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Sample records for cubic spheres transition

  1. The quantization of the radii of coordination spheres cubic crystals and cluster systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, G.; Emelyanov, S.; Ignatenko, N.; Ignatenko, G.

    2016-02-01

    The article deals with the creation of an algorithm for calculating the radii of coordination spheres and coordination numbers cubic crystal structure and cluster systems in liquids. Solution has important theoretical value since it allows us to calculate the amount of coordination in the interparticle interaction potentials, to predict the processes of growth of the crystal structures and processes of self-organization of particles in the cluster system. One option accounting geometrical and quantum factors is the use of the Fibonacci series to construct a consistent number of focal areas for cubic crystals and cluster formation in the liquid.

  2. Direct simulation of pore level Fickian dispersion scale for transport through dense cubic packed spheres with vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2009-12-01

    The transition from non-Fickian to Fickian macroscale transport is explicitly demonstrated for an increasing array of three-dimensional pores with vortices in between a lattice of cubic packed spheres by microscale finite element Navier-Stokes flow and transport simulations. Solute residence time distribution begins with a power law for one pore but gradually and eventually transforms to an exponential distribution typical of classic dispersive transport after about ten pores. Parameter fitting of an analytical solution to the 1-D advection-dispersion equation using the simulated breakthrough curves leads to fitted pore velocities within 1% of actual values and an asymptotic fitted dispersion coefficient after a few pores. Therefore, after dozens of pores, bulk transport can be described by the advection-dispersion equation. Persistent vortices in similarly structured porous media subjected to similar grain-scale Reynolds and Peclet numbers may have minimal contribution to anomalous transport observed at larger scales.

  3. Glass transition of dense fluids of hard and compressible spheres.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Ludovic; Witten, Thomas A

    2009-08-01

    We use computer simulations to study the glass transition of dense fluids made of polydisperse repulsive spheres. For hard particles, we vary the volume fraction, phi , and use compressible particles to explore finite temperatures, T>0 . In the hard sphere limit, our dynamic data show evidence of an avoided mode-coupling singularity near phi(MCT) is approximately 0.592; they are consistent with a divergence of equilibrium relaxation times occurring at phi(0) is approximately 0.635, but they leave open the existence of a finite temperature singularity for compressible spheres at volume fraction phi>phi(0). Using direct measurements and a scaling procedure, we estimate the equilibrium equation of state for the hard sphere metastable fluid up to phi(0), where pressure remains finite, suggesting that phi(0) corresponds to an ideal glass transition. We use nonequilibrium protocols to explore glassy states above phi(0) and establish the existence of multiple equations of state for the unequilibrated glass of hard spheres, all diverging at different densities in the range phi in [0.642, 0.664]. Glassiness thus results in the existence of a continuum of densities where jamming transitions can occur. PMID:19792128

  4. Shape transitions in soft spheres regulated by elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogle, Craig; Rowat, Amy; Levine, Alex; Rudnick, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Soft core shell structures abound in nature. Examples of these structures, comprised of a thin outer membrane bounding an elastic core, include raisins, gel-filled vesicles, and a variety of membrane-bound organelles in the cell. We study the elasticity-driven morphological transitions of spherical core shell structures when either their surface area is increased or their interior volume is decreased. We demonstrate a transition, which is related to the Euler buckling, from the spherical initial shape to a lower symmetry one. We discuss the dependence of the critical excess surface area (relative to that of a bounding sphere) for buckling, the internal stresses in the core, and the symmetry of the buckled state on the elastic parameters of the system. We compare these predictions to a variety of observed morphological transitions in hard and soft materials, and discuss extensions of this work to growing viscoelastic media.

  5. Shape transitions in soft spheres regulated by elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogle, Craig; Rowat, Amy C.; Levine, Alex J.; Rudnick, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We study elasticity-driven morphological transitions of soft spherical core-shell structures in which the core can be treated as an isotropic elastic continuum and the surface or shell as a tensionless liquid layer, whose elastic response is dominated by bending. To generate the transitions, we consider the case where the surface area of the liquid layer is increased for a fixed amount of interior elastic material. We find that generically there is a critical excess surface area at which the isotropic sphere becomes unstable to buckling. At this point it adopts a lower symmetry wrinkled structure that can be described by a spherical harmonic deformation. We study the dependence of the buckled sphere and critical excess area of the transition on the elastic parameters and size of the system. We also relate our results to recent experiments on the wrinkling of gel-filled vesicles as their interior volume is reduced. The theory may have broader applications to a variety of related structures from the macroscopic to the microscopic, including the wrinkling of dried peas, raisins, as well as the cell nucleus.

  6. Jamming transition and inherent structures of hard spheres and disks.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Misaki; Kuroiwa, Takeshi; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Kunimasa

    2012-11-16

    Recent studies show that volume fractions φ(J) at the jamming transition of frictionless hard spheres and disks are not uniquely determined but exist over a continuous range. Motivated by this observation, we numerically investigate the dependence of φ(J) on the initial configurations of the parent fluid equilibrated at a volume fraction φ(eq), before compressing to generate a jammed packing. We find that φ(J) remains constant when φ(eq) is small but sharply increases as φ(eq) exceeds the dynamic transition point which the mode-coupling theory predicts. We carefully analyze configurational properties of both jammed packings and parent fluids and find that, while all jammed packings remain isostatic, the increase of φ(J) is accompanied with subtle but distinct changes of local orders, a static length scale, and an exponent of the finite-size scaling. These results are consistent with the scenario of the random first-order transition theory of the glass transition. PMID:23215507

  7. Nonclassical Nucleation in a Solid-Solid Transition of Confined Hard Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Weikai; Peng, Yi; Han, Yilong; Bowles, Richard K.; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2015-10-01

    A solid-solid phase transition of colloidal hard spheres confined between two planar hard walls is studied using a combination of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation. The transition from a solid consisting of five crystalline layers with square symmetry (5 □ ) to a solid consisting of four layers with triangular symmetry (4 △ ) is shown to occur through a nonclassical nucleation mechanism that involves the initial formation of a precritical liquid cluster, within which the cluster of the stable 4 △ phase grows. Free-energy calculations show that the transition occurs in one step, crossing a single free-energy barrier, and that the critical nucleus consists of a small 4 △ solid cluster wetted by a metastable liquid. In addition, the liquid cluster and the solid cluster are shown to grow at the planar hard walls. We also find that the critical nucleus size increases with supersaturation, which is at odds with classical nucleation theory. The △-solid-like cluster is shown to contain both face-centered-cubic and hexagonal-close-packed ordered particles.

  8. G2 cubic transition between two circles with shape control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Zulfiqar; Sakai, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method for joining two circles with an S-shaped or with a broken back C-shaped transition curve, composed of at most two spiral segments. In highway and railway route design or car-like robot path planning, it is often desirable to have such a transition. It is shown that a single cubic curve can be used for blending or for a transition curve preserving G2 continuity with local shape control parameter and more flexible constraints. Provision of the shape parameter and flexibility provide freedom to modify the shape in a stable manner which is an advantage over previous work by Meek, Walton, Sakai and Habib.

  9. Photoluminescence and electronic transitions in cubic silicon nitride

    PubMed Central

    Museur, Luc; Zerr, Andreas; Kanaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic study of cubic silicon nitride (γ-Si3N4) at cryogenic temperatures of 8 K in the near IR - VUV range of spectra with synchrotron radiation excitation provided the first experimental evidence of direct electronic transitions in this material. The observed photoluminescence (PL) bands were assigned to excitons and excited and centers formed after the electron capture by neutral structural defects. The excitons are weakly quenched on neutral and strongly on charged defects. The fundamental band-gap energy of 5.05 ± 0.05 eV and strong free exciton binding energy ~0.65 eV were determined. The latter value suggests a high efficiency of the electric power transformation in light in defect-free crystals. Combined with a very high hardness and exceptional thermal stability in air, our results indicate that γ-Si3N4 has a potential for fabrication of robust and efficient photonic emitters. PMID:26725937

  10. Noise-to-signal transition of a Brownian particle in the cubic potential: I. general theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Radim; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The noise-to-signal transitions are very interesting processes in physics, as they might transform environmental noise to useful mechanical effects. We theoretically analyze stochastic noise-to-signal transition of overdamped Brownian motion of a particle in the cubic potential. The particle reaches thermal equilibrium with its environment in the quadratic potential which is suddenly swapped to the cubic potential. We predict a simultaneous increase of both the displacement and signal-to-noise ratio in the cubic potential for the position linearly powered by the temperature of the particle environment. The short-time analysis and numerical simulations fully confirm different dynamical regimes of this noise-to-signal transition.

  11. Ising-like phase transition of an n-component Eulerian face-cubic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Guo, Wenan; Deng, Youjin

    2013-11-01

    By means of Monte Carlo simulations and a finite-size scaling analysis, we find a critical line of an n-component Eulerian face-cubic model on the square lattice and the simple cubic lattice in the region v>1, where v is the bond weight. The phase transition belongs to the Ising universality class independent of n. The critical properties of the phase transition can also be captured by the percolation of the complement of the Eulerian graph.

  12. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden' polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. Our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses. PMID:26412008

  13. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden’ polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleationmore » process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. In conclusion, our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.« less

  14. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden’ polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. In conclusion, our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.

  15. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-01

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a `hidden' polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. Our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.

  16. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a 'hidden' polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. Our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses. PMID:26412008

  17. Structural insights into the cubic-hexagonal phase transition kinetics of monoolein modulated by sucrose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Caleb W.; Strango, Zachariah I.; Dell, Zachary R.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harper, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), we measure the kinetics of the cubic-HII phase transition of monoolein in bulk sucrose solutions. We find that the transition temperature is dramatically lowered, with each 1 mol/kg of sucrose concentration dropping the transition by 20 °C. The kinetics of this transition also slow greatly with increasing sucrose concentration. For low sucrose concentrations, the kinetics are asymmetric, with the cooling (HII-cubic) transition taking twice as long as the heating (cubic-HII) transition. This asymmetry in transition times is reduced for higher sucrose concentrations. The cooling transition (cubic-HII) exhibits Avrami exponents in the range of 2 to 2.5 and the heating transition shows Avrami exponents ranging from 1 to 3. A classical Avrami interpretation would be that these processes occur via a one or two dimensional pathway with variable nucleation rates. A non-classical perspective would suggest that these exponents reflect the time dependence of pore formation (cooling) and destruction (heating). New density measurements of monoolein show that the currently accepted value is about 5% too low; this has substantial implications for electron density modeling. Structural calculations indicate that the head group area and lipid length in the cubic-HII transition shrink by about 12 % and 4 % respectively; this reduction is practically the same as that seen in a lipid with a very different molecular structure (rac-di-12:0 β-GlcDAG) that makes the same transition. Thermodynamic considerations suggest there is a hydration shell about one water molecule thick in front of the lipid head groups in both the cubic and HII phases. PMID:25758637

  18. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear of Block Copolymer Spheres on a Body-Centered Cubic Lattice: Are Micelles Like Metals?

    SciTech Connect

    Torija, Maria A.; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-03-07

    Small-angle X-ray diffraction experiments have uncovered a remarkable mechanism of grain alignment during plastic deformation of ordered sphere-forming diblock copolymer micelles when subjected to large amplitude dynamic shearing. A nearly monodisperse poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymer with block molecular weights of 42,000 and 60,000 was mixed with squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}), an EP selective solvent, at a concentration of 10 wt %. After high temperature annealing, the sample formed an ordered polydomain morphology containing glassy S cores at room temperature. SAXS powder patterns confirm body-centered cubic (BCC) symmetry and reveal the development of a complex array of two-dimensionally resolved Bragg reflections following the application, and cessation, of oscillatory shearing. These diffraction results are interpreted on the basis of the classic mechanism of crystalline slip, which accounts for plastic deformation of ductile materials such as metals. Four distinct slip systems are shown to be active in this work, suggesting a robust basis for deforming and mixing of soft ordered solids.

  19. Glass-transition properties of Yukawa potentials: from charged point particles to hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Anoosheh; Ivlev, Alexei; Khrapak, Sergey; Thomas, Hubertus; Morfill, Gregor E; Löwen, Hartmut; Wysocki, Adam; Sperl, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The glass transition is investigated in three dimensions for single and double Yukawa potentials for the full range of control parameters. For vanishing screening parameter, the limit of the one-component plasma is obtained; for large screening parameters and high coupling strengths, the glass-transition properties cross over to the hard-sphere system. Between the two limits, the entire transition diagram can be described by analytical functions. Unlike other potentials, the glass-transition and melting lines for Yukawa potentials are found to follow shifted but otherwise identical curves in control-parameter space. PMID:25019902

  20. Structural insights into the cubic-hexagonal phase transition kinetics of monoolein modulated by sucrose solutions.

    PubMed

    Reese, Caleb W; Strango, Zachariah I; Dell, Zachary R; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harper, Paul E

    2015-04-14

    Using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), we measure the kinetics of the cubic-HII phase transition of monoolein in bulk sucrose solutions. We find that the transition temperature is dramatically lowered, with each 1 mol kg(-1) of sucrose concentration dropping the transition by 20 °C. The kinetics of this transition also slow greatly with increasing sucrose concentration. For low sucrose concentrations, the kinetics are asymmetric, with the cooling (HII-cubic) transition taking twice as long as the heating (cubic-HII) transition. This asymmetry in transition times is reduced for higher sucrose concentrations. The cooling transition exhibits Avrami exponents in the range of 2 to 2.5 and the heating transition shows Avrami exponents ranging from 1 to 3. A classical Avrami interpretation would be that these processes occur via a one or two dimensional pathway with variable nucleation rates. A non-classical perspective would suggest that these exponents reflect the time dependence of pore formation (cooling) and destruction (heating). New density measurements of monoolein show that the currently accepted value is about 5% too low; this has substantial implications for electron density modeling. Structural calculations indicate that the head group area and lipid length in the cubic-HII transition shrink by about 12% and 4% respectively; this reduction is practically the same as that seen in a lipid with a very different molecular structure (rac-di-12:0 β-GlcDAG) that makes the same transition. Thermodynamic considerations suggest there is a hydration shell about one water molecule thick in front of the lipid head groups in both the cubic and HII phases. PMID:25758637

  1. Freezing, melting and the glass transition in a suspension of hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Megen, W.

    2002-08-01

    When a suspension of hard spheres traverses the freezing volume fraction we find discontinuous changes in the character of the tagged particle density. In particular, the velocity auto-correlation function develops a negative algebraic decay and the fluctuations become subject to interruption. From these, and the exponent of the algebraic growth of the non-Gaussian parameter, the difference in mode of relaxation of the density fluctuations between the stable and metastable colloidal fluids can be quantified. A diagrammatic scheme is proposed that reconciles the dynamics of phase transitions observed in hard-sphere colloids.

  2. Deformation-induced structural transition in body-centred cubic molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. J.; Wang, H.; Du, K.; Zhang, W.; Sui, M. L.; Mao, S. X.

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum is a refractory metal that is stable in a body-centred cubic structure at all temperatures before melting. Plastic deformation via structural transitions has never been reported for pure molybdenum, while transformation coupled with plasticity is well known for many alloys and ceramics. Here we demonstrate a structural transformation accompanied by shear deformation from an original <001>-oriented body-centred cubic structure to a <110>-oriented face-centred cubic lattice, captured at crack tips during the straining of molybdenum inside a transmission electron microscope at room temperature. The face-centred cubic domains then revert into <111>-oriented body-centred cubic domains, equivalent to a lattice rotation of 54.7°, and ~15.4% tensile strain is reached. The face-centred cubic structure appears to be a well-defined metastable state, as evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy and nanodiffraction, the Nishiyama–Wassermann and Kurdjumov–Sachs relationships between the face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic structures and molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings reveal a deformation mechanism for elemental metals under high-stress deformation conditions. PMID:24603655

  3. Deformation-induced structural transition in body-centred cubic molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Wang, H; Du, K; Zhang, W; Sui, M L; Mao, S X

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum is a refractory metal that is stable in a body-centred cubic structure at all temperatures before melting. Plastic deformation via structural transitions has never been reported for pure molybdenum, while transformation coupled with plasticity is well known for many alloys and ceramics. Here we demonstrate a structural transformation accompanied by shear deformation from an original <001>-oriented body-centred cubic structure to a <110>-oriented face-centred cubic lattice, captured at crack tips during the straining of molybdenum inside a transmission electron microscope at room temperature. The face-centred cubic domains then revert into <111>-oriented body-centred cubic domains, equivalent to a lattice rotation of 54.7°, and ~15.4% tensile strain is reached. The face-centred cubic structure appears to be a well-defined metastable state, as evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy and nanodiffraction, the Nishiyama-Wassermann and Kurdjumov-Sachs relationships between the face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic structures and molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings reveal a deformation mechanism for elemental metals under high-stress deformation conditions. PMID:24603655

  4. Hard sphere-like glass transition in eye lens α-crystallin solutions

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Gabriela; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Thurston, George M.; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the equilibrium liquid structure and dynamics of dilute and concentrated bovine eye lens α-crystallin solutions, using small-angle X-ray scattering, static and dynamic light scattering, viscometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and mode-coupling theory. We find that a polydisperse Percus–Yevick hard-sphere liquid-structure model accurately reproduces both static light scattering data and small-angle X-ray scattering liquid structure data from α-crystallin solutions over an extended range of protein concentrations up to 290 mg/mL or 49% vol fraction and up to ca. 330 mg/mL for static light scattering. The measured dynamic light scattering and viscosity properties are also consistent with those of hard-sphere colloids and show power laws characteristic of an approach toward a glass transition at α-crystallin volume fractions near 58%. Dynamic light scattering at a volume fraction beyond the glass transition indicates formation of an arrested state. We further perform event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of polydisperse hard-sphere systems and use mode-coupling theory to compare the measured dynamic power laws with those of hard-sphere models. The static and dynamic data, simulations, and analysis show that aqueous eye lens α-crystallin solutions exhibit a glass transition at high concentrations that is similar to those found in hard-sphere colloidal systems. The α-crystallin glass transition could have implications for the molecular basis of presbyopia and the kinetics of molecular change during cataractogenesis. PMID:25385638

  5. Phase Transition of a Structure II Cubic Clathrate Hydrate to a Tetragonal Form.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Satoshi; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Ohmura, Ryo; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A

    2016-08-01

    The crystal structure and phase transition of cubic structure II (sII) binary clathrate hydrates of methane (CH4 ) and propanol are reported from powder X-ray diffraction measurements. The deformation of host water cages at the cubic-tetragonal phase transition of 2-propanol+CH4 hydrate, but not 1-propanol+CH4 hydrate, was observed below about 110 K. It is shown that the deformation of the host water cages of 2-propanol+CH4 hydrate can be explained by the restriction of the motion of 2-propanol within the 5(12) 6(4) host water cages. This result provides a low-temperature structure due to a temperature-induced symmetry-lowering transition of clathrate hydrate. This is the first example of a cubic structure of the common clathrate hydrate families at a fixed composition. PMID:27346760

  6. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  7. Structural and mechanical features of the order-disorder transition in experimental hard-sphere packings.

    PubMed

    Hanifpour, M; Francois, N; Robins, V; Kingston, A; Allaei, S M Vaez; Saadatfar, M

    2015-06-01

    Here we present an experimental and numerical investigation on the grain-scale geometrical and mechanical properties of partially crystallized structures made of macroscopic frictional grains. Crystallization is inevitable in arrangements of monosized hard spheres with packing densities exceeding Bernal's limiting density ϕ(Bernal)≈0.64. We study packings of monosized hard spheres whose density spans over a wide range (0.59<ϕ<0.72). These experiments harness x-ray computed tomography, three-dimensional image analysis, and numerical simulations to access precisely the geometry and the 3D structure of internal forces within the sphere packings. We show that clear geometrical transitions coincide with modifications of the mechanical backbone of the packing both at the grain and global scale. Notably, two transitions are identified at ϕ(Bernal)≈0.64 and ϕ(c)≈0.68. These results provide insights on how geometrical and mechanical features at the grain scale conspire to yield partially crystallized structures that are mechanically stable. PMID:26172700

  8. Structural and mechanical features of the order-disorder transition in experimental hard-sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanifpour, M.; Francois, N.; Robins, V.; Kingston, A.; Vaez Allaei, S. M.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Here we present an experimental and numerical investigation on the grain-scale geometrical and mechanical properties of partially crystallized structures made of macroscopic frictional grains. Crystallization is inevitable in arrangements of monosized hard spheres with packing densities exceeding Bernal's limiting density ϕBernal≈0.64 . We study packings of monosized hard spheres whose density spans over a wide range (0.59 <ϕ <0.72 ) . These experiments harness x-ray computed tomography, three-dimensional image analysis, and numerical simulations to access precisely the geometry and the 3D structure of internal forces within the sphere packings. We show that clear geometrical transitions coincide with modifications of the mechanical backbone of the packing both at the grain and global scale. Notably, two transitions are identified at ϕBernal≈0.64 and ϕc≈0.68 . These results provide insights on how geometrical and mechanical features at the grain scale conspire to yield partially crystallized structures that are mechanically stable.

  9. Dynamics of Disorder-Order Transitions in Hard Sphere Colloidal Dispersions in micro-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. X.; Li, M.; Phan, S. E.; Russel, W. B.; Chaikin, Paul M.; Rogers, Rick; Meyers, W.

    1996-01-01

    We performed a series of experiments on 0.518 millimeter PMMA spheres suspended in an index matching mixture of decalin and tetralin the microgravity environment provided by the Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-73. The samples ranged in concentration from 0.49 to 0.62. volume fraction (phi) of spheres, which covers the range in which liquid, coexistence, solid and glass phases are expected from Earth bound experiments. Light scattering was used to probe the static structure, and the particle dynamics. Digital and 35 mm photos provided information on the morphology of the crystals. In general, the crystallites grew considerably larger (roughly an order of magnitude larger) than the same samples with identical treatment in 1 g. The dynamic light scattering shows the typical short time diffusion and long time caging effects found in 1 g. The surprises that were encountered in microgravity include the preponderance of random hexagonal close packed (RHCP) structures and the complete absence of the expected face centered cubic (FCC) structure, existence of large dendritic crystals floating in the coexistence samples (where liquid and solid phases coexist) and the rapid crystallization of samples which exist only in glass phase under the influence of one g. These results suggest that colloidal crystal growth is profoundly effected by gravity in yet unrecognized ways. We suspect that the RCHP structure is related to the nonequilibrium growth that is evident from the presence of dendrites. An analysis of the dendritic growth instabilities is presented within the framework of the Ackerson-Schatzel equation.

  10. First-order patterning transitions on a sphere as a route to cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O; Horsley, Eric M; Radja, Asja; Sweeney, Alison M; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-05-10

    We propose a general theory for surface patterning in many different biological systems, including mite and insect cuticles, pollen grains, fungal spores, and insect eggs. The patterns of interest are often intricate and diverse, yet an individual pattern is robustly reproducible by a single species and a similar set of developmental stages produces a variety of patterns. We argue that the pattern diversity and reproducibility may be explained by interpreting the pattern development as a first-order phase transition to a spatially modulated phase. Brazovskii showed that for such transitions on a flat, infinite sheet, the patterns are uniform striped or hexagonal. Biological objects, however, have finite extent and offer different topologies, such as the spherical surfaces of pollen grains. We consider Brazovskii transitions on spheres and show that the patterns have a richer phenomenology than simple stripes or hexagons. We calculate the free energy difference between the unpatterned state and the many possible patterned phases, taking into account fluctuations and the system's finite size. The proliferation of variety on a sphere may be understood as a consequence of topology, which forces defects into perfectly ordered phases. The defects are then accommodated in different ways. We also argue that the first-order character of the transition is responsible for the reproducibility and robustness of the pattern formation. PMID:27102872

  11. The Dynamics of Disorder-Order Transition in Hard Sphere Colloidal Dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaikin, Paul M.; Zhu, Jixiang; Cheng, Zhengdong; Phan, See-Eng; Russel, William B.; Lant, Christian T.; Doherty, Michael P.; Meyer, William V.; Rogers, Richard; Cannell, D. S.; Ottewill, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) seeks a complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard sphere colloidal dispersions. The light scattering instrument designed for flight collects Bragg and low angle light scattering in the forward direction via a CCD camera and performs conventional static and dynamic light scattering at 10-160 deg. through fiber optic cables. Here we report on the kinetics of nucleation and growth extracted from time-resolved Bragg images and measurements of the elastic modulus of crystalline phases obtained by monitoring resonant responses to sinusoidal forcing through dynamic light scattering. Preliminary analysis of the former indicates a significant difference from measurements on the ground, while the latter confirms nicely laboratory experiments with the same instrument and predictions from computer simulations.

