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Sample records for cultivated sorghum bicolor

  1. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomei; Ge, Zhengxiang; Sato, Shirley J; Clemente, Tom E

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) targeting immature embryo explants is a route to introduce transgenic alleles into the crop. The protocol requires maintenance of quality stock plants under greenhouse conditions for a constant supply of immature embryo explants. This is typically carried out by a regular sowing of seeds, minimal use of pesticides, and monitoring of plants to document pollen dispersal and bagging of heads. The time frame from explant inoculation to establishment of a primary transgenic event in the greenhouse typically ranges from 4 to 6 months. Seed set in the primary transformants is comparable to greenhouse-grown stock plants, with the majority of the transgenic alleles being inherited as a single functional locus. PMID:25300840

  2. Genetic transformation of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Girijashankar, V; Swathisree, V

    2009-10-01

    Great millet (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated across the world for food and fodder. It is typically grown in semiarid regions that are not suitable for cultivation of other major cereals. Sexual incompatibility and shortage of available genes in germplasm to combat biotic and abiotic stresses resulted in marginalized yields of this crop. Genetic modification of sorghum with agronomically useful genes can address this problem. Here, we tried to review and summarize the key aspects of sorghum transformation work being carried out so far by various research groups across the world. The approaches used and the obstacles in generating transgenic sorghum are also pointed out and discussed. PMID:23572939

  3. Genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Kenya as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Mutegi, E; Sagnard, F; Semagn, K; Deu, M; Muraya, M; Kanyenji, B; de Villiers, S; Kiambi, D; Herselman, L; Labuschagne, M

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the extent and partitioning of diversity within and among crop landraces and their wild/weedy relatives constitutes the first step in conserving and unlocking their genetic potential. This study aimed to characterize the genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum at country scale in Kenya, and to elucidate some of the underlying evolutionary mechanisms. We analyzed at total of 439 individuals comprising 329 cultivated and 110 wild sorghums using 24 microsatellite markers. We observed a total of 295 alleles across all loci and individuals, with 257 different alleles being detected in the cultivated sorghum gene pool and 238 alleles in the wild sorghum gene pool. We found that the wild sorghum gene pool harbored significantly more genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, a reflection that domestication of sorghum was accompanied by a genetic bottleneck. Overall, our study found close genetic proximity between cultivated sorghum and its wild progenitor, with the extent of crop-wild divergence varying among cultivation regions. The observed genetic proximity may have arisen primarily due to historical and/or contemporary gene flow between the two congeners, with differences in farmers' practices explaining inter-regional gene flow differences. This suggests that deployment of transgenic sorghum in Kenya may lead to escape of transgenes into wild-weedy sorghum relatives. In both cultivated and wild sorghum, genetic diversity was found to be structured more along geographical level than agro-climatic level. This indicated that gene flow and genetic drift contributed to shaping the contemporary genetic structure in the two congeners. Spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed a strong spatial genetic structure in both cultivated and wild sorghums at the country scale, which could be explained by medium- to long-distance seed movement. PMID:21153801

  4. Induced Chromosome Doubling of Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum propinquum Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (2n=2x=20) and S. propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. (2n=2x=20) have a significantly higher degree of interfertility than S. bicolor and S. halepense (L.) Pers. (2n=4x=40), which occurs rarely and results in largely sterile triploids (2n=3x=30). Interspecific hybridization betwe...

  5. Genotype dependent interspecific hybridization of Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers. PMID:27257604

  7. Genetic recombination in Sorghum bicolor x S. macrospermum interspecific hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum has been improved by public and private breeding programs utilizing germplasm mostly from within the species Sorghum bicolor. Until recently, cross-incompatibilities have prevented its hybridization with most species within the genus Sorghum. Utilizing germplasm homozygous for the iap alle...

