h(-1), 1716 ± 745 g h(-1), ICC = 0.95, TEM = 162 g h(-1)) between RHTT1 and RHTT2 (p>0.05). Results demonstrate good agreement, strong correlations and small differences between repeated trials, and the TEM values suggest low within-participant variability. The RHTT was effective in differentiating between individuals physiological responses; supporting a heat tolerance continuum. The findings suggest the RHTT is a repeatable measure of physiological strain in the heat and may be used to assess the effectiveness of acute and chronic heat alleviating procedures. PMID:25774031

  12. Schools should not be run as businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Schools, prisons, hospitals, governments and the like should not be run as businesses or following business principles. The reason is simple, most businesses fail in 3 to 5 years and 90% fail in 10 years. Business methodology more often than not leads to failure. Society should instead prefer and follow the methods of science, engineering and democracy. The scientific method is superior to markets. It has been known for 100 years that groups can produce better decisions than individuals. We should not have chairs, and deans and presidents. Rather, decisions should be taken by workers councils.

  13. Software reliability: Repetitive run experimentation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Skrivan, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A software experiment conducted with repetitive run sampling is reported. Independently generated input data was used to verify that interfailure times are very nearly exponentially distributed and to obtain good estimates of the failure rates of individual errors and demonstrate how widely they vary. This fact invalidates many of the popular software reliability models now in use. The log failure rate of interfailure time was nearly linear as a function of the number of errors corrected. A new model of software reliability is proposed that incorporates these observations.

  14. Lower Three Runs Instream Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    An Instream Flow Study was conducted to identify the minimum discharge from PAR Pond that will support a balanced biological fish community in Lower Three Runs. Hydraulic and habitat models of the Physical Habitat simulation System (PHABSIM), the major component of the US Fish and Wildlife Service`s Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) were applied. Following calibration of the Water Surface Profile (WSP)Model for three study reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to develop relationships between discharge and reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to development relationship between discharge and available habitat.

  15. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  16. The effect of a long-distance run on plantar pressure distribution during running.

    PubMed

    Willems, Tine Marieke; De Ridder, Roel; Roosen, Philip

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plantar pressure alterations after long-distance running. Prior to and after a 20 km run, force distribution underneath the feet of 52 participants was registered using Footscan(®) pressure plates while the participants ran shod at a constant self-selected pace. Peak force, mean force and impulse were registered underneath different zones of the foot. In addition, temporal data as total foot contact time, time of contact and end of contact were derived for these zones. Furthermore, a medio-lateral pressure distribution ratio was calculated in different phases of the roll-off. After the run, increases in the loading of the forefoot, midfoot and medial heel were noted and decreases in loading of the lateral toes. In the forefoot push off phase a more lateral pressure distribution was observed. The results of this study demonstrated plantar pressure deviations after long-distance running which could give additional information related to several running injuries. PMID:22153665

  17. GRETINA commissioning and engineering run resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, Thomas; Beausang, Con; Ross, Tim; Hughes, Richard; Gell, Kristen; Good, Erin

    2012-10-01

    GRETINA, the first stage in the full Gamma Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETA), consists of seven modules covering approximately 1 solid angle. Each module is made up of four large, highly-segmented germanium detectors capable of measuring the interaction points of individual gamma-rays. GRETINA has recently been assembled and commissioned in LBNL via a series of engineering and commissioning runs. Here we report on an analysis of data from the first engineering run (ER01) which was intended to probe the response of the data acquisition system to high multiplicity gamma-ray cascades. For this experiment the 122Sn(40Ar, 4n) reaction at a beam energy of 210 MeV was utilized to populate high spin states in 158Er. A variety of beam currents, targets and trigger conditions were utilized to test the acquisition. Here we report on the measured energy resolution, both with calibration and in-beam sources as well as a gamma-gamma coincidence analysis to confirm the known level scheme and the capability of the data acquisition system for high fold coincidence measurements. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy via grant numbers DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05-ER41379.

  18. The Run-by-Run Monte Carlo simulation for the ANTARES experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, L. A.; Margiotta, A.