  12. Identification of optical transitions in cubic and hexagonal GaN by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menniger, J.; Jahn, U.; Brandt, O.; Yang, H.; Ploog, K.

    1996-01-01

    The hexagonal and cubic phases of GaN are characterized by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra from micrometer-size single crystals with either hexagonal or cubic habits grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. At 5 K, distinct narrow excitonic lines are found at 3.472 and 3.272 eV for the hexagonal and cubic phase, yielding energy gaps of 3.500 and 3.300 eV, respectively. Detailed temperature- and intensity-dependent CL measurements on cubic GaN crystals enable us to clearly identify the exciton (free: 3.272 eV, bound: 3.263 eV) and the donor-acceptor pair (3.150 eV) transition. Moreover, we determine the donor-band and acceptor-band transition energy for this phase. In addition, phonon replicas of the exciton line and of the donor-acceptor pair transition are observed at 3.185 and 3.064 eV, respectively.

  13. Crystallization of Hard Sphere Colloids in Microgravity: Results of the Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition, CDOT on USML-2. Experiment 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Chaikin, P. M.; Li, Min; Russel, W. B.; Ottewill, R. H.; Rogers, R.; Meyer, W. V.

    1998-01-01

    Classical hard spheres have long served as a paradigm for our understanding of the structure of liquids, crystals, and glasses and the transitions between these phases. Ground-based experiments have demonstrated that suspensions of uniform polymer colloids are near-ideal physical realizations of hard spheres. However, gravity appears to play a significant and unexpected role in the formation and structure of these colloidal crystals. In the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle, crystals grow purely via random stacking of hexagonal close-packed planes, lacking any of the face-centered cubic (FCC) component evident in crystals grown in 1 g beyond melting and allowed some time to settle. Gravity also masks 33-539 the natural growth instabilities of the hard sphere crystals which exhibit striking dendritic arms when grown in microgravity. Finally, high volume fraction "glass" samples which fail to crystallize after more than a year in 1 g begin nucleation after several days and fully crystallize in less than 2 weeks on the Space Shuttle.

  14. Computational study of the melting-freezing transition in the quantum hard-sphere system for intermediate densities. II. Structural features.

    PubMed

    Sesé, Luis M; Bailey, Lorna E

    2007-04-28

    The structural features of the quantum hard-sphere system in the region of the fluid-face-centered-cubic-solid transition, for reduced number densities 0.45cubic-solid phase transition of hard spheres has been performed, and some interesting differences between the classical and quantum melting-freezing transition are observed. PMID:17477616

  15. Nematic-isotropic phase transition in diblock fused-sphere chain fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diplock, R.; Sullivan, D. E.; Jaffer, K. M.; Opps, S. B.

    2004-06-01

    A density-functional theory for the isotropic-nematic phase transition in fluids of rigid or semiflexible fused hard-sphere chains, developed previously by the authors, is extended to diblock chains each consisting of both a rigid and a flexible part. The theory is compared with recent Monte Carlo simulation results of McBride et al. The theoretical results for the variation of pressure and nematic order parameter with density agree well with the simulation data over density ranges where the simulations find isotropic and nematic phases.

  16. Transition to a time-dependent state of fluid flow in the wake of a sphere.

    PubMed

    Gumowski, K; Miedzik, J; Goujon-Durand, S; Jenffer, P; Wesfreid, J E

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, the results of laboratory investigation about the flow behind the sphere in the range of 150transition where the flow breaks the axisymmetry, very controlled experiments allow one to define a threshold for the second transition from stationary to unstable flow, which includes three-dimensional peristaltic oscillations of the two trailing vortices prior to hairpins shedding. The scenario has been proposed to explain the hairpin formation, as pieces of a counter-rotating longitudinal vortex. Hairpin shedding is suggested to be the result of oscillations, which are powerful enough, and reconnection of the trailing vortices. PMID:18643129

  17. Development of birefringence imaging analysis method for observing cubic crystals in various phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Manaka, Hirotaka; Yagi, Genta; Miura, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    Optical birefringence imaging systems demonstrate a high potential for comprehensively investigating various phase transitions. To completely demonstrate such abilities, the temperature dependence of birefringence (Δn) was measured in Δn ≃ 0 materials (i.e., cubic crystals with imperfect crystallization) via a background subtraction method. As a result, highly accurate birefringence imaging at 384 × 288 pixels was obtained using phase transition processes as well as varying temperatures visually characterized by the spatial distribution of not only the retardance level but also the optical fast-axis azimuth. PMID:27475562

  18. Development of birefringence imaging analysis method for observing cubic crystals in various phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaka, Hirotaka; Yagi, Genta; Miura, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    Optical birefringence imaging systems demonstrate a high potential for comprehensively investigating various phase transitions. To completely demonstrate such abilities, the temperature dependence of birefringence (Δn) was measured in Δn ≃ 0 materials (i.e., cubic crystals with imperfect crystallization) via a background subtraction method. As a result, highly accurate birefringence imaging at 384 × 288 pixels was obtained using phase transition processes as well as varying temperatures visually characterized by the spatial distribution of not only the retardance level but also the optical fast-axis azimuth.

  19. Cubic to tetragonal phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming; Zhao, Lijuan; Fu, Yuting; Shi, Yahui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Tm3+ ions doped β-PbF2 nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics with different doping concentrations and thermal temperatures are prepared by a traditional melt-quenching and thermal treatment method to investigate the structure and the phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed with numerical simulation. The phase transitions are proved further by the emission spectra. Both of the doping concentration and thermal temperature can induce an Oh to D4h site symmetry distortion and a cubic to tetragonal phase transition. The luminescence of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals at 800 nm was modulated by the phase transition of the surrounding crystal field.

  20. Constraining turbulence mixing strength in transitional discs with planets using SPHERE and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan Ovelar, M.; Pinilla, P.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; Birnstiel, T.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect that the turbulent mixing strength parameter αturb plays on near-infrared polarimetric and sub-millimetre interferometric imaging observations of transitional discs (TDs) with a gap carved by a planet. We generate synthetic observations of these objects with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE-ZIMPOL by combining hydrodynamical, dust evolution, radiative transfer and instrument models for values of α _{turb}=[10^{-4}, 10^{-3}, 10^{-2}]. We find that, through a combination of effects on the viscosity of the gas, the turbulent mixing and dust evolution processes, αturb strongly affects the morphology of the dust distribution that can be traced with these observations. We constrain the value of αturb to be within an order of magnitude of 10-3 in TD sources that show cavities in sub-mm continuum images while featuring continuous distribution of dust or smaller cavities in NIR-polarimetric images.

  1. Shear-induced sphere-to-cylinder transition in thin films of diblock copolymers and the role of wetting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chremos, Alexandros; Register, Richard; Chaikin, Paul; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios

    2011-03-01

    The shear-induced sphere-to-cylinder transition in diblock copolymer thin films has been studied using large-scale coarse- grained Langevin dynamics simulations. At zero-shear conditions and below the order-disorder transition temperature the thin film forms a monolayer or bilayer of spheres given the thickness of the film. Mimicking the experimental setup the minority block has an affinity to be adsorbed on the confining surfaces forming brushes which interpenetrate the rest of the film. Once a shear field is applied and above a critical shear rate, the spheres elongate and merge with their neighbors to form cylinders. We find that the mechanism with which the spheres merge is closely related with the stretching of individual diblock chains. In particular, we find that in monolayer thin films it is more difficult to achieve the sphere-to-cylinder transition, which is also an experimental observation, because the brushes restrict the stretching of diblock chains. The simulations were performed with the use of Graphical Processing Units allowing large-scale simulations with long polymer chains to studied.

  2. Noise-to-signal transition of a Brownian particle in the cubic potential: II. optical trapping geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemánek, Pavel; Šiler, Martin; Brzobohatý, Oto; Jákl, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2016-06-01

    The noise-to-signal transitions belong to an exciting group of processes in physics. In Filip and Zemánek (2016, J. Opt. 18 065401) we theoretically analyse the stochastic noise-to-signal transition of overdamped Brownian motion of a particle in the cubic potential. In this part, we propose a feasible experimental setup for a proof-of-principle experiment that uses methods of optical trapping in shaped laser beams which provide cubic and quadratic potentials. Theoretical estimates and results from the numerical simulations indicate that the noise-to-signal transition can be observed under realistic experimental conditions.

  3. Lattice vibrations and structural instability in caesium near the cubic-to-tetragonal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Y.; Jepsen, O.

    2000-10-01

    Under pressure, caesium undergoes a transition from a high-pressure fcc (face-centred cubic) phase (Cs-II) to a collapsed fcc phase (Cs-III) near 4.2 GPa. At 4.4 GPa there follows a transition to the tetragonal Cs-IV phase. In order to investigate the lattice vibrations in the fcc phase and seek a possible dynamical instability of the lattice, the phonon spectra of fcc Cs at volumes near the III-to-IV transition are calculated using Savrasov's density functional linear-response LMTO (linear muffin-tin orbital) method. Compared with quasiharmonic model calculations including non-central interatomic forces up to second neighbours, at the volume V/V0 = 0.44 (V0 is the experimental volume of bcc Cs (bcc≡body-centred cubic) with a0 = 6.048 Å), the linear-response calculations show soft intermediate-wavelength T[1ξξ0] phonons. Similar softening is also observed for short-wavelength L[ξξξ] and L[00ξ] phonons and intermediate-wavelength L[ξξξ] phonons. The Born-von Kármán analysis of the dispersion curves indicates that the interplanar force constants exhibit oscillating behaviours against plane spacing n and the large softening of intermediate-wavelength T[1ξξ0] phonons results from a negative (110) interplanar force constant Φn = 2. The calculated frequencies for high-symmetry K and W and longitudinal X and L phonons decrease with volume compression. In particular, the frequencies of the T[1ξξ0] phonons with ξ around 1/3 become imaginary and the fcc structure becomes dynamically unstable for volumes below 0.41V0. It is suggested that superstructures corresponding to the q&\

  4. Optical spectroscopy in turbid media utilizing an integrating sphere: mitochondrial chromophore analysis during metabolic transitions

    PubMed Central

    Chess, David J.; Billings, Eric; Covian, Raúl; Glancy, Brian; French, Stephanie; Taylor, Joni; de Bari, Heather; Murphy, Elizabeth; Balaban, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation Complexes (MOPC) is modulated at multiple sites. Herein, a method of optically monitoring electron distribution within and between MOPC is described using a center-mounted sample in an integrating sphere (to minimize scattering effects) with a rapid-scanning spectrometer. The redox-sensitive MOPC absorbances (~465 to 630 nm) were modeled using linear least squares analysis with individual chromophore spectra. Classical mitochondrial activity transitions (e.g., ADP-induced increase in oxygen consumption) were used to characterize this approach. Most notable in these studies was the observation that intermediates of the catalytic cycle of cytochrome oxidase are dynamically modulated with metabolic state. The MOPC redox state, along with measurements of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to evaluate the conductances of different sections of the electron transport chain. This analysis then was applied to mitochondria isolated from rabbit hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Surprisingly, I/R resulted in an inhibition of all measured MOPC conductances, suggesting a coordinated down-regulation of mitochondrial activity with this well-established cardiac perturbation. PMID:23665273

  5. A Continuous Time Random Walk Description of Monodisperse, Hard-Sphere Colloids below the Ordering Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechman, Jeremy; Pierce, Flint

    2012-02-01

    Diffusive transport is a ubiquitous process that is typically understood in terms of a classical random walk of non-interacting particles. Here we present the results for a model of hard-sphere colloids in a Newtonian incompressible solvent at various volume fractions below the ordering transition (˜50%). We numerically simulate the colloidal systems via Fast Lubrication Dynamics -- a Brownian Dynamics approach with corrected mean-field hydrodynamic interactions. Colloid-colloid interactions are also included so that we effectively solve a system of interacting Langevin equations. The results of the simulations are analyzed in terms of the diffusion coefficient as a function of time with the early and late time diffusion coefficients comparing well with experimental results. An interpretation of the full time dependent behavior of the diffusion coefficient and mean-squared displacement is given in terms of a continuous time random walk. Therefore, the deterministic, continuum diffusion equation which arises from the discrete, interacting random walkers is presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Equilibrium lines and barriers to phase transitions: the cubic diamond to beta-tin transition in Si from first principles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S L; Marcus, P M

    2012-06-01

    The phase transition between the cubic diamond (cd) and beta-tin (β-Sn) phases of Si under pressure and the region of interaction of the two phases are studied by first-principles total energy calculations. For a non-vibrating crystal we determine the pressure of the thermodynamic phase transition p(t) = 96 kbar, the Gibbs free energy barrier at p(t) of ΔG = 19.6 mRyd/atom that stabilizes the phases against a phase transition and the finite pressure range in which both phases are stable. We show that the phases in that pressure range are completely described by three equilibrium lines of states along which the structure, the total energy E, the hydrostatic pressure p that would stabilize the structure and the values of G all vary. Two equilibrium lines describe the two phases (denoted the ph-eq line, ph is cd or β-Sn phase); a third line is a line of saddle points of G with respect to structure (denoted the sp-eq line) that forms a barrier of larger G against instability of the metastable ranges of the phase lines. An important conclusion is that the sp-eq line merges with the two ph-eq lines: one end of the sp-eq line merges with the cd-eq line at high pressure, the other end merges with the β-Sn-eq line at low pressure. The mergers end the barrier protecting the metastable ranges of the two ph-eq lines, hence the lines go unstable beyond the mergers. The mergers thus simplify the phase diagram by providing a natural termination to the stable parts of all metastable ranges of the ph-eq lines. Although 96 kbar is lower than the experimental transition pressure, we note that phonon pressure raises the observed transition pressure. PMID:22551557

  7. Note: Sound velocity of a soft sphere model near the fluid-solid phase transition.

    PubMed

    Khrapak, Sergey A

    2016-03-28

    The quasilocalized charge approximation is applied to estimate the sound velocity of simple soft sphere fluid with the repulsive inverse-power-law interaction. The obtained results are discussed in the context of the sound velocity of the hard-sphere system and of liquid metals at the melting temperature. PMID:27036483

  8. Prediction of a metastable cubic phase for the transition metals with hcp ground state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss, Romeo; Aguayo, Aaron; Murrieta, Gabriel

    2007-03-01

    The discovery of a metastable phase for a given material is interesting because corresponds to a new bonding and new properties are expected. The calculation of the total-energy along the Bain path is frequently used as a method to find tetragonal metastable states. However, a local minimum in the tetragonal distortion is not a definitive proof of a metastable state, and the elastic stability needs to be evaluated. In a previous work, using the elastic stability criteria for a cubic structure, we have shown that the transition metals with hcp ground state; Ti, Zr, and Hf have a fcc metastable phase [Aguayo, G. Murrieta, and R. de Coss, Phys. Rev. B 65, 092106 (2002)]. That result is interesting since the fcc crystal structure does not appear in the current pressure-temperature phase diagram of these metals, and support the experimental observations of fcc Ti and Zr in thin films. In the present work, we extend the elastic stability study of the fcc structure to the non-magnetic transition metals with hcp ground state; Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, Tc, Ru, Hf, Re, and Os. We find that all the metals involved in this study have a metastable fcc structure. From these results, substrates on which the fcc structure of these metals could be growth epitaxially are predicted.

  9. Hexagonal graphite to cubic diamond transition from equilibrium lines and barrier calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shen Li

    2014-07-01

    Phase equilibrium lines of hexagonal graphite (hg) and cubic diamond (cd) phases of carbon as well as a saddle-point equilibrium line between the two phase equilibrium lines are studied by first-principles total-energy calculations. The Gibbs free energies ( G) of the three equilibrium lines determine the transition pressure p t = 70 kbar (0.070 Mbar) from hg phase to cd phase and the barrier height at p t of ΔG = 178 mRy/atom that stabilizes the two phases against a phase transition. The cd phase becomes unstable at V = 13.6 au3/atom ( p = 26 Mbar) where the curvature at the equilibrium point of the energy curve (denoted E V ( c/ a) curve) goes to zero. The hg and cd phase equilibrium lines cross at V = 14.5 au3/atom where the regular hg phase (with one minimum in each E V ( c/ a) curve) ends and the irregular hg phase (with two minima in each E V ( c/ a) curve) develops. The feature of "two phase equilibrium lines cross" was not observed in our previous work [S.L. Qiu, P.M. Marcus, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 225501 (2012); S.L. Qiu, P.M. Marcus, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 425 (2013)] where the two interacting crystal phases have a common unit cell with different c/ a ratios. This work demonstrates that the saddle-point equilibrium line along with the two phase equilibrium lines are all needed for a complete description of crystal phases and their transitions under pressure.

  10. Hexagonal graphite to cubic diamond transition from equilibrium lines and barrier calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Qiu, Shen

    2014-07-01

    Phase equilibrium lines of hexagonal graphite (hg) and cubic diamond (cd) phases of carbon as well as a saddle-point equilibrium line between the two phase equilibrium lines are studied by first-principles total-energy calculations. The Gibbs free energies (G) of the three equilibrium lines determine the transition pressure pt = 70 kbar (0.070 Mbar) from hg phase to cd phase and the barrier height at pt of ΔG = 178 mRy/atom that stabilizes the two phases against a phase transition. The cd phase becomes unstable at V = 13.6 au3/atom (p = 26 Mbar) where the curvature at the equilibrium point of the energy curve (denoted EV(c/a) curve) goes to zero. The hg and cd phase equilibrium lines cross at V = 14.5 au3/atom where the regular hg phase (with one minimum in each EV(c/a) curve) ends and the irregular hg phase (with two minima in each EV(c/a) curve) develops. The feature of "two phase equilibrium lines cross" was not observed in our previous work [S.L. Qiu, P.M. Marcus, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 225501 (2012); S.L. Qiu, P.M. Marcus, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 425 (2013)] where the two interacting crystal phases have a common unit cell with different c/a ratios. This work demonstrates that the saddle-point equilibrium line along with the two phase equilibrium lines are all needed for a complete description of crystal phases and their transitions under pressure.

  11. Language, Literacy, and Nationalism: Taiwan's Orthographic Transition from the Perspective of Han Sphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiung, Wi-vun Taiffalo

    2007-01-01

    The Han sphere, including Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China, adopted Han characters and classical Han writing as the official written language before the 20th century. However, great changes came with the advent of the 20th century. After World War II, Han characters in Vietnam and Korea were officially replaced by the romanised "Chu Quoc…

  12. Apparent viscosity and particle pressure of a concentrated suspension of non-Brownian hard spheres near the jamming transition.

    PubMed

    Mills, P; Snabre, P

    2009-11-01

    We consider the steady shear flow of a homogeneous and dense assembly of hard spheres suspended in a Newtonian viscous fluid. In a first part, a mean-field approach based on geometric arguments is used to determine the viscous dissipation in a dense isotropic suspension of smooth hard spheres and the hydrodynamic contribution to the suspension viscosity. In a second part, we consider the coexistence of transient solid clusters coupled to regions with free flowing particles near the jamming transition. The fraction of particles in transient clusters is derived through the Landau-Ginzburg concepts for first-order phase transition with an order parameter corresponding to the proportion of "solid" contacts. A state equation for the fraction of particle-accessible volume is introduced to derive the average normal stresses and a constitutive law that relates the total shear stress to the shear rate. The analytical expression of the average normal stresses well accounts for numerical or experimental evaluation of the particle pressure and non-equilibrium osmotic pressure in a dense sheared suspension. Both the friction level between particles and the suspension dilatancy are shown to determine the singularity of the apparent shear viscosity and the flow stability near the jamming transition. The model further predicts a Newtonian behavior for a concentrated suspension of neutrally buoyant particles and no shear thinning behavior in relation with the shear liquefaction of transient solid clusters. PMID:19856003

  13. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  14. Evolution of Voronoi/Delaunay Characterized Micro Structure with Transition from Loose to Dense Sphere Packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xi-Zhong

    2007-08-01

    Micro structures of equal sphere packing (ranging from loose to dense packing) generated numerically by discrete element method under different vibration conditions are characterized using Voronoi/Delaunay tessellation, which is applied on a wide range of packing densities. The analysis on micro properties such as the total perimeter, surface area, and the face number distribution of each Voronoi polyhedron, and the pore size distribution in each Voronoi/Delaunay subunit is systematically carried out. The results show that with the increasing density of sphere packing, the Voronoi/Delaunay pore size distribution is narrowed. That indicates large pores to be gradually substituted by small uniformed ones during densification. Meanwhile, the distributions of face number, total perimeter, and surface area of Voronoi polyhedra at high packing densities tend to be narrower and higher, which is in good agreement with those in random loose packing.

  15. Influence of Interfacial Energy on Electric-Field-Induced Sphere-to-Cylinder Transition in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Chen, W; Russell, T

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the interfacial energy on the electric-field-induced sphere-to-cylinder (S-to-C) transition in polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) copolymer thin films was studied as a function of the difference in the interfacial interactions of the PS and PMMA blocks with the substrate, d. It was found that the interfacial energies altered both the critical electric field strength and the time scales of kinetics. A very strong preferential interfacial interaction suppressed the electric-field-induced S-to-C transition even though such a transition occurred on a neutralized surface where the interfacial interactions were balanced. For a moderate interfacial interaction, the S-to-C transition can be induced by an applied electric field, but the time scale of the morphology change is much longer. Furthermore, the formation of ionic complexes in the BCP was found to enhance the electric-field-induced S-to-C transition even on a native Si substrate without any surface modification, providing a simple route to generate ordered arrays of high-aspect-ratio cylinders oriented normal to a film surface.

  16. Kinetics of Hexagonal-Body-Centered Cubic Transition in a Triblock Copolymer in a Selective Solvent: Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Measurements and Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li,M.; Liu, Y.; Nie, H.; Bansil, R.; Steinhart, M.

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to examine the kinetics of the transition from hexagonal (hex) cylinders to body-centered cubic (bcc) spheres at various temperatures in poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) (SEBS) in mineral oil, a selective solvent for the middle ethylene-co-butylene (EB) block. Temperature-ramp SAXS and rheology measurements show the hex to bcc order-order transition (OOT) at 127 C and order-disorder transition (ODT) at 180 C. We also observed the metastability limit of hex in bcc with a spinodal temperature, Ts 150 C. The OOT exhibits three stages and occurs via a nucleation and growth mechanism when the final temperature Tf < Ts. Spinodal decomposition in a continuous ordering system was seen when Ts < Tf < TODT. We observed that hex cylinders transform to disordered spheres via a transient bcc state. We develop a geometrical model of coupled anisotropic fluctuations and calculate the scattering which shows very good agreement with the SAXS data. The splitting of the primary peak into two peaks when the cylinder spacing and modulation wavelength are incommensurate predicted by the model is confirmed by analysis of the SAXS data.

  17. Pressure- and Composition-Induced Structural Quantum Phase Transition in the Cubic Superconductor (Sr,Ca)3Ir4Sn13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klintberg, Lina E.; Goh, Swee K.; Alireza, Patricia L.; Saines, Paul J.; Tompsett, David A.; Logg, Peter W.; Yang, Jinhu; Chen, Bin; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Grosche, F. Malte

    2012-12-01

    We show that the quasi-skutterudite superconductor Sr3Ir4Sn13 undergoes a structural transition from a simple cubic parent structure, the I phase, to a superlattice variant, the I' phase, which has a lattice parameter twice that of the high temperature phase. We argue that the superlattice distortion is associated with a charge density wave transition of the conduction electron system and demonstrate that the superlattice transition temperature T* can be suppressed to zero by combining chemical and physical pressure. This enables the first comprehensive investigation of a superlattice quantum phase transition and its interplay with superconductivity in a cubic charge density wave system.