  8. MOROKOSHI: Transcriptome Database in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Yuko; Shimada, Setsuko; Kawashima, Mika; Kondou-Kuriyama, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    In transcriptome analysis, accurate annotation of each transcriptional unit and its expression profile is essential. A full-length cDNA (FL-cDNA) collection facilitates the refinement of transcriptional annotation, and accurate transcription start sites help to unravel transcriptional regulation. We constructed a normalized FL-cDNA library from eight growth stages of aerial tissues in Sorghum bicolor and isolated 37,607 clones. These clones were Sanger sequenced from the 5′ and/or 3′ ends and in total 38,981 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. About one-third of the transcripts of known genes were captured as FL-cDNA clone resources. In addition to these, we also annotated 272 novel genes, 323 antisense transcripts and 1,672 candidate isoforms. These clones are available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center. After obtaining accurate annotation of transcriptional units, we performed expression profile analysis. We carried out spikelet-, seed- and stem-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and confirmed the expression of 70.6% of the newly identified genes. We also downloaded 23 sorghum RNA-Seq samples that are publicly available and these are shown on a genome browser together with our original FL-cDNA and RNA-Seq data. Using our original and publicly available data, we made an expression profile of each gene and identified the top 20 genes with the most similar expression. In addition, we visualized their relationships in gene co-expression networks. Users can access and compare various transcriptome data from S, bicolor at http://sorghum.riken.jp. PMID:25505007

  9. Characterization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench) for biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Increased utilization of novel biomass sources for energy conversion schemes has become a significant portion of energy related research and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is often considered a viable potential resource. Plant breeding efforts to improve sorghum are limited in part by a poor definition of quality traits and their inheritance. To address these concerns, six diverse sorghums were compared and then combined to produce a full F/sub 1/ diallel with reciprocal crosses and genetic analysis. Fourteen agronomic, composition or quality traits were measured using chemical, biological and microscopic techniques. The six parental genotypes were grown at College Station and Weslaco, Texas in 1982 and 1983 while the diallel was grown at College Station in 1983. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, correlation and the Jinks-Hayman methods of diallel analysis. A significant genotype x environment interaction occurred for Brix % and yield per plant, but height and maturity did not display a significant effect. Through the diallel analysis, it was determined that additive genetic variance was a significant factor for total sugars, cell wall %, IVDMD, hemicellulose and starch. However, partial dominance was indicated for several traits as well. Reciprocal effects were not a major factor for the traits evaluated. The results together indicate that a breeding program should continue to develop improved male and female lines for use in hybrids.

  10. New commercially viable processing technologies for the production of sugar feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) has been widely recognized as a promising sugar feedstock crop because it: (i) is among the plants giving the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare; (ii) is easily cultivated from seed; (iii) has low input requirements and wide geographic suitability; a...

  11. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fiber and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, phy...

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  13. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  14. Intergeneric pollen tube growth in Poaceae utilizing the Iap allele in Sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of hybridization in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has long served as a tool utilized by breeders to increase and exploit genetic variation within the species. Recent interspecific hybridization of S. bicolor has produced diversity not previously seen within Sorghum species. A sorghum access...

  15. Early-generation germplasm introgression from Sorghum macrospermum into sorghum (S. bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most genetic improvements of sorghum (S. bicolor [L.] Moench) have resulted from public and private breeding efforts reliant on intra-specific crosses. Recent inter-specific hybridization of the Australian species S. macrospermum and S. bicolor and the definition of their respective genomic relatio...

  16. Modulation of kernel storage proteins in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) ranks fifth among the cereals world-wide with respect to its importance for food and feed applications. The grain is approximately 13% protein, of which the kafirins comprise over 80% of the protein component of the grain endosperm. The kafirins are cate...

  17. Genome-wide survey of Alternative Splicing in Sorghum Bicolor.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Bahman; Abbaszadeh, Bahram; Taghizadeghan, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a member of grass family which is an attractive model plant for genome study due to interesting genome features like low genome size. In this research, we performed comprehensive investigation of Alternative Splicing and ontology aspects of genes those have undergone these events in sorghum bicolor. We used homology based alignments between gene rich transcripts, represented by tentative consensus (TC) transcript sequences, and genomic scaffolds to deduce the structure of genes and identify alternatively spliced transcripts in sorghum. Using homology mapping of assembled expressed sequence tags with genomics data, we identified 2,137 Alternative Splicing events in S. bicolor. Our study showed that complex events and intron retention are the main types of Alternative Splicing events in S. bicolor and highlights the prevalence of splicing site recognition for definition of introns in this plant. Annotations of the alternatively spliced genes revealed that they represent diverse biological process and molecular functions, suggesting a fundamental role for Alternative Splicing in affecting the development and physiology of S. bicolor. PMID:25049459

