Science.gov

Sample records for cuban waters 1997-2005

  1. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae) in Cuban waters.

    PubMed

    de León, Maria Estela; Martínez, Juana López; Cota, Daniel Lluch; Vázquez, Sergio Hernández; Rafael, Puga

    2005-01-01

    Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years) by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm) were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery), through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K) and the asymptotic length (Linfinity) of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year(-1) and values of Linfinity between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for Linfinity. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and Linfinity respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28. 1 degrees C and the largest Linfinity is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23,000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. PMID:17354457

  2. Electrochemical investigation of Mn4O4-cubane water-oxidizing clusters.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Robin; Bond, Alan M; Dismukes, G Charles; Swiegers, Gerhard F; Spiccia, Leone

    2009-08-14

    High valence states in manganese clusters are a key feature of the function of one of the most important catalysts found in nature, the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. We describe a detailed electrochemical investigation of two bio-inspired manganese-oxo complexes, [Mn(4)O(4)L(6)] (L = diphenylphosphinate (1) and bis(p-methoxyphenyl)phosphinate (2)), in solution, attached to an electrode surface and suspended within a Nafion film. These complexes contain a cubic [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) core stabilized by phosphinate ligands. They have previously been shown to be active and durable photocatalysts for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. A comparison of catalytic photocurrent generated by films deposited by two methods of electrode immobilization reveals that doping of the catalyst in Nafion results in higher photocurrent than was observed for a solid layer of cubane on an electrode surface. In dichloromethane solution, and under conditions of cyclic voltammetry, the one-electron oxidation processes 1/1(+) and 2/2(+) were found to be reversible and quasi-reversible, respectively. Some decomposition of 1(+) and 2(+) was detected on the longer timescale of bulk electrolysis. Both compounds also undergo a two-electron, chemically irreversible reduction in dichloromethane, with a mechanism that is dependent on scan rate and influenced by the presence of a proton donor. When immersed in aqueous electrolyte, the reduction process exhibits a limited level of chemical reversibility. These data provide insights into the catalytic operation of these molecules during photo-assisted electrolysis of water and highlight the importance of the strongly electron-donating ligand environment about the manganese ions in the ability of the cubanes to photocatalyze water oxidation at low overpotentials. PMID:19809676

  3. Cuban Roosters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The rooster is an important symbol in Cuban culture. It represents strength and power. It is considered a compliment for a male to be called a rooster. Jesus Rivera, a folk artist, who is best known for using Cuban symbolism in his ceramics and illustrations, visited the class described in this article. Senor Rivera described the culture of Cuba…

  4. Water oxidation catalysis upon evolution of molecular Co(III) cubanes in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Andrea; La Ganga, Giuseppina; Volpe, Andrea; Puntoriero, Fausto; Di Valentin, Marilena; Bonchio, Marcella; Natali, Mirco; Sartorel, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The increasing global energy demand has stimulated great recent efforts in investigating new solutions for artificial photosynthesis, a potential source of clean and renewable solar fuel. In particular, according to the generally accepted modular approach aimed at optimising separately the different compartments of the entire process, many studies have focused on the development of catalytic systems for water oxidation to oxygen. While in recent years there have been many reports on new catalytic systems, the mechanism and the active intermediates operating the catalysis have been less investigated. Well-defined, molecular catalysts, constituted by transition metals stabilised by a suitable ligand pool, could help in solving this aspect. However, in some cases molecular species have been shown to evolve to active metal oxides that constitute the other side of this catalysis dichotomy. In this paper, we address the evolution of tetracobalt(III) cubanes, stabilised by a pyridine/acetate ligand pool, to active species that perform water oxidation to oxygen. Primary evolution of the cubane in aqueous solution is likely initiated by removal of an acetate bridge, opening the coordination sphere of the cobalt centres. This cobalt derivative, where the pristine ligands still impact on the reactivity, shows enhanced electron transfer rates to Ru(bpy)3(3+) (hole scavenging) within a photocatalytic cycle with Ru(bpy)3(2+) as the photosensitiser and S2O8(2-) as the electron sink. A more accentuated evolution occurs under continuous irradiation, where Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy reveals the formation of Co(ii) intermediates, likely contributing to the catalytic process that evolves oxygen. All together, these results confirm the relevant effect of molecular species, in particular in fostering the rate of the electron transfer processes involved in light activated cycles, pivotal in the design of a photoactive device. PMID:26400662

  5. The effect of water hyacinths for wastewater treatment under Cuban climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Jenssen, P D

    2005-01-01

    The purification capacity of systems using floating aquatic plants depend on the climatic conditions under which they are used. This study from Cuban conditions evaluate the effects of the organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate and water depth on the purification capacity of water hyacinths, as well as the effect of some climatic variables on the kinetics of the treatment processes. The experimental system consisted of two consecutive tanks simulating a system of ponds in series. The water depths used were 0.5 m and 1.12 m. In the shallower system with shorter retention times and greater superficial organic loading higher removal efficiencies are obtained. With the data obtained, empirical relations were sought. From these correlations it is possible to determine the values for some parameters used in the design of aquatic treatment systems with water hyacinths. The results revealed a relationship between the purification capacity of the water hyacinth and its velocity of growth. The specific velocity of growth varied with the months of the year and was associated with the temperature and the solar radiation. A multiple correlation equation describing these relations was obtained. PMID:16114695

  6. Tracking the Development of China's Top Universities Using Scientometric Indicators, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Niancai

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews the developments of 9 Chinese top universities supported by "985 Project" during 1997-2005 based on the analysis of a series of scientometric indicators, including the total number of publications indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, the cumulated impact factor of publications, the…

  7. Cuban Studies Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. University Center for International Studies.

    This is the first issue of the Cuban Studies Newsletter, a biannual publication designed to provide comprehensive and timely communication among those interested in Cuban Studies. The purpose of the newsletter stated in a recommendation by the International Conference on Cuban Bibliography and Acquisitions, April, 1970, is to promote the scholarly…

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised. PMID:27498968

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Jun J.; Ohdachi, Satoshi D.; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M.; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L.; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised. PMID:27498968

  10. Cuban tektite revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C.

    1988-06-01

    Major-element and trace-element analyses were performed on the Cuban tectite, found about 20 years ago at Columbia University and classified by Garlick et al. (1971) as belonging to the North American tectite strewn field. The results indicate that the Cuban tektite is a North American tektite, but different from both bediasites and Georgia tektites, although with some similarities to bediasites. This tektite also has some similarities to the Barbados tektites, and, thus, may comprise its own distinct subgroup, probably related to the Barbados occurrence and belonging to a Caribbean substrewn field. It is concluded that the Cuban tektite really originated from Cuba. 32 references.

  11. Cubanes As Solid Propellant Ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunkle, Glen T.; Willer, Rodney L.

    1988-05-01

    Nine diesters of cubane 1,4-dicarboxylic acid were synthesized and evaluated as advanced propellant plasticizers. Three energetic cubyl ammonium salts of amino and 1,4-diamino cubane were synthesized as models for more highly substituted cubyl ammonium salt oxidizers. Methyl carbamates of amino cubanes have been successfully nitrated with 100% HNO3/(CH3C0)20. These nitrated carbamates are precursors to unsubstituted nitramino cubanes.

  12. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  13. A Cuban tektite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, G.D.; Naeser, C.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1971-01-01

    A large tektite from Cuba is classified with other North American tektites on the basis of its age. The major-element chemistry, oxygen isotopic composition, refractive index and density of the Cuban tektite are within the ranges exhibited by bediasites. ?? 1971.

  14. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Steece, Aaron; Lemann, Zachary K.; Lazare, Remy; Beck, James W.

    2016-01-01

    USA: LOUISIANA: St. Tammany Parish: on private property on Allen Road in Slidell (ca. 30.262°N, 89.741°W; WGS 84). 2 April 2013. Aaron Steece. Verified by Hardin Waddle. Florida Museum of Natural History (UF 177727, photo voucher). New parish record. This adult was found ca. 2 m high on a branch at the edge of a wooded area behind a house. It was photographed and released, as the species identity and significance was unknown. The origin of this individual is unknown. The homeowner stated that he bought nursery plants often, but checked them thoroughly as he put them indoors. Since this initial finding, the homeowner learned more about Cuban Treefrogs and searched for them on many occasions at this location for two years, but detected no additional Cuban Treefrogs.

  15. Managing environmental problems in Cuban karstic aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Leslie Molerio; Parise, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The Cuban archipelago hosts some of the most typical karst features in the Caribbean, and has very important and high-quality resources of karst water. Carbonate rocks cover about 70% of the country area, with a great variety of karst features, and outstanding exokarstic landforms such as the cone karst; in addition, many caves are regarded as cultural and historical sites. Protection of the karst hydric resources is therefore essential. In karst, the intrinsic vulnerability of the environment makes it highly susceptible to pollution, which may result in dramatic consequences for both the quality of karst water and the amount of water available. Many anthropogenic activities produce negative changes in the karst aquifers, in some cases with unrecoverable effects. In Cuba, five main sources of pollution to karst aquifers have been identified: sea water intrusion, agricultural practices, waste disposal, industrial activity, and mining and oil production. Due to the narrow and elongated configuration of the main island, wide portions of the territory are mostly affected by seawater intrusion problems, exacerbated by the concentration of both population and human activities in the largest towns located along, or very close to, the coasts. Seawater intrusion, however, is not the only source of pollution for Cuban karst aquifers. The other aforementioned sources are important, and may locally prevail (e.g. pollution resulting from sugar cane factories). Considerations on the management of karst aquifers and a brief description of the water quality monitoring system of Cuban inland waters are also provided.

  16. Distribution and abundance of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in Lake Erie, 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krieger, K.A.; Bur, M.T.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Barton, D.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia limbata and H. rigida) recolonized sediments of the western basin of Lake Erie in the 1990s following decades of pollution abatement. We predicted that Hexageniawould also disperse eastward or expand from existing localized populations and colonize large regions of the other basins. We sampled zoobenthos in parts of the western and central basins yearly from 1997–2005, along the north shore of the eastern basin in 2001–2002, and throughout the lake in 2004. In the island area of the western basin, Hexagenia was present at densities ≤1,278 nymphs/m2and exhibited higher densities in odd years than even years. By contrast, Hexagenia became more widespread in the central basin from 1997–2000 at densities ≤48 nymphs/m2 but was mostly absent from 2001–2005. Nymphs were found along an eastern basin transect at densities ≤382/m2 in 2001 and 2002. During the 2004 lake-wide survey, Hexagenia was found at 63 of 89 stations situated throughout the western basin (≤1,636 nymphs/m2, mean = 195 nymphs/m2, SE = 32, N = 89) but at only 7 of 112 central basin stations, all near the western edge of the basin (≤708 nymphs/m2), and was not found in the eastern basin. Hexagenia was found at 2 of 62 stations (≤91 nymphs/m2) in harbors, marinas, and tributaries along the south shore of the central basin in 2005. Oxygen depletion at the sediment-water interface and cool temperatures in the hypolimnion are probably the primary factors preventing successful establishment throughout much of the central basin. Hexagenia can be a useful indicator of lake quality where its distribution and abundance are limited by anthropogenic causes.

  17. Water Splitting Processes on Mn4O4 and CaMn3O4 Model Cubane Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongkeun; Aikens, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy has been frequently investigated to develop clean energy sources in the last few decades. Metal oxide complexes show high potential for the catalytic conversion process, but the biochemical process in green plants has better efficiency than artificial photocatalysts consisting of metal oxides. In this work, the water splitting process is theoretically investigated using two synthetic model complexes whose structures are similar to the manganese-based oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II. Model A consists of four Mn atoms, and model B consists of three Mn atoms and a Ca atom in the core. Model A shows a better ability for water splitting than model B when comparing the highest reaction energy. The highest reaction energies are 2.56 and 2.99 eV for models A and B, respectively. In model B, the first oxidation in the water splitting process is exothermic, which is different from model A. In both models, the molecular oxygen generation step is endothermic by about 1.0-2.5 eV. PMID:26258478

  18. Cuban-Americans in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonen, Norma, Comp.

    A statistical profile of Cuban Americans was provided by the 1980 Census and by a comprehensive telephone survey. Major findings include the following: (1) In most Cuban American households, Spanish is the language most spoken, but 85 percent of the Cuban American surveyed felt that residents of the United States should use English in their public…

  19. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  20. Cuban internationalism - an alternative form of globalization.

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria; Melluish, Steve; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010. PMID:25343637

  1. A Demographic Profile of Cuban Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.

    This study offers a demographic profile of the U.S. Cuban population, using data from the decennial census and current population surveys. Part one estimates the number of Cuban Americans and describes their geographic distribution nationwide. Part two compares the socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, educational attainment, income,…

  2. Synthesis of cubane based energetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.

    1993-02-01

    The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drove this program for the synthesis of super energetic materials. Our original impetus was a program based solely on the energetic properties of cubane. However, in the course of our studies here and in a parallel ONR sponsored program, we discovered and developed an alternative oxidizer to cubyl based systems, the dinitramide salts. We will report on our developments in the synthesis of new oxidizers based on cubane and dinitramide. In this research, we developed new methods for the functionalization of the cubane nucleus and synthesized new energetic cubanes. We developed several new routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group. Our work on the preparation of the dinitramide group led to the synthesis of the dinitramide ion, and as a consequence ammonium dinitramide. We have in turn used this synthesis to prepare cubane ammonium dinitramide salts. We synthesized cubane-1,4bis-(ammonium dinitramide) and cubane1,2,4,7-tetrakis(ammonium dinitramide) as well as several other dinitramide salts.

  3. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa S.; Patel, Dhaval; Rodríguez Leyva, Delfin; Khan, Bobby V.; Sperling, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba. PMID:22203917

  4. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  5. Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.

    PubMed

    Hughes, N S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children. PMID:12319588

  6. Ser Cubano (To Be Cuban): The Evolution of Cuban-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generations of Cuban and Cuban American writers who have borne witness, in Spanish and now in English, to the oppression of Castro's regime, the pain of leaving Cuba, and the family conflicts occurring in the new land. Highlights the tragic figure of Reinaldo Arenas, a homosexual writer, anti-Castro activist, and immigrant. (GR)

  7. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  8. Cubans in South Florida: A Social Science Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Antonio; Moncarz, Raul

    1980-01-01

    Briefly describes the history of Cuban migration to the United States. Outlines the acculturation and the economic, educational, and other demographic characteristics of the Cuban American population in South Florida. (ST)

  9. Evaluation and Identification of Policy Issues in the Cuban Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Guarione M., Ed.

    The research described in this report identifies the major health, education, and welfare-related needs of Cuban Americans as defined by directors of Cuban community service organizations and Cuban beneficiary populations in the selected urban areas of Miami/Dade County, Union City/West New York, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Data from…

  10. Cuban History and Culture, Social Studies: 6478.19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alchin, Don D.

    In this elective quinmester course clustering around behavioral studies, Junior high students study Cuban heritage; Cuban events leading up to the migration to the U.S.; and Cuban-American population as it now exists in the U.S., including refugee problems, contributions, and the future. The focus is upon helping teachers and students understand…

  11. 31 CFR 515.544 - Gifts of Cuban origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of Cuban origin goods. 515.544..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.544 Gifts of Cuban origin goods. (a) Except as stated in paragraph (b) of this section, specific licenses are not issued for the importation of Cuban-origin...

  12. Study of the Cuban fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M. O. C.; Córdoba, D.

    2010-03-01

    With the help of aerial photographs, satellite photographs and imageries, contour maps, geological and geomorphological information (personal correspondence and unpublished works), geophysical regional data, and field work, it has been possible to map a network of fractures, alignments, and faults in 26 areas (distinguishing them quantitatively and hierarchically). Links with known regional structures were also studied. Interpretation of the linear relief elements confirms the very different density, dimensions, strikes, and function of the fracturation and also, from a microtectonic perspective, explains the activity of some active faults better. It has confirmed some previous results and improved on others; for example, the Oriente fault which is the most active in Cuba with two segments (Western: Cabo Cruz—Santiago de Cuba; Eastern: Santiago de Cuba—Punta de Maisí, the Western fault being the most active); the Nortecubana fault, forming the northern limit of the Cuban megablock, and divided into three segments; and the Cauto—Nipe fault, forming the limit of the neotectonic units, presenting two segments with three seismoactive knots.

  13. Polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives from Cuban propolis.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ingrid Márquez; Fernandez, Mercedes Campo; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-06-01

    Three new polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives, propolones B-D (5-7), together with garcinielliptone I (8) and hyperibone B (9), were isolated from Cuban propolis. All the structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and computer-generated molecular modeling. PMID:15974622

  14. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multi-ethnic students with information and teaching resources on Cubans in order to enhance the multicultural awareness of the total school population. The guide was designed for use in the Detroit, Michigan public schools. An historical overview of Cuba from pre-Columbian times to the present outlines Cuba's…

  15. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  16. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda K.; McAuliffe, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)

  17. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    PubMed

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's) PMID:12279297

  18. Systematic Enumeration and Symmetries of Cubane Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shinsaku

    2016-06-01

    The feasibilities of Fujita's unit-subduced-cycle-index (USCI) approach, Fujita's proligand method, and Fujita's stereoisogram approach have been demonstrated by applying them to cubane derivatives as probes. They provide us with a new set of theoretical foundations for comprehensive investigation of geometric and stereoisomeric features of stereochemistry. The new set of theoretical foundations is based on mathematical formulations so as to explore mathematical stereochemistry as a new interdisciplinary field of stereochemistry. PMID:27027497

  19. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  20. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  1. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  2. 31 CFR 515.557 - Accounts of Cuban partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban partnerships. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.557 Accounts of Cuban partnerships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking partnerships established under the laws of Cuba as follows: (a) Where all of...