  18. Three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of cubic transition metal nitride thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, F.; Mastail, C.; Abadias, G.

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model has been developed and used to simulate the microstructure and growth morphology of cubic transition metal nitride (TMN) thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Results are presented for the case of stoichiometric TiN, chosen as a representative TMN prototype. The model is based on a NaCl-type rigid lattice and includes deposition and diffusion events for both N and Ti species. It is capable of reproducing voids and overhangs, as well as surface faceting. Simulations were carried out assuming a uniform flux of incoming particles approaching the surface at normal incidence. The ballistic deposition model is parametrized with an interaction parameter r0 that mimics the capture distance at which incoming particles may stick on the surface, equivalently to a surface trapping mechanism. Two diffusion models are implemented, based on the different ways to compute the site-dependent activation energy for hopping atoms. The influence of temperature (300-500 K), deposition flux (0.1-100 monolayers/s), and interaction parameter r0 (1.5-6.0 Å) on the obtained growth morphology are presented. Microstructures ranging from highly porous, [001]-oriented straight columns with smooth top surface to rough columns emerging with different crystallographic facets are reproduced, depending on kinetic restrictions, deposited energy (seemingly captured by r0), and shadowing effect. The development of facets is a direct consequence of the diffusion model which includes an intrinsic (minimum energy-based) diffusion anisotropy, although no crystallographic diffusion anisotropy was explicitly taken into account at this stage. The time-dependent morphological evolution is analyzed quantitatively to extract the growth exponent β and roughness exponent α , as indicators of kinetic roughening behavior. For dense TiN films, values of α ≈0.7 and β =0.24 are obtained in good agreement with existing experimental data. At this

  19. Structure and phase transition of BiFeO{sub 3} cubic micro-particles prepared by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jian-Ping; Yang, Ruo-Lin; Xiao, Rui-Juan; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Deng, Chao-Yong

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) cubic micro-particles with smooth surfaces were synthesized. BiFeO{sub 3} has a hexagonal perovskite structure with a space group R3c below 370 °C and rhombohedral perovskite structure with a space group R3m below 755 °C, undergoes a phase transition in the temperature range of 755–817 °C to a cubic structure, then decompose to liquid and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} above 939 °C. Highlights: ► BiFeO{sub 3} micro-particles with smooth surface were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► BiFeO{sub 3} enjoys hexagonal structure with well element ratio and chemical valence. ► BiFeO{sub 3} transition from rhombohedral phase to cubic phase lasts 60 °C. -- Abstract: Single-phase bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) powders were synthesized with a hydrothermal method by controlling the experimental conditions carefully. The powder structure, morphology and composition were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, Raman measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The particles change from irregular agglomerations to regular cubes with increasing KOH concentration. The large BiFeO{sub 3} cubic particles enjoy much smooth surfaces with well-matched element ratio (Bi:Fe:O = 1:1:3) and chemical valence (Bi{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} and O{sup 2−}). The high temperature XRD and differential scanning calorimetry show that BiFeO{sub 3} powders have a hexagonal perovskite structure with a space group R3c below 370 °C and a rhombohedral structure with a space group R3m below 755 °C. BiFeO{sub 3} undergoes a phase transition in the temperature range of 755–817 °C from rhombohedral structure to a cubic phase, then decomposes to liquid and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} above 939 °C.

  20. Influence of gadolinium content on the tetragonal to cubic phase transition in zirconia-silica binary oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Pallavi Suhasinee; Vasanthavel, S.; Ponnilavan, V.; Kannan, S.

    2015-05-15

    The present study reports the effect of gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) in zirconia-silica (ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}) binary oxides. The pure ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} synthesized at 1100 °C was tetragonal. The addition of Gd{sup 3+} in the concentration range of 5%–10% resulted in the formation of t-ZrO{sub 2}, whereas higher contents of Gd{sup 3+} led to the formation of cubic ZrO{sub 2} (c-ZrO{sub 2}). The presence of Gd{sup 3+} also affected the lattice parameters of both t-ZrO{sub 2} and c-ZrO{sub 2}. Magnetic studies confirmed a steady increase in the paramagnetic behaviour with increasing content of Gd{sup 3+}. - Graphical abstract: t-ZrO{sub 2} to c-ZrO{sub 2} phase transition influenced by Gd{sup 3+} content. - Highlights: • Sol-gel synthesis of Gd{sup 3+} added SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} binary oxides. • Significant role of Gd{sup 3+} content in the tetragonal and cubic stabilization of ZrO{sub 2}. • Phase stability of either tetragonal or cubic stabilization till 1100 °C. • Gd{sup 3+} additions ensured additional paramagnetic behaviour in SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} binary oxide.

  1. A completely controlled sphere-to-bilayer micellar transition: the molecular mechanism and application on the growth of nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kong; Li, Huanyuan; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Ruijuan; Bei, Fengli; Lu, Lude; Han, Qiaofeng; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    The combination of a simple modification of the sample addition method to generate a sort of continuously accumulated external stimulation with only minute increments in amplitude and the introduction of probe molecules (herein aniline) within the micelle allow the direct continuous in situ spectroscopic monitoring of possible micellar transitions. In this way, a sphere-to-ellipsoid and further an ellipsoid-to-bilayer micellar transition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induced by camphor sulfuric acid (CSA) is observed to experience four stages in the time sequence: (i) the accumulated protons released from CSA in the hydration layer of the micelle stimulate the rearrangement of SDS micelles; (ii) the micelles transform into ellipsoidal shapes as evidenced by the characteristic chemical shift anisotropy and the corresponding molecular dynamic properties from probe molecules; (iii) further protonation of aniline induces the micelle to turn into lamellar structures; (iv) aniline is freed from the micelle while leaving the SDS bilayers undistorted. Moreover, polyaniline nanosheets incorporating SDS bilayers in sandwich structures, which can display excellent capacitive behavior at relatively high current densities for the fabricated supercapacitors, are prepared from the aniline oriented by the bending energy of the SDS bilayers. PMID:26996652

  2. Activation Energy of the Low-pH-Induced Lamellar to Bicontinuous Cubic Phase Transition in Dioleoylphosphatidylserine/Monoolein.

    PubMed

    Oka, Toshihiko; Saiki, Takahiro; Alam, Jahangir Md; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-02-01

    Electrostatic interaction is an important factor for phase transitions between lamellar liquid-crystalline (Lα) and inverse bicontinuous cubic (QII) phases. We investigated the effect of temperature on the low-pH-induced Lα to double-diamond cubic (QII(D)) phase transition in dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS)/monoolein (MO) using time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering with a stopped-flow apparatus. Under all conditions of temperature and pH, the Lα phase was directly transformed into an intermediate inverse hexagonal (HII) phase, and subsequently the HII phase slowly converted to the QII(D) phase. We obtained the rate constants of the initial step (i.e., the Lα to HII phase transition) and of the second step (i.e., the HII to QII(D) phase transition) using the non-negative matrix factorization method. The rate constant of the initial step increased with temperature. By analyzing this result, we obtained the values of its apparent activation energy, Ea (Lα → HII), which did not change with temperature but increased with an increase in pH. In contrast, the rate constant of the second step decreased with temperature at pH 2.6, although it increased with temperature at pH 2.7 and 2.8. These results indicate that the value of Ea (HII → QII(D)) at pH 2.6 increased with temperature, but the values of Ea (HII → QII(D)) at pH 2.7 and 2.8 were constant with temperature. The values of Ea (HII → QII(D)) were smaller than those of Ea (Lα → HII) at the same pH. We analyzed these results using a modified quantitative theory on the activation energy of phase transitions of lipid membranes proposed initially by Squires et al. (Squires, A. M.; Conn, C. E.; Seddon, J. M.; Templer, R. H. Soft Matter 2009, 5, 4773). On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of this phase transition. PMID:26766583

  3. Transitional regimes of natural convection in a differentially heated cubical cavity under the effects of wall and molecular gas radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A.; Xin, S.

    2014-02-15

    The transition to unsteadiness and the dynamics of weakly turbulent natural convection, coupled to wall or gas radiation in a differentially heated cubical cavity with adiabatic lateral walls, are studied numerically. The working fluid is air with small contents of water vapor and carbon dioxide whose infrared spectral radiative properties are modelled by the absorption distribution function model. A pseudo spectral Chebyshev collocation method is used to solve the flow field equations and is coupled to a direct ray tracing method for radiation transport. Flow structures are identified by means of either the proper orthogonal decomposition or the dynamic mode decomposition methods. We first retrieve the classical mechanism of transition to unsteadiness without radiation, characterized by counter-rotating streamwise-oriented vortices generated at the exit of the vertical boundary layers. Wall radiation through a transparent medium leads to a homogenization of lateral wall temperatures and the resulting transition mechanism is similar to that obtained with perfectly conducting lateral walls. The transition is due to an unstable stratification upstream the vertical boundary layers and is characterized by periodically oscillating transverse rolls of axis perpendicular to the main flow. When molecular gas radiation is accounted for, no periodic solution is found and the transition to unsteadiness displays complex structures with chimneys-like rolls whose axes are again parallel to the main flow. The origin of this instability is probably due to centrifugal forces, as suggested previously for the case without radiation. Above the transition to unsteadiness, at Ra = 3 × 10{sup 8}, it is shown that both wall and gas radiation significantly intensify turbulent fluctuations, decrease the thermal stratification in the core of the cavity, and increase the global circulation.

  4. Statistical Thermodynamics of an "Open" Hard Sphere System on the Equilibrium Fluid Isotherm: Study of Properties of the Freezing Transition Without Direct Involvement of the Equilibrium Solid Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Howard; Manzanares, José A.

    2016-09-01

    Using several theoretical toolsldots (i) the nucleation theorem, (ii) an equivalent cavity, (iii) the reversible work of adding a cavity to an open hard sphere system, and (iv) the theory of "stability"... the authors estimated the density at which the hard sphere freezing transition occurs. No direct involvement of the equilibrium solid phase is involved. The reduced density \\uppi a^3ρ _f/6 (where a is the hard sphere diameter and ρ _f is the actual density at which freezing occurs) is found to be 0.4937 while the value obtained by computer simulation is 0.494. The agreement is good, but the new method still contains some approximation. However, the approximation is based on the idea that at a density just below ρ _f the fluid adopts a distorted structure resembling the solid, but different enough so that long-range order vanishes. Initial loss of stability may not be involved in every fluid-solid transition, but it may be an early step in the hard sphere and related systems.

  5. Bismuth doping strategies in GeTe nanowires to promote high-temperature phase transition from rhombohedral to face-centered cubic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Huang, Rong; Wei, Fenfen; Cheng, Guosheng; Kong, Tao

    2014-11-17

    The phase transition of Bi-doped (∼3 at. %) GeTe nanowires from a rhombohedral (R) to a face-centered cubic (C) structure was observed in in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The promotion of high-temperature R-C phase transition by a doping approach was revealed. Ab initio energy calculations of doped GeTe at various Bi doping concentrations were performed to interpret the promoted temperature-induced phase transitions. Those results indicated that the total energy differences between R and C structures of doped GeTe decreased as Bi doping concentrations increased, which facilitated R-C phase transitions.

  6. First-principles determination of band-to-band electronic transition energies in cubic and hexagonal AlGaInN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, F. L.; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.

    2016-08-01

    We provide approximate quasiparticle-corrected band gap energies for quaternary cubic and hexagonal AlxGayIn1-x-yN semiconductor alloys, employing a cluster expansion method to account for the inherent statistical disorder of the system. Calculated values are compared with photoluminescence measurements and discussed within the currently accepted model of emission in these materials by carrier localization. It is shown that bowing parameters are larger in the cubic phase, while the range of band gap variation is bigger in the hexagonal one. Experimentally determined transition energies are mostly consistent with band-to-band excitations.

  7. The effect of disorder in Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} on the tetragonal to cubic phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qingdi; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2011-04-15

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study the structure of the complex perovskite Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6}, at temperatures down to 100 K. Where the Ta and Y cations exhibit long-range rock-salt like ordering, Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} displays a continuous phase transition from a high temperature cubic structure, described in space group Fm3-bar m, to a tetragonal, I4/m, structure near 260 K. This transition is inhibited if extensive disorder and/or vacancies are/is present in the sample. -- Graphical abstract: The tetragonal-cubic phase transition observed in the cation ordered double perovskite Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} is inhibited when these are disordered. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Double perovskite Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} characterised by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. {yields} Cubic-tetragonal transition in Ba{sub 2}YTaO{sub 6} studied. {yields} Impact of disorder on the structure and phase transitions established.

  8. Monoclinic phase of boron nitride appearing during the hexagonal cubic phase transition at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shigeo; He, Lian-Long; Onoda, Mitsuko; Akaishi, Minoru

    1996-01-01

    Fine structures appearing on the phase transition from h (hexagonal) to c (cubic) boron nitride under high pressure (7.7 GPa) and high temperature (1800-2150 °C) are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. A prominent contraction of the interplanar spacing between sp2 sheets from 3.33 to 3.10 Å in so-called ``compressed h-BN'' is attributable to a monoclinic lattice distortion of the residual h-BN, which originates from the difference in the compressibility as well as the thermal expansion between adjoining h- and c-BN grains. The parameters of the monoclinic unit cell are am=4.33, bm=2.50, cm=3.1-3.3 Å, and β=92-95°. Thin plates of h-BN are often folded and the folding also causes the monoclinic structure. The sheet sequence of r (rhombohedral)-BN locally appears when the strong volume shrinkage occurs due to the formation of a c-BN grain. Nanoscale twins appear in resulting c-BN grains, as long as they are small, and w (wurzite)-BN is sometimes included in them.

  9. Self-assembly in a near-frictionless granular material: conformational structures and transitions in uniaxial cyclic compression of hydrogel spheres.

    PubMed

    Walker, David M; Tordesillas, Antoinette; Brodu, Nicolas; Dijksman, Joshua A; Behringer, Robert P; Froyland, Gary

    2015-03-21

    We use a Markov transition matrix-based analysis to explore the structures and structural transitions in a three-dimensional assembly of hydrogel spheres under cyclic uniaxial compression. We apply these methods on experimental data obtained from a packing of nearly frictionless hydrogel balls. This allows an exploration of the emergence and evolution of mesoscale internal structures - a key micromechanical property that governs self-assembly and self-organization in dense granular media. To probe the mesoscopic force network structure, we consider two structural state spaces: (i) a particle and its contacting neighbours, and (ii) a particle's local minimal cycle topology summarized by a cycle vector. In both spaces, our analysis of the transition dynamics reveals which structures and which sets of structures are most prevalent and most likely to transform into each other during the compression/decompression of the material. In compressed states, structures rich in 3-cycle or triangle topologies form in abundance. In contrast, in uncompressed states, transitions comprising poorly connected structures are dominant. An almost-invariant transition set within the cycle vector space is discovered that identifies an intermediate set of structures crucial to the material's transition from weakly jammed to strongly jammed, and vice versa. Preferred transition pathways are also highlighted and discussed with respect to thermo-micro-mechanical constitutive formulations. PMID:25634109

  10. The cubic-tetragonal phase transition in the system majorite (Mg4Si4O12) - pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12), and garnet symmetry in the Earth's transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, S.; Sharp, T. G.; Seifert, F.; Rubie, D. C.

    Garnets along the join Mg4Si4O12 (majorite end member) - Mg3Al2Si3O12 (pyrope) synthesized at 2000 °C, 19 GPa are, after quench, tetragonal in the compositional range up to 20 mol% pyrope, but cubic at higher Al contents. Lattice constants atet and atet in the tetragonal compositional range converge with increasing pyrope contents towards the lattice constant of the cubic garnets. The elastic strain and the intensity of the (222) reflection as a function of composition indicate a second-order phase transition near 20 mol% pyrope. From the wedge-like shape of pseudomerohedral twins and their interaction near 90° twin-boundary corners, as well as from the absence of growth-induced dislocations, it is concluded that the Al-poor garnets are also cubic at synthesis conditions but invert by (Mg,Si) ordering on the octahedral sites into tetragonal phases of space group I41/a upon quench. This implies that the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition in Mg4Si4O12 garnet occurs below 2000 °C at 19 GPa and at even lower temperatures in more aluminous compositions. A composition-dependent Landau model is consistent with a direct transformation from Ia3d to I41/a. Comparison of the T-X stability field of majorite-pyrope garnets with the chemistry of majorite-rich garnets expected to occur in the Earth's transition zone shows that the latter will be cubic under all conditions. Softening of elastic constants, which commonly accompanies ferroelastic phase transitions, may affect the seismic velocities of garnets in the deeper transition zone where majorite contents are highest.

  11. The isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic phase transition of binary mixtures of tangent hard-sphere chain fluids: An analytical equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Gross, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    An analytical equation of state (EoS) is derived to describe the isotropic (I) and nematic (N) phase of linear- and partially flexible tangent hard-sphere chain fluids and their mixtures. The EoS is based on an extension of Onsager's second virial theory that was developed in our previous work [T. van Westen, B. Oyarzún, T. J. H. Vlugt, and J. Gross, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034505 (2013)]. Higher virial coefficients are calculated using a Vega-Lago rescaling procedure, which is hereby generalized to mixtures. The EoS is used to study (1) the effect of length bidispersity on the I-N and N-N phase behavior of binary linear tangent hard-sphere chain fluid mixtures, (2) the effect of partial molecular flexibility on the binary phase diagram, and (3) the solubility of hard-sphere solutes in I- and N tangent hard-sphere chain fluids. By changing the length bidispersity, two types of phase diagrams were found. The first type is characterized by an I-N region at low pressure and a N-N demixed region at higher pressure that starts from an I-N-N triphase equilibrium. The second type does not show the I-N-N equilibrium. Instead, the N-N region starts from a lower critical point at a pressure above the I-N region. The results for the I-N region are in excellent agreement with the results from molecular simulations. It is shown that the N-N demixing is driven both by orientational and configurational/excluded volume entropy. By making the chains partially flexible, it is shown that the driving force resulting from the configurational entropy is reduced (due to a less anisotropic pair-excluded volume), resulting in a shift of the N-N demixed region to higher pressure. Compared to linear chains, no topological differences in the phase diagram were found. We show that the solubility of hard-sphere solutes decreases across the I-N phase transition. Furthermore, it is shown that by using a liquid crystal mixture as the solvent, the solubility difference can by maximized by tuning the

  12. Phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice with interactions between next-to-nearest neighbors

    SciTech Connect

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Kurbanova, D. R.

    2015-01-15

    Phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice are studied on the basis of the replica algorithm by the Monte Carlo method and histogram analysis taking into account the interaction of next-to-nearest neighbors. The phase diagram of the dependence of the critical temperature on the intensity of interaction of the next-to-nearest neighbors is constructed. It is found that a second-order phase transition is realized in this model in the investigated interval of the intensities of interaction of next-to-nearest neighbors.

  13. Ab initio studies on phase transition, thermoelastic, superconducting and thermodynamic properties of the compressed cubic phase of AlH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yong-Kai; Ge, Ni-Na; Chen, Xiang-Rong E-mail: cyfjkf@caep.ac.cn; Ji, Guang-Fu E-mail: cyfjkf@caep.ac.cn; Cai, Ling-Cang; Gu, Zhuo-Wei

    2014-03-28

    The phase transition, thermoelastic, lattice dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of the cubic metallic phase AlH{sub 3} were obtained within the density-function perturbation theory. The calculated elastic modulus and phonon dispersion curves under various pressures at 0 K indicate the cubic phase is both mechanically and dynamically stable above 73 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} was calculated using the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula based on BCS theory. The calculations show that T{sub c} for the cubic phase AlH{sub 3} is 8.5 K (μ{sup *}=0.1) at the onset of this phase (73 GPa), while decreases to 5.7 K at 80 GPa and almost disappears at 110 GPa, consisting with experimental phenomenon that there was no superconducting transition observed down to 4 K over a wide pressure range 110–164 GPa. It is found that the soft phonon mode for branch 1, namely, the lowest acoustic mode, plays a crucial role in elevating the total EPC parameter λ of cubic AlH{sub 3}. And the evolution of T{sub c} with pressure follows the corresponding change of this soft mode, i.e. this mode is responsible for the disappearance of T{sub c} in experiments. Meanwhile, the softening of this lowest acoustic mode originates from the electronic momentum transfer from M to R point. This phenomenon provides an important insight into why drastic changes in the diffraction pattern were observed in the pressure range of 63–73 GPa in Goncharenko's experiments. Specifically, once finite electronic temperature effects are included, we find that dynamical instabilities can be removed in the phonon dispersion for P≥63 GPa, rendering the metastability of this phase in the range of 63–73 GPa, and T{sub c} (15.4 K) becomes remarkably high under the lowest possible pressure (63 GPa) compared with that of under 73 GPa (8.5 K). Our calculations open the possibility that finite temperature may allow cubic AlH{sub 3} to be

  14. Sphere launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The sphere launcher was designed to eject a 200 lb, 15 in. diameter sphere from a space vehicle or missile, at a velocity of 58 ft/sec without imparting excessive lateral loads to the vehicle. This launching is accomplished with the vehicle operating in vacuum conditions and under a 9 g acceleration. Two principal elements are used: a high thrust, short burn time rocket motor and two snubbers for reducing the lateral loads to acceptable limits.

  15. The peculiar behavior of the glass transition temperature of amorphous drug-polymer films coated on inert sugar spheres.

    PubMed

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2015-05-01

    Fluid bed coating has been proposed in the past as an alternative technology for manufacturing of drug-polymer amorphous solid dispersions, or so-called glass solutions. It has the advantage of being a one-step process, and thus omitting separate drying steps, addition of excipients, or manipulation of the dosage form. In search of an adequate sample preparation method for modulated differential scanning calorimetry analysis of beads coated with glass solutions, glass transition broadening and decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg ) were observed with increasing particle size of crushed coated beads and crushed isolated films of indomethacin (INDO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Substituting INDO with naproxen gave comparable results. When ketoconazole was probed or the solvent in INDO-PVP films was switched to dichloromethane (DCM) or a methanol-DCM mixture, two distinct Tg regions were observed. Small particle sizes had a glass transition in the high Tg region, and large particle sizes had a glass transition in the low Tg region. This particle size-dependent glass transition was ascribed to different residual solvent amounts in the bulk and at the surface of the particles. A correlation was observed between the deviation of the Tg from that calculated from the Gordon-Taylor equation and the amount of residual solvent at the Tg of particles with different sizes. PMID:25702912

  16. Fluorescence probing of the temperature-induced phase transition in a glycolipid self-assembly: hexagonal ↔ micellar and cubic ↔ lamellar.

    PubMed

    Zahid, N Idayu; Abou-Zied, Osama K; Hashim, Rauzah; Heidelberg, Thorsten

    2012-03-20

    Water-driven self-assembly of lipids displays a variety of liquid crystalline phases that are crucial for membrane functions. Herein, we characterize the temperature-induced phase transitions in two compositions of an aqueous self-assembly system of the octyl β-D-glucoside (βGlcOC(8)) system, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The phase transitions hexagonal ↔ micellar and cubic ↔ lamellar were investigated using tryptophan (Trp) and two of its ester derivatives (Trp-C(4) and Trp-C(8)) to probe the polar headgroup region and pyrene to probe the hydrophobic tail region. The polarity of the headgroup region was estimated to be close to that of simple alcohols (methanol and ethanol) for all phases. The pyrene fluorescence indicates that the pyrene molecules are dispersed among the tails of the hydrophobic region, yet remain in close proximity to the polar head groups. Comparing the present results with our previously reported one for βMaltoOC(12), increasing the tail length of the hexagonal phase from C(8) to C(12) leads to less interaction with pyrene, which is attributed to the more random and wobbling motion of the longer alkyl tail. We measured a reduction (more hydrophobic) in the ratio of the vibronic peak intensities of pyrene (I(1)/I(3)) for the lamellar phase compared to that of the cubic phase. The higher polarity in the cubic phase can be correlated to the nature of its interface, which curves toward the bulk water. This geometry also explains the slight reduction in polarity of the headgroup region compared to the other phases. Upon the addition of Trp-C(8), the fluorescence lifetime of pyrene is reduced by 28% in the lamellar and cubic phases, whereas the I(1)/I(3) value is only slightly reduced. The results reflect the dominant role of dynamic interaction mechanism between the C(8) chain of Trp-C(8) and pyrene. This mechanism may be important for these two phases since they participate in the process of membrane fusion

  17. Understanding ferromagnetism and optical absorption in 3d transition metal-doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation functional

    SciTech Connect

    Boujnah, M.; Zaari, H.; El Kenz, A.; Labrim, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Mounkachi, O.