  18. Dhurrin-6'-glucoside, a cyanogenic diglucoside from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Selmar, D; Irandoost, Z; Wray, V

    1996-10-01

    A novel cyanogenic diglucoside has been isolated from methanolic extracts of young seedlings of Sorghum bicolor. Its structure was established as dhurrin-6-glucoside from NMR, mass spectrometry and enzymatic hydrolysis data. Compared with dhurrin, which is the major cyanogenic glucoside in sorghum leaves, dhurrin-6-glucoside occurs only in low concentrations. In contrast, however, the diglucoside is present in significant amounts in guttation droplets of young Sorghum seedlings. The presence of the diglucoside and its occurrence in apoplasmic exudates supports the hypothesis that diglucosides represent metabolites of cyanogenic monoglucosides which can be translocated within the plant. PMID:8987580

  19. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  20. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  1. Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

  2. Variations in the polarized leaf reflectance of Sorghum bicolor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1987-01-01

    The polarized reflectance factor, Rq, of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) leaves from field-grown plants was measured in situ in the summers of 1983 and 1984. In 1983, three leaves of two randomly selected plants were measured at 2-week intervals. The value of Rq varied, depending on leaf and day of measurement. Measured values of Rq for the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 16 to 53; for the abaxial leaf surface the values ranged from 28 to 69. In 1984, measurements consisted of repeated observations made on the same leaf at biweekly intervals. The values of Rq from the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 26 to 38. Values of Rq from the abaxial leaf surface increased throughout the season, from 16 to 45. Differences in Rq were attributed to changes in surface details of the leaf.

  3. Elimination of a reproductive barrier facilitates intergeneric hybridization of Sorghum bicolor and Saccharum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are now being bred to enhance the quantity and quality of biomass while maintaining or improving biotic and abiotic stress tolerances. Introgression of complementary traits between sorghum and sugarcane may be an important tool for breeders, ...

  4. Rate of shattercane x sorghum hybridization in situ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench subsp. bicolor] can interbreed with a feral weedy relative shattercane [S. bicolor nothosubsp. drummondii (Steud.) de Wet ex Davidse]. Traits introduced from cultivated sorghum could contribute to the invasiveness of a shattercane population. An experi...

  5. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  6. Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

  7. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  8. Elimination of a reproductive barrier facilitates intergeneric hybridization of Sorghum bicolor and Saccharum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing interest in bioenergy production has increased efforts to breed for greater biomass through intra- and inter-generic hybridization. Both sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are now being bred to enhance the quantity and quality of biomass while maintaining or improving ...

  9. Genetic Diversity among Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench Benotypes as Revealed by Prolamines and SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a leading cereal in the arid and semi-arid regions and ranks fifth in importance among the world’s grain crops. Given its importance as a staple food crop, a livestock feed crop and potentially a bioenergy crop, there is a constant need for its genetic improvem...

  10. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Nadia; Ziegler, Greg; Dilkes, Brian P; Brenton, Zachary; Boyles, Richard; Connolly, Erin L; Kresovich, Stephen; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  11. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  12. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  13. Phytoremediation using microbially mediated metal accumulation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Merten, Dirk; Roth, Martin; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Reclaiming land that has been anthropogenically contaminated with multiple heavy metal elements, e.g., during mining operations, is a growing challenge worldwide. The use of phytoremediation has been discussed with varying success. Here, we show that a careful examination of options of microbial determination of plant performance is a key element in providing a multielement remediation option for such landscapes. We used both (a) mycorrhiza with Rhizophagus irregularis and (b) bacterial amendments with Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Streptomyces tendae F4 to mediate plant-promoting and metal-accumulating properties to Sorghum bicolor. In pot experiments, the effects on plant growth and metal uptake were scored, and in a field trial at a former uranium leaching heap site near Ronneburg, Germany, we could show the efficacy under field conditions. Different metals could be extracted at the same time, with varying microbial inoculation and soil amendment scenarios possible when a certain metal is the focus of interest. Especially, manganese was extracted at very high levels which might be useful even for phytomining approaches. PMID:25874434

  14. Gene Flow from Cultivated Sorghum to Weedy Relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is predominately sexually self-compatible, but may vary in extent of outcrossing due to panicle morphology and proximity to other compatible individuals. Using male-sterile lines and field designs not typical of production agriculture, previous researchers have documented t...