  3. 31 CFR 515.557 - Accounts of Cuban partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban partnerships. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.557 Accounts of Cuban partnerships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking partnerships established under the laws of Cuba as follows: (a) Where all of...

  4. Race, Wages, and Assimilation among Cuban Immigrants. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavodny, Madeline

    This study uses data from the 1980 and 1990 Census and the 1994-2000 Current Population Survey to examine the determinants of earnings among male Cuban immigrants in the United States by race. Nonwhite Cuban immigrants earn about 15 percent less than Whites, on average. Much of the racial wage gap is due to differences in educational attainment,…

  5. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  6. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  7. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  8. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Final /s/ in Miami Cuban Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation of syllable- and word-final /s/ among two generations of Cubans in Miami, Florida (USA): older, early exile immigrants who arrived in Miami as adults in the 1960s and 1970s, and young Miami-born Cubans whose maternal and paternal grandparents immigrated to Miami from Cuba prior to 1980. Since sibilant weakening is…

  9. The Political Economy of Cubans in South Florida. A Cuban Studies Project Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Antonio; Moncarz, Raul

    This paper presents and analyzes data on the experience of the Cuban community in South Florida, from its inception as a reaction to the revolution of 1959 through its gradual accommodation to the reality of permanent exile and its altered view of its own future. First, the paper examines the changing demographics of South Florida and how these…

  10. The 1980 Cuban Refugees: Some of Their Initial Attitudes Toward Their Future in a New Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lega, Leonor I.

    1983-01-01

    This report, based on data collected from 166 Cuban refugees who registered with the International Rescue Committee, Catholic Charities, or Church World Service, explores refugees' (1) hopes and fears upon arrival, (2) expectations about how they would be received by Cubans and non-Cubans, (3) appraisal of the Cuban situation before departure, and…

  11. Accomplishments in Cuban Physics (up to 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.; Trallero-Giner, Carlos

    In late October 1995, one of the authors (CRH) paid a personal visit to Cuba. While there, he took advantage of a longstanding invitation to present a research seminar to the Cuban Physics Society. With respect to the development of physics in Cuba, curiosity led to subsequent visits to various centers including the University of Havana (UH), the Pedagogical Institute, the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), the Institute for Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics (ICIMAF), the Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE), the Neuroscience Center, and the National Center for Scientific Research (CNIC).

  12. Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

  13. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  14. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  15. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  16. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  17. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  18. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    PubMed

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them. PMID:22073440

  19. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  20. Strong Earthquake Modelling in Cuban Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Toiran, B.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Vaccari, F.

    2013-05-01

    A seismic hazard map for the Cuban territory was obtained by using waveforms modelling methods. The input data set consists of seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms, seismic wave velocity models and earthquake catalogue. Several maps were generated with the predominant periods corresponding to the maximum displacement (Dmax) and maximum velocity (Vmax) as well as the design ground acceleration (DGA). In order to get this result they were computed thousand of synthetic seismograms with the knowledge of the physical processes of earthquake generation, the levels of seismicity and wave propagation in anelastic media. The synthetic seismograms were generated at 1 Hz of frequency at a regular grid of 0.2 x 0.2 degree with the modal summation technique. Considering the strongest earthquake in the catalogue (7.3 magnitude Richter) the DGA maximum amplitudes are between 0.30g and 0.45g in the Santiago de Cuba region. If the maximum possible earthquake (8.0 magnitude Richter) is considered, the DGA can range between 0.6g and 0.9g in the same zone. For the first case (magnitude 7.3) the maximum velocities are between 60 - 84 cm/sec at periods between 1- 3 seconds and the maximum displacements are between 15 - 28 cm at periods between 4 - 5 seconds.

  1. The Marital Stability of Cubans in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    Found that: (1) male refugees married in Cuba and females married in the U.S. after the revolution have stable marriages; and (2) nearness of residence to culture of origin or to kin and extent of assimilation are insignificant predictors of marital instability. Notes the relative modernity of Cuban marriages in the U.S. (Author/GC)

  2. Sociocultural Adaptations among Cuban Emigre Women in Miami, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Diana H.

    This paper reports on Cuban women living in Miami (Florida) and their adaptation to life in exile. It includes an examination of health care practices, particularly the practice of self-diagnosis and self-prescription of minor tranquilizers as coping behaviors for dealing with acculturation and culture shock. Data were gathered from questionnaires…

  3. When Fear Ruled: Rethinking the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an insightful look at the administrative and negotiative processes that accompanied the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Although John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev both worked to avoid nuclear war, the stress and exhaustion of the negotiating process created serious blunders. Eventually both sides backed away from nuclear annihilation. (MJP)

  4. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  5. Ecological Structural Family Therapy with Cuban Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.; And Others

    Research and clinical practice at the Spanish Family Guidance Clinic (Miami, Florida) has suggested that ecological structural family therapy might be a treatment of choice for Cuban immigrants. Such a treatment approach was found to be consistent with the values of this population and was particularly helpful in addressing special problems…

  6. The Cuban immigration of 1980: a special mental health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, L B; Silver, B J; Silverman, M M; Prescott, W; del Pollard, L

    1985-01-01

    The 124,769 Cubans who entered the United States from Cuba in a boatlift in 1980 included a small minority of people who needed mental health care. Some had been taken involuntarily from psychiatric hospitals, mental retardation facilities, jails, and prisons. The National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Service (PHS), was responsible for mental health screening, evaluation, and treatment of the Cuban Entrants. Bilingual psychiatrists and psychologists found that many Entrants given preliminary evaluations showed evidence of transient situational stress reactions, not psychiatric illnesses. Entrants who had not yet been sponsored were consolidated into one facility in October 1980, and about 100 of those with severe problems were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service-PHS evaluation facility in Washington, DC. Between March 1, 1981, and March 1, 1982, a total of 3,035 Entrants were evaluated at both facilities. Among the 1,307 persons who presented symptoms, there was a primary diagnosis of personality disorders for 26 percent, schizophrenic disorders for 15 percent, adjustment disorders for 14.5 percent, mental retardation for 8.6 percent, chronic alcohol abuse for 8.6 percent, and major depression for 7.2 percent. Only 459 Cubans with symptoms were found to be in need of further psychiatric care. As of October 1984, many Entrants with psychiatric illnesses remained under inpatient or community-based halfway house psychiatric care as a direct Federal responsibility. A PHS program for further placement in community-based facilities is underway. PMID:3918322

  7. Recovery of native treefrogs after removal of nonindigenous Cuban Treefrogs, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.G.; Waddle, J.H.; Miller, M.W.; Crockett, M.E.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Florida is home to several introduced animal species, especially in the southern portion of the state. Most introduced species are restricted to the urban and suburban areas along the coasts, but some species, like the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis), are locally abundant in natural protected areas. Although Cuban Treefrogs are known predators of native treefrog species as both adults and larvae, no study has demonstrated a negative effect of Cuban Treefrogs on native treefrog survival, abundance, or occupancy rate. We monitored survival, capture probability, abundance, and proportion of sites occupied by Cuban Treefrogs and two native species, Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella), at four sites in Everglades National Park in southern Florida with the use of capture-mark-recapture techniques. After at least 5 mo of monitoring all species at each site we began removing every Cuban Treefrog captured. We continued to estimate survival, abundance, and occupancy rates of native treefrogs for 1 yr after the commencement of Cuban Treefrog removal. Mark-recapture models that included the effect of Cuban Treefrog removal on native treefrog survival did not have considerable Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) weight, although capture rates of native species were generally very low prior to Cuban Treefrog removal. Estimated abundance of native treefrogs did increase after commencement of Cuban Treefrog removal, but also varied with the season of the year. The best models of native treefrog occupancy included a Cuban Treefrog removal effect at sites with high initial densities of Cuban Treefrogs. This study demonstrates that an introduced predator can have population-level effects on similar native species. ?? 2011 The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  8. SEISMIC STRUCTURE AND STRATIGRAPHY OF NORTHERN EDGE OF BAHAMAN-CUBAN COLLISION ZONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, M.M.; Martin, R.G.; Bock, W.D.; Sylwester, R.E.; Bowles, R.M.; Taylor, D.; Coward, E.L.; Dodd, J.E.; Gilbert, L.

    1985-01-01

    Common-depth-point (CDP) seismic reflection data in the southwestern Bahamas reveal the northern edge of the tectonized zone that resulted from the late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic collision of Cuba and the Bahamas. Two seismic facies are present. A 10-km broad anticline occurs at the south end of Santaren Channel. Platform carbonates in the core of this structure overlie Early Cretaceous and older basinal carbonate deposits and are onlapped by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic basinal facies. The structure is inferred to be a hanging-wall anticline at the northern limit of the Cuban fold-thrust belt formed in the Late Cretaceous. A deeper water embayment extended northward into the Straits of Florida, around northern Cay Sal Bank, and back into Santaren Channel during the Early Cretaceous.

  9. Shapers of Their Destiny: A History of the Education of Cuban Children in the United States since 1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant presence of Cuban children in the U.S. public schools since the late 1950s, no historical interpretation of their educational experiences exists. This essay is the first to develop such an interpretation. It sketches, in broad strokes, the role that Cuban exiles and Cuban Americans played in shaping their children's…

  10. 31 CFR 515.521 - U.S. assets of certain Cuban corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. assets of certain Cuban... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.521 U.S. assets of certain...

  11. Adult School for Cuban Refugees, Fort Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania. Final Report, August 25-November 28, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit 16, Lewisburg, PA.

    The Adult School for Cuban Refugees, operated by the Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit in 1980, supplied services to approximately 1,200 Cuban refugees in the six weeks of its operation at Fort Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania. The program offered basic oral English classes to adults ranging in age from 18 to 81 years. The classes were conducted…

  12. Field-Independence: A Function of Sex and Socialization in Cuban and American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britain, Susan D.; Abad, Marcy

    The relationship between field-dependence and cultural biases towards control and discipline practices was explored. It was hypothesized that the strict control practices described for the Cuban culture would foster greater field-dependence in their adolescents than would the practice of a U. S. born group. Seventy-two Cuban and U. S. born…

  13. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  14. The Cuban Vocational Education and Training System and Its Current Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Stefan; Penton, Felipe A. Hernandez; Marin, Anna Lidia Beltran; Romero, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to inform about the Cuban Vocational Education and Training System. Based on the analyse of different studies, on expert interviews and on field experiences the authors give a clear overview of the Cuban VET-System. This description is embedded in the presentation of the general education system in Cuba and in a…

  15. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  16. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  17. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  18. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  19. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  20. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities. 515.410 Section 515.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  1. [Lethal effect of Cuban Myrtaceae on Aedes aegypti (Diptera Cuilicidae)].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Lucita; Navarro, Agustín; Tacoronte, Juan E; Leyva, Maureen; Marquetti, María C

    2003-01-01

    The biological activity of the essential foliar oils from 2 Cuban endemic Myrtaceae: Eugenia melanadenia and Psidium rotundatum on A. aegypti larvae was evaluated for the first time at the laboratory level. The probit-log analysis of the results showed the larvicidal effect of both oils with values of CL50 = 0.0085% and CL95 = 0.0104% for E. melanadenia and CL50 = 0.0063% and CL95 = 0.0071% for O. rotundatum. Besides, the diagnostic concentration for both essential oils are given and the possible implications of these findings on field populations of A. aegypti are suggessted. PMID:15849965

  2. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  3. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  4. Changes in mortality among Cubans in the United States following an episode of unscreened migration.

    PubMed

    Rosenwaike, I; Shai, D

    1989-03-01

    This paper discusses the effect of the Mariel migration, a massive boatlift from Cuba to the United States in 1980, on mortality among Cuban Americans. Estimates of the Cuban-born population in the US were made for 1979 and 1981, the years prior to and following the boatlift. A comparison of age-adjusted rates showed that while general mortality did not change greatly (an increase of only about 5%), there was a 151% increase in homicide mortality. The increase in the homicide rate among Cubans in metropolitan Miami (Dade County), the major area of concentration, was 109%; it was still greater among Cubans elsewhere (240%). The demographic differences between the Mariel migrants who settled in Dade and those who were settled elsewhere are discussed. PMID:2722359

  5. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    PubMed

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations. PMID:12294979

  6. A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.

    PubMed Central

    González, R; Ballester, J M; Estrada, M; Lima, F; Martínez, G; Wade, M; Colombo, B; Vento, R

    1976-01-01

    Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population. PMID:1008061

  7. The distribution and supply of Cuban medical personnel in Third World countries.

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, P H; Budetti, P P

    1980-01-01

    More than 2,000 Cuban health care personnel are presently providing care in Third World nations; less than five years ago this number was fewer than 100. Some 1,500 of these are physicians, representing nearly 13% of Cuba's 12,000 health service physicians. Cuba dominates the health care delivery system of four small African nations and South Yemen, and Cubans are a major presence in a number of larger countries, such as Iraq. PMID:7386707

  8. Contemporary Cuban Physics Through Scientific Publications: An Insider’s View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Ernesto

    In a previous paper, the author reached some conclusions on the tendencies of the publications by Cuban physicists in international journals (Altshuler, Rev Cub Fís 22(2):173-182, 2005) and called for a systematic bibliometric study of the subject. Such a study has now been undertaken (a contribution to this volume entitled "Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics" by Werner Marx and Manuel Cardona, referred to in this paper as Marx and Cardona) and supports the main conclusions of the former work. The scenario of Cuban physics since 1995 has been conditioned by two main facts interacting in a nontrivial way: the serious material shortages affecting local physics laboratories and bibliographic resources, and an increase in the country's international collaboration. As a positive result, the total volume of Cuban publications in international physics journals has increased since 1995, perhaps reaching a peak around the year 2000, while the number of citations of Cuban papers and the impact of the journals in which they were published have continued to increase since the mid-1990s. Theoretical work produced by physicists from a number of Cuban institutions in international collaborations strongly contribute to those numbers. In the last years, international publications suggest a `self-organized' opening of Cuban physics towards interdisciplinary subjects, which is increasing the `bibliometric visibility' of autochthonous experimental work.

  9. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81.

    PubMed Central

    Shai, D

    1991-01-01

    The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States. Two forms of cancer have been of particular concern in Cuba, cancer of the lung and cancer of the prostate, because of their relatively high death rates. The age-adjusted death rates for both of these cancers are lower among the Cuban-born in the United States than they are among Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Death rates for cancer of the cervix and cancer of the rectum among the Cuban-born in this country are also low relative to Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Stomach cancer mortality among Cuban-born men in the United States is lower than for men in Cuba or for white men in the United States, but Cuban-born women in this country have rates that are slightly higher than those of U.S white women. Mortality rates from colon cancer in both sexes and breast cancer among women are intermediate between the lower rates in Cuba and the higher rates among U.S. whites. Finally, the Cuban-born in the United States have higher death rates from cancer of the liver than do Cubans in Cuba or whites in the United States.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1899942

  10. Body type and performance of elite cuban baseball players.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Ríos, Andrés; Echevarría, Ivis; Martínez, Miriam; Miñoso, Julio; Rodríguez, Dialvis

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Appropriate stature and adequate somatotype are not the only attributes determining athletic performance, but they are important prerequisites for sports participation and success. However, there is scant literature on baseball players' kinanthropometric profiles and their association with performance. Given that Cuban baseball players have been among the world's top performers in recent decades, characterization of their morphological features linked to their performance may contribute to developing the evidence base in this area. Objective Describe the kinanthropometric profile related to sports performance of elite Cuban baseball players, classified by playing position. Methods Body composition, somatotype, proportionality, and performance were measured in 100 elite baseball players grouped by playing position and performance. Data from the 2002-2003 baseball season was gathered for players participating in the 43rd Cuban National Baseball Series (November 2003-May 2004). Slugging percentage (SLG) was used to measure performance of all players except pitchers, whose performance was measured as end-of-season win-loss record. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for anthropometric and performance results, presented in tables for comparison. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were applied to determine magnitudes of difference between the variables studied, as well as statistical significance of the differences established (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01). Results Performance and body type varied by playing position, and statistically significant differences were found in performance, body composition and somatotype variables between some positions. No significant differences in proportionality were found. First basemen and outfielders (center, left, and right fielders) were the best offensive players with the highest mean SLG, body weight and muscle mass values. Infielders (second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen) had the lowest mean body weight and

  11. Risk factors for lead poisoning among Cuban refugee children.

    PubMed Central

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Pekovic, Vukosava; Santana, Juan Carlos; Zhang, Guoyan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore whether parental activities such as repairing cars, welding, and rebuilding car batteries are risk factors for lead poisoning among Cuban refugee children in Miami-Dade County. METHODS: The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 479 children aged 12-83 months who had lived in Cuba during the six months prior to immigrating to the U.S. Lead levels were obtained, and parents provided information on demographics, home/neighborhood environment in Cuba prior to immigration, family/occupational factors prior to immigration, and child behavior factors. RESULTS: Of 479 children, 30 (6.3%) had elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs), defined as > or = 10 microg/dL, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level. In multivariate analysis, racial/ethnic identification other than white, living in a home built after 1979, car repair in the home or yard, eating paint chips, and male sex were independently associated with EBLL. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for lead poisoning among immigrant children may differ from those among U.S.-born children. Screening of immigrant children who may have been exposed in their country of origin and education of immigrant parents about lead exposure hazards associated with activities such as car repair should be considered in the design of lead poisoning prevention and control programs. PMID:15842120

  12. 3 CFR - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 31, 2013 Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban...