    2014-03-28

    The electronic structure, magnetic, and optical properties in cubic crystalline phase of Zr{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O{sub 2} (TM = V, Mn, Fe, and Co) at x = 6.25% are studied using density functional theory with the Generalized Gradient Approximation and the modified Becke-Johnson of the exchange-correlation energy and potential. In our calculations, the zirconia is a p-type semiconductor and has a large band gap. We evaluated the possibility of long-range magnetic order for transition metal ions substituting Zr. Our results show that ferromagnetism is the ground state in V, Mn, and Fe-doped ZrO{sub 2} and have a high value of energy in Mn-doped ZrO{sub 2}. However, in Co-doped ZrO{sub 2}, antiferromagnetic ordering is more stable than the ferromagnetic one. The exchange interaction mechanism has been discussed to explain the responsible of this stability. Moreover, it has been found that the V, Mn, and Fe transition metals provide half-metallic properties considered to be the leading cause, responsible for ferromagnetism. Furthermore, the optical absorption spectra in the TM -doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} are investigated.

  18. Excess of low frequency vibrational modes and glass transition: A molecular dynamics study for soft spheres at constant pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Ruiz, Hugo M.; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2009-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics at constant pressure, the relationship between the excess of low frequency vibrational modes (known as the boson peak) and the glass transition is investigated for a truncated Lennard-Jones potential. It is observed that the quadratic mean displacement is enhanced by such modes, as predicted using a harmonic Hamiltonian for metastable states. As a result, glasses loose mechanical stability at lower temperatures than the corresponding crystal, since the Lindemann criteria are observed, as is also deduced from density functional theory. Finally, we found that the average force and elastic constant are reduced in the glass due to such excess of modes. The ratio between average elastic constants can be approximated using the 2/3 rule between melting and glass transition temperatures.

  19. First-order phase transition and high energy cyclonic spots in a shallow water model on a rapidly rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xueru; Lim, Chjan C.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical equilibrium theory based on the Lagrangian of the rotating shallow water equations is presented with applications to cooperative properties of large-scale features in the Jovian atmosphere when the flows have pronounced hemispherical asymmetry. Large planetary spin is shown to play a significant role in the orientation asymmetry or energy gap between cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity distributions. This suggests that angular momentum is the key physical factor behind the statistical preference for a cyclonic vorticity distribution at high levels of flow energy. Simulation results reported here show that for a range of high energy-to-enstrophy ratios at Jupiter's parameters, a broad-based cyclonic vortex forms in one of the hemisphere with few other coherent spots. Evidence that this cooperative phenomenon arise from a first-order phase transition is discussed.

  20. Phenomenological theory of phase transitions in epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films on (111)-oriented cubic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Shakhovoy, R. A.; Razumnaya, A. G.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2015-07-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST-x) thin films epitaxially grown on (111)-oriented cubic substrates is developed using the Landau-Devonshire approach. The group-theoretical analysis of the low-symmetry phases was performed taking into account two order parameters: the polarization related to ionic shifts in polar zone-center F1u mode and the out-of-phase rotation of TiO6 octahedra corresponding to the R25 zone-boundary mode in the parent cubic phase P m 3 ¯ m . The eight-order thermodynamic potential for BST-x solid solutions was developed and analyzed. We constructed the "concentration-misfit strain" phase diagram for BST-x thin films at room temperature and found that polar rhombohedral R3m phase with the polarization normal to the substrate is stable for x > 0.72 and negative misfit strains, while ferroelectric monoclinic C2 and Cm phases with in-plane polarization are stable for much smaller x and positive or slightly negative misfit strains. We constructed the "temperature-misfit strain" phase diagrams for several concentrations (x = 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2). Systematic changes of the phase transition lines between the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are discussed. The phase diagrams are useful for practical applications in thin-film engineering.

  1. Long-living intermediates during a lamellar to a diamond-cubic lipid phase transition: a small-angle X-ray scattering investigation.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, Angelina; Vainio, Ulla; Garamus, Vasil M; Lesieur, Sylviane; Willumeit, Regine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    To generate nanostructured vehicles with tunable internal organization, the structural phase behavior of a self-assembled amphiphilic mixture involving poly(ethylene glycol) monooleate (MO-PEG) and glycerol monooleate (MO) is studied in excess aqueous medium by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in the temperature range from 1 to 68 degrees C. The SAXS data indicate miscibility of the two components in lamellar and nonlamellar soft-matter nanostructures. The functionalization of the MO assemblies by a MO-PEG amphiphile, which has a flexible large hydrophilic moiety, appears to hinder the epitaxial growth of a double diamond (D) cubic lattice from the lamellar (L) bilayer structure during the thermal phase transition. The incorporated MO-PEG additive is found to facilitate the formation of structural intermediates. They exhibit greater characteristic spacings and large diffusive scattering in broad temperature and time intervals. Their features are compared with those of swollen long-living intermediates in MO/octylglucoside assemblies. A conclusion can be drawn that long-living intermediate states can be equilibrium stabilized in two- or multicomponent amphiphilic systems. Their role as cubic phase precursors is to smooth the structural distortions arising from curvature mismatch between flat and curved regions. The considered MO-PEG functionalized assemblies may be useful for preparation of sterically stabilized liquid-crystalline nanovehicles for confinement of therapeutic biomolecules. PMID:19708151

  2. Transition from progressive to quasi-standing waves behavior of the radiation force of acoustic waves—Example of a high-order Bessel beam on a rigid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2010-08-01

    Prior computations have predicted the time-averaged acoustic radiation force on fluid spheres in water when illuminated by an acoustic high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) of quasi-standing waves. These computations are extended to the case of a rigid sphere in water which perfectly mimics a fluid sphere in air. Numerical results for the radiation force function of a HOBB quasi-standing wave tweezers are obtained for beams of zero, first and second order, and discussed with particular emphasis on the amplitude ratio describing the transition from progressive waves to quasi-standing waves behavior. This investigation may be helpful in the development of acoustic tweezers and methods for manipulating objects in reduced gravity environments and space related applications.

  3. Abnormal cubic-tetragonal phase transition of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Chen; Gao, Ran; Xia, Feng; Li, YueSheng; Che, Renchao

    2015-11-02

    Phase stability of the ferroelectric materials at high temperature is extremely important to their device performance. Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) nanoparticles with different Sr contents (x = 1, 0.91, 0.65, 0.4, and 0) are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses under in situ heating conditions (up to 300 °C), the phase transitions of BST nanoparticles between 25 °C and 280 °C are comprehensively investigated. The original Curie temperature of BST nanoparticles decreases abruptly with the increase in Sr content, which is more obvious than in the bulk or film material. Besides, an abnormal phase transition from cubic to tetragonal structure is observed from BST nanoparticles and the transition temperature rises along with the increase in Sr content. Direct TEM evidences including a slight lattice distortion have been provided. Differently, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained in the tetragonal phase during the above temperature ranges.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman trajectories on a nano-dumbbell: transition from field to charge transfer plasmons as the spheres fuse.

    PubMed

    Banik, Mayukh; El-Khoury, Patrick Z; Nag, Amit; Rodriguez-Perez, Alejandro; Guarrottxena, Nekane; Bazan, Guillermo C; Apkarian, Vartkess A

    2012-11-27

    By taking advantage of the tensor nature of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), we track trajectories of the linker molecule and a CO molecule chemisorbed at the hot spot of a nano-dumbbell consisting of dibenzyldithio-linked silver nanospheres. The linear Stark shift of CO serves as an absolute gauge of the local field, while the polyatomic spectra characterize the vector components of the local field. We identify surface-enhanced Raman optical activity due to a transient asperity in the nanojunction in an otherwise uneventful SERS trajectory. During fusion of the spheres, we observe sequential evolution of the enhanced spectra from dipole-coupled Raman to quadrupole- and magnetic dipole-coupled Raman, followed by a transition from line spectra to band spectra, and the full reversal of the sequence. From the spectrum of CO, the sequence can be understood to track the evolution of the junction plasmon resonance from dipolar to quadrupolar to charge transfer as a function of intersphere separation, which evolves at a speed of ∼1 Å/min. The crossover to the conduction limit is marked by the transition of line spectra to Stark-broadened and shifted band spectra. As the junction closes on CO, the local field reaches 1 V/Å, limited to a current of 1 electron per vibrational cycle passing through the molecule, with associated Raman enhancement factor via the charge transfer plasmon resonance of 10(12). The local field identifies that a sharp protrusion is responsible for room-temperature chemisorption of CO on silver. The asymmetric phototunneling junction, Ag-CO-Ag, driven by the frequency-tunable charge transfer plasmon of the dumbbell antenna, combines the design elements of an ideal rectifying photocollector. PMID:23092179

  5. Avalanche criticalities and elastic and calorimetric anomalies of the transition from cubic Cu-Al-Ni to a mixture of 18 R and 2 H structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vives, Eduard; Baró, Jordi; Gallardo, María Carmen; Martín-Olalla, José-María; Romero, Francisco Javier; Driver, Sarah L.; Carpenter, Michael A.; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Stipcich, Marcelo; Romero, Ricardo; Planes, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    We studied the two-step martensitic transition of a Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy by calorimetry, acoustic emission (AE), and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements. The transition occurs under cooling from the cubic (β , F m 3 m ) parent phase near 242 K to a mixture of orthorhombic 2 H and monoclinic 18 R phases. Heating leads first to the back transformation of small 18 R domains to β and/or 2 H near 255 K, and then to the transformation 2 H to β near 280 K. The total transformation enthalpy is Δ HT=328 ±10 J/mol and is observed as one large latent heat peak under cooling. The back-transformation entropy under heating breaks down into a large component 18 R to β at 255 K and a smaller, smeared component of the transformation 2 H to β near 280 K. The proportions inside the phase mixture depend on the thermal history of the sample. The elastic response of the sample is dominated by large elastic softening during cooling. The weakening of the elastic shear modulus shows a peak at 242 K, which is typical for the formation of complex microstructures. Cooling the sample further leads to additional changes of the microstructure and domain wall freezing, which is seen by gradual elastic hardening and increasing damping of the RUS signal. Heating from 220 K to room temperature leads to elastic anomalies due to the initial transformation, which is now shifted to high temperatures. The transition is smeared over a wider temperature interval and shows strong elastic damping. The shear modulus of the cubic phase is recovered at 280 K. The phase transformation leads to avalanches, which were recorded by AE and by time-resolved calorimetry. The cooling transition shows very extended avalanche signals in calorimetry with power-law distributions. Cooling and heating runs show AE signals over a large temperature interval above 260 K. Splitting the transformation into two martensite phases leads to power-law exponents ɛ ˜2 (β ↔ 18 R ) and ɛ ˜1.5 (β ↔ 2

  6. B═B and B≡E (E = N and o) multiple bonds in the coordination sphere of late transition metals.

    PubMed

    Brand, Johannes; Braunschweig, Holger; Sen, Sakya S

    2014-01-21

    Because of their unusual structural and bonding motifs, multiply bonded boron compounds are fundamentally important to chemists, leading to enormous research interest. To access these compounds, researchers have introduced sterically demanding ligands that provide kinetic as well as electronic stability. A conceptually different approach to the synthesis of such compounds involves the use of an electron-rich, coordinatively unsaturated transition metal fragment. To isolate the plethora of borane, boryl, and borylene complexes, chemists have also used the coordination sphere of transition metals to stabilize reactive motifs in these molecules. In this Account, we summarize our results showing that increasingly synthetically challenging targets such as iminoboryl (B≡N), oxoboryl (B≡O), and diborene (B═B) fragments can be stabilized in the coordination sphere of late transition metals. This journey began with the isolation of two new iminoboryl ligands trans-[(Cy3P)2(Br)M(B≡N(SiMe3))] (M = Pd, Pt) attached to palladium and platinum fragments. The synthesis involved oxidative addition of the B-Br bond in (Me3Si)2N═BBr2 to [M(PCy3)2] (M = Pt, Pd) and the subsequent elimination of Me3SiBr at room temperature. Variation of the metal, the metal-bound coligands, and the substituent at the nitrogen atom afforded a series of analogous iminoboryl complexes. Following the same synthetic strategy, we also synthesized the first oxoboryl complex trans-[(Cy3P)2BrPt(BO)]. The labile bromide ligand adjacent to platinum makes the complex a viable candidate for further substitution reactions, which led to a number of new oxoboryl complexes. In addition to allowing us to isolate these fundamental compounds, the synthetic strategy is very convenient and minimizes byproducts. We also discuss the reaction chemistry of these types of compounds. In addition to facilitating the isolation of compounds with B≡E (E = N, O) triple bonds, the platinum fragment can also stabilize a

  7. Observation of a possible charge-density-wave transition in cubic Ce3Co4Sn13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, C. S.; Liu, H. F.; Hsu, S.-L.; Chu, M. W.; Liao, H. Y.; Kuo, Y. K.

    2012-05-01

    We report an observation of a first-order phase transition in Ce3Co4Sn13 by means of the specific heat, electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, as well as 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The phase transition has been evidenced by marked features near To≃155 K in all measured physical quantities except for magnetic susceptibility. This excludes a magnetic origin for the observed phase transition. In addition, x-ray diffraction results below and above To confirm the absence of a structural change, suggesting that the peculiar phase transition is possibly related to an electronic origin and/or electron-lattice coupling such as the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). As a matter of fact, the disappearance of the double-peak feature of 59Co NMR central lines below To can be realized as the spatial modulation of the electric field gradient due to incommensurate CDW superlattices. Also, a distinct peak found in the spin-lattice relaxation rate near To manifests a phase transition and its feature can be accounted for by the thermally driven normal modes of the CDW. From the NMR analyses, we obtained a consistent picture that the change of electronic structures below To is mainly due to the weakening of p-d hybridization. Such an effect could result in possible electron-lattice instability and, thus, the formation of a CDW state in Ce3Co4Sn13.

  8. Thermodynamic Comparison and the Ideal Glass Transition of Antiferromagnetic Ising Model on Multi-branched Husimi and Cubic Recursive Lattice with the Identical Coordination Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran; Purushottam, D. Gujrati

    2015-09-01

    Two types of recursive lattices with the identical coordination number but different unit cells (2-D square and 3-D cube) are constructed and the antiferromagnetic Ising model is solved exactly on them to study the stable and metastable states. A multi-branched structure of the 2-D plaquette model, which we introduced in this work, makes it possible to be an analog to the cubic lattice. Two solutions of each model can be found to exhibit the crystallization of liquid, and the ideal glass transition of supercooled liquid respectively. Based on the solutions, the thermodynamics on both lattices, e.g. the free energy, energy density, and entropy of the supercooled liquid, crystal, and liquid state of the model are calculated and compared with each other. Interactions between particles farther away than the nearest neighbor distance and multi-spins interactions are taken into consideration, and their effects on the thermal behavior are examined. The two lattices show comparable properties on the thermodynamics, which proves that both of them are practical to describe the regular 3-D case, especially to locate the ideal glass transition, while the 2-D multi-branched plaquette model is less accurate with the advantage of simpler formulation and less computation time consumption. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505110

  9. SPHERES Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Benavides, Jose Victor; Ormsby, Steve L.; GuarnerosLuna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized satellites that provide a test bed for development and research into multi-body formation flying, multi-spacecraft control algorithms, and free-flying physical and material science investigations. Up to three self-contained free-flying satellites can fly within the cabin of the International Space Station (ISS), performing flight formations, testing of control algorithms or as a platform for investigations requiring this unique free-flying test environment. Each satellite is a self-contained unit with power, propulsion, computers, navigation equipment, and provides physical and electrical connections (via standardized expansion ports) for Principal Investigator (PI) provided hardware and sensors.

  10. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2015-03-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic and molecular physics.

  11. Dynamic self-assembly of non-Brownian spheres studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvente, O.; Salazar-Cruz, M.; Peñuñuri, F.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Granular self-assembly of confined non-Brownian spheres under gravity is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Starting from a disordered phase, dry or cohesive spheres organize, by vibrational annealing, into body-centered-tetragonal or face-centered-cubic structures, respectively. During the self-assembling process, isothermal and isodense points are observed. The existence of such points indicates that both granular temperature and packing fraction undergo an inversion process that may be in the core of crystal nucleation. Around the isothermal point, a sudden growth of granular clusters having the maximum coordination number takes place, indicating the outcome of a first-order phase transition. We propose a heuristic equation that successfully describes the dynamic evolution of the local packing fraction in terms of the local granular temperature, along the entire crystallization process.

  12. Charge disproportionation and the pressure-induced insulator–metal transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jinguang; Kweon, K. E.; Larregola, S. A.; Ding, Yang; Shirako, Y.; Marshall, L. G.; Li, Z.-Y.; Li, X.; dos Santos, António M.; Suchomel, M. R.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Hwang, G. S.; Goodenough, John B.; Zhou, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    The perovskite PbCrO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. However, the fundamental interactions leading to the insulating state in this single-valent perovskite are unclear. Moreover, the origin of the unprecedented volume drop observed at a modest pressure of P = 1.6 GPa remains an outstanding problem. We report a variety of in situ pressure measurements including electron transport properties, X-ray absorption spectrum, and crystal structure study by X-ray and neutron diffraction. These studies reveal key information leading to the elucidation of the physics behind the insulating state and the pressure-induced transition. We argue that a charge disproportionation 3Cr4+ → 2Cr3+ + Cr6+ in association with the 6s-p hybridization on the Pb2+ is responsible for the insulating ground state of PbCrO3 at ambient pressure and the charge disproportionation phase is suppressed under pressure to give rise to a metallic phase at high pressure. The model is well supported by density function theory plus the correlation energy U (DFT+U) calculations. PMID:25624483

  13. Self-consistent phonon theory of the crystallization and elasticity of attractive hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Shin, Homin; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2013-02-28

    We propose an Einstein-solid, self-consistent phonon theory for the crystal phase of hard spheres that interact via short-range attractions. The approach is first tested against the known behavior of hard spheres, and then applied to homogeneous particles that interact via short-range square well attractions and the Baxter adhesive hard sphere model. Given the crystal symmetry, packing fraction, and strength and range of attractive interactions, an effective harmonic potential experienced by a particle confined to its Wigner-Seitz cell and corresponding mean square vibrational amplitude are self-consistently calculated. The crystal free energy is then computed and, using separate information about the fluid phase free energy, phase diagrams constructed, including a first-order solid-solid phase transition and its associated critical point. The simple theory qualitatively captures all the many distinctive features of the phase diagram (critical and triple point, crystal-fluid re-entrancy, low-density coexistence curve) as a function of attraction range, and overall is in good semi-quantitative agreement with simulation. Knowledge of the particle localization length allows the crystal shear modulus to be estimated based on elementary ideas. Excellent predictions are obtained for the hard sphere crystal. Expanded and condensed face-centered cubic crystals are found to have qualitatively different elastic responses to varying attraction strength or temperature. As temperature increases, the expanded entropic solid stiffens, while the energy-controlled, fully-bonded dense solid softens. PMID:23464163

  14. Simulation of rotary-drum and repose tests for frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The effects of rotation rate and interparticle friction on the bulk flow behavior in rotating horizontal cylinders are studied via particle-dynamic simulations. Assemblies of inelastic, frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters are utilized, and rotation rates from quasistatic to centrifuging are examined. Flow phenomena explored include size segregation, avalanching, slumping and centrifuging. Simulated drum flows with two sizes of frictional spheres showed very rapid segregation of species perpendicular to the drum axis; however, simulations of up to 10 revolutions, utilizing periodic-boundary ends, did not exhibit the experimentally observed axial segregation into stripes. Angles of repose for uniform-sized spheres in slowly rotating cylinders varied from 13 to 31 degrees as the friction coefficient varied from 0.02 to 1.0. For simulated rotation rates higher than the threshold to obtain uniform flow conditions, the apparent angle of repose increases as the rotation rats increases, consistent with experiments. Also, simulations with rigid clusters of 4 spheres in a tetrahedral shape or 8 spheres in a cubical arrangement, demonstrate that particle shape strongly influences the repose angle. Simulations of cubical 8-sphere clusters, with a surface coefficient of friction of 0.1, produced apparent angles of repose exceeding 35 degrees, compared to 23 degrees for assemblies of single spheres interacting with the same force model parameters. Centrifuging flows at very high rotation rates exist as stationary beds moving exactly as the outer rotating wall. At somewhat slower speeds the granular bed remains in contact with the wall but exhibits surface sliding down the rising inner bed surface, moving a short distance on each revolution. At still slower speeds particles rain from the surface of the upper half of the rotating bed.

  15. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  16. SPHERES Smartphone Workbench

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Smart SPHERES space robot (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) equipped with an Android smartphone performs a video survey inside of the International Space S...

  17. Balls and Spheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an art lesson that allows students to set up and collect sphere canvases. Spheres move art away from a rectangular canvas into a dimension that requires new planning and painting. From balls to many other spherical canvases that bounce, roll, float and fly, art experiences are envisioned by students. Even if adults recognize…

  18. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  19. Lorentzian fuzzy spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, A.; Lu, Lei; Stern, A.

    2015-09-01

    We show that fuzzy spheres are solutions of Lorentzian Ishibashi-Kawai-Kitazawa-Tsuchiya-type matrix models. The solutions serve as toy models of closed noncommutative cosmologies where big bang/crunch singularities appear only after taking the commutative limit. The commutative limit of these solutions corresponds to a sphere embedded in Minkowski space. This "sphere" has several novel features. The induced metric does not agree with the standard metric on the sphere, and, moreover, it does not have a fixed signature. The curvature computed from the induced metric is not constant, has singularities at fixed latitudes (not corresponding to the poles) and is negative. Perturbations are made about the solutions, and are shown to yield a scalar field theory on the sphere in the commutative limit. The scalar field can become tachyonic for a range of the parameters of the theory.

  20. Quantum states of two particles on concentric spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezra, Gregory S.; Berry, R. Stephen

    1983-10-01

    The model of two particles on a sphere is extended to two particles on concentric spheres (POCS). The quantum states are found for two electrons, one on a sphere of radius 10 a.u. (simulating the shell n=3 in He) and the other, on spheres of 10, 15, 25, 50, and 100 a.u. The eigenvalues and densities ρ(θ12) exhibit a transition from collective, moleculelike behavior to independent-particle-like behavior with Russell-Saunders coupling. The parallel problem of two particles with electron masses interacting via a repulsive Gaussian potential is also treated and a similar transition from collective to independent-particle behavior found. The principal difference between the two cases is only the region of radius of the larger sphere where the transition occurs.