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is the largest and longest-operated underwater neutrino telescope. Data acquisition conditions in a marine environment are not stable in time: biological and physical phenomena follow a seasonal evolution producing a periodical change of the rates registered at the neutrino telescope. Variations in the sea current velocity also affect the measured baseline value and the burst fraction on short time scales. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to charged particles in the proximity of the telescope should reproduce the conditions of the medium and of the acquisition setup as much as possible. An efficient way to account for their variability is to extract related information directly from the data runs. A Run-by-Run simulation procedure has been developed to follow the time evolution of data acquisition in ANTARES.

  19. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill

    PubMed Central

    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level

  20. The psychological benefits of recreational running: a field study.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Abrahám, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Running yields positive changes in affect, but the external validity of controlled studies has received little attention in the literature. In this inquiry, 50 recreational runners completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (Gauvin & Rejeskí, 1993) before and after a bout of self-planned running on an urban running path. Positive changes were seen in all four measures of affect (p < .001). Multivariate regressions were performed to examine the contribution of four exercise characteristics (i.e., duration of the current run, weekly running time, weekly running distance, and running experience) to the observed changes in affect. The results have revealed that exercise characteristics accounted for only 14-30% of the variance in the recreational runners' affect, in both directions. It is concluded that psychological benefits of recreational running may be linked to placebo (conditioning and/or expectancy) effects. PMID:22780910

  1. 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water Clean water essential for surgeries, hygiene, infection control, researchers say ... SUNDAY, July 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Clean running water is essential for hospital sanitation, but a new ...

  2. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  3. 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159695.html 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water Clean water essential for surgeries, ... finds a third of hospitals in the developing world don't have it. "Running water is something ...

  4. Data from the LIGO I Science Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, Albert

    2001-06-01

    The LIGO1 I Science Run is planned to begin in mid-2002. The characteristics of the data stream, data volumes, data products, and data availability are discussed. The data analysis activities will be undertaken by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC2). These activities include operating dedicated on-site pipelines at the LIGO observatories. In addition, a dedicated off-site facility for will be dedicated to melding data from different interferometer datastreams (both LIGO and eventually those of other international projects as part of a network-wide analysis effort). Exploratory university-based research on LIGO data will likely be supported in part by the nascent US computing grid. LIGO Laboratory and the LSC are working on grid computing efforts within the GriPhyN (Grid Physics Network) collaboration research activities. .

  5. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ = σH +Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ = 0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lemaïtre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0 /Λ0 ≲ 2.63 ×10-2 and 6.74 ×10-2 for Λ (t) coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  6. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  7. DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula. PMID:24211259

  8. Flood-plain delineation for Occoquan River, Wolf Run, Sandy Run, Elk Horn Run, Giles Run, Kanes Creek, Racoon Creek, and Thompson Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Occoquan River and its tributaries within Fairfax County and those streams on Mason Neck within Fairfax County tributary to the Potomac River. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Pathogenic regulation of running water macroinvertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, K.W.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The research during the second year focused on a large scale laboratory and field experiment on factors regulating growth and mortality of populations of the stream shredder caddisfly {ital Pycnopsyche guttifer}. This species, which is an obligate shredder feeding on leaf litter in woodland streams during its autumn-winter growth period, was selected because of the extensive pool of background data that are available, the ease with which its terrestrial eggs can be collected, and its suitability for laboratory culture and field observations. The species is univoltine and it is widely distributed in the eastern US, but did not occur naturally in the specific stream, Piney Run, MD, into which a population was introduced. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. [Comparative quality measurements part 1: run charts].