  13. 78 FR 9573 - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, January 31, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-03110 Filed 2-7-13; 11:15 am... III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 Memorandum for the Secretary... the authority to suspend the provisions of title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic...

  14. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. Objective The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Methods Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Results Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. Conclusions INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology

  16. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  17. Hydroxide-free cubane-shaped tetranuclear [Ln4] complexes.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Dey, Atanu; Biswas, Sourav; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-04-01

    The reaction of the lanthanide(III) chloride salts [Gd(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III)] with a new chelating, flexible, and sterically unencumbered multisite coordinating compartmental Schiff-base ligand (E)-2-((6-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-2-yl)methyleneamino)phenol (LH2) and pivalic acid (PivH) in the presence of triethylamine (Et3N) affords a series of tetranuclear Ln(III) coordination compounds, [Ln4(L)4(μ2-η(1)η(1)Piv)4]·xH2O·yCH3OH (1, Ln = Gd(III), x = 3, y = 6; 2, Ln = Tb(III), x = 6, y = 2; 3, Ln = Dy(III), x = 4, y = 6). X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the molecular structure contains a distorted cubane-like [Ln4(μ3-OR)4](+8) core, which is formed by the concerted coordination action of four dianionic L(2-) Schiff-base ligands. Each lanthanide ion is eight-coordinated (2N, 6O) to form a distorted-triangular dodecahedral geometry. Alternating current susceptibility measurements of complex 3 reveal frequency- and temperature-dependent two-step out-of-phase signals under zero direct current (dc) field, which is characteristic of single-molecule magnet behavior. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic data under an applied dc field of 1000 Oe to fully or partly suppress the quantum tunneling of magnetization relaxation process affords the anisotropic barriers and pre-exponential factors: Δ/kB = 73(2) K, τ0 = 4.4 × 10(-8) s; Δ/kB = 47.2(9) K, τ0 = 5.0 × 10(-7) s for the slow and fast relaxations, respectively. PMID:24673300

  18. Anglo-American and Cuban-American Teachers' Perception of Elementary School Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Arthur D.

    The attitudes of Cuban- and Anglo-American elementary school teachers concerning boys and girls were compared. It appears to be generally accepted in Anglo-American culture that males are considered hostile and aggressive in school situations, while females are considered passive and conforming. Conversely, in the Latin American cultures, the…

  19. Life Enhancement Counseling: A Psychosocial Model of Services for Cuban Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    The Life Enhancement Counseling Model was developed specifically for the treatment of the problems of meaninglessness and purposelessness among depressed Cuban elders. The model is based on psychosocial development and ecological theoretical orientations. A life review approach is used to help the depressed individuals complete unfinished business…

  20. 75 FR 10997 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations; Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Sudanese Sanctions Regulations and the Iranian Transactions Regulations to authorize the exportation of certain services and software incident to the exchange of personal communications over the Internet. Similarly, OFAC is amending the Cuban Assets Control Regulations to authorize the exportation of......

  1. The Cuban Model for Higher Education of Older Adults: Generativity, Social Commitment, and Collaborative Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuni, José Alberto; Urbano, Claudio Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The present work is an approach to study the "Cuban model" for educating the elderly, and its aim is to describe the main features of the experience developed by this country. The University of the Third Age is more than three decades old in Latin America, but none of the countries in the region can show a state educational policy…

  2. Palabras de origen chino en el habla cubana (Words of Chinese Origin in Cuban Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Beatriz

    1979-01-01

    Presents a historical analysis of the Chinese in Cuba and examines the influence of the Chinese language on Spanish. Examples are given of Chinese words used in Cuba today and it is concluded that they have made a considerable contribution to Cuban Spanish. (NCR)

  3. Insulating an Ideology: The Enclave Effect on South Florida's Cuban Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Chris; Grenier, Guillermo J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Cuban Americans embrace a distinctive anti-Castro ideology. Although this ideology supports the embargo against Cuba--purportedly to bring about the Castro regime's compliance or collapse--the real objectives may be more symbolic than practical. Ultimately, the institutional completeness provided by the enclave in South Florida insulates and…

  4. Professional Adaptation of the Cuban Electrical Engineer in the U. S., 1959-69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncarz, Raul

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the re-adaptation of education and training brought to the U.S. by Cuban electrical engineers in an effort to discover which personal and occupational characteristics provided better adjustment to the new environment. (Author/PR)

  5. Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Susan; Barberia, Lorena

    2002-01-01

    Investigated differences in views and involvements between two cohorts of first generation Cuban-American immigrants. Interviews with immigrants indicated that the first wave left between 1959-1979 mainly for political reasons and publicly opposes travel to Cuba. The second wave immigrated largely for economic reasons and is enmeshed in…

  6. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  7. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  8. Aging and Generational Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to describe life-course patterns of alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans residing in mainland United States. Found age differences in patterns of consumption among Mexican American and Puerto Rican males that reflect aging effects. Found…

  9. 76 FR 31011 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Cuban Remittance Affidavit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Cuban Remittance Affidavit AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The...)). Currently, the Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') within the Department of the Treasury...

  10. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government hate Cuba?" He…

  11. Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7: A Cuban Case of Engineering Physics and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal Mirabal, Carlos A.

    The Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7 started in December 1987, commissioned by the [then] Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, who—concerned about introducing technological advancement into the Cuban health [system]—had for some months taken an interest in the possibility of building magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment for medical diagnosis in Cuba (Zito M, Argüelles MM et al, Y sin embargo-: ciencia: hablan 30 investigadores cubanos. Editoria April, Habana, pp 56-66, 1999; Cabal, Biofísica Médica. In: Fidel Castro Dìas-Balart (eds) Cuba. Amanecer del Tercer Milenio. Ciencia, Sociedad y Tecnología: Biofísica Médica. Debate Editorial, Madrid, pp 31-48, 2002). Many of the companies producing MRI equipment were unable to deliver this technology to Cuba due to the bloqueo, the United States embargo against Cuba. Those who were later to advance the project's progress in scientific technology initially regarded the implementation of such a project in a developing country as unfeasible due to its complexity. But Fidel's belief and confidence and in turn the Cuban scientists' commitment to him and to Cuban science proved to be an undeniable factors for its success.

  12. Demographic Characteristics of Pre-Mariel Cubans Living in the United States: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.; Rivero, Manuel

    This paper describes and analyzes the demographic characteristics of the Pre-Mariel Cuban American population living in the United States as presented in the 1980 U.S. Census of the Population. Information is not provided for the Mariel entrants, who began arriving from Cuba on April 21, 1980, because the data were derived from a one-in-a-thousand…

  13. Testing the Effects of Collectively Expected Durations of Migration: The Naturalization of Mexicans and Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Benigno E.; Saenz, Rogelio

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether Mexican foreign-born immigrants who immigrated to the United States for economic reasons naturalized less often than Cubans who immigrated for political reasons. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Latino Sample, indicated that while more Mexicans plan to apply or have applied for naturalization, proportionately more…

  14. Herbert L. Matthews and the Cuban Story. Journalism Monographs No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    Herbert L. Matthews, a veteran journalist for the "New York Times," traveled to Cuba in 1957 to interview Fidel Castro, then a revolutionary seeking the overthrow of the Batista regime. This monograph considers the impact of Matthews' newspaper articles about those interviews and of his subsequent articles about the Cuban situation and develops a…

  15. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  16. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  17. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four…

  18. Spread of Cuban Club-rush [Oxycaryum cubense]in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla, Cuban club-rush, is an invasive aquatic weed that is spreading northward in the southeastern United States. It is reported for the first time from Mississippi and from significantly farther northward in Alabama than previously known. Oxycaryum cubense dis...

  19. Structure and Spontaneity: Pedagogical Tensions in the Construction of a Simulation of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a 5-day simulation workshop on the Cuban Missile Crisis developed for 60 secondary school students participating in the Indiana University summer gifted and talented program. Uses role playing and game situations to teach critical thinking. Finds these techniques effective in providing a sense of power and competence. (NL)

  20. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  1. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  2. El Habla Cubana en las Estampas de Eladio Secades: Caudal de Cubanismos, Dichos y Frases Populares (Cuban Speech in the Writings of Eladio Secades: A Wealth of Cubanisms, Proverbs, and Popular Idioms)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lama, Sonia

    1977-01-01

    This article presents a glossary of popular expressions, slang and Cubanisms found in the writing of Eladio Secades. The words and phrases are defined in standard Spanish and translated into English. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  3. "All Cubans are doctors!" news coverage of health and bioexceptionalism in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-10-01

    In a multi-country study of media coverage of health, professionals often deem reporters as only interested in selling newspapers and criticizing physicians. Since the health system and the media are controlled by the socialist state, Cuba provides an interesting test case. Health, the key symbol of the Cuban revolution, is constantly characterized as unique. In this study I asked: will health media also exhibit bioexceptionalism-will coverage differ dramatically from that in capitalist countries? I compiled all health stories published in 2002 in three national newspapers, others appearing 2003-2011, plus television and radio coverage (totaling 961). I recorded interviews during fieldwork periods in 2005, 2006, and 2008 with health and media professionals and laypersons; ethnography focused on media and health institutions and lay reception. Cuban health news stories generally project knowledge as produced in biomedical institutions, circulated by media and health professionals, and received by laypersons, a model common in capitalist countries. A second type lauds "achievements of the revolution" but similarly subordinates lay participation. Nevertheless, avid reception of biomedical knowledge leads many Cubans to describe themselves as "frustrated doctors" who know as much as their physicians. Inviting charges of self-medication, lay reception most closely embodied bioexceptionalism. Stories projecting the quality, accessibility, and humanism of Cuban medicine gained importance as the post-Soviet "Special Period" catalyzed shortages of medications and services and greater inequality; nevertheless, the frustrated citizen-consumers described by researchers do not figure in health coverage or lay reception. Media constructions of laypersons as passive recipients of professional knowledge contradict appeals for popular participation and reveal how political ideologies and health policies often fail to match the way that media coverage differentially projects

  4. Prendas-Ngangas-Enquisos: turbulence and the influence of the dead in Cuban-Kongo material culture.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Todd Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Cuban-Kongo praise of the dead in Havana turns insistently around complex agglomerations of materials called "prendas,"ngangas," and "enquisos." This article addresses the ontological status of "prendas-ngangas-enquisos," which practitioners of Cuban-Kongo affliction practices care for as entities that determine the very possibility of their healing and harming craft. Cuban-Kongo societies of affliction, in Havana collectively referred to as "Palo," stake their claim to influence others in and through these entities. In this essay I seek to position the influence generated in prendas-ngangas-enquisos as a problem for Euro-American materialism, to be addressed not through symbolic or representational solutions but, rather, by refocusing the problem itself via alternate distributions of its epistemological, historical, and ethnographic elements. Contextualized within ethnographic description, I first propose that prendas-ngangas-enquisos do not conform to dialectical logic, and should thus be positioned conceptually as something other than "objects" or "fetishes." From there, I consider Creole turns on the term prenda and explore scholarly accounts of 19th-century Cuban slavery and manumission, which I place alongside what is known about pawn slavery among BaKongo people prior to and during the Atlantic slave trade. Having established a basic series of conceptual and historiographic coordinates, I then suggest ethnographically how prendas-ngangas-enquisos come to command others, thereby guaranteeing Cuban-Kongo healing and harming sovereignty in Cuba today. PMID:20662145

  5. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. n., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae, Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico. PMID:22171172

  6. A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Samuels, Deanne; Rojas, Patria; Khushal, Sarah R; Jean-Gilles, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13-19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels of unprotected sex, higher levels of sex while using drugs, and higher levels of drug/alcohol use in the three and six months prior to confinement. These differences may be explained by multiple factors, including differences in acculturation levels among the Cuban American adolescents, differences in health messages targeted at the two groups, and family mores and norms. PMID:19096724

  7. Cobalt Clusters with Cubane-Type Topologies Based on Trivacant Polyoxometalate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Giménez-Saiz, Carlos; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-01-19

    Four novel cobalt-substituted polyoxometalates having cobalt cores exhibiting cubane or dicubane topologies have been synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, electrochemistry, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray single-crystal analysis, and magnetic studies. The tetracobalt(II)-substituted polyoxometalate [Co4(OH)3(H2O)6(PW9O34)](4-) (1) consists of a trilacunary [B-α-PW9O34](9-) unit which accommodates a cubane-like {Co(II)4O4} core. In the heptacobalt(II,III)-containing polyoxometalates [Co7(OH)6(H2O)6(PW9O34)2](9-) (2), [Co7(OH)6(H2O)4(PW9O34)2]n(9n-) (3), and [Co7(OH)6(H2O)6(P2W15O56)2](15-) (4), dicubane-like {Co(II)6Co(III)O8} cores are encapsulated between two heptadentate [B-α-PW9O34](9-) (in 2 and 3) or [α-P2W15O56](15-) (in 4) ligands. While 1, 2, and 4 are discrete polyoxometalates, 3 exhibits a polymeric, chain-like structure that results from the condensation of polyoxoanions of type 2. The magnetic properties of these complexes have been fitted according to an anisotropic exchange model in the low-temperature regime and discussed on the basis of ferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions with angles Co-L-Co (L = O, OH) close to orthogonality and weakly antiferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions connected through central diamagnetic Co(3+) ion. Moreover, we will show the interest of the unique spin structures provided by these cubane and dicubane cobalt topologies in molecular spintronics (molecular spins addressed though an electric field) and quantum computing (spin qu-gates). PMID:26731303

  8. Cuban Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a review based on morphological and DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Plasencia, Edelquis Oliva; Maravi, Pavel F. Matos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban species of Calisto are reviewed based on the morphology of adult and immature stages, as well as DNA sequences of six genes (COI, EF1α, wingless, GAPDH, RpS5, CAD). A new species, Calisto occulta sp. n., is described from the northeastern Cuban mountains. Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935 and Calisto bruneri, Michener 1949 are revised and revalidated. A new status, the species level, is proposed for Calisto brochei, Torre 1973, Calisto muripetens, Bates 1939 and Calisto bradleyi, Munroe 1950. The immature stages of Calisto smintheus, Calisto brochei,and Calisto occulta are described for the first time, and those of Calisto herophile, Hübner 1823 are redescribed. Useful morphological characters for adults are the shape and conspicuousness of androconial patch, the number and relative size of white dots on underside of hindwing, the shape of aedeagus, the shape of digitiform projection of genitalia valve, the shape and relative size of tegumen and uncus, the relative size of female genitalia, the height of sterigmal ring dorsal crown of the latter, and the relative size of corpus bursae and ductus bursae. For the immature stages, the most important characters are the color pattern of head capsule, the number and width of longitudinal lines of body, in the larvae; and the color pattern and the absence or presence of dorsal ridges on the abdomen of pupae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Cuban Calisto species are quite robust and well-supported; however, conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets was detected in Calisto brochei, Calisto muripetens and to a lesser degree in Calisto bradleyi. PMID:22328857

  9. The functioning of the Cuban home hospitalization programme: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Pol; Barroso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Armando; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the last decades hospital at home (HaH) programmes have been set up in many, mainly European, countries. The Cuban HaH programme is not hospital driven, but the responsibility of the first line health services, and family doctors play a pivotal role. Methods We analyse the structure and functioning of the Cuban programme. In this descriptive study, information was prospectively collected on HaH patients admitted between July 1st 2001 and June 30th 2002. Results Admission rates varied between areas from 0.014 to 0.035 per person per year (ppy). The < 1y and 1–4y age groups had the highest admission rates. In one area the follow-up of pregnancy problems led to high 15–24y and 25–49y female admission rates (0,070 and 0,058 respectively). Respiratory affections were the most frequent reason for admission (32,6%), followed by early hospital discharge (16,0%) and gynaeco-obstetrical problems (10.8%). The median length of stay varied from 5 to 7 days between regions and from 5 days (early discharge) to 7 days (gynaeco-obstetrical problems) in function of the reason for admission. On average an HaH episode entailed 1.4 and 1.6 contacts per patient-day with the family doctor and nurse respectively. Conclusion Difference in admission criteria in function of geography, distance to the hospital, transport facilities, and staff factors, as well as differences in hospital policy on early discharge explain the observed variability. The programme plays an important role in the integrated approach to quality care in the Cuban health system, but could benefit from more uniform admission criteria. PMID:17540015

  10. Specific incorporation of chalcogenide bridge atoms in molybdenum/tungsten-iron-sulfur single cubane clusters.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Amit; Holm, R H

    2011-11-01

    An extensive series of heterometal-iron-sulfur single cubane-type clusters with core oxidation levels [MFe(3)S(3)Q](3+,2+) (M = Mo, W; Q = S, Se) has been prepared by means of a new method of cluster self-assembly. The procedure utilizes the assembly system [((t)Bu(3)tach)M(VI)S(3)]/FeCl(2)/Na(2)Q/NaSR in acetonitrile/THF and affords product clusters in 30-50% yield. The trisulfido precursor acts as a template, binding Fe(II) under reducing conditions and supplying the MS(3) unit of the product. The system leads to specific incorporation of a μ(3)-chalcogenide from an external source (Na(2)Q) and affords the products [((t)Bu(3)tach)MFe(3)S(3)QL(3)](0/1-) (L = Cl(-), RS(-)), among which are the first MFe(3)S(3)Se clusters prepared. Some 16 clusters have been prepared, 13 of which have been characterized by X-ray structure determinations including the incomplete cubane [((t)Bu(3)tach)MoFe(2)S(3)Cl(2)(μ(2)-SPh)], a possible trapped intermediate in the assembly process. Comparisons of structural and electronic features of clusters differing only in atom Q at one cubane vertex are provided. In comparative pairs of complexes differing only in Q, placement of one selenide atom in the core increases core volumes by about 2% over the Q = S case, sets the order Q = Se > S in Fe-Q bond lengths and Q = S > Se in Fe-Q-Fe bond angles, causes small positive shifts in redox potentials, and has an essentially nil effect on (57)Fe isomer shifts. Iron mean oxidation states and charge distributions are assigned to most clusters from isomer shifts. ((t)Bu(3)tach = 1,3,5-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane). PMID:21985054

  11. A Witness to French-Cuban Cooperation in Physics in the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernogora, Jacqueline

    In France in 1968 many lively discussions and debates took place at several universities and laboratories in which official authority was questioned. Very often in such debates someone would stand up and ask the previous speaker: "Who are you to assert such a thing?" or "From where are you speaking?" Forty years later, to avoid such questions, I will say right away "from where" I am writing this text, which is by no means an exhaustive study of French-Cuban collaboration in physics at that time, but rather a personal recollection.