  15. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 14,739 SNPs. The SNPs were produced using a highly multiplexed g...

  16. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) in Sorghum bicolor (Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a worldwide important cereal crop and widely cultivated for grain and forage production. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is one of the major insect pests of sorghum and can cause serious damage to sorghum plants, particularly in the US Great Plains. Identification of chromosomal...

  17. Expanding and vetting Sorghum bicolor gene annotations through transcriptome and methylome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the emergence and subsequent advancement of next generation sequence technology, detailed structural and functional characterization of genomes is readily attainable. Here, we have sampled the Sorghum bicolor methylome by shallow sequencing of bisulfite treated DNA derived from root samples. W...

  18. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok Kumar; Munghate, Rajendra Sudhakar; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Polavarapu, Kavi Kishor B.; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A. soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1's and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. The genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca) effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilized in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca) effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to specific combining ability (σ2s), dominance variance (σ2d), and

  19. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering time genes in west and central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod-sensitive flowering in sorghum. For this purpose a genetically characterized panel of 219 sorghum accessions from West and Central Africa was evaluated for their photoperiod response index (PRI) based on two sowing dates under field conditions. Results Sorghum accessions used in our study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes putatively involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time. Applying a mixed model approach and previously-determined population structure parameters to these candidate genes, we found significant associations between several SNPs with PRI for the genes CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1-b1) and GIGANTEA (GI). Conclusions The negative values of Tajima's D, found for the genes of our study, suggested that purifying selection has acted on genes involved in photoperiodic control of flowering time in sorghum. The SNP markers of our study that showed significant associations with PRI can be used to create functional markers to serve as important tools for marker-assisted selection of photoperiod-sensitive cultivars in sorghum. PMID:22394582

  20. Genetic diversity among different physiological traits of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of subtropical origin.

    PubMed

    Bafeel, S O

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Saudi locally growing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the genomic patterns of diversification in Saudi sorghum cultivars (N = 7), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a rapid, inexpensive method for providing information regarding genomic variability below the species level. Six commercially available primers were initially used to select a single primer based on availability, universality, and its use with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. PCR-amplified molecular markers were reproducibly detected in Saudi cultivars. The single primer 2 produced clear bands and revealed variability among the cultivars. Seven tested cultivars were categorized into 2 major groups, indicating 2 genomogroups for the Saudi-cultivars. Five cultivars (S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) showed identical banding patterns and were grouped in the same clade, although their panicles varied in size, shape, and color. Two cultivars (S1 and S7) showed different banding patterns. In this study, a single primer (P2) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of genotype detection among sorghum cultivars. This is the first report describing genetic variation among S. bicolor cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The commercial primer (P2) and PCR reaction mixture used in this study are readily available and can be used in sorghum improvement programs. PMID:26345933

  1. Gene Space Dynamics during the Evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine different regions totaling 9.7 Mb of the 4.02 Gb Aegilops tauschii genome were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing technology and compared with orthologous Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) genomic sequences. The ancestral gene content in these regio...

  2. Alkylresorcinol Synthases Expressed in Sorghum Bicolor Root Hairs Play an Essential Role in the Biosynthesis of the Allelopathic Benzoquinone Sorgoleone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is considered to be an allelopathic crop species, producing phytotoxins such as the lipid benzoquinone sorgoleone, which likely accounts for many of the allelopathic properties of Sorghum spp. Current evidence suggests that sorgoleone biosynthesis occurs exclusively in root hair cel...