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Quality assessment may be based on data of quality indicators. There are two main approaches for comparative quality measurements: comparison of data of the same service at different points over time or comparison of data of different services at the same time. Risk adjustment and standardisation must be performed and random variation must be adequately taken into account. In Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory common cause and special cause variation are distinguished. Processes in statistical control are stable and predictable. If processes exhibit special cause variation the management should investigate the reasons for this and manage the causes. Run charts as simple tools to display and analyse data of processes and outcomes over time are discussed in this article. They can be used for self-comparison. The following two parts of this three-part series explain control charts and funnel plots. PMID:22661066

  11. Giving students the run of sprinting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-11-01

    A biomechanical study of sprinting is an interesting task for students who have a background in mechanics and calculus. These students can work with real data and do practical investigations similar to the way sports scientists do research. Student research activities are viable when the students are familiar with tools to collect and work with data from sensors and video recordings and with modeling tools for comparing simulation and experimental results. This article describes a multipurpose system, named COACH, that offers a versatile integrated set of tools for learning, doing, and teaching mathematics and science in a computer-based inquiry approach. Automated tracking of reference points and correction of perspective distortion in videos, state-of-the-art algorithms for data smoothing and numerical differentiation, and graphical system dynamics based modeling are some of the built-in techniques that are suitable for motion analysis. Their implementation and their application in student activities involving models of running are discussed.

  12. Modular Control of Treadmill vs Overground Running

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Motorized treadmills have been widely used in locomotion studies, although a debate remains concerning the extrapolation of results obtained from treadmill experiments to overground locomotion. Slight differences between treadmill (TRD) and overground running (OVG) kinematics and muscle activity have previously been reported. However, little is known about differences in the modular control of muscle activation in these two conditions. Therefore, we aimed at investigating differences between motor modules extracted from TRD and OVG by factorization of multi-muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals. Twelve healthy men ran on a treadmill and overground at their preferred speed while we recorded tibial acceleration and surface EMG from 11 ipsilateral lower limb muscles. We extracted motor modules representing relative weightings of synergistic muscle activations by non-negative matrix factorization from 20 consecutive gait cycles. Four motor modules were sufficient to accurately reconstruct the EMG signals in both TRD and OVG (average reconstruction quality = 92±3%). Furthermore, a good reconstruction quality (80±7%) was obtained also when muscle weightings of one condition (either OVG or TRD) were used to reconstruct the EMG data from the other condition. The peak amplitudes of activation signals showed a similar timing (pattern) across conditions. The magnitude of peak activation for the module related to initial contact was significantly greater for OVG, whereas peak activation for modules related to leg swing and preparation to landing were greater for TRD. We conclude that TRD and OVG share similar muscle weightings throughout motion. In addition, modular control for TRD and OVG is achieved with minimal temporal adjustments, which were dependent on the phase of the running cycle. PMID:27064978

  13. Thermodynamical aspects of running vacuum models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Basilakos, Spyros; Solà, Joan

    2016-04-01

    The thermal history of a large class of running vacuum models in which the effective cosmological term is described by a truncated power series of the Hubble rate, whose dominant term is Λ (H) ∝ H^{n+2}, is discussed in detail. Specifically, by assuming that the ultrarelativistic particles produced by the vacuum decay emerge into space-time in such a way that its energy density ρ _r ∝ T4, the temperature evolution law and the increasing entropy function are analytically calculated. For the whole class of vacuum models explored here we find that the primeval value of the comoving radiation entropy density (associated to effectively massless particles) starts from zero and evolves extremely fast until reaching a maximum near the end of the vacuum decay phase, where it saturates. The late-time conservation of the radiation entropy during the adiabatic FRW phase also guarantees that the whole class of running vacuum models predicts the same correct value of the present day entropy, S0 ˜ 10^{87}-10^{88} (in natural units), independently of the initial conditions. In addition, by assuming Gibbons-Hawking temperature as an initial condition, we find that the ratio between the late-time and primordial vacuum energy densities is in agreement with naive estimates from quantum field theory, namely, ρ _{Λ 0}/ρ _{Λ I} ˜ 10^{-123}. Such results are independent on the power n and suggests that the observed Universe may evolve smoothly between two extreme, unstable, non-singular de Sitter phases.