  12. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Cubane, C_8H_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Vincent; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; D'accolti, Lucia; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical point of views. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family. There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called Platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C_8H_8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp^3 hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. Cubane itself has the highest density of all hydrocarbons (1.29 g/cm^3). This makes it able to store larges amounts of energy, although the molecule is fully stable. Up to now, only one high-resolution study of cubane has been performed on a few bands [2]. We report here a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature [3]; its {}1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry agreed with reported data [4]. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. They cover the 800 to 3100 cm-1 region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11 and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensrorial formalism developed in the Dijon group [5]. [1] O. Pirali, V. Boudon, J. Oomens, M. Vervloet, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 024310 (2012). [2] A. S. Pine, A. G. Maki, A. G. Robiette, B. J. Krohn, J. K. G. Watson, Th. Urbanek, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 891-897 (1984). [3] P. E. Eaton, N. Nordari, J. Tsanaktsidis, P. S. Upadhyaya, Synthesis, 1, 501, (1995). [4] E

  13. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level. PMID:24672503

  14. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  15. Synthesis, High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy, and Vibrational Structure of Cubane, C8H8.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Lamy, M; Dugue-Boyé, F; Pirali, O; Gruet, S; D'Accolti, L; Fusco, C; Annese, C; Alikhani, M E

    2016-06-30

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family ( Pirali , O. ; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2012 , 136 , 024310 ). There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C8H8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp(3) hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. We report a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. They cover the 600-3200 cm(-1) region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11, and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensorial formalism developed in the Dijon group. A comparison with ab initio calculations, allowing to identify some combination bands, is also presented. PMID:27267150

  16. Insights into the mechanism of O₂ formation and release from the Mn₄O₄L₆ "cubane" cluster.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Aleksey E; Geletii, Yurii V; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2010-11-01

    To probe photoinduced water oxidation catalyzed by the Mn₄O₄L₆ cubane clusters, we have computationally studied the mechanism and controlling factors of the O₂ formation from the [Mn₄O₄L₆] catalyst, 6. It was demonstrated that dissociation of an L = H₂PO₂⁻ ligand from 6 facilitates the direct O-O bond formation that proceeds with a 28.3 (33.4) kcal/mol rate-determining energy barrier at the transition state TS1. This step (the O-O single bond formation) of the reaction is a two-electron oxidation/reduction process, during which two oxo ligands are transformed into to μ²:η²-O₂²⁻ unit, and two ("distal") Mn centers are reduced from the 4+ to the 3+ oxidation state. Next two-electron oxidation/reduction occurs by "dancing" of the resulted O₂²⁻ fragment between the Mn¹ and Mn²/Mn(2')-centers, keeping its strong coordination to the Mn(1')-center. As a result of this four-electron oxidation/reduction process Mn centers of the Mn₄-core of I transform from {Mn¹(III)-Mn(1')(III)-Mn²(IV)-Mn(2')(IV)} to {Mn¹(II)-Mn(1')(II)-Mn²(III)-Mn(2')(III)} in IV. In other words, upon O₂ formation in cationic complex [Mn₄O₄L₅](+), I, all four Mn-centers are reduced by one electron each. The overall reaction I → TS1 → II → III → TS2 → IV → TS3 → V → VI + O₂ is found to be exothermic by 15.4 (10.5) kcal/mol. We analyze the lowest spin states and geometries of all reactants, intermediates, transition states, and products of the targeted reaction. PMID:20925417

  17. Teaching Multicultural Awareness and Understanding through the Language Arts--Creative Writing: Suggested Topics for Creative and Expository Writing Based on the Roots of the Cuban Culture for Use with Cuban Children and Others Who are Interested in Understanding Their Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Zola Jiles

    Intended to help teachers in developing language arts curriculum materials for use with recent Cuban refugees to the United States, this paper contains 300 topics for creative and expository writing based on the roots of the Cuban culture. The topics cover a variety of subjects, including food preparation, memories of Cuba, experiences in a new…

  18. The Cuban Education System: Lessons and Dilemmas. Country Studies: Education Reform and Management Publication Series, Vol. 1, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasperini, Lavinia

    The record of Cuban education encompasses universal school enrollment and attendance; nearly universal adult literacy; proportional female representation at all levels, including higher education; a strong scientific training base, particularly in chemistry and medicine; consistent pedagogical quality across widely dispersed classrooms; and…

  19. The Role of the Cuban Press in International Political Communication: "Granma Weekly Review" and Castro's U.S. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Thomas V.

    This paper reviews political symbols aimed at the United States found in "Granma Weekly Review" and in Fidel Castro's speeches to see if they have changed in a predicted manner over an 18-year period and whether changes in symbol content of "Granma" and Castro's speeches correspond. The paper first explains the functions of the Cuban media, and…

  20. Cuban Youth Culture and Receding Futures: Hip Hop, Reggaetón and "Pedagogías Marginal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel; Gomez, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Cuba finds itself at the centre of various discourses yet again, as publications such as "The Economist" and others debate the future of Cuban culture and society. While issues of economics, ideology and politics are fertile ground for discussion, they do not encompass the totality of such a conversation. The authors argue that critical…

  1. Case Report: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Cuban Immigrants to Texas who Traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Meagan A.; Koshelev, Misha V.; Sun, Grace S.; Grekin, Sarah J.; Stager, Charles E.; Diwan, A. Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A.; Murray, Kristy O.; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  2. The Experiences of Cuban American Women Attending a Hispanic Serving Institution and the Influences on Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owles, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding and gather insight into the experiences of Cuban American women attending a 4-year, public, Hispanic Serving Institution and how those experiences influenced their identity development. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups with 12 self-identified Cuban…

  3. A Hydrophobic Metal-Organic Framework Based on Cubane-Type [Co4 (μ3 -F)3 (μ3 -SO4 )](3+) Clusters for Gas Storage and Adsorption Selectivity of Benzene over Cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenbin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Chen, Wen-Zhe

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophobic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) not only have high water stability, but also exhibit high adsorption capacity towards organic molecules, in particular hydrocarbons. Herein we report a rare metal fluoride organic framework MFOF-1 with high hydrophobicity, which is constructed from unprecedented fluoride- and sulfate-bridged cubane-type tetranuclear cobalt clusters. MFOF-1 consists of three types of polyhedral cages with face-sharing configurations, and possesses a novel (3,9)-connected 3D+3D→3D self-interpenetrating array or the rare pyr topology. MFOF-1 shows high thermal stability and high stability in water and even acid/base aqueous solutions, and exhibits rather high H2 and CO2 storage capacities at ambient pressure. Remarkably, MFOF-1 shows little adsorption of water but considerably high uptakes of methanol, n-hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene, and exhibits a certain degree of adsorption selectivity of benzene over cyclohexane. PMID:27376623

  4. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    PubMed

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages. PMID:10530035

  5. High time: Cuban TV serials spur debate on sensitive social issues.

    PubMed

    Trinquete, Dixie E

    2012-04-01

    A young doctor with an HIV-positive lover; a teen victim of sexual violence; a battered wife; a man who has recently discovered his homosexuality and is suffering the stigma of a machista society...these are just some of the characters who have populated prime-time Cuban TV serials over the last few years. These shows are seen by millions across the country, a cultural phenomenon unrivalled in audience share only during baseball season. While these newer telenovelas are just as fictional as their predecessors, they have outgrown the term "soap operas" and merit greater attention: the lives in their storylines hit close to home and have given their audience cause for reflection. PMID:22580555

  6. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban Infants and Toddlers with Whooping Cough

    PubMed Central

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X.; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  7. Genetic diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii in colonized Cuban infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Diaz, Raúl; Toraño, Gilda; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-03-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a leading cause of opportunistic infections among immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of P. jirovecii from colonized Cuban infants and toddlers by analysis of four genetic loci: mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA, cytochrome b (CYB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and β-tubulin (β-tub). We determined the multilocus profiles based on concatenated genotype data (multilocus genotype; MLG) and nucleotide sequences (multilocus sequence analysis; MLSA) respectively, calculated the discriminatory power of each analysis, and investigated possible associations with demographic and clinical data. Sixteen of 51 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swab specimens (years 2010-2013) with high P. jirovecii load were selected for downstream analysis. In mixed allelic profiles all genotypes/nucleotide sequence patterns were considered separately. All samples could be genotyped based on mtLSU, CYB and β-tub locus. However, the SOD locus could be successfully amplified in only 7/16 (44%) specimens. Eight different P. jirovecii MLGs were identified among the 16 cases and eight samples presented identical MLG (MLG 1). Seventeen MLSA profiles were distinguished. No statistical association between genotypes or MLGs and demographic or clinical data could be identified. For MLSA the higher discriminatory power (S=0.976) was observed. The combination of mtLSU, CYB and β-tub loci proved to be useful for molecular epidemiology studies of P. jirovecii. A total of 17 different MLSA profiles observed in 16 specimens indicated high genetic variability of P. jirovecii circulating in colonized Cuban infants and toddlers. PMID:24412726

  8. Prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  9. Copper(II) cubanes with a {Cu4O} core and well defined S = 1 ground state.

    PubMed

    Escuer, A; Mayans, J; Font-Bardia, M

    2016-01-28

    The reaction of 2-pyridinemethanol with copper 4-fluorobenzoate has yielded a family of type II cubanes with formula [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)3(NO3)] (), [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)4] () and [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)4(H2O)] (). These systems exhibit an unexpected S = 1 ground state and their magnetic properties have been unambiguously characterized and rationalized as a function of the asymmetry of the {Cu4O4} cage and Cu-O-Cu bond angles. Analysis of the coupling constants was performed applying new interaction schemes. Magneto-structural correlations have been performed from the analysis of previously reported type II copper cubanes. PMID:26687676

  10. Revolution and Intervention: U.S.-Cuban Relations in the 20th Century. SSEC American History Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegnell, Geoffrey; Ladenburg, Thomas

    This unit for U.S. history courses examines a number of questions raised by U.S.-Cuban relations beginning with the Spanish-American War of 1898 and ending with the missile crisis 64 years later. These questions are on such topics as the appropriate U.S. stance toward a nationalistic reform movement, a social revolution, and a military build up in…

  11. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. PMID:26245792

  12. Crustal velocity model along the southern Cuban margin: implications for the tectonic regime at an active plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Bladimir; Grandison, Margaret; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2002-11-01

    A new 1-D velocity model along the southern Cuban margin has been determined using local earthquake data, which are the result of the merged Cuban and Jamaican catalogues. Simultaneous inversion using joint-hypocentre determination was applied to solve the coupled hypocentre-velocity model problem. We obtained a seven-layer model with an average Moho interface at 20 km. The average velocity was found to be 7.6 km s-1 on the top of the crust-mantle transition zone and 6.9 km s-1 in the basaltic layer of the crust. The improvement in the earthquake locations allowed us for the first time to use local seismicity to characterize the activity on local faults and the stress regime in the area. For this purpose, 34 earthquake focal mechanisms were determined along the eastern segments of the Oriente Fault. These solutions are consistent with the known left-lateral strike-slip motion along this major structure as well as with the stress regime of two local structures: (1) the Cabo Cruz Basin and (2) the Santiago deformed belt. The first structure is dominated by normal faults with minor strike-slip components and the second by reverse faults. The shallow seismicity in the Cabo Cruz Basin is associated with fault planes trending N55°-58°E and dipping 38°-45° to the north. The Santiago deformed belt, on the other hand, exhibits diverse fault plane orientations. These local structures account for most of the earthquake activity along the southern Cuban margin. Deep seismicity observed in the Santiago deformed belt, supported by focal mechanisms, suggests underthrusting of the Gonave Microplate beneath the Cuban Block in this area. The principal stress orientations obtained from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest a thrust faulting regime along the Southern Cuban margin. We obtained a nearly horizontal σ1 and nearly vertical σ3, which indicates active compressional deformation along the major Oriente transcurrent fault in agreement with the dominant

  13. Evaluation of vegetal extracts as biological herbi- and pesticides for their use in Cuban agriculture.

    PubMed

    De Cupere, F; Vandebroek, I; Puentes, M; Torres, S; Van Damme, P

    2001-01-01

    The idea of an interuniversity project between the Universidad Central de Las Villas, Cuba and the University of Ghent, Belgium was conceived in order to improve the quality of the Cuban agriculture and to stimulate its independence from foreign chemical farm inputs, starting with an applied ethnobotanical investigation as basis for the development of sustainable agricultural practices. The project consists of three parts. The first, ethnobotanical part, subtends the two subsequent stages, i.e. the phytochemical and pharmacological stages. After ethnobotanical inventarization of plants with a possible phytotoxic or pesticide effect, these will be collected and taxonomically defined. Fresh vegetal material will be dried and ground, and this first crude extract (polar or apolar) will be tested for its activity in in vitro biological tests. When results are positive (presence of activity), this crude extract will be tested in vivo, which could lead to immediate application in agriculture (short-term strategy). The long-term strategy will lead to the identification of chemical substances, responsible for the activity of the crude extract. As highly sophisticated apparatus is needed for this last step (i.e. identification of chemical compounds), this will be performed by the Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences of the University of Ghent. The project has started in September 2000. Apart from all the (complicated) administrative steps to be undertaken for its successful execution, the ethnobotanical and phytochemical parts have already started. Ethnobotanical data were gathered in view of recollection of "traditional botanical knowledge", considering three main approaches: the use of plants in medicine, in Cuban religion (the famous "santería") and the use of allelopathic plants in agriculture. Use of medicinal and religious plants is ubiquitous in Cuba. The concept of allelopathy, however, is much less known and

  14. On the pursuit of a nuclear development capability: The case of the Cuban nuclear program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin-Alvarado, Jonathan Calvert

    1998-09-01

    While there have been many excellent descriptive accounts of modernization schemes in developing states, energy development studies based on prevalent modernization theory have been rare. Moreover, heretofore there have been very few analyses of efforts to develop a nuclear energy capability by developing states. Rarely have these analyses employed social science research methodologies. The purpose of this study was to develop a general analytical framework, based on such a methodology to analyze nuclear energy development and to utilize this framework for the study of the specific case of Cuba's decision to develop nuclear energy. The analytical framework developed focuses on a qualitative tracing of the process of Cuban policy objectives and implementation to develop a nuclear energy capability, and analyzes the policy in response to three models of modernization offered to explain the trajectory of policy development. These different approaches are the politically motivated modernization model, the economic and technological modernization model and the economic and energy security model. Each model provides distinct and functionally differentiated expectations for the path of development toward this objective. Each model provides expected behaviors to external stimuli that would result in specific policy responses. In the study, Cuba's nuclear policy responses to stimuli from domestic constraints and intensities, institutional development, and external influences are analyzed. The analysis revealed that in pursuing the nuclear energy capability, Cuba primarily responded by filtering most of the stimuli through the twin objectives of economic rationality and technological advancement. Based upon the Cuban policy responses to the domestic and international stimuli, the study concluded that the economic and technological modernization model of nuclear energy development offered a more complete explanation of the trajectory of policy development than either the