  3. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth. PMID:18304806

  4. Phytochemical concentrations and biological activities of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Pangloli, Philipus; Jones, Lynsey; McClure, Angela; Patel, Anjali

    2016-08-10

    Sorghum is an important cereal with reported health benefits. The objectives of this study were to measure the biological activities of alcoholic extracts of ten sorghum varieties and to determine the association between the color of the extracts and their biological activities. Variation on concentrations of bioactives among sorghum varieties was observed with ethanolic extracts giving higher concentrations than methanolic extracts. The color of the extracts significantly correlated with the concentrations of bioactives and with nitric oxide scavenging activity. Freeze-dried ethanol extract is more potent than freeze-dried methanol extract and caused cytotoxicity to A27801AP and PTX-10 OVCA with ED50 values of 0.69 and 1.29 mg mL(-1), respectively. Pre-treatment of OVCA with ethanol extract led to chemosensitization to paclitaxel and the proliferation and colony formation of OVCA cells were reduced by 14.7 to 44.6% and 36.4 to 40.1%, respectively. Sorghum is a potential source of colorants with health promoting properties. This is the first report on the capability of sorghum alcoholic extracts to cause cytotoxicity and chemosensitize ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27406291

  5. Developing new markers and QTL mapping for greenbug resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenbug is a major damaging insect to sorghum production in the United States. Among various virulent greenbug biotypes, biotype I is the most predominant and severe for sorghum. To combat with the damaging pest, greenbug resistant sources were obtained from screening sorghum germplasm collection...

  6. Anatomical and hydraulic properties of sorghum roots exposed to water deficit. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, R.T.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of a severe water stress in the upper 0-0.15 m rooting zone on development of the exodermis, endodermis and xylem and on radial (Lp) and axial (Ls) hydraulic conductances were studied for Sorghum bicolor. Lp and Lx were based on water flow rates obtained by applying a negative hydrostatic pressure to the proximal xylem ends of excised roots placed in aerated nutrient solution. The same roots were stained with fluorescent berberine and acid phloroglucinol to describe the development of the exodermal and endodermal cell walls from formation of the Casparian band (State I), to deposition of suberin lamellae (State II), and lignification (State III). Lp of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 80% lower in stressed roots than in unstressed controls. At 0.01 and 0.07 m from the root apex, stressed roots were in State III while control roots were in States I and II, respectively. SEM-image analysis for stressed roots indicated that in the exodermis a greater proportion of the cross sectional area was occupied by lignified walls than in the endodermis. Cellufluor, an apoplastic tracer, was blocked at the lignified exodermis even at 0.01 m from the apex in stressed roots. Uranin, a symplastic tracer, was taken up only in the apical region in stressed roots but farther from the apex in the controls. Lx of 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 90% lower in stressed roots compared with the controls. Cellufluor test and image analysis showed that although the protoxylem and early metaxylem were conductive in both treatments, stress caused more than a 50% reduction in the diameter of the xylem elements. Results suggest that lignification of the exodermis and endodermis to a large extent decreased apoplastic and symplastic flows and hence Lp in stressed roots. The low Lx in stressed roots was due to a decrease in the diameters of the conductive xylem elements.

  7. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages. PMID:23751551

  8. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Felderhoff, Tery J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Lastly, further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  9. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  10. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    J. Felderhoff, Terry; M. McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  11. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  12. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, S S; Jiang, J; Gill, B S; Paterson, A H; Wing, R A

    1994-01-01

    The construction of representative large insert DNA libraries is critical for the analysis of complex genomes. The predominant vector system for such work is the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) system. Despite the success of YACs, many problems have been described including: chimerism, tedious steps in library construction and low yields of YAC insert DNA. Recently a new E.coli based system has been developed, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, which offers many potential advantages over YACs. We tested the BAC system in plants by constructing an ordered 13,440 clone sorghum BAC library. The library has a combined average insert size, from single and double size selections, of 157 kb. Sorghum inserts of up to 315 kb were isolated and shown to be stable when grown for over 100 generations in liquid media. No chimeric clones were detected as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization of ten BAC clones to metaphase and interphase S.bicolor nuclei. The library was screened with six sorghum probes and three maize probes and all but one sorghum probe hybridized to at least one BAC clone in the library. To facilitate chromosome walking with the BAC system, methods were developed to isolate the proximal ends of restriction fragments inserted into the BAC vector and used to isolate both the left and right ends of six randomly selected BAC clones. These results demonstrate that the S. bicolor BAC library will be useful for several physical mapping and map-based cloning applications not only in sorghum but other related cereal genomes, such as maize. Furthermore, we conclude that the BAC system is suitable for most large genome applications, is more 'user friendly' than the YAC system, and will likely lead to rapid progress in cloning biologically significant genes from plants. Images PMID:7800481