  14. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  15. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  16. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  17. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  18. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  19. Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) Predicts Middle Distance Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners. Methods The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75–85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection. Results The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly

  20. Amputee Locomotion: Ground Reaction Forces During Submaximal Running With Running-Specific Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Baum, Brian S; Hobara, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shim, Jae Kun

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with lower extremity amputation must adapt the mechanical interactions between the feet and ground to account for musculoskeletal function loss. However, it is currently unknown how individuals with amputation modulate three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) when running. This study aimed to understand how running with running-specific prostheses influences three-dimensional support forces from the ground. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations and 8 control subjects ran overground at 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 m/s. Ten force plates measured GRFs at 1000 Hz. Peak and average GRFs and impulses in each plane were compared between limbs and groups. Prosthetic limbs generated reduced vertical impulses, braking forces and impulses, and mediolateral forces while generating similar propulsive impulses compared with intact and control limbs. Intact limbs generated greater peak and average vertical forces and average braking forces than control subjects' limbs. These data indicate that the nonamputated limb experiences elevated mechanical loading compared with prosthetic and control limbs. This may place individuals with amputation at greater risk of acute injury or joint degeneration in their intact limb. Individuals with amputation adapted to running-specific prosthesis force production limitations by generating longer periods of positive impulse thus producing propulsive impulses equivalent to intact and control limbs. PMID:26957365

  1. How Fast Can a Human Run? − Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as “Can the world’s fastest men become faster still?” The correct answer is likely “Yes.” We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911

  2. Running, Heart Disease, and the Ironic Death of Jim Fixx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plymire, Darcy C.

    2002-01-01

    Runner Jim Fixx wrote a book about running and died young of a heart attack while running. Fixx and other authors believed heart disease resulted from overcivilization and recommended running as a way of life and cure, advising readers to listen to their bodies instead of their doctors. Fixx's adherence to that philosophy explains his behavior…

  3. Distance Running Performance Tests in Children. What Do They Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cureton, Kirk J.

    1982-01-01

    Distance running tests evaluate a unique physical activity that is an important component of many other physical tasks. Factor analytic studies have clearly shown that distance running tests assess underlying abilities and physiological capacities that are different from those assessed by runs of shorter duration. (CJ)

  4. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  5. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with... manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle in a fixed position or by using the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the... prior to conduct of the CST. The test run consists of the wait time, vehicle preconditioning, and...

  7. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  8. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  9. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  10. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75753, December 2, 2011. For... run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance along...

  11. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with... manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle in a fixed position or by using the...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the... prior to conduct of the CST. The test run consists of the wait time, vehicle preconditioning, and...

  13. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-85 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-85 Dynamometer runs. (a) The vehicle shall be either driven... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes,...

  15. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with... manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle in a fixed position or by using the...

  16. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data...

  17. 40 CFR 1066.960 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedures for Motor Vehicles § 1066.960 Running loss test. Test vehicles for running loss emissions as described in 40 CFR 86.134-96. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Running loss test. 1066.960...

  18. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of...

  19. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  20. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-85 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-85 Dynamometer runs. (a) The vehicle shall be either driven... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  3. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the... prior to conduct of the CST. The test run consists of the wait time, vehicle preconditioning, and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dynamometer test runs. 86.537-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.537-90 Dynamometer test runs. (a) The vehicle... (505 seconds) is run. (b) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Place drive wheel...

  6. Predictors of Running Away from Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Running away is a frequent but little studied phenomenon among adolescents in foster care. Repeated running from care often leads to premature discharge and homelessness for youth. This article uses cumulative risk theory in the context of normative adolescent development to investigate predictors of running away from foster care. Results indicate…

  7. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  8. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more... option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  9. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  10. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  11. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test runs. 86.537-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.537-90 Dynamometer test runs. (a) The vehicle... (505 seconds) is run. (b) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Place drive wheel...

  12. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  13. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  14. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  15. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data...

  16. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with... manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle in a fixed position or by using the...

  17. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test runs. 86.537-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.537-90 Dynamometer test runs. (a) The vehicle... (505 seconds) is run. (b) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Place drive wheel...

  18. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of...

  19. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  20. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  1. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  2. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more... option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  4. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine dynamometer test run. 91.409... Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only adjustments in accordance with... manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle in a fixed position or by using the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the... prior to conduct of the CST. The test run consists of the wait time, vehicle preconditioning, and...

  6. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  7. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-2007 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test... start portion and one for the hot start portion. (c) If a dynamometer test run is determined to be...

  9. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-85 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-85 Dynamometer runs. (a) The vehicle shall be either driven... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes,...