  15. Carbamylated vimentin represents a relevant autoantigen in Latin American (Cuban) rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Goitybell; Gómez, Jorge A; Bang, Holger; Martínez-Gamboa, Lorena; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Torres, Barbara; Prada, Dinorah; Feist, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Smoking produces substances that activate proinflammatory, prothrombotic and vasoconstrictive mediators via posttranslational carbamylation of proteins. As a new consequence of carbamylation, induction of anti-carbamylated autoantibodies were observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, sometimes prior to onset of the disease. The overall aim of this study was to characterize the reactivity of different isotypes of autoantibodies against carbamylated antigens of vimentin in relation to established rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and markers of disease activity in a so far largely uncharacterized population of Latin American (Cuban) patients with RA. Antigenic properties of carbamylated vimentin as well as vimentin peptides were analyzed in 101 patients with RA, 50 disease controls and 51 healthy controls. The diagnostic performance was compared with established commercial ELISA rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies of second generation (anti-CCP2) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibodies. Prevalence of anti-MCV IgG (86 %), anti-carbamylated vimentin (carbVIM) IgG (77 %) and anti-carbamylated MCV (carbMCV) IgG antibodies (65 %) was higher than the classical RF IgM (60 %) and anti-CCP2 IgG (52 %) in this RA cohort. Of note, smoking status was associated with positive IgG antibody reactivity against CCP2 in 75.0 % and against MCV in 90 % of patients. Furthermore, IgM antibody response against carbMCV and carbVIM was observed in 80 and 90.0 % of smokers, respectively. Due to a high sensitivity of the IgM antibody isotype of anti-carbVIM of 85.2 %, the combination of ACPA with anti-carbVIM IgM provided the best diagnostic performance so far achieved in a RA cohort of this ethnic origin. We demonstrate a high prevalence of anti-carbVIM antibodies and correlation with smoking in Latin American (Cuban) RA patients. Anti-carbVIM IgM represents an useful marker in ACPA

  16. Mycoplasma hominis in Cuban Trichomonas vaginalis isolates: association with parasite genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jorge; Rodríguez, Nadia; Fernández, Carmen; Mondeja, Brian; Sariego, Idalia; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Rojas, Lazara

    2012-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis can be naturally infected with intracellular Mycoplasma hominis. This bacterial infection may have implications for trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. The objective of the study was to report the presence of M. hominis in Cuban T. vaginalis isolates and to describe the association between the phenotype M. hominis infected with RAPD genetic polymorphism of T. vaginalis. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine genetic differences among 40 isolates of T. vaginalis using a panel of 30 random primers and these genetic data were correlated with the infection of isolates with M. hominis. The trees drawn based on RAPD data showed no relations with metronidazole susceptibility and significantly association with the presence of M. hominis (P=0.043), which demonstrates the existence of concordance between the genetic relatedness and the presence of M. hominis in T. vaginalis isolates. This result could point to a predisposition of T. vaginalis for the bacterial enters and/or survival. PMID:22584035

  17. [Economic and social impact of the National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTCP) on the Cuban population].

    PubMed

    González, E; Armas, L; Baly, A; Gálvez, A; Alvarez, M; Ferrer, G; Mesa, A C

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control strategies provide one of the greatest cost/effectiveness results. To assess the impact of the national TB control program on the Cuban population, the time series of new TB cases and death reports, potential years of life lost, and the numbers of beds for TB case hospitalization in the entire country during 1964-91 and 1992-96 were described by common simple calculation on the basis of estimated expected values. The reduction in new TB cases and deaths, potential years of life saved, and savings in expenditures for treatment, hospitalization, and unemployment compensation were estimated. From 1965 to 1991 new case reports were reduced by 94.6% (4% per year); 86,500 cases were avoided; 166,439 potential years of life were saved; 2,831,625 million pesos were saved on tuberculostatic drugs; 82.7 million pesos were saved on unemployment compensation under the social security system for workers with active TB. Estimated savings totaled 494,919,631.3 pesos. Nationwide intervention for TB control produced an important impact on the basis of the sociopolitical status making it possible to approach complete elimination of the disease in the future. PMID:11035508

  18. Technology policy and planning in the Third World pharmaceutical sector: the Cuban and Caribbean community approaches.

    PubMed

    Thrupp, L A

    1984-01-01

    There has been growing international concern over many aspects of the use and flow of medicines in developing countries. This article briefly reviews factors which have contributed to problems in this area including marketing and promotional practices of the pharmaceutical companies, rising drug import costs, and the unsuitability or poor quality of available drugs. This analysis is primarily concerned with policies that have emerged from efforts to alleviate such problems, to increase control over multinational drug companies, and to bring about changes in the technology transaction processes and in the pharmaceutical sector. It focuses on two cases: the regional cooperation scheme of the Caribbean countries (CARICOM) and the national-level policy of Cuba. It is shown that the CARICOM strategy has significant limitations, primarily due to its voluntary nature and lack of enforcement mechanisms for member countries. On the other hand, the Cuban approach has brought about positive effects and progressive changes, made through political commitment to achieve social benefits, and in conjunction with integrated broad reforms of the entire health system within a socialist framework. Thus, the problems and promises of such strategies are viewed in a context which emphasizes the prevailing forces of the global political economy. The lessons from this study, applicable to other developing countries, not only reveal important measures for the pharmaceutical sector, but also stress the ultimate need for strong commitment to enforce policies at the national level and for major structural changes, in order to adequately meet the health and medical needs of the people. PMID:6735538

  19. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    PubMed

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster. PMID:16681185

  20. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25716550

  1. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Avila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital 'Centro Habana', in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio-demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50·0%) were aged 1-4 years, 97 (57·1%) were male, and 106 (62·4%), 92 (54·1%) and 69 (40·6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91·2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42·4%) and 62 (36·5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4·9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  2. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Ávila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital ‘Centro Habana’, in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio–demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50.0%) were aged 1–4 years, 97 (57.1%) were male, and 106 (62.4%), 92 (54.1%) and 69 (40.6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91.2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42.4%) and 62 (36.5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  3. Mental Health and Psychosocial Adjustment of Cuban Immigrants in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cislo, Andrew M.; Spence, Naomi J; Gayman, Mathew D

    2010-01-01

    Given documented variation in pre-migration and migration-related experiences, Cuban immigrants in the U.S. who arrived during or subsequent to 1980 may be disadvantaged in mental health and psychosocial adjustment relative to earlier arrivals. Using wave 1 of the Physical Challenge and Health study, we compare earlier and later arriving immigrants in levels of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem and test whether adversity and social support, acculturation-related factors, or pre-migration conditions account for any differences observed among a sample of adults living in South Florida (N=191). Bivariate analyses reveal that later arrivals are relatively disadvantaged in anxiety and self-esteem and marginally so in depression. While later arrivals do not report more adversity in the U.S., they have lower levels of family support to cope with any adversity experienced. Later arrivals are also less likely to interview in English or to have a strong American identity, and they were more likely to have arrived as adults. Relative disadvantages in anxiety and self-esteem are best explained by indicators of acculturation and family support. Policies and programs that address acculturation difficulties and increase family support could improve the health and adjustment of these and similar immigrants. PMID:20643498

  4. Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miro, R.

    1993-04-02

    This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

  5. Acquired and introduced macroparasites of the invasive Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Nicole; Price, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Rohr, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Because shifts in host–parasite relationships can alter host populations, attention should be given to the parasites that introduced species take with them or acquire in their introduced range. The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, is a successful invasive species in Florida with its parasites in the native range being well-documented, but there is a void in the literature regarding what parasites were lost or introduced in its expansion. We necropsied 330 O. septentrionalis from Tampa, FL and compared their macroparasites to those of O. septentrionalis in their native range and to the parasites of anurans native to the Tampa, FL area to determine the species O. septentrionalis likely introduced or acquired in Florida. At least nine parasite species (Aplectana sp., Oswaldocruzia lenteixeirai, Cylindrotaenia americana, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Centrorhynchus sp., unidentified trematode metacercariae, unidentified larval acuariids, and unidentified pentastomids) were isolated. We found no differences in parasite communities of adult male and female frogs, which averaged 19.36 parasite individuals and 1.39 parasite species per adult frog, and had an overall prevalence of 77.52%. Acuariid larvae were likely acquired by O. septentrionalis in FL because they are not found in their native range. O. lenteixeirai was likely introduced because it is commonly reported in O. septentrionalis' native range but has never been reported in FL-native anurans. Aplectana sp. is also likely introduced because it has been reported in several anurans in Cuba but only reported once in Florida. O. septentrionalis tended to harbor fewer of its native parasites in the introduced range, which is consistent with the enemy release hypothesis and potentially creates an immunological advantage for this invasive host. Because native populations can be threatened by introduced parasites, there is a need to further explore the frequency and rate at which non-native hosts

  6. Evaluation of the timeliness and completeness of communicable disease reporting: Surveillance in The Cuban Hospital, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Hernandez, Tania M. Fernandez; Abdo, Elmusbasher Abu Baker; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva

    2014-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems should be evaluated periodically, and should involve an assessment of system attributes. Objective: Evaluate hospital-based surveillance of communicable diseases using the elements of timeliness and data quality. Method: Descriptive study was conducted of communicable diseases reported at The Cuban Hospital, Qatar during January 2012 to December 2013. The completeness of notifications were assessed for contact number, address, place of work, and date of symptom onset. Time between the symptoms onset and physician notification, time between physician and Supreme Council of Health notification and time between physician notification and lab confirmation were calculated for each case. Analysis: Percentage of cases with documented essential information and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of time were calculated. Results: 1065 patients were reported, 75% were male, 80% non-qataries and 91.5% were group 1 (high priority) diseases. Symptom onset date was documented in 91.5% (95% CI, 89.8; 93.2) of cases; contact number in 84.7% (82.5;86.8), with lower frequencies for address (68.1%, 65.3;70.9) and place of work (60.5%, 57.5;63.4). Diagnostic time for tuberculosis was 61.7 days (SD 93.0), acute hepatitis 18.5 days (SD 17.6), typhoid fever 17.0 days (SD 11.6 days), other diseases of sexual transmission 300.2 days, chronic hepatitis 165 days and AIDS 154.5 days. The time of notification to the Supreme Council of Health for group 1 diseases was 1.2 days (SD 1.4). Conclusion: Our results show that the quality of essential data and timeliness is not sufficient to meet the needs of the health system. Additional studies should focus on the evaluation of time delay for diagnosis of high priority diseases. PMID:25320693

  7. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the venom from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, B I; Coronas, F I V; Restano-Cassulini, R; Rodríguez, R R; Possani, L D

    2011-07-01

    This communication describes the first general biochemical, molecular and functional characterization of the venom from the Cuban blue scorpion Rhopalurus junceus, which is often used as a natural product for anti-cancer therapy in Cuba. The soluble venom of this arachnid is not toxic to mice, injected intraperitoneally at doses up to 200 μg/20 g body weight, but it is deadly to insects at doses of 10 μg per animal. The venom causes typical alpha and beta-effects on Na+ channels, when assayed using patch-clamp techniques in neuroblastoma cells in vitro. It also affects K+ currents conducted by ERG (ether-a-go-go related gene) channels. The soluble venom was shown to display phospholipase, hyaluronidase and anti-microbial activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom can separate at least 50 components, among which are peptides lethal to crickets. Four such peptides were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses and N-terminal amino acid sequence were determined. The major component (RjAa12f) was fully sequenced by Edman degradation. It contains 64 amino acid residues and four disulfide bridges, similar to other known scorpion toxins. A cDNA library prepared from the venomous glands of one scorpion allowed cloning 18 genes that code for peptides of the venom, including RjA12f and eleven other closely related genes. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cloned genes showed that this scorpion contains sodium channel like toxin sequences clearly segregated into two monophyletic clusters. Considering the complex set of effects on Na+ currents verified here, this venom certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21605585

  8. A new tetranuclear copper(II) Schiff base complex containing Cu 4O 4 cubane core: Structural and spectral characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shit, Shyamapada; Rosair, Georgina; Mitra, Samiran

    2011-04-01

    A new tetra-nuclear coordination complex [Cu 4(HL) 4] ( 1) containing Cu 4O 4 cubane core has been synthesized by using Schiff base ligand [(OH)C 6H 4CH dbnd N sbnd C(CH 3)(CH 2OH) 2] (H 3L), obtained by the 1:1 condensation of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol with salicylaldehyde and thoroughly characterized by micro-analytical, FT-IR, UV-Vis, thermal and room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Structural characterization of the complex has been done by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural elucidation reveals versatile coordination modes for two identical alkoxo oxygen atoms of the Schiff base ligand; one in its deprotonated form exhibits μ 3-bridging to bind three similar copper(II) centers whilst the protonated one remains as monodentate or non-coordinating. Structural analysis also shows that the Cu 4O 4 cubane core in 1 consists of four μ 3-alkoxo oxygen bridged copper(II) atoms giving an approximately cubic array of alternating oxygen atoms and copper(II) atoms where the metal centers display both distorted square pyramidal and distorted octahedral geometries.

  9. Selected measures of health status for Mexican-American, mainland Puerto Rican, and Cuban-American children.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F S; Ventura, S J; Valdez, R B; Castillo, R O; Saldivar, L E; Baisden, K; Martorell, R

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 National Vital Statistics System and the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982 through 1984) were used to assess the health status of Mexican-American, mainland Puerto Rican, and Cuban-American children by examining the prevalences of pregnancy outcomes and chronic medical conditions. The low-birth-weight rate among Hispanics (7.0%) compared favorably with that of non-Hispanic whites (7.1%) despite the greater poverty and lower levels of education among Hispanics. When examined by Hispanic subgroup, however, significant differences were present, with mainland Puerto Ricans having the highest prevalences of low-birth-weight infants. Premature births were more common among all three Hispanic subgroups than among non-Hispanic whites. Mexican-American and Cuban-American children had a similar prevalence of (3.9% and 2.5%, respectively) chronic medical conditions compared with non-Hispanic white children; Puerto Rican children had a higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions (6.2%). When assessed by these health status indicators, Hispanic children seem to have a health status similar to non-Hispanic white children. However, mainland Puerto Rican children seem at greater risk for poor health, reflecting the US Hispanic population's heterogeneity. Health programs targeted at US Hispanics should appropriately consider these group differences. PMID:1984152

  10. In the eye of the Cuban epidemic neuropathy storm: Rosaralis Santiesteban MD PhD, Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute. Interview by Christina Mills.

    PubMed

    Mills, Christina

    2011-01-01

    When Cuba was hit by a neuropathy epidemic two decades ago, Dr Rosaralis Santiesteban was one of the Cuban health professionals who played a key role in its management, as reflected in a recent issue of Seminars in Ophthalmology. She was well prepared for her part: trained in medicine at the University of Havana before completing a residency in ophthalmology and eventually a doctorate in medical sciences, she has received multiple honors for her research, publishing and teaching. In 2007, she was named Distinguished Researcher by the Cuban Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment. She has headed the Department of Neuro-ophthalmology at Cuba's Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute since 1977. Now called Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy, the 1990s epidemic that affected over 50,000 Cubans is the largest and best-documented of its kind in history. As researchers pressed to unravel the mystery of its etiology to hasten the epidemic's end, Dr Santiesteban recognized that similar outbreaks had occurred during Cuba's wars of independence in the late 1800s--described in her book, Epidemias y Endemias de neuropatía en Cuba. In the proverbial eye of the storm during the 1990s epidemic, she shares her reflections below on the context, causes, evolution and lessons learned from the challenge that put Cuba's health system to the test. PMID:21273953

  11. The United States' New Refugees: A Review of the Research on the Resettlement of Indochinese, Cubans, and Haitians. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This review of research on recent refugees to the United States focuses on the Indochinese, Haitians and Cubans. An introduction stresses the need for more information to enhance a better understanding of the newcomers. Succeeding sections review published literature on: (1) the development of Federal policy concerning refugees, emphasizing the…

  12. The Hedgehog and the Fox: A Discussion of the Approaches to the Analysis of ICT Reforms in Teacher Education of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ingvill; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how to analyze educational reforms in which information and communications technology (ICT) is used as a central catalyst to change practises. We explore the relationship between theoretical conceptualizations and empirical findings drawing on the work of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom. We claim that reform research has…

  13. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs) by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students return from Cuba, some PICs

  14. Macrosomia Predictors in Infants Born to Cuban Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jeddú; Grandía, Raiden; Padilla, Liset; Rodríguez, Suilbert; Hernández García, Pilar; Lang Prieto, Jacinto; Márquez-Guillén, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Fetal macrosomia is the most important complication in infants of women with diabetes, whether preconceptional or gestational. Its occurrence is related to certain maternal and fetal conditions and negatively affects maternal and perinatal outcomes. The definitive diagnosis is made at birth if a newborn weighs >4000 g. OBJECTIVE Identify which maternal and fetal conditions could be macrosomia predictors in infants born to Cuban mothers with gestational diabetes. METHODS A case-control study comprising 236 women with gestational diabetes who bore live infants (118 with macrosomia and 118 without) was conducted in the América Arias University Maternity Hospital, Havana, Cuba, during 2002-2012. The dependent variable was macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g). Independent maternal variables included body mass index at pregnancy onset, overweight or obesity at pregnancy onset, gestational age at diabetes diagnosis, pregnancy weight gain, glycemic control, triglycerides and cholesterol. Fetal variables examined included third-semester fetal abdominal circumference, estimated fetal weight at ≥28 weeks (absolute and percentilized by Campbell and Wilkin, and Usher and McLean curves). Chi square was used to compare continuous variables (proportions) and the student t test (X ± SD) for categorical variables, with significance threshold set at p <0.05. ORs and their 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS Significant differences between cases and controls were found in most variables studied, with the exception of late gestational diabetes diagnosis, total fasting cholesterol and hypercholesterolemia. The highest OR for macrosomia were for maternal hypertriglyceridemia (OR 4.80, CI 2.34-9.84), third-trimester fetal abdominal circumference >75th percentile (OR 7.54, CI 4.04-14.06), and estimated fetal weight >90th percentile by Campbell and Wilkin curves (OR 4.75, CI 1.42-15.84) and by Usher and McLean curves (OR 8.81, CI 4.25-18.26). CONCLUSIONS Most variables assessed

  15. "A minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism": the Cuban experience.