  1. Effects of periodicity on flow and dispersion through closely packed fixed beds of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2002-02-01

    A lattice-Boltzmann formulation is used to investigate the effects of ``periodicity'' (geometry) on fluid flow and tracer-particle dispersion through fixed beds of spheres comprising of closely packed layers. In the ``period-1'' arrangement, spheres in the adjacent layers contact at their poles while the ``period-2'' and ``period-3'' arrangements correspond to hexagonal and faced-centered cubic close packing. For all three packing arrangements, there is a transition with increasing Reynolds number from a power law to a log-normal distribution of kinetic energies and, velocity and vorticity become more closely aligned giving rise to helical tracer-particle trajectories. It is suggested that these flow characteristics, unlike the stability of flow and the distribution of helicity, are largely insensitive to geometry, even when the geometry creates direct channels through the pack bed orientated along the gradient in applied pressure. For steady flows and strongly turbulent flows, such channels are predicted to provide direct routes for dispersion through a packed bed, while for weakly turbulent flows they influence dispersion primarily by destabilizing the flow and thereby promoting dispersion throughout a bed. The dispersion of tracer-particles released from a source located on or close to a ``stagnation streamline'' is predicted to be faster than ballistic in the near field and the transition to long-time Fickian diffusion is predicted to be distinguished by a regime of subdiffusion.

  2. Soft-sphere model for the glass transition in binary alloys. II. Relaxation of the incoherent density-density correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, G.; Bernu, B.; Hansen, J. P.; Hiwatari, Y.

    1988-07-01

    Using molecular-dynamics (MD) data on a binary-alloy model, we have computed the self (incoherent) -part of the density autocorrelation functions of both species in the supercooled liquid and near the glass transition, over an extensive range of wave numbers. Standard theoretical models of liquid-state theory fail to reproduce the data, while the Chudley-Elliott jump diffusion model yields reasonable results in the glass range. With a suitable scaling of the time axis, the data for different temperatures can be brought onto a single master curve, which is well fitted by a Kohlrausch (``stretched-exponential'') function with a wave-number-dependent exponent.

  3. Stoichiometry dependent phase transition in Mn-Co-Ga-based thin films: From cubic in-plane, soft magnetized to tetragonal perpendicular, hard magnetized

    SciTech Connect

    Ouardi, Siham; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Stinshoff, Rolf; Felser, Claudia; Kubota, Takahide; Mizukami, Shigemi; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Ikenaga, Eiji

    2012-12-10

    Epitaxial thin films of Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga were grown on MgO by magnetron co-sputtering with different Co content. Dependent on the Co content tetragonal or cubic structures are obtained. The composition dependence of saturation magnetization M{sub S} and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} in the epitaxial films were investigated. A high magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of 1.2 MJ m{sup -3} was achieved for the Mn{sub 2.6}Co{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 1.1} film with low magnetic moment of 0.84 {mu}{sub B}. The valence band spectra of the films were investigated mainly by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The evidence of sharp states in the cubic case, which are smeared out in the tetragonal case, proof the existence of a van Hove singularity that causes a band Jahn-Teller effect accompanied by a tetragonal distortion. These differences are in well agreement to the ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure.

  4. Phase transition in BC[subscript x] system under high-pressure and high-temperature: Synthesis of cubic dense BC[subscript 3] nanostructured phase

    SciTech Connect

    Zinin, P.V.; Ming, L.C.; Ishii, H.A.; Jia, R.; Acosta, T.; Hellebrand, E.

    2012-07-11

    We synthesized a cubic BC{sub 3} (c-BC{sub 3}) phase, by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. A combination of x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC{sub 3}. High-resolution TEM imaging of the c-BC{sub 3} specimen recovered at ambient conditions demonstrates that the c-BC{sub 3} is a single, uniform, nanocrystalline phase with a grain size of about 3-5 nm. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp{sup 3} bonds. The zero-pressure lattice parameter of the c-BC{sub 3} calculated from diffraction peaks was found to be a = 3.589 {+-} 0.007 {angstrom}. The composition of the c-BC{sub 3} is determined from EELS measurements. The ratio of carbon to boron, C/B, is approximately 3 (2.8 {+-} 0.7).

  5. SPHERES National Lab Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jose

    2014-01-01

    SPHERES is a facility of the ISS National Laboratory with three IVA nano-satellites designed and delivered by MIT to research estimation, control, and autonomy algorithms. Since Fall 2010, The SPHERES system is now operationally supported and managed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). A SPHERES Program Office was established and is located at NASA Ames Research Center. The SPHERES Program Office coordinates all SPHERES related research and STEM activities on-board the International Space Station (ISS), as well as, current and future payload development. By working aboard ISS under crew supervision, it provides a risk tolerant Test-bed Environment for Distributed Satellite Free-flying Control Algorithms. If anything goes wrong, reset and try again! NASA has made the capability available to other U.S. government agencies, schools, commercial companies and students to expand the pool of ideas for how to test and use these bowling ball-sized droids. For many of the researchers, SPHERES offers the only opportunity to do affordable on-orbit characterization of their technology in the microgravity environment. Future utilization of SPHERES as a facility will grow its capabilities as a platform for science, technology development, and education.

  6. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaulov, S. B.; Besshapov, S. P.; Kabanova, N. V.; Sysoeva, T. I.; Antonov, R. A.; Anyuhina, A. M.; Bronvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-12-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10-10 eV.

  7. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  8. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY THORIUM OXIDE SPHERES

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.

    1963-12-31

    A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

  9. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  10. ISS Update: Smart SPHERES

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries conducts a phone interview with Mark Micire, SPHERES Engineering Manager at Ames Research Center. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include ...

  11. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  12. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  13. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  14. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  15. The Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) ⇆ Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) Transition in Co-Re-Based Experimental Alloys Investigated by Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Debashis; Strunz, Pavel; Piegert, Sebastian; Gilles, Ralph; Hofmann, Michael; Hölzel, Markus; Rösler, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Co-Re-based alloys have been developed to supplement the Ni-base superalloys used in gas turbine applications at high temperatures (1473 K [1200 °C] bare metal temperature). Unlike other commercial Co-based alloys, the Co matrix in the Co-Re alloys has a stable hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure at room temperature. In situ neutron diffraction measurements on experimental Co-Re alloys hardened by carbide precipitates showed that the matrix undergoes an hcp ⇆ face-centered cubic (fcc) allotropic transformation after heating to high temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that this transformation has a large hysteresis (~100 K). Thermodynamic calculations were undertaken to study the high-temperature phase stability and transformations in the complex multicomponent, multiphase Co-Re-Cr-C system with or without the addition of Ta. The results show that the minor phases (Cr23C6-type carbides and the Cr2Re3-type σ phase) play an important role in the hcp ⇆ fcc hysteresis by influencing the partitioning of Cr and Re between the matrix and the other phases.

  16. Postdeposition annealing induced transition from hexagonal Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to cubic PrO{sub 2} films on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Weisemoeller, T.; Bertram, F.; Gevers, S.; Greuling, A.; Deiter, C.; Tobergte, H.; Neumann, M.; Wollschlaeger, J.; Giussani, A.; Schroeder, T.

    2009-06-15

    Films of hexagonal praseodymium sesquioxide (h-Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were deposited on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy and thereafter annealed in 1 atm oxygen at different temperatures, ranging from 100 to 700 deg. C. The films of the samples annealed at 300 deg. C or more were transformed to PrO{sub 2} with B-oriented Fm3m structure, while films annealed at lower temperatures kept the hexagonal structure. The films are composed of PrO{sub 2} and PrO{sub 2-d}elta species, which coexist laterally and are tetragonally distorted due to the interaction at the interface between oxide film and Si substrate. Compared to PrO{sub 2}, PrO{sub 2-d}elta has the same cubic structure but with oxygen vacancies. The oxygen vacancies are partly ordered and increase the vertical lattice constant of the film, whereas the lateral lattice constant is almost identical for both species and on all samples. The latter lattice constant matches the lattice constant of the originally crystallized hexagonal praseodymium sesquioxide. That means that no long range reordering of the praseodymium atoms takes place during the phase transformation.

  17. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x)more » is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.« less

  18. DNS of Swirling Flow Past a Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Keith; Ooi, Andrew; Chong, Min; Balachandar, S.

    2001-11-01

    Experimental investigations into the swirling flow past a sphere have revealed a range of surprising and complex flow phenomena. These results have advanced our understanding in applications such as particle entrainment and the combustion of fuel droplets. Renewed interest in this problem has been kindled by recent experimental observations. (Mattner et al. 2001, submitted for review to J. Fluid Mech.) This has motivated the development of a fully spectral direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional time-dependent swirling flow past a sphere. The effect of swirl on the various transitions in the wake structure behind a sphere is unknown. The main objective of our study is to identify transitions that occur with increasing Reynolds number and swirl strength. Firstly, we show the effect of swirl strength on the axisymmetric sphere wake and drag. Then, using a three-dimensional simulation, we examine the effect of swirl on the time histories of the lift, drag and velocities. We hope to show some visualisations of the topology of the 3D wake flow using the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor.

  19. Numerical simulation of a shear-thinning fluid through packed spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai Long; Moon, Jong Sin; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2012-12-01

    Flow behaviors of a non-Newtonian fluid in spherical microstructures have been studied by a direct numerical simulation. A shear-thinning (power-law) fluid through both regular and randomly packed spheres has been numerically investigated in a representative unit cell with the tri-periodic boundary condition, employing a rigorous three-dimensional finite-element scheme combined with fictitious-domain mortar-element methods. The present scheme has been validated for the classical spherical packing problems with literatures. The flow mobility of regular packing structures, including simple cubic (SC), body-centered cubic (BCC), face-centered cubic (FCC), as well as randomly packed spheres, has been investigated quantitatively by considering the amount of shear-thinning, the pressure gradient and the porosity as parameters. Furthermore, the mechanism leading to the main flow path in a highly shear-thinning fluid through randomly packed spheres has been discussed.

  20. Structure and Properties of Precursor/Successor Complex and Transition State of the FeCl(2+)/Fe(2+) Electron Self-Exchange Reaction via the Inner-Sphere Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rotzinger, François P

    2015-11-01

    The electron self-exchange reaction FeCl(OH2)5(2+) + Fe(OH2)6(2+) → Fe(OH2)6(2+) + FeCl(OH2)5(2+), proceeding via the inner-sphere pathway, was investigated with quantum chemical methods. Geometry and vibrational frequencies of the precursor/successor complex, (H2O)5Fe(III)ClFe(II)(OH2)5(4+)/(H2O)5Fe(II)ClFe(III)(OH2)5(4+) (P/S), and the transition state, (H2O)5FeClFe(OH2)5(4+⧧) (TS), were computed with the LC-BOP functional and CPCM hydration. Bent and linear structures were computed for the TS and P/S. The electronic coupling matrix element (Hab) and the electronic energies were calculated with multistate extended general multiconfiguration quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation theory (XGMC-QDPT2) and spin-orbit configuration interaction (SO-CI). Since the Fe···Fe distance changes considerably along the electron transfer step, the transformation P → TS → S, equations based on the hypothesis of a fixed donor-acceptor distance cannot be applied. Hence, the rate constant for the electron transfer step (ket) was calculated as described previously (Rotzinger, F. P. Inorg. Chem. 2014, 53, 9923). ket is very fast, ∼9.4 × 10(8)-6.6 × 10(9) s(-1) at 0 °C. The experimental rate constant of the title reaction (k) is much slower and controlled by the formation of the precursor complex. The substitution of a water ligand by FeCl(OH2)5(2+) at Fe(OH2)6(2+) is rate-determining. PMID:26479082

  1. First-principles calculations of the twin boundary energies and adhesion energies of interfaces for cubic face-centered transition-metal nitrides and carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tengfei; Liu, Tianmo; Wei, Hongmei; Hussain, Shahid; Wang, Jinxing; Zeng, Wen; Peng, Xianghe; Wang, Zhongchang

    2015-11-01

    The twin boundary energies of TiN, ZrN, HfN, TiC, ZrC, HfC, VC, NbC and TaC and the adhesion energies of twin interfaces and interfaces of TiN/ZrN, VC/TiC and TiN/TiC were calculated using first-principles methods. A new route in the preparation of mechanically superhard films has been proposed by introducing twin into the multilayer of transition-metal nitrides and carbides.

  2. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  3. Diagnosis of a poorly performing liquid hydrogen bulk storage sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Angela Gray

    2012-06-01

    There are two 3,218 cubic meter (850,000 gallon) Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A, the other at Launch Pad B. The Sphere at Pad B had a high boiloff rate when brought into service in the 1960s. In 2001, the daily commodity loss was approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the maximum allowed by the specification. After being re-painted in the 1990s a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere that resulted in poor paint bonding and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of service, which provided a unique opportunity to perform a series of visual inspections of the insulation. Boroscope examinations revealed a large Perlite void in the region where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and offloaded into the annular void region until full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  4. Packings of a charged line on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas

    2008-12-01

    We find equilibrium configurations of open and closed lines of charge on a sphere, and track them with respect to varying sphere radius. Closed lines transition from a circle to a spiral-like shape through two low-wave-number bifurcations—“baseball seam” and “twist”—which minimize Coulomb energy. The spiral shape is the unique stable equilibrium of the closed line. Other unstable equilibria arise through tip-splitting events. An open line transitions smoothly from an arc of a great circle to a spiral as the sphere radius decreases. Under repulsive potentials with faster-than-Coulomb power-law decay, the spiral is tighter in initial stages of sphere shrinkage, but at later stages of shrinkage the equilibria for all repulsive potentials converge on a spiral with uniform spacing between turns. Multiple stable equilibria of the open line are observed.

  5. Parallel sphere rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.; Painter, J.; Hansen, C.

    1996-10-01

    Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the M.

  6. First science with SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Maire, A.-L.; Mesa, D.; Turatto, M.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; De Caprio, V.; D'Orazi, V.; Fantinel, D.; Giro, E.; Salasnich, B.; Scuderi, S.; Sissa, E.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Mouillet, D.

    The Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) facility mounted at ESO-VLT aims at discovering giant extrasolar planets in the proximity of bright stars and characterising them through spectroscopic and polarimetric observations. SPHERE is a complete system with a core made of an extreme-Adaptive Optics (XAO) turbulence correction, a pupil tracker and NIR and Visible coronagraph devices. At its back end, a differential dual imaging camera (IRDIS) and an integral field spectrograph (IFS) work in the Near Infrared (NIR) (0.95 < lambda < 2.32 μm) while a high resolution polarization camera covers the visible domain (0.6 < lambda < 0.9 μm). The IFS is a low resolution spectrograph (R˜50) that operates in the near IR (0.95< lambda < 1.6 μm), an optimal wavelength range for the detection of planetary features, over a field of view of about 1.7 × 1.7 square arcsecs. From spectra it is possible to reconstruct monochromatic images with high contrast (10-6 at 0.5 arcsec) and high spatial resolution, well inside the star PSF. The commissioning of the instrument ended in October 2014 and ESO has already offered SPHERE to the community. In this paper several results obtained during the commissioning and science verification phase are described.

  7. The distribution sphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Montgomery, F.C.; Morris, R.N.

    1993-08-01

    The equivalent sphere model, which is widely used in calculating the release of fission gases from nuclear fuel, is idealized. The model is based on the diffusion of fission products in and their escape from a homogeneous sphere of fuel; the fission products are generated at a constant rate and undergo radiodecay. The fuel is assumed to be a set of spherical particles with a common radius. The value of the radius is such that the surface-to-volume ratio, S/V, of the set of spherical particles is the same as the S/V of the fuel mass of interest. The release rate depends on the dimensionless quantity {lambda}a{sup 2}/D where {lambda} is the radiodecay constant, a, the equivalent sphere radius and D, the diffusion coefficient. In the limit {lambda}t {much_gt} 1, the steady-state fractional release for isotopes with half-lives less than about 5 d is given by the familiar relation R/B = 3{radical}D/{lambda}a{sup 2} (1). For the spherical particles, S/V = 3/a. However, in important cases, the assumption of a single value of a is inappropriate. Examples of configurations for which multiple values of a are appropriate include powders, hydrolyzed fuel kernels, normally configured HTR fuel particles and perhaps, fuel kernels alone. In the latter case, one can imagine a distribution of values of a whose mean yields the value appropriate for agreement of Eq. (1) with measurement.

  8. Phase behavior of binary hard-sphere mixtures from perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Velasco, E; Navascués, G; Mederos, L

    1999-09-01

    Using a first-order perturbation theory, we have studied the phase diagram of a binary mixture of hard spheres for different values of the size ratio. Recent models for the two-body depletion potential between large spheres are used to take into account the role of the small spheres. The theory predicts a complex phase diagram including a fluid-solid transition at high packing fraction of small spheres, metastability of fluid-fluid demixing, an isostructural solid-solid transition at high packing fraction of the large spheres for sufficiently small values of the size ratio q of the spheres, and the tendency to sticky-sphere behavior in the limit q-->0. The agreement with recent simulation results is quite good. We also show that this phenomenology was already implicit in the pioneering work of Asakura and Oosawa. PMID:11970123

  9. Dendritic Growth of Hard-Sphere Crystals. Experiment 34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russel, W. B.; Chaikin, P. M.; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Meyer, W. V.; Rogers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent observations of the disorder-order transition for colloidal hard spheres under microgravity revealed dendritic crystallites roughly 1-2 mm in size for samples in the coexistence region of the phase diagram. Order-of-magnitude estimates rationalize the absence of large or dendritic crystals under normal gravity and their stability to annealing in microgravity. A linear stability analysis of the Ackerson and Schaetzel model for crystallization of hard spheres establishes the domain of instability for diffusion-limited growth at small supersaturations. The relationship between hard-sphere and molecular crystal growth is established and exploited to relate the predicted linear instability to the well-developed dendrites observed.

  10. Conforming quadrilaterals meshes on the cubed sphere.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark A.; Levy, Michael Nathan; Overfelt, James Robert

    2010-08-01

    The cubed sphere geometry, obtained by inscribing a cube in a sphere and mapping points between the two surfaces using a gnomonic (central) projection, is commonly used in atmospheric models because it is free of polar singularities and is well-suited for parallel computing. Global meshes on the cubed-sphere typically project uniform (square) grids from each face of the cube onto the sphere, and if refinement is desired then it is done with non-conforming meshes - overlaying the area of interest with a finer uniform mesh, which introduces so-called hanging nodes on edges along the boundary of the fine resolution area. An alternate technique is to tile each face of the cube with quadrilaterals without requiring the quads to be rectangular. These meshes allow for refinement in areas of interest with a conforming mesh, providing a smoother transition between high and low resolution portions of the grid than non-conforming refinement. The conforming meshes are demonstrated in HOMME, NCAR's High Order Method Modeling Environment, where two modifications have been made: the dependence on uniform meshes has been removed, and the ability to read arbitrary quadrilateral meshes from a previously-generated file has been added. Numerical results come from a conservative spectral element method modeling a selection of the standard shallow water test cases.

  11. Ultraviolet characterization of integrating spheres.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Ping-Shine; Li, Zhigang; Arp, Uwe; Lykke, Keith R

    2007-08-01

    We have studied the performance of polytetrafluoroethylene integrating spheres in the ultraviolet (UV) region with wavelengths as short as 200 nm. Two techniques were used for this study; first, the spectral throughput of an integrating sphere irradiated by a deuterium lamp was analyzed by a monochromator. Second, a UV laser beam was directed into an integrating sphere, and spectrally dispersed laser induced fluorescence was studied. Significant absorption and fluorescence features were observed in the UV region and attributed to the contamination in the integrating sphere. We demonstrate that integrating spheres are easily contaminated by environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from engine exhaust. Baking of the contaminated integrating sphere can reverse some but not all of the effects caused by contaminants. The implications for using integrating spheres for UV measurement are discussed. PMID:17676122

  12. Ultraviolet characterization of integrating spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Ping-Shine; Li, Zhigang; Arp, Uwe; Lykke, Keith R.

    2007-08-01

    We have studied the performance of polytetrafluoroethylene integrating spheres in the ultraviolet (UV) region with wavelengths as short as 200 nm. Two techniques were used for this study; first, the spectral throughput of an integrating sphere irradiated by a deuterium lamp was analyzed by a monochromator. Second, a UV laser beam was directed into an integrating sphere, and spectrally dispersed laser induced fluorescence was studied. Significant absorption and fluorescence features were observed in the UV region and attributed to the contamination in the integrating sphere. We demonstrate that integrating spheres are easily contaminated by environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from engine exhaust. Baking of the contaminated integrating sphere can reverse some but not all of the effects caused by contaminants. The implications for using integrating spheres for UV measurement are discussed.

  13. Spectroscopic characteristics of praseodymium-doped cubic double sodium-yttrium fluoride crystals Na0.4Y0.6F2.2:Pr3+. Intensities of optical transitions and luminescence kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, A. M.; Ivanova, S. E.; Mirzaeva, A. A.; Joubert, M.-F.; Guyot, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, we have grown a series of cubic crystals Na0.4Y0.6F2.2:Pr3+ (NYF:Pr3+) with a content of praseodymium in the range of 0.04-9 at %. We have determined the composition of crystals, evaluated their optical quality, and found the incorporation coefficient of Pr3+ ions into the Na0.4Y0.6F2.2 matrix ( K Pr ˜ 0.9). We have examined optical spectra of NaYF:Pr3+ crystals at room and low (7 K) temperatures in the range of 200-2500 nm. The low-temperature absorption spectra of NYF:Pr3+ crystals have been shown to consist of broad weakly structured bands. Based on the analysis of low-temperature absorption spectra, the structure of the Stark splitting of praseodymium levels has been represented in terms of a model of "quasi-centers," which are characterized by an inhomogeneous broadening of Stark components. From experimental absorption cross-section spectra at T = 300 K, we have calculated oscillator strengths for transitions from the ground state 3 H 4 to excited multiplets 3 H 5, 3 H 6, 3 F j ( j = 2, 3, 4), 1 G 4, 1 D 2, and (3 P j ,1 I 6) ( j = 0, 1, 2). Using the Judd-Ofelt method, we have determined intensity parameters Ω t and found that Ω2 = 0, Ω4 = 4.4 × 10-20, and Ω6 = 2.28 × 10-20 cm2. With these values, we have calculated the probabilities of radiative transitions, the branching coefficients, and the lifetimes of the radiative levels 1 D 2 and 3 P 0. The probabilities of multiphonon nonradiative transitions in NYF:Pr3+ crystals have been estimated. Using the method of kinetic spectroscopy with selective excitation, we have investigated the luminescence decay kinetics of praseodymium from the 3 P 0 and 1 D 2 levels upon their selective resonant excitation by nanosecond laser pulses. The inference has been made that Na0.4Y0.6F2.2:Pr3+ crystals are processable; admit doping by praseodymium in high concentrations; and, with respect to all their radiative characteristics, can be potentially considered as active media for

  14. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  15. Parallel sphere rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Painter, J.; de Verdiere, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel divide-and-conquer algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the T3D.

  16. Vacancy-dependent stability of cubic and wurtzite Ti1−xAlxN

    PubMed Central

    Euchner, H.; Mayrhofer, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    While it is well-known that supersaturated cubic-structured Ti1−xAlxN can be prepared by physical vapor deposition, the impact of point defects on formation process and cubic to wurtzite transition is largely unexplored. Irrespective of point defects, ab initio calculations correctly predict the Al concentration of the cubic to wurtzite transition. By means of density functional theory we show that vacancies on metal and/or non-metal sites only slightly affect the cubic to wurtzite transition region, whereas they clearly affect the physical properties. PMID:26412921

  17. Ellipsoids beat Spheres: Experiments with Candies, Colloids and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikin, Paul

    2006-04-01

    How many gumballs fit in the glass sphere of a gumball machine? Scientists have been puzzling over problems like this since the Ancient Greeks. Yet it was only recently proven that the standard way of stacking oranges at a grocery store--with one orange on top of each set of three below--is the densist packing for spheres, with a packing fraction φ˜ 0.74. Random (amorphous) packings of spheres have a lower density, with φ ˜0.64. The density of crystalline and random packings of atoms is intimately related to the melting transition in matter. We have studied the crystal-liquid transition in spherical colloidal systems on earth and in microgravity. The simplest objects to study after spheres are squashed spheres -- ellipsoids. Surprisingly we find that ellipsoids can randomly pack more densely than spheres, up to φ˜0.68 - 0.71 for a shape close to that of M&M's^ Candies, and even approach φ˜0.75 for general ellipsoids. The higher density relates directly to the higher number of neighbors needed to prevent the more asymetric ellipsoid from rotating. We have also found the ellipsoids can be packed in a crystalline array to a density, φ˜.7707 which exceeds the highest previous packing. Our findings provide insights into granular materials, rigidity, crystals and glasses, and they may lead to higher quality ceramic materials.