  13. In vitro activity of Sorghum bicolor extracts, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Abugri, Daniel A; Witola, William H; Jaynes, Jesse M; Toufic, Nashar

    2016-05-01

    We investigated dried red leaf extracts of Sorghum bicolor for activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. S. bicolor red leaf extracts were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. Analysis of the crude and fractionated extracts from S. bicolor using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that they contained significant amounts of apigeninidin, luteolinidin, 7-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyluteolinidin, 7-methoxyluteolinidin 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin or 5,7-dimethoxyluteolinidin, based on mass per charge (m/z). When tested in vitro, the IC50s for inhibitory activity against T. gondii tachyzoites' growth of the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were 2.3- and 4-fold, respectively, lower than their cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. Ethyl acetate extracts fractionated in chloroform-methanol and chloroform had IC50s against T. gondii that were 56.1- and 3-fold lower than their respective cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. These antiparasitic activities were found to be consistent with those of the respective pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidin compounds identified to be contained in the fractions in significant amounts. Further, we observed that, the position and number of methoxy groups possessed by the 3-deoyanthocyanidins influenced their antiparasitic activity. Together, our findings indicate that S. bicolor red-leaf 3-deoxyanthocyanidins-rich extracts have potent in vitro inhibitory activity against the proliferative stage of T. gondii parasites. PMID:26855040

  14. Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

    2013-11-15

    Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

  15. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  16. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  17. Analysis of genetic variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes with various agronomical traits using SPAR methods.

    PubMed

    Satish, Lakkakula; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Pandian, Subramani; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Rathinapriya, Periyasamy; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Kumar, Are Ashok; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-01-15

    Genetic variation among 45 genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) representing seven subpopulations was assessed using three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz., inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD). Totally 15 ISSR, 8 RAPD and 7 DAMD primers generated 263 amplification products, accounting for 84.6% polymorphism across all the genotypes. The Mantel's test of correlation revealed the best correlation between ISSR and cumulative data with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. Assessment of population diversity indicated that the maximum intra population genetic diversity was recorded among high FeZn lines (HFL) having maximum values of Nei's genetic diversity (h) (0.244), Shannon information index (I) (0.368) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) (72.65%) while the corresponding lowest values of 0.074, 0.109 and 17.95% respectively were observed among the members of MDT subpopulation. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and the gene flow (Nm) between populations were observed to be 0.396 and 0.7680 respectively. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that maximum genetic variation exists within populations (95%) than among populations (5%). Thus the information obtained from this study could be utilized in sorghum breeding programmes for the development of varieties with improved nutrition and agronomic values in future. PMID:26515517

  18. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion. PMID:25442636

  19. Discovery of a dhurrin QTL in sorghum bicolor: colocalization of dhurrin biosynthesis and a novel stay-green QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin [(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile-ß-D-glucopyranoside] is a cyanogenic glucoside produced by (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and is generally considered a natural defense compound capable of producing the toxin hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to deter animal herbivory. Recently, high levels of leaf dhurrin h...