    PubMed

    Gugler, J

    1980-01-01

    The case of Cuba provides social scientists with reasonably good information on urbanization policies and their implementation in 1 developing country committed to socialism. The demographic context is considered, and Cuban efforts to eliminate the rural-urban contradiction and to redefine the role of Havana are described. The impact of these policies is analyzed in terms of available data on urbanization patterns since January 1959 when the revolutionaries marched into Havana. Prerevolutionary urbanization trends are considered. Fertility in Cuba has declined simultaneously with mortality and even more rapidly. Projections assume a 1.85% annual growth rate, resulting in a population of nearly 15 million by the year 2000. Any estimate regarding the future trend in population growth must depend on prognosis of general living conditions and of specific government policies regarding contraception, abortion, female labor force participation, and child care facilities. If population growth in Cuba has been substantial, but less dramatic than that of many other developing countries, urban growth presents a similar picture. Cuba's highest rate of growth of the population living in urban centers with a population over 20,000, in any intercensal period during the 20th century, was 4.1%/year for 1943-1953. It dropped to 3.0% in the 1953-1970 period. Government policies achieved a measure of success in stemming the tide of rural-urban migration, but the aims of the revolutionary leadership went further. The objective was for urban dwellers to be involved in agriculture, and the living standards of the rural population were to be raised to approximate those of city dwellers. The goal of "urbanizing" the countryside found expression in a program designed to construct new small towns which could more easily be provided with services. A slowdown in the growth of Havana, and the concomitant weakening of its dominant position, was intended by the revolutionary leadership. Offical

  16. Creating Good Citizens in China: Comparing Grade 7-9 School Textbooks, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan-Choi Tse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Ideological indoctrination is explicit and pervasive in China, with the school curriculum used to mould the spirit and character of adolescents, fulfilling ideological and political purposes. But the exact content varies over time. Comparing two versions of textbooks published in 1997 and 2005, this paper depicts the continuities and change in the…

  17. The tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening experience in North Carolina: 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Frazier, D M; Millington, D S; McCandless, S E; Koeberl, D D; Weavil, S D; Chaing, S H; Muenzer, J

    2006-02-01

    North Carolina (NC) was the first US state to initiate universal tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) newborn screening. This began as a statewide pilot project in 1997 to determine the incidence and feasibility of screening for fatty acid oxidation, organic acid and selected amino acid disorders. The MS/MS analyses were done by a commercial laboratory and all follow-up and confirmatory testing was performed through the NC Newborn Screening (NBS) Program. In April 1999, the NC NBS Laboratory began the MS/MS analyses in-house. Between 28 July 1997 and 28 July 2005, 944,078 infants were screened and 219 diagnoses were confirmed on newborns with elevated screening results, for an overall incidence of 1:4,300. Ninety-nine infants were identified with fatty acid oxidation disorders, 58 with organic acidaemias and 62 with aminoacidopathies. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and disorders of phenylalanine metabolism were the most common disorders detected. Identification of affected infants has allowed retrospective testing of other family members, resulting in an additional 16 diagnoses. Seven neonates died from complications of their metabolic disorders/prematurity despite timely MS/MS screening. In addition, there were six infants who were not identified by elevated NBS results but who presented with symptoms later in infancy. The NC MS/MS NBS Program uses a two-tier system, categorizing results as either 'borderline' or 'diagnostic' elevated, for both the cutoffs and follow-up protocol. Infants with an initial borderline result had only a repeat screen. Infants with a diagnostic or two borderline results were referred for confirmatory testing. The positive predictive value of the NC MS/MS NBS for those infants requiring confirmatory testing was 53% for 2003 and 2004. The success of the NC MS/MS NBS Program in identifying infants with metabolic disorders was dependent on a comprehensive follow-up protocol integrating the public health laboratory and the academic metabolic centres. PMID:16601872

  18. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  19. HIV awareness in China among women of reproductive age (1997-2005): a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Olga; Brown, James J; Smith, Peter W F; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-03-01

    HIV prevalence in China is less than one per cent, but the absolute number of people living with HIV/AIDS is large and growing. Given the limited scope of any potential cure for HIV, prevention plays a crucial role in controlling the epidemic. This paper examines the evolution of HIV awareness among women in China between 1997 and 2005. A regression decomposition analysis technique was used to disentangle the two main components driving a change in HIV awareness. The results show that HIV awareness has increased over time in China. The gaps between groups are narrowing over time and lower HIV awareness groups are catching up with the higher awareness groups. In 2005 education remained one of the main factors associated with HIV awareness, the other main factors being ethnicity, exposure to TV and newspapers. The increases in HIV awareness observed between 1997 and 2001 are similar between groups of women with different demographic characteristics, whereas between 2003 and 2005 increases are more pronounced among specific groups of women such as women from rural areas, women from Western parts of the country, women who belong to ethnic minorities and those with no education or with only primary education. The results suggest that the main driver of the observed change in HIV awareness over time in China is change in the environment such as in political commitment, interventions and campaigns rather than change in population structure. PMID:23830139

  20. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  1. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin. PMID:24481848

  2. Phase control in the synthesis of magnetic iron sulfide nanocrystals from a cubane-type Fe-S cluster.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, P V; O'Brien, Paul

    2008-12-24

    Phase control has been achieved in the synthesis of magnetic iron sulfide nanocrystals by the use of a single source precursor, a cubane type Fe-S cluster, bis(tetra-n-butylammonium) tetrakis[benezenethiolato-mu3-sulfido-iron]. This cluster cleanly decomposes in alkylamines to yield nanocrystals whose composition, structure, and dimensions are dependent on the temperature employed. At low temperatures, pyrrhotite type Fe7S8 nanocrystals with an average diameter of 5.6 nm are obtained. Higher temperatures yield griegite-Fe3S4 nanocrystals whose dimensions are tunable in the range 2.5-4.5 nm. All the obtained nanocrystals are superparamagnetic at room temperature. PMID:19035629

  3. On some Cuban species of the genus Longior Travassos & Kloss, 1958 (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Longior zayasi Coy, García & Alvarez, 1993 is established as incertae sedis because the males (declared as the holotype) are inconsistent with the generic diagnosis, particularly in relation to the morphology of the head and tail. Thus, the females of Longior zayasi species (which agree with the generic diagnosis) are renamed and re-described as Longior longior Morffe & García sp. n. We also described males found in the sample and considered as conspecific with the new species. A comparative table with the measurements of the most of the records of Longior longior is given. The male of Longior similis Morffe, García & Ventosa, 2009 is described from the type locality of the species and compared with the known males of the genus. A key to the females of the Cuban Longior is given. PMID:21594153

  4. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. Conclusions The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides

  5. Latin American Medical School Class of 2015: Exclusive with Cuban-trained US Graduates.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2015-07-01

    , 90% have chosen to practice in three main primary care specialties-family medicine (61%), internal medicine (23%) and pediatrics (6%). Of US graduates already practicing, 65% work in Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and/or Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs). The success of these doctors also helps destigmatize the Cuban program; US foreign medical graduates are often viewed as substandard, the assumption being that they studied abroad because they couldn't get accepted anywhere else. But often, as in the case of ELAM-trained doctors, US medical education poses a financial, not intellectual, barrier to their training. The Medical University of Havana is one of 14 medical schools in Cuba. At its July graduation ceremonies, diplomas were handed to over 1200 doctors from Cuba, Central and South America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia-including ELAM graduates, among them 21 from the United States. MEDICC Review interviewed several US ELAM graduates as they readied to leave for home-Wyoming, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Texas, Florida and elsewhere. They talked candidly about the advantages and challenges of studying medicine in Cuba, the licensing process for practice in the United States, and their plans for the future. PMID:26947152

  6. New Tetracopper(II) Cubane Cores Driven by a Diamino Alcohol: Self-assembly Synthesis, Structural and Topological Features, and Magnetic and Catalytic Oxidation Properties.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sara S P; Kirillova, Marina V; André, Vânia; Kłak, Julia; Kirillov, Alexander M

    2015-06-01

    Two new coordination compounds with tetracopper(II) cores, namely, a 1D coordination polymer, [Cu4(μ4-H2edte)(μ5-H2edte)(sal)2]n·10nH2O (1), and a discrete 0D tetramer, [Cu4(μ4-Hedte)2(Hpmal)2(H2O)]·7.5H2O (2), were easily self-assembled from aqueous solutions of copper(II) nitrate, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (H4edte), salicylic acid (H2sal), or phenylmalonic acid (H2pma). The obtained compounds were characterized by IR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to different dimensionalities, their structures reveal distinct single-open [Cu4(μ2-O)(μ3-O)3] (in 1) or double-open [Cu4(μ2-O)2(μ3-O)2] (in 2) cubane cores with 3M4-1 topology. In crystal structures, numerous crystallization water molecules are arranged into the intricate infinite 1D {(H2O)18}n water tapes (in 1) or discrete (H2O)9 clusters (in 2) that participate in multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions with the metal-organic hosts, thus extending the overall structures into very complex 3D supramolecular networks. After simplification, their topological analysis revealed the binodal 6,10- or 6,8-connected underlying 3D nets with unique or rare 6,8T2 topology in 1 and 2, respectively. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 were investigated in the 1.8-300 K temperature range, indicating overall antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Cu(II) ions within the [Cu4O4] cores. The obtained compounds also act as bioinspired precatalysts for mild homogeneous oxidation, by aqueous hydrogen peroxide at 50 °C in an acidic MeCN/H2O medium, of various cyclic and linear C5-C8 alkanes to the corresponding alcohols and ketones. Overall product yields of up to 21% (based on alkane) were achieved, and the effects of various reaction parameters were studied. PMID:25974644

  7. Different subjects: the health care system's participation in the differential construction of the cultural citizenship of Cuban refugees and Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    This paper explores the public health system's differential construction of Mexican and Cuban immigrants' "deservingness" of citizenship benefits and its preparation of them for different roles in U.S. society. Civic institutions such as the public health care system are charged with inculcating normative behavior in immigrants and instilling in them different conceptions about their rights and responsibilities. Faced with limited resources under the implementation of Medicaid managed care, hospital administrators created new categories of "deserving" and "undeserving" immigrants based on neoliberal standards of individual responsibility and self-discipline. As a result, hospital policies construct different types of "cultural citizenship" for Cuban and Mexican immigrants, preparing the former to be active citizens and discouraging the latter from pressing demands on American civil institutions. I show that this negative construction of Mexican immigrants' moral worth leads to unmet health needs and poor health outcomes. PMID:15612411

  8. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  9. Definition of Specific Functions and Procedural Skills Required by Cuban Specialists in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Pedro L; Berra, Esperanza M; Jorna, Ana R

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Medical specialties' core curricula should take into account functions to be carried out, positions to be filled and populations to be served. The functions in the professional profile for specialty training of Cuban intensive care and emergency medicine specialists do not include all the activities that they actually perform in professional practice. OBJECTIVE Define the specific functions and procedural skills required of Cuban specialists in intensive care and emergency medicine. METHODS The study was conducted from April 2011 to September 2013. A three-stage methodological strategy was designed using qualitative techniques. By purposive maximum variation sampling, 82 professionals were selected. Documentary analysis and key informant criteria were used in the first stage. Two expert groups were formed in the second stage: one used various group techniques (focus group, oral and written brainstorming) and the second used a three-round Delphi method. In the final stage, a third group of experts was questioned in semistructured in-depth interviews, and a two-round Delphi method was employed to assess priorities. RESULTS Ultimately, 78 specific functions were defined: 47 (60.3%) patient care, 16 (20.5%) managerial, 6 (7.7%) teaching, and 9 (11.5%) research. Thirty-one procedural skills were identified. The specific functions and procedural skills defined relate to the profession's requirements in clinical care of the critically ill, management of patient services, teaching and research at the specialist's different occupational levels. CONCLUSIONS The specific functions and procedural skills required of intensive care and emergency medicine specialists were precisely identified by a scientific method. This product is key to improving the quality of teaching, research, administration and patient care in this specialty in Cuba. The specific functions and procedural skills identified are theoretical, practical, methodological and social contributions to

  10. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26615828

  11. What does pressure decide to cook with orientationally disordered plastic phase of cubane: An orientational glass or crystal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Murugan, N.

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pressure on the structure and reorientational motion of molecules in orientationally disordered (OD) crystalline phase of cubane has been investigated in detail using variable shape molecular simulations in constant-pressure constant-temperature ensemble. Complete orientational ordering occurs at a pressure of 1.0 GPa and the OD phase transforms to an orientationally ordered phase at this pressure. The transition is associated with a kink in the variation of structural parameters such as cell parameters, unit-cell volume, and interaction energy. This transition is also associated with an anomaly in specific heat. Above this transition pressure, the structural quantities display only smaller changes with further increase in pressure. The structure of high-pressure orientationally ordered (HPOO) phase has been characterized using radial distribution functions and orientational distribution function. From detailed analysis of the structure of HPOO phase we conclude that it is isostructural with low-temperature orientationally ordered phase. The OD phase has four times larger compressibility than the HPOO phase.