  18. Numerical simulation of negative Magnus force on a rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Masaya; Tsubokura, Makoto; Oshima, Nobuyuki

    2010-11-01

    Flow characteristics and fluid force on a sphere rotating along with axis perpendicular to mean air flow were investigated using Large Eddy Simulation at two different Reynolds numbers of 10,000 and 200,000. As a result of simulation, opposite flow characteristics around the sphere and displacement of the separation point were visualized depending on the Reynolds number even though the sphere rotates at the same rotation speed according to the Reynolds number. When Reynolds number is 10,000, flow characteristics agree with the flow field explained in the Magnus effect. However sphere rotates at the same rotation speed while increasing Reynolds number to 200,000, separation point moves in opposite direction and wake appears in the different direction. The reason of the negative Magnus force was discussed in terms of the boundary layer transition on the surface.

  19. The role of attractive interactions in rod-sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    Antypov, Dmytro; Cleaver, Douglas J

    2004-06-01

    We present a computer simulation study of binary mixtures of prolate Gay-Berne particles and Lennard-Jones spheres. Results are presented for three such rod-sphere systems which differ from each other only in the interaction between unlike particles. Both the mixing-demixing behavior and the transitions between the isotropic and any liquid crystalline phases are studied for each system, as a function of temperature and concentration ratio. For systems which show macroscopic demixing, the rod-sphere interaction is shown to give direct control over interfacial anchoring properties, giving rise to the possibility of micellar phase formation in the case of homeotropic anchoring. Additionally, it is shown that on incorporating high concentrations of spheres into a system of rods with weak demixing properties, microphase-separated structures can be induced, including bicontinuous and lamellar arrangements. PMID:15268056

  20. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  1. Cubic-normal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah; Ho, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The power-normal distribution given in Yeo and Johnson in year 2000 is a unimodal distribution with wide ranges of skewness and kurtosis. A shortcoming of the power-normal distribution is that the negative and positve parts of the underlying random variable have to be specified by two different expressions of the standard normal random variable. In this paper, we construct a new distribution, called the cubic-normal distribution, via a single polynomial expression in cubic root function. Apart from having the properties which are similar to those of the power-normal distribution, this cubic-normal distribution can be developed into a multivariate version which is more attractive from the theoretical and computational points of view.

  2. Phase diagram of dipolar hard and soft spheres: manipulation of colloidal crystal structures by an external field.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Antti-Pekka; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2005-04-01

    Phase diagrams of hard and soft spheres with a fixed dipole moment are determined by calculating the Helmholtz free energy using simulations. The pair potential is given by a dipole-dipole interaction plus a hard-core and a repulsive Yukawa potential for soft spheres. Our system models colloids in an external electric or magnetic field, with hard spheres corresponding to uncharged and soft spheres to charged colloids. The phase diagram of dipolar hard spheres shows fluid, face-centered-cubic (fcc), hexagonal-close-packed (hcp), and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) phases. The phase diagram of dipolar soft spheres exhibits, in addition to the above mentioned phases, a body-centered-orthorhombic (bco) phase, and it agrees well with the experimental phase diagram [Nature (London) 421, 513 (2003)]. Our results show that bulk hcp, bct, and bco crystals can be realized experimentally by applying an external field. PMID:15904046

  3. Cubic nitride templates

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi; Mueller, Alexander H; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-04-30

    A polymer-assisted deposition process for deposition of epitaxial cubic metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be used as templates for the development of high quality cubic GaN based electronic devices.

  4. Dynamical tachyons on fuzzy spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenstein, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2011-05-01

    We study the spectrum of off-diagonal fluctuations between displaced fuzzy spheres in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase plane wave matrix model. The displacement is along the plane of the fuzzy spheres. We find that when two fuzzy spheres intersect at angles, classical tachyons develop and that the spectrum of these modes can be computed analytically. These tachyons can be related to the familiar Nielsen-Olesen instabilities in Yang-Mills theory on a constant magnetic background. Many features of the problem become more apparent when we compare with maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a sphere, of which this system is a truncation. We also set up a simple oscillatory trajectory on the displacement between the fuzzy spheres and study the dynamics of the modes as they become tachyonic for part of the oscillations. We speculate on their role regarding the possible thermalization of the system.

  5. Dynamical tachyons on fuzzy spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Berenstein, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2011-05-15

    We study the spectrum of off-diagonal fluctuations between displaced fuzzy spheres in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase plane wave matrix model. The displacement is along the plane of the fuzzy spheres. We find that when two fuzzy spheres intersect at angles, classical tachyons develop and that the spectrum of these modes can be computed analytically. These tachyons can be related to the familiar Nielsen-Olesen instabilities in Yang-Mills theory on a constant magnetic background. Many features of the problem become more apparent when we compare with maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a sphere, of which this system is a truncation. We also set up a simple oscillatory trajectory on the displacement between the fuzzy spheres and study the dynamics of the modes as they become tachyonic for part of the oscillations. We speculate on their role regarding the possible thermalization of the system.

  6. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  7. Rainbow Scattering by a Coated Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Jamison, J. Michael; Lin, Chih-Yang

    1994-01-01

    We examine the behavior of the first-order rainbow for a coated sphere by using both ray theory and Aden-Kerker wave theory as the radius of the core alpha(sub 12) and the thickness of the coating beta are varied. As the ratio beta/alpha(sub 12) increases from 10(sup -4) to 0.33, we find three classes of rainbow phenomena that cannot occur for a homogeneous-sphere rainbow. For beta/alpha(sub 12) approx less than 10(sup -3), the rainbow intensity is an oscillatory function of the coating thickness, for beta/alpha(sub 12) approx. 10(sup -2), the first-order rainbow breaks into a pair of twin rainbows, and for beta/alpha(sub 12) approx. 0.33, various rainbow-extinction transitions occur. Each of these effects is analyzed, and their physical interpretations are given. A Debye series decomposition of coated-sphere partial-wave scattering amplitudes is also performed and aids in the analysis.

  8. Rainbow scattering by a coated sphere.

    PubMed

    Lock, J A; Jamison, J M; Lin, C Y

    1994-07-20

    We examine the behavior of the first-order rainbow for a coated sphere by using both ray theory and Aden-Kerker wave theory as the radius of the core a(12) and the thickness of the coating δ are varied. As the ratio δ/a(12) increases from 10(-4) to 0.33, we find three classes of rainbow phenomena that cannot occur for a homogeneous-sphere rainbow. For δ/a(12) ≲ 10(-3), the rainbow intensity is an oscillatory function of the coating thickness, for δ/a(12) ≈ 10(-2), the first-order rainbow breaks into a pair of twin rainbows, and for δ/a(12) ≈ 0.33, various rainbow-extinction transitions occur. Each of these effects is analyzed, and their physical interpretations are given. A Debye series decomposition of coated-sphere partial-wave scattering amplitudes is also performed and aids in the analysis. PMID:20935838

  9. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  10. Science off the Sphere: Bistronauts

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you c...

  11. The SPHERE View of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, O.; Schmid, H.-M.; Carbillet, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Abe, L.; Mouillet, D.

    2013-05-01

    SPHERE, the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument for the VLT is optimized towards reaching the highest contrast in a limited field of view and at short distances from the central star, thanks to an extreme AO system. SPHERE is very well suited to study the close environment of Betelgeuse, and has a strong potential for detecting the ejection activity around this key red supergiant.

  12. Ancient Celestial Spheres from Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    2006-08-01

    We present several ancient celestial spheres from the 8th century B.C. found throughout Greece, mainly in Thessaly, at the temple of Itonia Athena, but also in Olympia and other places. These celestial spheres have an axis, equator and several meridians and they have several markings with the symbol of stars (today's symbol for the Sun) $\\odot$. Such instruments could have been used to measure the time, the latitude of a location, or the coordinates of stars.

  13. Ricochet of sphere off water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoockron, Joseph

    1989-06-01

    This work deals with the analysis and calculation of the critical angle for the ricochet of a sphere off water. The critical angle is defined as the maximum incidence angle of a sphere over water which enables it to ricochet. This work presents the development and calculation of the forces acting on the sphere during its entry into the water. Since the critical angle is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic forces, the accurate development and calculation of these forces has been emphasized in some previous methods. There is a simple empirical formula for calculation of the critical angle, which is theta(sub c) = 18 deg/square root of zeta, where theta(sub c) is the critical angle and zeta is the ratio between the density of the sphere and the density of the water. Likewise, there are works which give a theoretical basis to the above-mentioned formula. This formula does not depend on the incidence velocity of the sphere or on the sphere radius, these being parameters that affect the critical angle. In this work it is verified that the critical angle depends on these added parameters, in the form of the F(sub r) number, where F(sub r) = V(exp 2)/Rg.

  14. Confined disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Torquato, S.

    2015-12-01

    Disordered jammed packings under confinement have received considerably less attention than their bulk counterparts and yet arise in a variety of practical situations. In this work, we study binary sphere packings that are confined between two parallel hard planes and generalize the Torquato-Jiao (TJ) sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302] to obtain putative maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings that are exactly isostatic with high fidelity over a large range of plane separation distances H , small to large sphere radius ratio α , and small sphere relative concentration x . We find that packing characteristics can be substantially different from their bulk analogs, which is due to what we term "confinement frustration." Rattlers in confined packings are generally more prevalent than those in their bulk counterparts. We observe that packing fraction, rattler fraction, and degree of disorder of MRJ packings generally increase with H , though exceptions exist. Discontinuities in the packing characteristics as H varies in the vicinity of certain values of H are due to associated discontinuous transitions between different jammed states. When the plane separation distance is on the order of two large-sphere diameters or less, the packings exhibit salient two-dimensional features; when the plane separation distance exceeds about 30 large-sphere diameters, the packings approach three-dimensional bulk packings. As the size contrast increases (as α decreases), the rattler fraction dramatically increases due to what we call "size-disparity" frustration. We find that at intermediate α and when x is about 0.5 (50-50 mixture), the disorder of packings is maximized, as measured by an order metric ψ that is based on the number density fluctuations in the direction perpendicular to the hard walls. We also apply the local volume-fraction variance στ2(R ) to characterize confined packings and find that these

  15. Porous Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    This document is a slide presentation that examines the use of a simple templating process to produce hollow ceramic spheres with a pore size of 1 to 10 microns. Using ion exchange process it was determined that the method produces porous ceramic spheres with a unique structure: (i.e., inner sphere surrounded by an outer sphere.)

  16. Large attractive depletion interactions in soft repulsive-sphere binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cinacchi, Giorgio; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Mederos, Luis; Navascués, Guillermo; Tani, Alessandro; Velasco, Enrique

    2007-12-01

    We consider binary mixtures of soft repulsive spherical particles and calculate the depletion interaction between two big spheres mediated by the fluid of small spheres, using different theoretical and simulation methods. The validity of the theoretical approach, a virial expansion in terms of the density of the small spheres, is checked against simulation results. Attention is given to the approach toward the hard-sphere limit and to the effect of density and temperature on the strength of the depletion potential. Our results indicate, surprisingly, that even a modest degree of softness in the pair potential governing the direct interactions between the particles may lead to a significantly more attractive total effective potential for the big spheres than in the hard-sphere case. This might lead to significant differences in phase behavior, structure, and dynamics of a binary mixture of soft repulsive spheres. In particular, a perturbative scheme is applied to predict the phase diagram of an effective system of big spheres interacting via depletion forces for a size ratio of small and big spheres of 0.2; this diagram includes the usual fluid-solid transition but, in the soft-sphere case, the metastable fluid-fluid transition, which is probably absent in hard-sphere mixtures, is close to being stable with respect to direct fluid-solid coexistence. From these results, the interesting possibility arises that, for sufficiently soft repulsive particles, this phase transition could become stable. Possible implications for the phase behavior of real colloidal dispersions are discussed. PMID:18067358

  17. The viscosity of colloidal spheres in deionized suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    1987-12-01

    Viscosities of colloidal spheres, i.e., colloidal silica (diameter 8 and 45 nm) and monodisperse polystyrene latices (diameter 85 to 780 nm), are measured in deionized (``salt-free'') suspensions and in the presence of a small amount of NaCl. The reduced viscosities (specific viscosity divided by concentration) of deionized silica (diameter 8 nm) are much higher than would be expected by Einstein's prediction and decrease sharply with increasing concentration. A sharp peak is observed in the reduced viscosity vs concentration curves of deionized colloidal silica of 45 nm diameter and the deionized latex spheres. The peak corresponds to the transition between ``liquid-like'' and ``crystal-like'' structures. These results show that electrostatic intersphere repulsion and the elongated Debye-screening length around the colloidal spheres are essential to explain the extraordinary properties.

  18. Demixing in binary mixtures of apolar and dipolar hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarza, N. G.; Lomba, E.; Martín, C.; Gallardo, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the demixing transition of mixtures of equal size hard spheres and dipolar hard spheres using computer simulation and integral equation theories. Calculations are carried out at constant pressure, and it is found that there is a strong correlation between the total density and the composition. The critical temperature and the critical total density are found to increase with pressure. The critical mole fraction of the dipolar component on the contrary decreases as pressure is augmented. These qualitative trends are reproduced by the theoretical approaches that on the other hand overestimate by far the value of the critical temperature. Interestingly, the critical parameters for the liquid-vapor equilibrium extrapolated from the mixture results in the limit of vanishing neutral hard sphere concentration agree rather well with recent estimates based on the extrapolation of charged hard dumbbell phase equilibria when dumbbell elongation shrinks to zero [G. Ganzenmüller and P. J. Camp, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 191104 (2007)].

  19. Multiply charged monopoles in cubic dimer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Jaya, Sreejith; Powell, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The classical cubic dimer model is a 3D statistical mechanical system whose degrees of freedom are dimers that occupy the edges between nearest neighbour vertices of a cubic lattice. Dimer occupancies are subject to the local constraint that every vertex is associated with exactly one dimer. In the presence of an aligning interaction, it is known that the system exhibits an unconventional continuous thermal phase transition from a symmetry broken columnar phase to a Coulomb-phase. The transition is in the NCCP1 universality class, which also describes the Neel-VBS transition in the JQ model and the S =1/2 Heisenberg model with suppression of hedgehog defects. Using Monte-Carlo simulations of a pair of defects in a background of fluctuating dimers, we calculate the scaling exponents for fugacities of monopole defects of charge Q = 2 and 3 at this critical point. Our estimates suggest that Q = 3 monopoles are relevant and could therefore drive the JQ model away from the NCCP1 critical point on a hexagonal lattice.

  20. Computational polymer physics: Hard-sphere chain in solvent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Avinash; Gavazzi, Daniel; Taylor, Mark

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present results for chain conformation in two simple chain-in-solvent systems constructed from hard-sphere monomers of diameter D. The first system consists of a flexible chain of fused hard spheres (i.e., bond length L=D) in a monomeric hard-sphere solvent. The second system consists of a flexible tangent hard-sphere chain (L=D) in a dimeric hard-sphere solvent with L=D. These systems are studied using Monte Carlo simulations which employ both single-site crankshaft and multi-site pivot moves to sample the configuration space of the chain. We report chain structure, in terms of site-site probability functions, as a function of solvent density. In all cases, increasing solvent density leads to an overall compression of the chain. At high solvent density the chain conformation is closely coupled to the local solvent structure and we speculate that incommensurate structures may lead to interesting conformational transitions.

  1. Blocking temperature of interacting magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial and cubic anisotropies from Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russier, V.

    2016-07-01

    The low temperature behavior of densely packed interacting spherical single domain nanoparticles (MNP) is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of an effective one spin model. The particles are distributed through a hard sphere like distribution with periodic boundary conditions and interact through the dipole dipole interaction (DDI) with an anisotropy energy including both cubic and uniaxial symmetry components. The cubic component is shown to play a sizable role on the value of the blocking temperature Tb only when the MNP easy axes are parallel to the cubic easy direction ([111] direction for a negative cubic anisotropy constant). The nature of the collective low temperature state, either ferromagnetic or spin glass like, is found to depend on the ratio of the anisotropy to the dipolar energies characterizing partly the disorder in the system.

  2. Simple manipulator for rotating spheres.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, B W; Hendricks, C D; Ward, C M; Willenborg, D L

    1978-06-01

    We describe a simple device for rapidly rotating a small sphere to any orientation for inspection of the surface. The ball is held between two small, flat surfaces and rolls as the surfaces are moved differentially parallel to one another. PMID:18699214

  3. LAGO on the unit sphere.

    PubMed

    Laflamme-Sanders, Alexandra; Zhu, Mu

    2008-11-01

    LAGO is an efficient kernel algorithm designed specifically for the rare target detection problem. However, unlike other kernel algorithms, LAGO cannot be easily used with many domain-specific kernels. We solve this problem by first providing a unified framework for LAGO and clarifying its basic principle, and then applying that principle on the unit sphere instead of in the Euclidean space. PMID:18775643

  4. Science off the Sphere: Fun with Antibubbles

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit injects air bubbles inside a sphere of water to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership betwe...

  5. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  6. Eddy currents in a conducting sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, John; Hestenes, David

    1986-01-01

    This report analyzes the eddy current induced in a solid conducting sphere by a sinusoidal current in a circular loop. Analytical expressions for the eddy currents are derived as a power series in the vectorial displacement of the center of the sphere from the axis of the loop. These are used for first order calculations of the power dissipated in the sphere and the force and torque exerted on the sphere by the electromagnetic field of the loop.

  7. What Students in a Higher Pedagogical Educational Institution Think about the Reforms and Innovations in the Sphere of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day Russia is characterized by a resolute transition to the innovative path of development in all spheres of economic and social life, and that includes the sphere of education. The processes that took place in Russian education in the 1990s, which can be characterized as a time of "precipitous innovation," were, to some extent, an…

  8. Coating a Sphere With Evaporated Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Jackson, H. W.; Gatewood, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    In vacuum coating apparatus, metal evaporated onto sphere from small source located some distance away. Sphere held in path of metal vapor while rotated about axis that rocks back and forth. One tilting motion particularly easy to produce is sinusoidal rocking with frequency much lower than rotational frequency. Apparatus developed for coating single-crystal sapphire spheres with niobium.

  9. Active swarms on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sknepnek, Rastko; Henkes, Silke

    2015-02-01

    We show that coupling to curvature nontrivially affects collective motion in active systems, leading to motion patterns not observed in flat space. Using numerical simulations, we study a model of self-propelled particles with polar alignment and soft repulsion confined to move on the surface of a sphere. We observe a variety of motion patterns with the main hallmarks being polar vortex and circulating band states arising due to the incompatibility between spherical topology and uniform motion—a consequence of the "hairy ball" theorem. We provide a detailed analysis of density, velocity, pressure, and stress profiles in the circulating band state. In addition, we present analytical results for a simplified model of collective motion on the sphere showing that frustration due to curvature leads to stable elastic distortions storing energy in the band.

  10. Active swarms on a sphere.

    PubMed

    Sknepnek, Rastko; Henkes, Silke

    2015-02-01

    We show that coupling to curvature nontrivially affects collective motion in active systems, leading to motion patterns not observed in flat space. Using numerical simulations, we study a model of self-propelled particles with polar alignment and soft repulsion confined to move on the surface of a sphere. We observe a variety of motion patterns with the main hallmarks being polar vortex and circulating band states arising due to the incompatibility between spherical topology and uniform motion-a consequence of the "hairy ball" theorem. We provide a detailed analysis of density, velocity, pressure, and stress profiles in the circulating band state. In addition, we present analytical results for a simplified model of collective motion on the sphere showing that frustration due to curvature leads to stable elastic distortions storing energy in the band. PMID:25768504

  11. Numerical simulation of a sphere moving down an incline with identical spheres placed equally apart

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Chen, Cheng-lung; Shen, Hsieh Wen

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of an elastic sphere moving down an incline with a string of identical spheres placed equally apart. Two momentum equations and a moment equation formulated for the moving sphere are solved numerically for the instantaneous velocity of the moving sphere on an incline with different angles of inclination. Input parameters for numerical simulation include the properties of the sphere (the radius, density, Poison's ratio, and Young's Modulus of elasticity), the coefficient of friction between the spheres, and a damping coefficient of the spheres during collision.

  12. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-02-23

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle. PMID:26843132

  13. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-06-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.

  14. Use of Pom Pons To Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-07-01

    In general chemistry classes, students are introduced to the ways in which atoms are arranged in cubic crystal structures. Transposing the textbook illustrations into three dimensional structures is difficult for some students. This transitions is easier if a three dimensional model is available for examination. Several 3D models are cited. A quick to assemble, inexpensive, colorful, and durable alternative to these models and styrofoam balls is the use of olefin pom pons. Different sized pom pons can be used to demonstrate how the atomic radius will vary when comparing the different types of cubic crystal unit cells. Being made of a coarse material, pom pons can be stacked to illustrate different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. Pom pons make great atoms.

  15. Evolution of cubic membranes as antioxidant defence system.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuru; Almsherqi, Zakaria A

    2015-08-01

    Possibly the best-characterized cubic membrane transition has been observed in the mitochondrial inner membranes of free-living giant amoeba (Chaos carolinense). In this ancient organism, the cells are able to survive in extreme environments such as lack of food, thermal and osmolarity fluctuations and high levels of reactive oxygen species. Their mitochondrial inner membranes undergo rapid changes in three-dimensional organization upon food depletion, providing a valuable model to study this subcellular adaptation. Our data show that cubic membrane is enriched with unique ether phospholipids, plasmalogens carrying very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we propose that these phospholipids may not only facilitate cubic membrane formation but may also provide a protective shelter to RNA. The potential interaction of cubic membrane with RNA may reduce the amount of RNA oxidation and promote more efficient protein translation. Thus, recognizing the role of cubic membranes in RNA antioxidant systems might help us to understand the adaptive mechanisms that have evolved over time in eukaryotes. PMID:26464785

  16. Evolution of cubic membranes as antioxidant defence system

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yuru; Almsherqi, Zakaria A.

    2015-01-01

    Possibly the best-characterized cubic membrane transition has been observed in the mitochondrial inner membranes of free-living giant amoeba (Chaos carolinense). In this ancient organism, the cells are able to survive in extreme environments such as lack of food, thermal and osmolarity fluctuations and high levels of reactive oxygen species. Their mitochondrial inner membranes undergo rapid changes in three-dimensional organization upon food depletion, providing a valuable model to study this subcellular adaptation. Our data show that cubic membrane is enriched with unique ether phospholipids, plasmalogens carrying very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we propose that these phospholipids may not only facilitate cubic membrane formation but may also provide a protective shelter to RNA. The potential interaction of cubic membrane with RNA may reduce the amount of RNA oxidation and promote more efficient protein translation. Thus, recognizing the role of cubic membranes in RNA antioxidant systems might help us to understand the adaptive mechanisms that have evolved over time in eukaryotes. PMID:26464785

  17. Stimulus-responsive azobenzene supramolecules: fibers, gels, and hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sumi; Oh, Seungwhan; Lee, Joosub; Malpani, Yashwardhan; Jung, Young-Sik; Kang, Baotao; Lee, Jin Yong; Ozasa, Kazunari; Isoshima, Takashi; Lee, Sang Yun; Hara, Masahiko; Hashizume, Daisuke; Kim, Jong-Man

    2013-05-14

    Novel, stimulus-responsive supramolecular structures in the form of fibers, gels, and spheres, derived from an azobenzene-containing benzenetricarboxamide derivative, are described. Self-assembly of tris(4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)phenyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (Azo-1) in aqueous organic solvent systems results in solvent dependent generation of microfibers (aq DMSO), gels (aq DMF), and hollow spheres (aq THF). The results of a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Azo-1 (crystallized from a mixture of DMSO and H2O) reveal that it possesses supramolecular columnar packing along the b axis. Data obtained from FTIR analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation suggest that multiple hydrogen bonding modes exist in the Azo-1 fibers. UV irradiation of the microfibers, formed in aq DMSO, causes complete melting while regeneration of new fibers occurs upon visible light irradiation. In addition to this photoinduced and reversible phase transition, the Azo-1 supramolecules display a reversible, fiber-to-sphere morphological transition upon exposure to pure DMSO or aq THF. The role played by amide hydrogen bonds in the morphological changes occurring in Azo-1 is demonstrated by the behavior of the analogous, ester-containing tris(4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)phenyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Azo-2) and by the hydrogen abstraction in the presence of fluoride anions. PMID:23597134

  18. Steel and titanium hollow sphere foams

    SciTech Connect

    Hurysz, K.M.; Clark, J.L.; Nagel, A.R.; Lee, K.J.; Cochran, J.K.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Hardwicke, C.U.