  12. Construction of magnet-type coordination polymers using high-spin {Ni4}-citrate cubane as secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Wang, Yanyan; Qin, Lei; Han, Tian; Ding, You-Song; Hu, Yue-Qiao; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-06-28

    Three potassium(i)-nickel(ii)-citrate coordination polymers, [K4Ni6(cit)4(H2O)8]n (), [K14Ni17(cit)12(H2O)33]n·10nH2O () and [K8Ni12(cit)8(H2O)15]n·2nH2O (), have been self-assembled in a solvothermal synthesis. Interestingly, these three polymers share the common {Ni4(cit)4}(8-) cubane ({Ni4}-cit-cub) secondary building units. The diverse ways of linking the {Ni4}-cit-cubs and additional isolated octahedral Ni(ii) ions lead to disparate magnetic exchange-coupling interactions, namely ferromagnetic for and and antiferromagnetic for . More importantly, the weak ferromagnetic interactions do not lead to long-range magnetic ordering above 2 K in or , whereas the strong antiferromagnetic interaction in leads to uncompensated magnetic moment due to the non-collinear alignment of the spins. Further magnetic characterization confirms the coexistence of spin-canted antiferromagnetism and spin glass behaviour in . PMID:27294693

  13. Densely Packed Lanthanide Cubane Based 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Magnetic Refrigeration and Slow Magnetic Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Soumava; Mondal, Amit Kumar; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-03-01

    Two isostructural densely packed squarato-bridged lanthanide-based 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ln5(μ3-OH)5(μ3-O)(CO3)2(HCO2)2(C4O4)(H2O)2] [Ln = Gd (1) and Dy (2)] show giant cryogenic magnetic refrigeration (for 1) and slow magnetic relaxation (for 2). The structural analyses reveal the presence of a self-assembled crown-shaped building unit with a cubane-based rectangular moiety that leads to a special array of metal centers in 3D space in the complexes. Magnetic investigations confirm that complex 1 exhibits one of the largest cryogenic magnetocaloric effects among the molecular magnetic refrigerant materials reported so far (-ΔSm = 64.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 9 T at 3 K). The cryogenic cooling effect (of 1) is also quite comparable with that of the commercially used magnetic refrigerant gadolinium-gallium garnet, whereas for complex 2, slow relaxation of magnetization was observed below 10 K. PMID:26881286

  14. Cuban epidemic neuropathy, 1991 to 1994: history repeats itself a century after the "amblyopia of the blockade".

    PubMed Central

    Ordúñez-García, P O; Nieto, F J; Espinosa-Brito, A D; Caballero, B

    1996-01-01

    The 1991 to 1994 epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba has been one of the more devastating in recent history, affecting more than 50,000 people throughout the entire country with clinical manifestations of optic and peripheral neuropathy. Although the causes are not entirely clear, it seems that a combination of acute nutritional deficiency and the toxic effects of tobacco and possibly other unidentified toxic substances is involved. The epidemic coincided with the acute worsening of the economic situation on the island following political changes in Eastern European countries and a tightening of the US economic embargo. This paper reviews reports of a strikingly similar epidemic known as the "Amblyopia of the Blockade," which occurred in Cuba almost a century ago when the island was undergoing a US naval blockade during the Cuban-Spanish-American war. It discusses the parallelism with the recent epidemic as well as the implications of this historical evidence to clarify further the ultimate causes of these epidemics. PMID:8629731

  15. A carbon-free polyoxometalate molecular catalyst with a cobalt-arsenic core for visible light-driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Qin, Chao; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, En-Bo

    2016-07-21

    A carbon-free, stable, homogeneous water oxidation catalyst based on the unique hepta-nuclear cobalt-arsenic core ("fused" double-quasi-cubane) and polyoxometalate ligands, Na12[{Co(II)7As(III)6O9(OH)6}(A-α-SiW9O34)2]·8H2O (1), was synthesized, thoroughly characterized and employed to catalyze water oxidation under visible-light-driven conditions. PMID:27383015

  16. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  17. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  18. A thiocyanato-bridged copper(I) cubane complex and its application in palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling of aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Manoj; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Abhinav; Rath, Nigam P

    2013-09-28

    Reaction of copper(I) thiocyanate with 1,1'-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino) ferrocene (dtbpf) in a 2:1 molar ratio in DCM-MeOH (50:50 V/V) afforded a tetranuclear copper(I) complex [Cu4(μ3-SCN)4(κ(1)-P,P-dtbpf)2] (1) with a cubane-like structure. Complex 1 was shown to be an efficient catalyst in comparison to CuI in the Sonogashira reaction. The coupling products were obtained in high yields by using Pd loadings of 0.2 mol% as well as complex-1 of 0.1 mol%. PMID:23903662

  19. Diet of the invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in pine rockland and mangrove habitats in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, B.M.; Waddle, J.H.; Crockett, M.E.; Rice, K.G.; Percival, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Native to Cuba, the Bahamas and the Cayman Islands, the Cuban Treefrog (CTF) is an invasive species in Florida, with the ability to inflict serious ecological damage to invaded habitats. By examining the diet of the CTF, a known predator of native frogs, better predictions may be made of the impacts on native species and ecosystems. From 2002 - 2003, CTF diet was investigated in south Florida at four sites, two each within pine rockland and mangrove habitat. Within each habitat, one site exhibited a low density of CTFs and the other a high density of CTFs. CTFs were captured in PVC pipes attached to trees and stomach contents were examined after euthanasia. Beetles were the most numerous and widely consumed prey item among sites; roaches, orthopterans, spiders, ants, and caterpillars were also major dietary components. There were significant differences in the proportion of taxa consumed by CTFs between low and high density populations within each habitat, with the low density site in every instance having the higher proportion. Across habitats, ants comprised a significantly higher proportion of the diet in mangroves, whereas beetles, orthopterans, and snails comprised a significantly higher proportion of the diet in pine rocklands. Approximately 3.5% of all stomachs examined contained anuran remains. Though not significant, CTFs from low density sites consumed a higher proportion of frogs than those at high density sites. Corroborating previous research, the data show the CTF to be a generalist feeder, consuming a wide variety of invertebrate prey, with anurans playing only a minor role in the overall diet.

  20. Adsorption phenomena of cubane-type tetranuclear Ni(II) complexes with neutral, thioether-functionalized ligands on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Volkmar; Matthes, Frank; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Monakhov, Kirill Yu.; Besson, Claire; Kögerler, Paul; Ghisolfi, Alessio; Braunstein, Pierre; Schneider, Claus M.

    2015-11-01

    The controlled and intact deposition of molecules with specific properties onto surfaces is an emergent field impacting a wide range of applications including catalysis, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing. One strategy is to introduce grafting groups functionalized to anchor to a specific surface. While thiols and disulfides have proven to be quite effective in combination with gold surfaces, other S-containing groups have received much less attention. Here, we investigate the surface anchoring and organizing capabilities of novel charge-neutral heterocyclic thioether groups as ligands of polynuclear nickel(II) complexes. We report on the deposition of a cubane-type {Ni4} (= [Ni(μ3-Cl)Cl(HL·S)]4) single-molecule magnet from dichloromethane solution on a Au(111) surface, investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction, both immediately after deposition and after subsequent post-annealing. The results provide strong evidence for partial decomposition of the coordination complex upon deposition on the Au(111) surface that, however, leaves the magnetic {Ni4Cl4n} (n = 1 or 2) core intact. Only post-annealing above 480 K induces further decomposition and fragmentation of the {Ni4Cl4n} core. The detailed insight into the chemisorption-induced decomposition pathway not only provides guidelines for the deposition of thioether-functionalized Ni(II) complexes on metallic surfaces but also reveals opportunities to use multidentate organic ligands decorated with thioether groups as transporters for highly unstable inorganic structures onto conducting surfaces, where they are stabilized retaining appealing electronic and magnetic properties.

  1. Photocatalytic water oxidation by molecular assemblies based on cobalt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Hua; Zhang, Biaobiao; Yu, Fengshou; Sun, Licheng

    2014-09-01

    Chromophore-catalyst molecular assemblies towards visible light-driven water oxidation were synthesized by covalent integration of a light-harvesting complex [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) and a Co4O4 cubane water oxidation catalyst. The two components were assembled either in linear or macrocyclic configurations. In the presence of the sacrificial reagent, the Ru-Co metallocycle exhibits remarkable photocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of a multicomponent system and exceeds that of a linear assembly by a factor of five, offering access to highly active photocatalyst through molecular design. PMID:25111070

  2. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  3. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

    The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews with various…

  4. Determination of mercury levels in biological samples using the incomplete cubane-type sulfur-bridged nitrilotriacetato molybdenum complex by a spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Aikoh, H; Yamate, M; Takahashi, M; Shibahara, T

    1997-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of mercury levels in biological samples was investigated using incomplete cubane-type sulfur-bridged molybdenum complex, K2[Mo3S4(Hnta)3] 9H2O, ("NTA" complex; H3nta = nitrilotri acetic acid). The urine or organs of mice, which were either exposed to metallic mercury vapor or injected intraperitoneally with mercuric ion, were decomposed from four to twelve hours with a mixed solution of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. After the pretreatment, mercury in the urine and organs of mice was captured by the "NTA" complex. Absorbance of the resultant solution in the urine or organs of mice was also measured by a spectrophotometer under conditions similar to that of the exhalation. PMID:9353959

  5. Level crossings and zero-field splitting in the {Cr8}-cubane spin-cluster studied using inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaknin, D.; Garlea, Vasile O; Demmel, F.; Mamontov, Eugene; Nojiri, H; Martin, Catalin; Chiorescu, Irinel; Qiu, Y.; Luban, M.; Kogerler, P.; Fielden, J.; Engelhardt, L; Rainey, C

    2010-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in variable magnetic field and high-field magnetization measurements in the millikelvin temperature range were performed to gain insight into the low-energy magnetic excitation spectrum and the field-induced level crossings in the molecular spin cluster {Cr8}-cubane. These complementary techniques provide consistent estimates of the lowest level-crossing field. The overall features of the experimental data are explained using an isotropic Heisenberg model, based on three distinct exchange interactions linking the eight CrIII paramagnetic centers (spins s = 3/2), that is supplemented with a relatively large molecular magnetic anisotropy term for the lowest S = 1 multiplet. It is noted that the existence of the anisotropy is clearly evident from the magnetic field dependence of the excitations in the INS measurements, while the magnetization measurements are not sensitive to its effects.

  6. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356) were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05) score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011). Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028). Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012) Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality. PMID:22152160

  7. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation

    PubMed Central

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction, but its conservation value is limited by lack of genetic information. Here we collected mtDNA haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data from wild and captive C. rhombifer and C. acutus in Cuba to: (1) investigate the degree of inter-specific hybridization in natural (in situ) and captive (ex situ) populations; (2) quantify the extent, distribution and in situ representation of genetic variation ex situ; and (3) reconstruct founder relatedness to inform management. We found high levels of hybridization in the wild (49.1%) and captivity (16.1%), and additional evidence for a cryptic lineage of C. acutus in the Antilles. We detected marginally higher observed heterozygosity and allelic diversity ex situ relative to the wild population, with captive C. rhombifer exhibiting over twice the frequency of private alleles. Although mean relatedness was high in captivity, we identified 37 genetically important individuals that possessed individual mean kinship (MK) values lower than the population MK. Overall, these results will guide long-term conservation management of Cuban crocodiles for maintaining the genetic integrity and viability of this species of high global conservation value. PMID:25335559

  8. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation.

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2015-03-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction, but its conservation value is limited by lack of genetic information. Here we collected mtDNA haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data from wild and captive C. rhombifer and C. acutus in Cuba to: (1) investigate the degree of inter-specific hybridization in natural (in situ) and captive (ex situ) populations; (2) quantify the extent, distribution and in situ representation of genetic variation ex situ; and (3) reconstruct founder relatedness to inform management. We found high levels of hybridization in the wild (49.1%) and captivity (16.1%), and additional evidence for a cryptic lineage of C. acutus in the Antilles. We detected marginally higher observed heterozygosity and allelic diversity ex situ relative to the wild population, with captive C. rhombifer exhibiting over twice the frequency of private alleles. Although mean relatedness was high in captivity, we identified 37 genetically important individuals that possessed individual mean kinship (MK) values lower than the population MK. Overall, these results will guide long-term conservation management of Cuban crocodiles for maintaining the genetic integrity and viability of this species of high global conservation value. PMID:25335559

  9. Toward Models for the Full Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II by Ligand Coordination To Lower the Symmetry of the Mn3CaO4 Cubane: Demonstration That Electronic Effects Facilitate Binding of a Fifth Metal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic model compounds have been targeted to benchmark and better understand the electronic structure, geometry, spectroscopy, and reactivity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II, a low-symmetry Mn4CaOn cluster. Herein, low-symmetry MnIV3GdO4 and MnIV3CaO4 cubanes are synthesized in a rational, stepwise fashion through desymmetrization by ligand substitution, causing significant cubane distortions. As a result of increased electron richness and desymmetrization, a specific μ3-oxo moiety of the Mn3CaO4 unit becomes more basic allowing for selective protonation. Coordination of a fifth metal ion, Ag+, to the same site gives a Mn3CaAgO4 cluster that models the topology of the OEC by displaying both a cubane motif and a “dangler” transition metal. The present synthetic strategy provides a rational roadmap for accessing more accurate models of the biological catalyst. PMID:25241826

  10. Metal-organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln4(OH)4] building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-01

    Lanthanide-organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pYb), [Y4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pY-1) and [Y6(OH)8(25p)5(H2O)2] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P21/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y6(OH)8]10+ clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu3+ and Tb3+ doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG-SDTA-MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C-H-N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction.

  11. Unusual Mn(III/IV)4 Cubane and Mn(III)16M4 (M = Ca, Sr) Looplike Clusters from the Use of Dimethylarsinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chakov, Nicole E; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Rheingold, Arnold L; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2016-09-01

    Three complexes are reported from the initial use of dimethylarsinic acid (Me2AsO2H) in Mn(III/IV) cluster chemistry, [Mn4O4(O2AsMe2)6] (3; 2Mn(III), 2Mn(IV)), and [Mn16X4O8(O2CPh)16(Me2AsO2)24] (X = Ca(2+) (4) or Sr(2+) (5); 16Mn(III)). They were obtained from reactions with [Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] (R = Me, Ph) either without (3) or with (4 and 5) the addition of X(2+) salts. Complex 3 contains a [Mn4O4](6+) cubane, whereas isostructural 4 and 5 contain a planar loop structure comprising four Mn4 asymmetric "butterfly" units linked by alternating anti,anti μ-O2AsMe2 and {X2(O2AsMe2)(O2CPh)2} units. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility (χM) data were collected on dried microcrystalline samples of 3-5 in the 5.0-300 K range in a 0.1 T (1000 G) direct-current (dc) magnetic field. Data for 3 were fit to the appropriate Van Vleck equation (using the [Formula: see text] = -2JŜi·Ŝj convention) for a cubane of virtual C2v symmetry, giving J33 = 0.0(1) cm(-1), J34 = -3.4(4) cm(-1), J44 = -9.8(2) cm(-1), and g = 1.99(1), where the Jij subscripts refer to the oxidation states of the interacting Mn atoms. The ground state thus consists of two coupled Mn(IV) and two essentially noninteracting Mn(III). For 4 and 5, low-lying excited states from the high nuclearity and weak couplings prevent fits of dc magnetization data, but in-phase alternating current susceptibility χ'MT data down to 1.8 K indicate them to possess S = 4 ground states, if considered single Mn16 units. If instead they are treated as tetramers of weakly coupled Mn4 units, then each of the latter has an S = 2 ground state. Complexes 4 and 5 also exhibit very weak out-of-phase χ″M signals characteristic of slow relaxation, and magnetization versus dc field scans on a single crystal of 4·15MeCN at T ≥ 0.04 K showed hysteresis loops but with unusual features suggesting the magnetization relaxation barrier consists of more than one contribution. PMID:27504743

  12. The synthesis, structure, topology and catalytic application of a novel cubane-based copper(II) metal-organic framework derived from a flexible amido tripodal acid.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Anirban; Oliver, Clive L; Roy, Somnath; Öhrström, Lars

    2015-06-14

    A novel chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu4(HL)2(H2O)4(MeO)4]n (), has been successfully synthesized from a tripodal flexible ligand (2S,2'S,2''S)-2,2',2''-(benzenetricarbonyltris(azanediyl))tripropanoic acid (H3L). Compound was characterized by IR and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The structure was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis revealing that possesses a 3D network, featuring a tetranuclear cubane-type secondary building block [Cu4(MeO)4](4+), formed via the connection of four metal ions to four methoxide ions. These secondary building blocks are linked by four different HL(2-) ligands to construct a porous three dimensional framework of the dia topology with one-dimensional channels. Compound also acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for the diastereoselective nitroaldol (Henry) reaction, providing high yields (up to 91%) and good diastereoselectivities under ambient conditions. This catalyst can be recycled without significant loss of activity. PMID:25645371

  13. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  14. Therapeutic Targeting of CD6 in Autoimmune Diseases: A Review of Cuban Clinical Studies with the Antibodies IOR-T1 and Itolizumab.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Patricia; Moreno, Ernesto; Aira, Lazaro E; Rodríguez, Pedro C

    2016-01-01

    The CD6 molecule is a pan T cell marker involved in T cell regulation. Although CD6 expression has been correlated with human autoimmune diseases, only a few therapeutic approaches are exploring this molecule as target in the clinic. The biological functions and mechanisms of actions of CD6 have not been definitively established. It is probable that this molecule plays a dual role as a modulator of intracellular signaling. Itolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for human CD6, developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology in Havana, Cuba. Its parent murine antibody, the IOR-T1 mAb, had been obtained in the 80's at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology, also in Havana. This article provides an overview of the clinical data obtained in Cuban patients with autoimmune diseases who have been treated with IOR-T1 mAb or itolizumab. Furthermore, we discuss the possible mechanism of action of itolizumab basing the analysis on recent site mutagenesis and structural data, which, contrary to previous interpretations, points to a steric blocking of the CD6-CD166 interaction in the cellular context. Overall, the conducted clinical studies have demonstrated that itolizumab has favorable clinical effects and a safety profile when used as monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. So far, in vitro and in vivo evidences indicate that itolizumab has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Hence, itolizumab represents a new therapeutic option for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. PMID:26844560

  15. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils

    PubMed Central

    Laskaris, Paris; Krsek, Martin; Berry, Andrew E.; Newsham, Kevin K.; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Pearce, David A.; Vallin, Carlos; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered. PMID:26398766

  16. Unexpanded and intermediate CAG polymorphisms at the SCA2 locus (ATXN2) in the Cuban population: evidence about the origin of expanded SCA2 alleles.

    PubMed

    Laffita-Mesa, José Miguel; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis C; Santos Falcón, Nieves; Cruz-Mariño, Tania; González Zaldívar, Yanetza; Vázquez Mojena, Yaimee; Almaguer-Gotay, Dennis; Almaguer Mederos, Luis Enrique; Rodríguez Labrada, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The role of short, large or intermediate normal alleles (ANs) of the ataxin-2 gene in generating expanded alleles (EAs) causing spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is poorly understood. It has been postulated that SCA2 prevalence is related to the frequency of large ANs. SCA2 shows the highest worldwide prevalence in Cuban population, which is therefore a unique source for studying the relationship between the frequency of large and intermediate alleles and the frequency of SCA2 mutation. Through genetic polymorphism analyses in a comprehensive sample (~3000 chromosomes), we show that the frequency of large ANs in the ataxin-2 gene is the highest worldwide, although short ANs are also frequent. This highly polymorphic population displayed also high variability in the CAG sequence, featured by loss of the anchor CAA interruption(s). In addition, large ANs showed germinal and somatic instability. Our study also includes related genotypic, genealogical and haplotypic data and provides substantial evidence with regard to the role of large and intermediate alleles in the generation of pathological EAs. PMID:21934711

  17. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes. PMID:27216175

  18. Asymptomatic Dengue Infection in a Cuban Population Confirms the Protective Role of the RR Variant of the FcγRIIa Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    García, Gissel; Sierra, Beatriz; Pérez, Ana B.; Aguirre, Eglys; Rosado, Ileana; Gonzalez, Narjara; Izquierdo, Alienys; Pupo, Maritza; Danay Díaz, Didye Ruiz; Sánchez, Lizet; Marcheco, Beatriz; Hirayama, Kenji; Guzmán, María G.

    2010-01-01

    The role of human Fcγ receptors (FcγR) has been recognized considerably over the last years. These receptors vary in their affinity for IgG subclasses and the intracellular signals elicited by them. Allelic variants of FcγR genes may influence the biological phagocyte activity, accounting for an inherited pre-disposition to disease. The specific FcγRIIa (CD32) contains a polymorphic variant (H/R131) that has been associated to a reduced risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Here, we investigated the role of this polymorphism in a very well-characterized group of Cuban individuals with antecedents of DHF, dengue fever (DF), or subclinical dengue infection. The HH131 genotype was significantly associated with dengue disease, either DF (*P = 0.016; odds ratio = 4.425; 95% confidence interval = 1.10–20.52) or DHF (P = 0.00018; odds ratio = 10.56; 95% confidence interval = 2.33–54.64) with respect to the subclinical infection. PMID:20519616

  19. Unexpanded and intermediate CAG polymorphisms at the SCA2 locus (ATXN2) in the Cuban population: evidence about the origin of expanded SCA2 alleles

    PubMed Central

    Laffita-Mesa, José Miguel; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis C; Santos Falcón, Nieves; Cruz-Mariño, Tania; González Zaldívar, Yanetza; Vázquez Mojena, Yaimee; Almaguer-Gotay, Dennis; Almaguer Mederos, Luis Enrique; Rodríguez Labrada, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The role of short, large or intermediate normal alleles (ANs) of the ataxin-2 gene in generating expanded alleles (EAs) causing spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is poorly understood. It has been postulated that SCA2 prevalence is related to the frequency of large ANs. SCA2 shows the highest worldwide prevalence in Cuban population, which is therefore a unique source for studying the relationship between the frequency of large and intermediate alleles and the frequency of SCA2 mutation. Through genetic polymorphism analyses in a comprehensive sample (∼3000 chromosomes), we show that the frequency of large ANs in the ataxin-2 gene is the highest worldwide, although short ANs are also frequent. This highly polymorphic population displayed also high variability in the CAG sequence, featured by loss of the anchor CAA interruption(s). In addition, large ANs showed germinal and somatic instability. Our study also includes related genotypic, genealogical and haplotypic data and provides substantial evidence with regard to the role of large and intermediate alleles in the generation of pathological EAs. PMID:21934711

  20. Chalcogenide chemistry in ionic liquids: nonlinear optical wave-mixing properties of the double-cubane compound [Sb{sub 7}S{sub 8}Br{sub 2}](AlCl{sub 4}){sub 3}.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Chung, I.; Jang, J. I.; Ketterson, J. B.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2009-07-06

    The new cation [Sb{sub 7}S{sub 8}Br{sub 2}]{sup 3+} has a double-cubane structure and forms as the [AlCl{sub 4}]{sup -} salt from the ionic liquid EMIMBr-AlCl{sub 3} (EMIM = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) at 165 C. The compound is noncentrosymmetric with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and exhibits second-harmonic and difference-frequency nonlinear optical response across a wide range of the visible and near-infrared regions.

  1. Two novel Dy8 and Dy11 clusters with cubane [Dy4(μ3-OH)4]8+ units exhibiting slow magnetic relaxation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yan-Li; Liu, Jun-Liang; Li, Jin-Yan; Leng, Ji-Dong; Ou, Yong-Cong; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2011-10-21

    Two unique octa- and hendeca-nuclear dysprosium(III) clusters incorporating [Dy(4)(μ(3)-OH)(4)](8+) cubane units have been synthesized with the 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarbaldehyde dioxime (H(2)phendox) ligand and DyCl(3)·6H(2)O or Dy(OAc)(3)·4H(2)O. They are [Dy(8)(OH)(8)(phendox)(6)(H(2)O)(8)]Cl(2)(OH)(2)·18H(2)O·18MeOH (1) and [Dy(11)(OH)(11)(phendox)(6)(phenda)(3)(OAc)(3)](OH)·40H(2)O·7MeOH (2). Adjacent Dy(8) in 1 or Dy(11) in 2 motifs are packed by off-set π-π interactions of the aromatic rings on phendox(2-) to generate a 3D supramolecular architecture in the honeycomb topology and with 1D or 3D channels along the c-axis. Adsorption research shows that complex 1 has selective adsorption ability for H(2)O over small gas molecules (H(2), N(2), CO(2)). Complex 2 is stable upon the removal of guest molecules and the desolvated compound absorbed a considerable amount of CO(2). Furthermore, the oximes underwent hydrolysis to carboxylic acid and the resulting 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylate link the dysprosium atoms to form a hendecanuclear cluster of 2. Magnetic studies reveal that both clusters exhibit slow magnetic relaxation behavior, expanding upon the recent reports of the pure 4f type single-molecule magnets (SMMs). PMID:21894344

  2. Metal–organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] building units

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide–organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pYb), [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pY-1) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}]{sup 10+} clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG–SDTA–MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C–H–N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction. - Graphical abstract: Nowadays, lanthanide–organic frameworks (LOFs) attract

  3. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). PMID:26027580

  4. First principles study of electronic structure for cubane-like and ring-shaped structures of M{sub 4}O{sub 4}, M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu; Rahaman, Badiur

    2015-11-15

    Spin-polarized DFT has been used to perform a comparative study of the geometric structures and electronic properties for isolated M{sub 4}X{sub 4} nano clusters between their two stable isomers - a planar rhombus-like 2D structure and a cubane-like 3D structure with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu ; X = O, S. These two structural patterns of the M{sub 4}X{sub 4} clusters are commonly found as building blocks in several poly-nuclear transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry. The effects of the van der Waals corrections to the physical properties have been considered in the electronic structure calculations employing the empirical Grimme’s correction (DFT+D2). We report here an interesting trend in their relative structural stability - the isolated M{sub 4}O{sub 4} clusters prefer to stabilize more in the planar structure, while the cubane-like 3D structure is more favorable for most of the isolated M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters than their planar 2D counterparts. Our study reveals that this contrasting trend in the relative structural stability is expected to be driven by an interesting interplay between the s-d and p-d hybridization effects of the constituents’ valence electrons.

  5. Effect of the Mn Oxidation State on Single-Molecule-Magnet Properties: Mn(III) vs Mn(IV) in Biologically Inspired DyMn3O4 Cubanes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Heng; Tsui, Emily Y; Habib, Fatemah; Murugesu, Muralee; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-06-20

    Inspired by the ferromagnetic coupling in the cubane model CaMn(IV)3O4 of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, 3d-4f mixed-metal DyMn3O4 clusters were prepared for investigation of the magnetic properties. For comparison, YMn(IV)3O4 and YMn(IV)2Mn(III)O4 clusters were investigated as well and showed ferromagnetic interactions, like the calcium analogue. DyMn(IV)3O4 displays single-molecule-magnet properties, while the one-electron-reduced species (DyMn(IV)2Mn(III)O4) does not, despite the presence of a Mn(III) center with higher spin and single-ion anisotropy. PMID:27281290

  6. Coeliac disease in Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Rabassa, E B; Sagaró, E; Fragoso, T; Castañeda, C; Gra, B

    1981-01-01

    Coeliac disease is generally considered to be a disease of Europe, North America, and Australasia. A series of well-authenticated cases from Cuba is presented. One of the factors responsible for the presence of this disease in Cuba may be the increase in wheat consumption in the last few years. It is likely that coeliac disease exists in other tropical countries. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7469463

  7. Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

  8. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff,

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates of early life stages by modifying flows in the HCR, reducing mortality imposed by the catch and release fishery, augmenting natural production through translocation or hatchery releases, and assessing detrimental effects of contaminants on reproductive potential. These proposed actions were evaluated by assessing their relative potential to affect population growth rate and by determining the feasibility of their execution, including a realistic timeframe (short-term, mid-term, long-term) for their implementation and evaluation. A multi-pronged approach for management was decided upon whereby various actions will be implemented and evaluated under different timeframes. Priority management actions include: Action I- Produce juvenile white sturgeon in a hatchery and release into the management area; Action G- Collect juvenile white sturgeon from other populations in the Snake or Columbia rivers and release them into the management area; and Action D- Restore white sturgeon passage upriver and downriver at Lower Snake and Idaho Power dams. An integral part of this approach is the continual monitoring of performance measures to assess the progressive response of the population to implemented actions, to evaluate the actions efficacy toward achieving objectives, and to refine and redirect strategies if warranted.

  9. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  10. Centenary Celebration for Scottish Missionary Mary Slessor: A Lasting Legacy for Twins/Twin Research: Twins With Kleinfelter's Syndrome; Twin Research on Atopic Diseases; Twin Study of Autism; Psychotherapy with Twins / General Interest: Female Twin Pole-Vaulters; Longest Twin Birth Interval; Pair of Franco-Cuban Vocalists; Croatian Twin Models.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-06-01

    The centenary celebration for Scottish missionary, Mary Slessor, took place on February 14, 2015 in Melle, Belgium. Slessor saved many newborn twins and their mothers from death and disownment by members of their community, including their families, who believed twins harbored evil spirits. The events of this unusual and significant gathering are described. Next, twin research and reports concerning Kleinfelter's disease, atopic diseases, autism and psychotherapy are presented. General interest subjects include identical female twin pole-vaulters, the longest twin birth interval, Franco-Cuban twin vocalists, and Croatian twin models. PMID:25906830

  11. A Bioinspired Molecular Polyoxometalate Catalyst with Two Cobalt(II) Oxide Cores for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Feng, Yingying; Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Yan; Xu, Jingyin; Xiang, Rui; Ding, Yong; Zhao, Chongchao; Fan, Linyuan; Hu, Changwen

    2015-08-24

    To overcome the bottleneck of water splitting, the exploration of efficient, selective, and stable water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) is crucial. We report an all-inorganic, oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOC based on a polyoxometalate [(A-α-SiW9 O34)2Co8(OH)6(H2O)2(CO3)3](16-) (Co8 POM). As a cobalt(II)-based cubane water oxidation catalyst, Co8POM embeds double Co(II)4O3 cores. The self-assembled catalyst is similar to the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). Using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, Co8POM exhibits excellent water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 1436, currently the highest among bioinspired catalysts with a cubical core, and a high initial turnover frequency (TOF). Investigation by several spectroscopy, spectrometry, and other techniques confirm that Co8POM is a stable and efficient catalyst for visible light-driven water oxidation. The results offer a useful insight into the design of water oxidation catalysts. PMID:26130568

  12. Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation by a Molecular Manganese Vanadium Oxide Cluster.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Forster, Johannes; Goetz, McKenna K; Yücel, Duygu; Berger, Claudia; Jacob, Timo; Streb, Carsten

    2016-05-17

    Photosynthetic water oxidation in plants occurs at an inorganic calcium manganese oxo cluster, which is known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), in photosystem II. Herein, we report a synthetic OEC model based on a molecular manganese vanadium oxide cluster, [Mn4 V4 O17 (OAc)3 ](3-) . The compound is based on a [Mn4 O4 ](6+) cubane core, which catalyzes the homogeneous, visible-light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and is stabilized by a tripodal [V4 O13 ](6-) polyoxovanadate and three acetate ligands. When combined with the photosensitizer [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) and the oxidant persulfate, visible-light-driven water oxidation with turnover numbers of approximately 1150 and turnover frequencies of about 1.75 s(-1) is observed. Electrochemical, mass-spectrometric, and spectroscopic studies provide insight into the cluster stability and reactivity. This compound could serve as a model for the molecular structure and reactivity of the OEC and for heterogeneous metal oxide water-oxidation catalysts. PMID:27062440

  13. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  14. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  15. Water, water everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1993-02-20

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

  16. Healthy Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Systems, Water Fluoridation, Camping, Hiking, Travel… Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Community Systems, Household Treatment & Storage, Sanitation and Hygiene, Travelers’ Health… WASH-related ...

  17. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  18. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    We all need to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, activity level, and the weather where you live. The water you drink is a combination of surface water and groundwater. Surface water ...

  19. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  20. Tyramine content of some Cuban cheeses.

    PubMed

    Vidaud, Z E; Chaviano, J; Gonzáles, E; García Roché, M O

    1987-01-01

    The tyramine content of 8 types of cheeses made in Cuba were determined. Values obtained ranged from 0-425 micrograms/g. Highest results were found in Camembert-type cheese and lowest ones in Salami (processed type) cheese. It may be concluded that patients taking monoamine-oxidase inhibiting drugs should better not eat cheese, except processed or short-maturing types. PMID:3614331

  1. Antifungal activity of some Cuban Zanthoxylum species.

    PubMed

    Diéguez-Hurtado, R; Garrido-Garrido, G; Prieto-González, S; Iznaga, Y; González, L; Molina-Torres, J; Curini, M; Epifano, F; Marcotullio, M C

    2003-06-01

    Ethanolic extracts of the trunk bark of Zanthoxylum fagara, Z. elephantiasis and Z. martinicense showed activity against different species of fungi. No antibacterial activity was detected. PMID:12781811

  2. [Biological evaluation of Cuban plants VI].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Misas, C A; Rojas Hernández, N M; López Abraham, A M

    1979-01-01

    The study of the antibacterial activity of plants growing in Cuba is pursued. Aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts were prepared from five species, and it was found that the best inhibitions corresponded to the species Hamelia patens, Nephrolepis acuminata, Calocarpum sapota and Colocasia antiquorum. PMID:382282

  3. The Cuban Revolutionary Offensive in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald H.

    1970-01-01

    The ideas of Fidel Castro on the future of education in Cuba are expounded. These ideas include universal free education at all levels, exposure of the intellectuals to physical labor, and most importantly, the development of a true, Socialist state. (CK)

  4. SOME NOTES ON CUBAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Refal Milanes

    1996-01-01

    The traditional medical system of cuba is an amalgam so the medical knowledge of the Africans, Hispanics and the Amerindians of cuba. An attempt is made is this article to provide a short introduction to this fascinating body of knowledge, which awaits further investigations by scholars of ethnic medicine. PMID:22556768

  5. 76 FR 5072 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...-117, 123 Stat. 3034; E.O. 9193, 7 FR 5205, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 1174; E.O. 9989, 13 FR 4891, 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp., p. 748; Proc. 3447, 27 FR 1085, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 157; E.O. 12854, 58 FR 36587, 3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 614. Subpart E--Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  6. 75 FR 10996 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Stat. 3034; E.O. 9193, 7 FR 5205, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 1174; E.O. 9989, 13 FR 4891, 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp., p. 748; Proc. 3447, 27 FR 1085, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 157; E.O. 12854, 58 FR 36587,...

  7. 77 FR 71530 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    .... L. 111-8, 123 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 111-117, 123 Stat. 3034; E.O. 9193, 7 FR 5205, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 1174; E.O. 9989, 13 FR 4891, 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp., p. 748; Proc. 3447, 27 FR 1085, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 157; E.O. 12854, 58 FR 36587, 3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 614. Subpart...

  8. Halogenated earth abundant metalloporphyrins as photostable sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation in a neutral phosphate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Reek, Joost N H; Williams, René M; Brouwer, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    Very photostable tetrachloro-metalloporphyrins were developed as sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation coupled to cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts in concentrated (0.1 M) phosphate buffer solution. Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) acts as a sacrificial electron acceptor to oxidize the metalloporphyrin photosensitizers in their excited states. The radical cations thus produced drive the cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts: Co4O4-cubane and Co(NO3)2 as pre-catalyst for cobalt-oxide (CoOx) nanoparticles. Two different metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) both showed very high photostability in the photocatalytic reaction, as compared to non-halogenated analogues. This indicates that photostability primarily depends on the substitution of the porphyrin macrocycle, not on the central metal. Furthermore, our molecular design strategy not only positively increases the electrochemical potential by 120-140 mV but also extends the absorption spectrum up to ∼600 nm. As a result, the solar photon capturing abilities of halogenated metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) are comparable to that of the natural photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a. We successfully demonstrate long-term (>3 h) visible-light-driven water oxidation using our molecular system based on earth-abundant (first-row transition) metals in concentrated phosphate buffer solution. PMID:27197873

  9. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  10. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.