    1998-12-31

    Metal hollow sphere foams are fabricated by bonding millimeter sized metal alloy hollow spheres at points of contact. The spheres are formed as powder shells from slurries. For stainless steel spheres, the starting powder is a mixture of iron and chromium oxide. Thermal treatment in hydrogen reduces the oxides to Fe/Cr alloys with less than 2% porosity in sphere walls. The nominal composition is close to that of 405 stainless. Carburization in CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere followed by heat treatment produces foams of either 410 or 420 type stainless steels depending on carbon content. Compressive stress-strain behavior was measured on point contact bonded stainless foams both before and after carburization. Hardness measurements on steel sphere walls were used to estimate the yield strength. Relative strengths of the foams were positioned between open and closed cell models. This was encouraging because bonding in the foams was less than optimum and the hollow sphere walls contained defects. As processing improves, strengths should increase. To produce titanium alloy spheres, the starting powder is titanium alloy hydride. Thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere decomposes the hydride and sinters the titanium powder in the sphere walls to greater than 96% relative density. Both titanium and Ti-6V-4V spheres and foams have been produced. Oxygen contents are a concern for titanium compositions and processing is being altered to reduce oxygen levels to increase ductility.

  19. Perturbative Casimir Energies of Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, G.

    The Casimir energies of single bodies (as opposed to the interaction between mutually disjoint bodies) have accumulated deceptive folklore which this talk will try to exorcise, by mean of calculations for atomic solids that, though optically dilute, are realistically dispersive. This is easy, because quantum electrodynamics then yields identically the same energy as one gets from the properly retarded interatomic potentials. The problem of regularizing (nominal) divergences turns out to be quite distinct from the appropriate process of renormalization: simply discarding all nominally divergent contributions would prevent one from understanding the physics. Contrary to legend, the pertinent Casimir energies for dielectric spheres are attractive.

  20. When do jammed sphere packings have a valid linear regime?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Carl; Liu, Andrea; Nagel, Sidney

    2014-03-01

    The physics of jamming can be studied in its purest form in packings of soft spheres at zero temperature. One of the successes of this approach is that bulk material properties, such as the elastic moduli or density of normal modes, can be predicted solely from the distance of the system to the jamming transition. Such properties are both defined and measured in the linear-response regime. It is thus tacitly assumed that the harmonic approximation to the local energy landscape can capture the meaningful physics, and it is therefore essential to delineate when this assumption is valid. We will examine the regime of validity of the harmonic approximation in jammed sphere packings as a function of system size and density. We will also discuss the crossover from linear response of the zero-temperature jammed solid to thermal behavior at nonzero temperatures.

  1. Visual attention on the sphere.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Iva; Bur, Alexandre; Hugli, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    Human visual system makes an extensive use of visual attention in order to select the most relevant information and speed-up the vision process. Inspired by visual attention, several computer models have been developed and many computer vision applications rely today on such models. However, the actual algorithms are not suitable to omnidirectional images, which contain a significant amount of geometrical distortion. In this paper, we present a novel computational approach that performs in spherical geometry and thus is suitable for omnidirectional images. Following one of the actual models of visual attention, the spherical saliency map is obtained by fusing together intensity, chromatic, and orientation spherical cue conspicuity maps that are themselves obtained through multiscale analysis on the sphere. Finally, the consecutive maxima in the spherical saliency map represent the spots of attention on the sphere. In the experimental part, the proposed method is then compared to the standard one using a synthetic image. Also, we provide examples of spots detection in real omnidirectional scenes which show its advantages. Finally, an experiment illustrates the homogeneity of the detected visual attention in omnidirectional images. PMID:18854253

  2. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2015-07-01

    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body.

  3. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body. PMID:26189698

  4. Sphere-Pac Evaluation for Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is sponsoring a project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the objective of conducting the research and development necessary to evaluate the use of sphere-pac transmutation fuel. Sphere-pac fuels were studied extensively in the 1960s and 1970s. More recently, this fuel form is being studied internationally as a potential plutonium-burning fuel. For transmutation fuel, sphere-pac fuels have potential advantages over traditional pellet-type fuels. This report provides a review of development efforts related to the preparation of sphere-pac fuels and their irradiation tests. Based on the results of these tests, comparisons with pellet-type fuels are summarized, the advantages and disadvantages of using sphere-pac fuels are highlighted, and sphere-pac options for the AFCI are recommended. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory development activities are also outlined.

  5. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  6. Impingement of Water Droplets on a Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, Robert G.; Saper, Paul G.; Kadow, Charles F.

    1955-01-01

    Droplet trajectories about a sphere in ideal fluid flow were calculated. From the calculated droplet trajectories the droplet impingement characteristics of the sphere were determined. Impingement data and equations for determining the collection efficiency, the area, and the distribution of impingement are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters. The range of flight and atmospheric conditions covered in the calculations was extended considerably beyond the range covered by previously reported calculations for the sphere.

  7. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  8. Preparation of thorium-uranium gel spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Ceramic oxide spheres with diameters of 15 to 1500 ..mu..m are being evaluated for fabrication of power reactor fuel rods. (Th,U)O/sub 2/ spheres can be prepared by internal or external chemical gelation of nitrate solutions or oxide sols. Two established external gelation techniques were tested but proved to be unsatisfactory for the intended application. Established internal gelation techniques for UO/sub 2/ spheres were applied with minor modifications to make 75% ThO/sub 2/-25% UO/sub 2/ spheres that sinter to diameters of 200 to 1400 ..mu..m (99% T.D.).

  9. Science off the Sphere: Earth in Infrared

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit views cities, agricultural areas and deserts using an infrared camera for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA...

  10. Photonic crystals from multiply-coated spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Che Ting

    2000-03-01

    We show theoretically and experimentally that photonic band gaps can be realized using metal or metal-coated spheres as building blocks. Robust photonic gaps exist in any periodic structure built from such spheres when the filling ratio of the spheres exceeds a threshold, and they are not sensitive to the symmetry or the global long range order, with stacking faults cause almost no degradation. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained in the microwave regime. The gaps persist even in a random packing of such spheres. Calculations show that the approach can be scaled up to IR and optical frequencies.

  11. Unexpected ricochet of spheres off water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlien, D. J.

    1994-08-01

    A sphere was observed to apparently ricochet off the free surface of water at incident angles as large as 45° while the expected (empirical/analytical) maximum angle to the horizontal for ricochet was 6°. Closer examination of the process revealed that the cavitating sphere penetrated the liquid to depths as great as 35 sphere diameters. Under certain circumstances the sphere was also observed to leave the liquid in a direction close to the incoming direction; that is, the sphere ricocheted backwards! This peculiar behavior was found to be a result of an unintentional spin applied to the sphere upon launching. By crudely modelling the process, the sphere path is qualitatively predicted. It was found that the drag and lift coefficients required to model the trajectory data were several times smaller than those obtained for the non-cavitating case or for the non-spinning case. If more precise sphere trajectory data were available, this experiment could be used to measure the lift and drag coefficients of a spinning and cavitating sphere.

  12. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  13. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  14. Dynamics of hard sphere colloidal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. X.; Chaikin, Paul M.; Phan, S.-E.; Russel, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective is to perform on homogeneous, fully equilibrated dispersions the full set of experiments characterizing the transition from fluid to solid and the properties of the crystalline and glassy solid. These include measurements quantifying the nucleation and growth of crystallites, the structure of the initial fluid and the fully crystalline solid, and Brownian motion of particles within the crystal, and the elasticity of the crystal and the glass. Experiments are being built and tested for ideal microgravity environment. Here we describe the ground based effort, which exploits a fluidized bed to create a homogeneous, steady dispersion for the studies. The differences between the microgravity environment and the fluidized bed is gauged by the Peclet number Pe, which measures the rate of convection/sedimentation relative to Brownian motion. We have designed our experiment to accomplish three types of measurements on hard sphere suspensions in a fluidized bed: the static scattering intensity as a function of angle to determine the structure factor, the temporal autocorrelation function at all scattering angles to probe the dynamics, and the amplitude of the response to an oscillatory forcing to deduce the low frequency viscoelasticity. Thus the scattering instrument and the colloidal dispersion were chosen such as that the important features of each physical property lie within the detectable range for each measurement.

  15. Hollow Spheres in Composite Materials and Metallic Hollow Sphere Composites (MHSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumeister, Erika; Molitor, Martin

    The newly developed metallic hollow spheres are used in combination with a polymeric matrix for producing metallic hollow-sphere-composites (MSHC), which have been developed for mechanical engineering applications in the “InnoZellMet” project.

  16. Mechanisms for pressure-induced crystal-crystal transition, amorphization, and devitrification of Snl4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Hu, Michael Y.; Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Pasternak, Moshe; Taylor, R. Dean; Lashley, Jason C.

    2015-10-27

    The pressure-induced amorphization and subsequent recrystallization of SnI4 have been investigated using first principles molecular dynamics calculations together with high-pressure 119Sn nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements. Above ~8 GPa, we observe a transformation from an ambient crystalline phase to an intermediate crystal structure and a subsequent recrystallization into a cubic phase at ~64 GPa. The crystalline-to-amorphous transition was identified on the basis of elastic compatibility criteria. The measured tin vibrational density of states shows large amplitude librations of SnI4 under ambient conditions. Although high pressure structures of SnI4 were thought to be determined by random packing of equal-sized spheres,more » we detected electron charge transfer in each phase. As a result, this charge transfer results in a crystal structure packing determined by larger than expected iodine atoms. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.« less

  17. Tracer diffusion and cluster formation in mixtures of spheres and rotating rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Löwen, H.

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of Brownian dynamics computer simulation studies, we investigate the structure and dynamics of two-dimensional mixtures of rods driven by an external torque and spheres. First, we show that the tracer long-time diffusion of spheres in a system of rotating rods can be efficiently tuned via the rod density. It behaves non-monotonically for increasing rod density. In particular, the sphere diffusion becomes strongly enhanced across the jamming transition of the rods. Second, we show that rotating rods in a dense suspension of spheres form aggregates of rod clusters which are rotating jointly. The cluster size is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a simple theory.

  18. Tandem spheres in hypersonic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, Stuart J; Deiterding, Ralf; Hornung, Hans G

    2009-01-01

    The problem of determining the forces acting on a secondary body when it is travelling at some point within the shocked region created by a hypersonic primary body is of interest in such situations as store or stage separation, re-entry of multiple vehicles, and atmospheric meteoroid fragmentation. The current work is concerned with a special case of this problem, namely that in which both bodies are spheres and are stationary with respect to one another. We first present an approximate analytical model of the problem; subsequently, numerical simulations are described and results are compared with those from the analytical model. Finally, results are presented from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel in which a newly-developed force-measurement technique was employed.

  19. Chiral Surface Twists and Skyrmion Stability in Nanolayers of Cubic Helimagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, A. O.; Togawa, Y.; Monchesky, T. L.; Bogdanov, A. N.; Kishine, J.; Kousaka, Y.; Miyagawa, M.; Koyama, T.; Akimitsu, J.; Koyama, Ts.; Harada, K.; Mori, S.; McGrouther, D.; Lamb, R.; Krajnak, M.; McVitie, S.; Stamps, R. L.; Inoue, K.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical analysis and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) investigations in an FeGe wedge demonstrate that chiral twists arising near the surfaces of noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets [Meynell et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 014406 (2014)] provide a stabilization mechanism for magnetic Skyrmion lattices and helicoids in cubic helimagnet nanolayers. The magnetic phase diagram obtained for freestanding cubic helimagnet nanolayers shows that magnetization processes differ fundamentally from those in bulk cubic helimagnets and are characterized by the first-order transitions between modulated phases. LTEM investigations exhibit a series of hysteretic transformation processes among the modulated phases, which results in the formation of the multidomain patterns.

  20. Chiral Surface Twists and Skyrmion Stability in Nanolayers of Cubic Helimagnets.

    PubMed

    Leonov, A O; Togawa, Y; Monchesky, T L; Bogdanov, A N; Kishine, J; Kousaka, Y; Miyagawa, M; Koyama, T; Akimitsu, J; Koyama, Ts; Harada, K; Mori, S; McGrouther, D; Lamb, R; Krajnak, M; McVitie, S; Stamps, R L; Inoue, K

    2016-08-19

    Theoretical analysis and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) investigations in an FeGe wedge demonstrate that chiral twists arising near the surfaces of noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets [Meynell et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 014406 (2014)] provide a stabilization mechanism for magnetic Skyrmion lattices and helicoids in cubic helimagnet nanolayers. The magnetic phase diagram obtained for freestanding cubic helimagnet nanolayers shows that magnetization processes differ fundamentally from those in bulk cubic helimagnets and are characterized by the first-order transitions between modulated phases. LTEM investigations exhibit a series of hysteretic transformation processes among the modulated phases, which results in the formation of the multidomain patterns. PMID:27588877

  1. Universal features of the free-energy functional at the freezing transition for repulsive potentials.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anurag; Ford, David M

    2011-05-01

    The free-energy difference between coexisting solid and liquid phases is studied in the context of classical density functional theory (DFT). A bridge function is used to represent the higher-order (n>2) terms in the perturbative expansion of the excess Helmholtz free energy, and the values of this bridge function within the solid lattice are determined by inversion using literature Monte Carlo simulation results. Four potential models, specifically hard-sphere and inverse twelfth-, sixth-, and fourth-power repulsive, are studied. The face-centered cubic (fcc) solid is considered for the hard-sphere and inverse twelfth- and sixth-power potentials, while the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid is considered for the inverse sixth- and fourth-power potentials. For a given solid structure there is a remarkable similarity among the bridge functions for different potentials that is analogous to the universality in the sum of elementary diagrams, or bridge functions, of liquid-state theory as originally observed by Rosenfeld and Ashcroft [Phys. Rev. A 20, 1208 (1979)]. In further analogy with liquid-state theory, the bridge functions in the present problem are plotted as functionals of the second-order convolution term in the perturbative expansion. In each case, the plot indicates a unique functionality in the dense regions of the solid near the lattice sites but a scattered and nonunique behavior in the void regions. Interestingly, knowledge of the functional relationship in the unique region near the lattice sites seems to be sufficient to quantitatively model the solid-fluid phase transition. These qualitative observations are true for both fcc and bcc solid phases, although there are some quantitative differences between them. The findings suggest that pursuit of a closure-based DFT of solid-fluid transitions may be profitable. PMID:21728493

  2. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K. Ghosh, Haranath

    2015-08-15

    We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}) through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption) of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed.

  3. The Circle and Sphere as Great Equalizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1991-01-01

    From the equality of the ratios of the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and its circumscribed cylinder, the exploration of theorems relating the ratios of surface areas and volumes of a sphere and other circumscribed solids in three dimensions, and analogous questions relating two-dimensional concepts of perimeter and area is recounted. (MDH)

  4. The "Magical" Sphere: Uncovering the Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Bukleski, Miha

    2006-01-01

    A red sphere is seen at the bottom of a sealed glass tube filled with a colorless, transparent liquid. Holding the tube for a short period makes the sphere rise slowly from the bottom until it finally floats on the surface of the liquid. Instructions for preparing the demonstration are given, together with an explanation of the phenomenon. A…

  5. Cubic Unit Cell Construction Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Presents instructions for building a simple interactive unit-cell construction kit that allows for the construction of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic lattices. The lit is built from inexpensive and readily available materials and can be built in any number of sizes. (WRM)

  6. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  7. Chiral Structures of Thermoresponsive Soft Spheres in Hollow Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Matthew A.; Alsayed, Ahmed; Zhang, Zexin; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally observe the formation of closely packed crystalline structures in hollow cylinders. The structures have varying degrees of chiral order. The systems are created from aqueous suspensions of thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) microgel particles packed in micron-diameter glass capillaries. We categorize these structures according to classifications used by Erickson for tubular packings of hard spheres [1]. By varying the temperature-tunable diameter of these particles, the system's volume fraction is changed, permitting observations of the resilience of these structures and their melting transitions. Melting of these thermal crystalline structures is observed. [1] R. O. Erickson, Science 181 (1973) 705-716.

  8. Solving Cubic Equations by Polynomial Decomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2011-01-01

    Several mathematicians struggled to solve cubic equations, and in 1515 Scipione del Ferro reportedly solved the cubic while participating in a local mathematical contest, but did not bother to publish his method. Then it was Cardano (1539) who first published the solution to the general cubic equation in his book "The Great Art, or, The Rules of…

  9. Cubic Icosahedra? A Problem in Assigning Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    There is a standard convention that the icosahedral groups are classified separately from the cubic groups, but these two symmetry types have been conflated as "cubic" in some chemistry textbooks. In this note, the connection between cubic and icosahedral symmetries is examined, using a simple pictorial model. It is shown that octahedral and…

  10. Hydrophobic Surfactant Proteins Induce a Phosphatidylethanolamine to Form Cubic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Chavarha, Mariya; Khoojinian, Hamed; Schulwitz, Leonard E.; Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C promote rapid adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air/water interface. Previous evidence suggests that they achieve this effect by facilitating the formation of a rate-limiting negatively curved stalk between the vesicular bilayer and the interface. To determine whether the proteins can alter the curvature of lipid leaflets, we used x-ray diffraction to investigate how the physiological mixture of these proteins affects structures formed by 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, which by itself undergoes the lamellar-to-inverse hexagonal phase transition at 71°C. In amounts as low as 0.03% (w:w) and at temperatures as low as 57°C, the proteins induce formation of bicontinuous inverse cubic phases. The proteins produce a dose-related shift of diffracted intensity to the cubic phases, with minimal evidence of other structures above 0.1% and 62°C, but no change in the lattice-constants of the lamellar or cubic phases. The induction of the bicontinuous cubic phases, in which the individual lipid leaflets have the same saddle-shaped curvature as the hypothetical stalk-intermediate, supports the proposed model of how the surfactant proteins promote adsorption. PMID:20409474

  11. Topological and metrical property characterization of radical subunits for ternary hard sphere crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; An, Xizhong; Wang, Defeng; Qian, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characterization on the topological and metrical properties of radical subunits (polyhedra) for two new ternary hard sphere crystals was studied. These two ideal crystalline structures are numerically constructed by filling small and medium spheres into interstices (corresponding to regular tetrahedral and octahedral pores) of perfect face centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystals formed by the packing of large spheres. Topological properties such as face number, edge number, vertex number of each radical polyhedron (RP), edge number of each RP face and metrical properties such as volume, surface area, total perimeter and pore volume of each RP, area and perimeter of each RP face were analyzed and compared. The results show that even though the overall packing densities for FCC and HCP ternary crystals are the same, different characteristics of radical polyhedra for corresponding spheres in these two crystals can be identified. That is, in the former structure RPs are more symmetric than those in the latter; the orientations of corresponding RP in the latter are twice as many as that in the former. Moreover, RP topological and metrical properties in the HCP ternary crystal are much more complicated than those in the FCC ternary crystal. These differences imply the structure and property differences of these two ternary crystals. Analyses of RPs provide intensive understanding of pores in the structure.

  12. Impact into Coarse Grained Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Cintala, M.; Crawford, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Several experimental studies [1,2,3] indicate that differences in the grain size of the target relative to the projectile could influence the cratering process. Impacts into coarse sand grains of size comparable to the projectile show some discrepancies with existing relationships for crater growth [e.g. 4]. Similarly, targets of ne grained, uniform in diameter glass spheres show differences in crater depth, transient crater diameter, and volume of ejecta excavated as a function of grain size [2,3]. The purpose of this work is to continue investigating how the relative grain size may influence early time coupling between a projectile and target, with implications for subsequent ejecta excavation and crater growth. In previous efforts we used numerical techniques to focus on the propagation of shock waves in coarse, granular media emphasizing the influence of relative grain size on crater growth, ejecta production, cratering efficiency, target strength, and crater shape [5,6,7]. In this study, we use experimental techniques - in part as a reality check for the numerical studies - to report on how coarse grained targets might influence ejecta excavation and crater shape. This body of work possesses important implications for ejecta excavation and cratering efficiency on asteroids that may possess rubble pile-like structures, and on planets that may possess either pre-fractured surfaces or large-scale heterogeneities in shock impedance.

  13. Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, F. W.

    2003-01-01

    Porous ZrO2 and hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized from a strong acid cation exchange resin. Spherical cation exchange beads, polystyrene based polymer, were used as a morphological-directing template. Aqueous ion exchange reaction was used to chemically bind (ZrO)(2+) ions to the polystyrene structure. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene at 600 C produces porous ZrO2 spheres with a surface area of 24 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 42 microns. Hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized by using the beads as a micro-reactor. A direct surface reaction - between titanium isopropoxide and the resin beads forms a hydrous TiO2 shell around the polystyrene core. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene core at 600 C produces hollow anatase spheres with a surface area of 42 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 38 microns. The formation of ceramic spheres was studied by XRD, SEM and B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption measurements.

  14. Induced differentiation inhibits sphere formation in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Craig, Brian T; Rellinger, Eric J; Alvarez, Alexandra L; Dusek, Haley L; Qiao, Jingbo; Chung, Dai H

    2016-08-19

    Neuroblastoma arises from the neural crest, the precursor cells of the sympathoadrenal axis, and differentiation status is a key prognostic factor used for clinical risk group stratification and treatment strategies. Neuroblastoma tumor-initiating cells have been successfully isolated from patient tumor samples and bone marrow using sphere culture, which is well established to promote growth of neural crest stem cells. However, accurate quantification of sphere-forming frequency of commonly used neuroblastoma cell lines has not been reported. Here, we show that MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines form spheres more frequently than non-MYCN-amplified cell lines. We also show that sphere formation is directly sensitive to cellular differentiation status. 13-cis-retinoic acid is a clinically used differentiating agent that induces a neuronal phenotype in neuroblastoma cells. Induced differentiation nearly completely blocked sphere formation. Furthermore, sphere formation was specifically FGF-responsive and did not respond to increasing doses of EGF. Taken together, these data suggest that sphere formation is an accurate method of quantifying the stemness phenotype in neuroblastoma. PMID:27297102

  15. The Proximity Force Approximation for the Casimir Energy of Plate-Sphere and Sphere-Sphere Systems in the Presence of One Extra Compactified Universal Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongbo

    2015-08-01

    The Casimir energies for plate-sphere system and sphere-sphere systems under PFA in the presence of one extra compactified universal dimension are analyzed. We find that the Casimir energy between a plate and a sphere in the case of sphere-based PFA is divergent. The Casimir energy of plate-sphere system in the case of plate-based PFA is finite and keeps negative. The extra-dimension corrections to the Casimir energy will be more manifest if the sphere is larger or farther away from the plate. It is shown that the negative Casimir energy for two spheres is also associated with the sizes of spheres and extra space. The larger spheres and the longer distance between them make the influence from the additional dimension stronger.

  16. Flow around spheres by dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Fan, Xi Jun

    2006-10-01

    The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to study the flow behavior past a sphere. The sphere is represented by frozen DPD particles while the surrounding fluids are modeled by simple DPD particles (representing a Newtonian fluid). For the surface of the sphere, the conventional model without special treatment and the model with specular reflection boundary condition proposed by Revenga et al. [Comput. Phys. Commun. 121-122, 309 (1999)] are compared. Various computational domains, in which the sphere is held stationary at the center, are investigated to gage the effects of periodic conditions and walls for Reynolds number (Re)=0.5 and 50. Two types of flow conditions, uniform flow and shear flow are considered, respectively, to study the drag force and torque acting on the stationary sphere. It is found that the calculated drag force imposed on the sphere based on the model with specular reflection is slightly lower than the conventional model without special treatment. With the conventional model the drag force acting on the sphere is in better agreement with experimental correlation obtained by Brown and Lawler [J. Environ. Eng. 129, 222 (2003)] for the case of larger radius up to Re of about 5. The computed torque also approaches the analytical Stokes value when Re <1. For a force-free and torque-free sphere, its motion in the flow is captured by solving the translational and rotational equations of motion. The effects of different DPD parameters (a, γ, and σ) on the drag force and torque are studied. It shows that the dissipative coefficient (γ) mainly affects the drag force and torque, while random and conservative coefficient have little influence on them. Furthermore the settling of a single sphere in square tube is investigated, in which the wall effect is considered. Good agreement is found with the experiments of Miyamura et al. [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 31 (1981)] and lattice-Boltzmann simulation results of Aidun et al. [J. Fluid Mech

  17. Numerical Simulations of Falling Sphere Viscometry Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Dwyer, L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lesher, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The falling sphere technique based on Stokes' law is widely used to determine the viscosities of geologically relevant melts at high pressures. Stokes' law is valid when a rigid sphere falls slowly and steadily through a stationary and infinite Newtonian medium of uniform properties. High-pressure falling sphere experiments however, usually involve dropping a dense, refractory sphere through a liquid contained by a cylindrical capsule of finite size. The sphere velocity is influenced by the walls (Faxen correction) and ends of the capsule, and possible convective motion of the fluid. Efforts are made to minimize thermal gradients in laboratory experiments, but small temperature differences within the capsule can lead to convection complicating interpretation. We utilize GALE (Moresi et al., 2003;), a finite element particle-in-cell code, to examine these factors in numerical models of conditions similar to those of high-pressure experiments. Our modeling considers a three- dimensional box or cylinder containing a cluster of particles that represent the dense sphere in laboratory experiments surrounded by low viscosity particles representing the melt. GALE includes buoyancy forces, heat flow, and viscosity variations so our model can be used to assess the effects of the capsule's walls and ends, and the consequences of thermal gradients on the sphere's velocity and trajectory. Comparisons between our numerical simulations and real-time falling sphere experiments involving lower viscosity molten komatiite are made to assess the validity of Stokes' law with the standard Faxen correction included, and formulations considering end effects. The modeling also permits an evaluation of the uncertainties in recovering accurate liquid viscosities from Stokes' law when a dense sphere falls through a convecting low viscosity melt. It also allows us to assess acceleration to a terminal velocity that can provide constraints on melt viscosity in experiments in which the terminal

  18. Pressure-driven flow past spheres moving in a circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheard, G. J.; Ryan, K.

    A computational investigation, supported by a theoretical analysis, is performed to investigate a pressure-driven flow around a line of equispaced spheres moving at a prescribed velocity along the axis of a circular tube. This fundamental study underpins a range of applications including physiological circulation research. A spectral-element formulation in cylindrical coordinates is employed to solve for the incompressible fluid flow past the spheres, and the flows are computed in the reference frame of the translating spheres.Both the volume flow rate relative to the spheres and the forces acting on each sphere are computed for specific sphere-to-tube diameter ratios and sphere spacing ratios. Conditions at which zero axial force on the spheres are identified, and a region of unsteady flow is detected at higher Reynolds numbers (based on tube diameter and sphere velocity). A regular perturbation analysis and the reciprocal theorem are employed to predict flow rate and drag coefficient trends at low Reynolds numbers. Importantly, the zero drag condition is well-described by theory, and states that at this condition, the sphere velocity is proportional to the applied pressure gradient. This result was verified for a range of spacing and diameter ratios. Theoretical approximations agree with computational results for Reynolds numbers up to O(100).The geometry dependence of the zero axial force condition is examined, and for a particular choice of the applied dimensionless pressure gradient, it is found that this condition occurs at increasing Reynolds numbers with increasing diameter ratio, and decreasing Reynolds number with increasing sphere spacing.Three-dimensional simulations and predictions of a Floquet linear stability analysis independently elucidate the bifurcation scenario with increasing Reynolds number for a specific diameter ratio and sphere spacing. The steady axisymmetric flow first experiences a small region of time-dependent non

  19. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

  20. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  1. Integrating Sphere Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuyer, Bart; Ben-Kish, Amit; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2010-03-01

    An integrating sphere is an optical multi-pass cavity that uses diffuse reflection to increase the optical path length. Typically applied in photometry and radiometry, integrating spheres have previously been used to detect trace gases and to cool and trap alkali-metal atoms. Here, we investigate the potential for integrating spheres to enhance optical absorption in optically thin alkali-metal vapor cells. In particular, we consider the importance of dielectric effects due to a glass container for the alkali-metal vapor. Potential applications include miniature atomic clocks and magnetometers, where multi-passing could reduce the operating temperature and power consumption.

  2. Superelastic carbon spheres under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meifen; Guo, Junjie; Xu, Bingshe

    2013-03-01

    We report a superelastic deformation behavior of carbon spheres by the in situ Raman spectroscopy in a high-pressure diamond anvil cell. The carbon spheres produced by arc discharging in toluene have a mean diameter of 200 nm and an onion-like multilayer graphitic structure. We find that the elastic coefficients, during both the compression and decompression processes, remain a constant up to 10 GPa, indicating a superior high-pressure structural stability. Such superelastic behavior is related to the isotropic and concentric configuration of carbon spheres and provides additional insight into improving the microscopic mechanical properties of small-scale particles.

  3. Mutifuntional GdPO4:Eu3+ hollow spheres: synthesis and magnetic and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Yin, Meili; You, Hongpeng; Yang, Mei; Song, Yanhua; Huang, Yeju

    2011-11-01

    Mondispersed submicrometer GdPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres were synthesized via an effective one-pot hydrothermal process. These hollow spheres have the average diameter of 200 nm, and the shell thickness is about 20 nm. The surface of the spheres consists of a number of nanorods with diameters of about 10 nm and lengths of about 50-80 nm. Both magnetic and luminescent properties of the obtained Eu(3+)-doped GdPO(4) hollow spheres were investigated. The hysteresis plot (M-H) analysis result indicates their paramagnetic property. The fluorescence spectra demonstrate that they emit orange-red color light originated from the (5)D(0) → (7)F(J) transitions of the Eu(3+) ions. Therefore, the obtained GdPO(4) hollow spheres hold promise for encapsulate drugs with controlled release. Moreover, the GdPO(4):Eu(3+) hollow spheres are attributes for bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/optical bioimaging labeling. PMID:21970439

  4. Dynamics of Structural Transformations between Lamellar and Inverse Bicontinuous Cubic Lyotropic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Ces, Oscar; Mulet, Xavier; Seddon, John M.; Templer, Richard H.; Finet, Stephanie; Winter, Roland

    2006-03-17

    The liquid crystalline lamellar (L{sub {alpha}}) to double-diamond inverse bicontinuous cubic (Q{sub II}{sup D}) phase transition for the amphiphile monoelaidin in excess water exhibits a remarkable sequence of structural transformations for pressure or temperature jumps. Our data imply that the transition dynamics depends on a coupling between changes in molecular shape and the geometrical and topological constraints of domain size. We propose a qualitative model for this coupling based on theories of membrane fusion via stalks and existing knowledge of the structure and energetics of bicontinuous cubic phases.

  5. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  6. Mechanisms for pressure-induced crystal-crystal transition, amorphization, and devitrification of SnI{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Tse, J. S.; Hu, M. Y.; Bi, W.; Zhao, J.; Alp, E. E.; Pasternak, M.; Taylor, R. D.; Lashley, J. C.

    2015-10-28

    The pressure-induced amorphization and subsequent recrystallization of SnI{sub 4} have been investigated using first principles molecular dynamics calculations together with high-pressure {sup 119}Sn nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements. Above ∼8 GPa, we observe a transformation from an ambient crystalline phase to an intermediate crystal structure and a subsequent recrystallization into a cubic phase at ∼64 GPa. The crystalline-to-amorphous transition was identified on the basis of elastic compatibility criteria. The measured tin vibrational density of states shows large amplitude librations of SnI{sub 4} under ambient conditions. Although high pressure structures of SnI{sub 4} were thought to be determined by random packing of equal-sized spheres, we detected electron charge transfer in each phase. This charge transfer results in a crystal structure packing determined by larger than expected iodine atoms.

  7. Mechanisms for pressure-induced crystal-crystal transition, amorphization, and devitrification of Snl4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Hu, Michael Y.; Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Pasternak, Moshe; Taylor, R. Dean; Lashley, Jason C.

    2015-10-27

    The pressure-induced amorphization and subsequent recrystallization of SnI4 have been investigated using first principles molecular dynamics calculations together with high-pressure 119Sn nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements. Above ~8 GPa, we observe a transformation from an ambient crystalline phase to an intermediate crystal structure and a subsequent recrystallization into a cubic phase at ~64 GPa. The crystalline-to-amorphous transition was identified on the basis of elastic compatibility criteria. The measured tin vibrational density of states shows large amplitude librations of SnI4 under ambient conditions. Although high pressure structures of SnI4 were thought to be determined by random packing of equal-sized spheres, we detected electron charge transfer in each phase. As a result, this charge transfer results in a crystal structure packing determined by larger than expected iodine atoms. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  8. #4 Simulated Solar Sphere from Data - Interpolated

    NASA Video Gallery

    Rotating solar sphere made from a combination of imagery from the two STEREO spacecraft, together with simultaneous data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory.This movie is made from data taken on Jan...

  9. Science off the Sphere: Lenses and Vortices

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you c...

  10. Elastic spheres can walk on water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C.; Jandron, Michael A.; Bower, Allan F.; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2016-02-01

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.

  11. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  12. Science off the Sphere: Knitting Needles

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit uses knitting needles and water droplets to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between N...

  13. Science off the Sphere: Thin Film Physics

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you c...

  14. Entanglement entropy across a deformed sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezei, Márk

    2015-02-01

    I study the entanglement entropy (EE) across a deformed sphere in conformal field theories (CFTs). I show that the sphere (locally) minimizes the universal term in EE among all shapes. In the work of Allais and Mezei [Phys. Rev. D 91, 046002 (2015)] it was derived that the sphere is a local extremum, by showing that the contribution linear in the deformation parameter is absent. In this paper I demonstrate that the quadratic contribution is positive and is controlled by the coefficient of the stress tensor two-point function, CT. Such a minimization result contextualizes the fruitful relation between the EE of a sphere and the number of degrees of freedom in field theory. I work with CFTs with gravitational duals, where all higher curvature couplings are turned on. These couplings parametrize conformal structures in stress tensor n -point functions; hence I show the result for infinitely many CFT examples.

  15. Elastic spheres can walk on water

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C.; Jandron, Michael A.; Bower, Allan F.; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2016-01-01

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys. PMID:26842860

  16. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres, conversions with them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  17. StenniSphere reopens after Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    StenniSphere reopened Jan. 18, 2006, almost five months after Hurricane Katrina damaged the basement of the building that houses the visitor center. Thanks to the staff's careful preparations before the storm, no artifacts or exhibits were harmed.

  18. Elastic spheres can walk on water.

    PubMed

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C; Jandron, Michael A; Bower, Allan F; Truscott, Tadd T

    2016-01-01

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys. PMID:26842860

  19. Please comply: the water entry of soft spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy; Fanning, Tate; Jandron, Michael; Rekos, John; Bower, Allan; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    The typical phenomena associated with sphere water impact are significantly altered when the sphere material is highly compliant rather than rigid. We describe the water impact physics of homogenous and hollow elastic spheres. The homogeneous spheres undergo large oscillatory deformations throughout entry that carve nested disturbances into the normally smooth air cavity, altering cavity shape and pinch off. Using an analytical model, we relate the maximum sphere deformation to the material properties and impact velocity. This characteristic deformation is used to reconcile the differences between cavities formed by compliant and rigid spheres. In addition to the nested disturbances seen with the homogeneous spheres, we observe azimuthal irregularities on the cavity during water entry of hollow elastic spheres. Based on experiments and finite-element modeling, we suggest that these disturbances are initiated by vibration mode shapes excited in the hollow spheres upon impact. For all sphere types, we compare the forces throughout water entry to the rigid sphere case.

  20. Swelling of Bicontinuous Cubic Phases in Guerbet Glycolipid: Effects of Additives.

    PubMed

    Salim, Malinda; Wan Iskandar, Wan Farah Nasuha; Patrick, Melonney; Zahid, N Idayu; Hashim, Rauzah

    2016-06-01

    Inverse bicontinuous cubic phases of lyotropic liquid crystal self-assembly have received much attention in biomedical, biosensing, and nanotechnology applications. An Ia3d bicontinuous cubic based on the gyroid G-surface can be formed by the Guerbet synthetic glucolipid 2-hexyl-decyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (β-Glc-OC6C10) in excess water. The small water channel diameter of this cubic phase could provide nanoscale constraints in encapsulation of large molecules and crystallization of membrane proteins, hence stresses the importance of water channel tuning ability. This work investigates the swelling behavior of lyotropic self-assembly of β-Glc-OC6C10 which could be controlled and modulated by different surfactants as a hydration-modulating agent. Our results demonstrate that addition of nonionic glycolipid octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (β-Glc-OC8) at 20 and 25 mol % gives the largest attainable cubic water channel diameter of ca. 62 Å, and formation of coacervates which may be attributed to a sponge phase were seen at 20 mol % octyl-β-d-maltopyranoside (β-Mal-OC8). Swelling of the cubic water channel can also be attained in charged surfactant-doped systems dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), of which phase transition occurred from cubic to a lamellar phase. Destabilization of the cubic phase to an inverse hexagonal phase was observed when a high amount of charged lecithin (LEC) and stearylamine (SA) was added to the lipid self-assembly. PMID:27183393

  1. Liouville Quantum Gravity on the Riemann Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, François; Kupiainen, Antti; Rhodes, Rémi; Vargas, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we rigorously construct Liouville Quantum Field Theory on the Riemann sphere introduced in the 1981 seminal work by Polyakov. We establish some of its fundamental properties like conformal covariance under PSL{_2({C})}-action, Seiberg bounds, KPZ scaling laws, KPZ formula and the Weyl anomaly formula. We also make precise conjectures about the relationship of the theory to scaling limits of random planar maps conformally embedded onto the sphere.

  2. Approximating spheroid inductive responses using spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank

    2003-12-12

    The response of high permeability ({mu}{sub r} {ge} 50) conductive spheroids of moderate aspect ratios (0.25 to 4) to excitation by uniform magnetic fields in the axial or transverse directions is approximated by the response of spheres of appropriate diameters, of the same conductivity and permeability, with magnitude rescaled based on the differing volumes, D.C. magnetizations, and high frequency limit responses of the spheres and modeled spheroids.

  3. Hollow sphere ceramic particles for abradable coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, F.N.; Bader, N.F. III; Dorfman, M.R.

    1984-05-22

    A hollow sphere ceramic flame spray powder is disclosed. The desired constituents are first formed into agglomerated particles in a spray drier. Then the agglomerated particles are introduced into a plasma flame which is adjusted so that the particles collected are substantially hollow. The hollow sphere ceramic particles are suitable for flame spraying a porous and abradable coating. The hollow particles may be selected from the group consisting of zirconium oxide and magnesium zirconate.

  4. Effect of Phospholipids and a Transmembrane Peptide on the Stability of the Cubic Phase of Monoolein: Implication for Protein Crystalization from a Cubic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Chupin, V.; Killian, J. A.; de Kruijff, B.

    2003-01-01

    The cubic phase of monoolein has successfully been used for crystallization of a number of membrane proteins. However, the mechanism of protein crystallization in the cubic phase is still unknown. It was hypothesized, that crystallization occurs at locally formed patches of bilayers. To get insight into the stability of the cubic phase, we investigated the effect of different phospholipids and a model transmembrane peptide on the lipid organization in mixed monoolein systems. Deuterium-labeled 1-oleoyl-rac-[2H5]-glycerol was used as a selective probe for 2H NMR. The phase behavior of the phospholipids was followed by 31P NMR. Upon incorporation of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, or phosphatidic acid, the cubic phase of monoolein transformed into the Lα or HII phase depending on the phase preference of the phospholipid and its concentration. The ability of phospholipids to destabilize the cubic phase was found to be dependent on the phospholipid packing properties. Electrostatic repulsion facilitated the cubic-to-Lα transition. Incorporation of the transmembrane peptide KALP31 induced formation of the Lα phase with tightly packed lipid molecules. In all cases when phase separation occurs, monoolein and phospholipid participate in both phases. The implications of these findings for protein crystallization are discussed. PMID:12668446

  5. Inverse Magnus effect on a rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooha; Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of rotating spheres in the subcritical Reynolds number (Re) regime by measuring the drag and lift forces on the sphere and the two-dimensional velocity in the wake. The experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 0 . 6 ×105 - 2 . 6 ×105 and the spin ratio (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of 0 (no spin) - 0.5. The drag coefficient on a stationary sphere remains nearly constant at around 0.52. However, the magnitude of lift coefficient is nearly zero at Re < 2 . 0 ×105 , but rapidly increases to 0.3 and then remains constant with further increasing Reynolds number. On the other hand, with rotation, the lift coefficient shows negative values, called inverse Magnus effect, depending on the magnitudes of the Reynolds number and spin ratio. The velocity field measured from a particle image velocimetry (PIV) indicates that non-zero lift coefficient on a stationary sphere at Re > 2 . 0 ×105 results from the asymmetry of separation line, whereas the inverse Magnus effect for the rotating sphere results from the differences in the boundary-layer growth and separation along the upper and lower sphere surfaces. Supported by the WCU, Converging Research Center and Priority Research Centers Program, NRF, MEST, Korea.

  6. Scaled free energies, power-law potentials, strain pseudospins, and quasiuniversality for first-order structural transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, S. R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2010-10-01

    We consider ferroelastic first-order phase transitions with N{sub OP} order-parameter strains entering Landau free energies as invariant polynomials that have N{sub V} structural-variant Landau minima. The total free energy includes (seemingly innocuous) harmonic terms, in the n=6-N{sub OP} nonorder-parameter strains. Four three-dimensional (3D) transitions are considered, tetragonal/orthorhombic, cubic/tetragonal, cubic/trigonal, and cubic/orthorhombic unit-cell distortions, with, respectively, N{sub OP}=1, 2, 3, and 2; and N{sub V}=2, 3, 4, and 6. Five two-dimensional (2D) transitions are also considered, as simpler examples. Following Barsch and Krumhansl, we scale the free energy to absorb most material-dependent elastic coefficients into an overall prefactor, by scaling in an overall elastic energy density; a dimensionless temperature variable; and the spontaneous-strain magnitude at transition {lambda}<<1. To leading order in {lambda} the scaled Landau minima become material independent, in a kind of ''quasiuniversality.'' The scaled minima in N{sub OP}-dimensional order-parameter space, fall at the center and at the N{sub V} corners, of a transition-specific polyhedron inscribed in a sphere, whose radius is unity at transition. The ''polyhedra'' for the four 3D transitions are, respectively, a line, a triangle, a tetrahedron, and a hexagon. We minimize the n terms harmonic in the nonorder-parameter strains, by substituting solutions of the ''no dislocation'' St Venant compatibility constraints, and explicitly obtain power-law anisotropic, order-parameter interactions, for all transitions. In a reduced discrete-variable description, the competing minima of the Landau free energies induce unit-magnitude pseudospin vectors, with N{sub V}+1 values, pointing to the polyhedra corners and the (zero-value) center. The total scaled free energies then become Z{sub N{sub V+1}} clocklike pseudospin Hamiltonians, with temperature-dependent local Landau terms, nearest

  7. Scaled free energies, power-law potentials, strain pseudospins, and quasiuniversality for first-order structural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, S. R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2010-10-01

    We consider ferroelastic first-order phase transitions with NOP order-parameter strains entering Landau free energies as invariant polynomials that have NV structural-variant Landau minima. The total free energy includes (seemingly innocuous) harmonic terms, in the n=6-NOP nonorder-parameter strains. Four three-dimensional (3D) transitions are considered, tetragonal/orthorhombic, cubic/tetragonal, cubic/trigonal, and cubic/orthorhombic unit-cell distortions, with, respectively, NOP=1 , 2, 3, and 2; and NV=2 , 3, 4, and 6. Five two-dimensional (2D) transitions are also considered, as simpler examples. Following Barsch and Krumhansl, we scale the free energy to absorb most material-dependent elastic coefficients into an overall prefactor, by scaling in an overall elastic energy density; a dimensionless temperature variable; and the spontaneous-strain magnitude at transition λ≪1 . To leading order in λ the scaled Landau minima become material independent, in a kind of “quasiuniversality.” The scaled minima in NOP -dimensional order-parameter space, fall at the center and at the NV corners, of a transition-specific polyhedron inscribed in a sphere, whose radius is unity at transition. The “polyhedra” for the four 3D transitions are, respectively, a line, a triangle, a tetrahedron, and a hexagon. We minimize the n terms harmonic in the nonorder-parameter strains, by substituting solutions of the “no dislocation” St Venant compatibility constraints, and explicitly obtain power-law anisotropic, order-parameter interactions, for all transitions. In a reduced discrete-variable description, the competing minima of the Landau free energies induce unit-magnitude pseudospin vectors, with NV+1 values, pointing to the polyhedra corners and the (zero-value) center. The total scaled free energies then become ZNV+1 clocklike pseudospin Hamiltonians, with temperature-dependent local Landau terms, nearest-neighbor Ginzburg couplings, and power-law St Venant

  8. Polypyrrole-Coated Zinc Ferrite Hollow Spheres with Improved Cycling Stability for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoran; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Xiaodan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Here, ZnFe2 O4 double-shell hollow microspheres are designed to accommodate the large volume expansion during lithiation. A facile and efficient vapor-phase polymerization method has been developed to coat the ZnFe2 O4 hollow spheres with polypyrrole (PPY). The thin PPY coating improves not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity, and thus the cycling stability of the ZnFe2 O4 hollow spheres. Our work sheds light on how to enhance the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials by designing delicate nanostructures. PMID:27259158

  9. Force distribution/transmission in amorphous and crystalline packings of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xizhong; Huang, Fei

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the discrete element modeling (DEM) was used to study the force distributions/transmissions in the packings of amorphous and crystalline states generated by equal spheres subjected to an external load (of a large sphere) applied on the top of a packing. Crystalline packings such as {100}-and {111}-oriented face centered cubic (FCC), hexagonal close packed (HCP) and body centered cubic (BCC) were considered. The results show that the forces among the particles in these packings are quite different, with different force chains identified with different structures. For amorphous packings, the force chain supporting the external load gives a conical shape. The force chain in a crystalline packing is mainly of a pyramid shape and the forces therein are transmitted along the crystalline lattice. For {100}-FCC, {111}-FCC, and BCC other than HCP, the forces transmit along straight lines with different orientations. In crystalline packings, the forces in the chains are uniformly distributed in each layer and decrease linearly with the height. The force distributions in amorphous and crystalline granular packings are structure-dependent.

  10. Terminal energy distribution of blast waves from bursting spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, A. A.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation results for the total energy delivered to the surroundings by the burst of an idealized massless sphere containing an ideal gas are presented. The logic development of various formulas for sphere energy is also presented. For all types of sphere bursts the fraction of the total initial energy available in the sphere that is delivered to the surroundings is shown to lie between that delivered for the constant pressure addition of energy to a source region and that delivered by isentropic expansion of the sphere. The relative value of E sub/Q increases at fixed sphere pressure/surrounding pressure as sphere temperature increases because the velocity of sound increases.