  20. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  1. Modulation of kernel storage proteins in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tejinder; Dweikat, Ismail; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Chen, Han; Elthon, Tom; Bean, Scott; Ioerger, Brian P; Tilley, Mike; Clemente, Tom

    2012-06-01

    Sorghum prolamins, termed kafirins, are categorized into subgroups α, β, and γ. The kafirins are co-translationally translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled into discrete protein bodies that tend to be poorly digestible with low functionality in food and feed applications. As a means to address the issues surrounding functionality and digestibility in sorghum, we employed a biotechnology approach that is designed to alter protein body structure, with the concomitant synthesis of a co-protein in the endosperm fraction of the grain. Wherein perturbation of protein body architecture may provide a route to impact digestibility by reducing disulphide bonds about the periphery of the body, while synthesis of a co-protein, with known functionality attributes, theoretically could impact structure of the protein body through direct association and/or augment end-use applications of sorghum flour by stabilizing ß-sheet formation of the kafirins in sorghum dough preparations. This in turn may improve viscoelasticity of sorghum dough. To this end, we report here on the molecular and phenotypic characterizations of transgenic sorghum events that are down-regulated in γ- and the 29-kDa α-kafirins and the expression of a wheat Dy10/Dx 5 hybrid high-molecular weight glutenin protein. The results demonstrate that down-regulation of γ-kafirin alone does not alter protein body formation or impacts protein digestibility of cooked flour samples. However, reduction in accumulation of a predicted 29-kDa α-kafirin alters the morphology of protein body and enhances protein digestibility in both raw and cooked samples. PMID:22353344

  2. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using TPS1 gene for enhancing tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Reddy, L A; Mandapaka, Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the transgene is integrated into the cells of already differentiated tissues, the T 0 plants were chimeric and stable integration was observed in T1 generation. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the seedlings and spikelets of emerging cob was the first indication of transformability in T0 generation which was further confirmed by PCR analysis using hpt and TPS1 gene-specific primers. Screening on 25 mg/L hygromycin combined with PCR analysis was used for selection of transformants in the T1 generation. Transformation efficiencies ranged between 34-38% and 26-34% using pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1, respectively. Molecular characterization of the T2 transgenics using PCR, RT-PCR and Southern blot analyses further revealed the integration, expression and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM-BIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1. The abiotic stress tolerance of TPS1 transgenics developed in the present study was evident by the ability of the transformants to tolerate 200 mM NaCl as well as higher root growth and biomass. PMID:26440081

  3. Phenotypic characterization and molecular mapping of a twin seeded trait of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring mutants which produce two seeds per fertile floret known as “twin-seeded” have been reported for many years in sorghum. However, details about the morphological and molecular nature of the trait are limited. To better understand twin-seeded trait and its subsequent role in grai...

  4. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A new approach in ethnobiology

    PubMed Central

    Mekbib, Firew

    2009-01-01

    Background Sorghum is one of the main staple crops for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for thousands of years and hence the heritage of the crop is expected to be rich. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage has not been done before. Methods In order to assess the bioecocultural heritage of sorghum by folksongs various research methods were employed. These included focus group discussions with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 120 farmers, and key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents. Relevant secondary data was also collected from the museum curators and historians. Results The crop is intimately associated with the life of the farmers. The association of sorghum with the farmers from seed selection to utilization is presented using folksongs. These include both tune and textual (ballad stories or poems) types. Folksongs described how farmers maintain a number of varieties on-farm for many biological, socio-economic, ecological, ethnological and cultural reasons. Farmers describe sorghum as follows: Leaf number is less than twenty; Panicle hold a thousand seeds; a clever farmer takes hold of it. In addition, they described the various farmers' varieties ethnobotanically by songs. The relative importance of sorghum vis-à-vis others crops is similarly explained in folksong terms. Conclusion The qualitative description of farmers' characterisation of the crop systems based on folksongs is a new system of appraising farmers' bioecocultural heritage. Hence, researchers, in addition to formal and quantitative descriptions, should use the folksong system for enhanced characterisation and utilization of bioecocultural heritages. In general, the salient characteristics of the folksongs used in describing the bioecocultural heritages are their oral traditions, varied function, communal or

  5. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. [Pennisetum glaucum; Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Masojidek, M.; Trivedi, S.; Halshaw, L.; Alexiou, A.; Hall, D.O. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought stress and high irradiance and their combination were studied under laboratory conditions using young plants of a very drought-resistant variety, ICMH 451, of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and three varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) - one drought-resistant from India, one drought-tolerant from Texas, and one drought-sensitive variety from France. CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and photosystem II fluorescence in leaves were analyzed in parallel with photosynthetic electron transport, photosystem II fluorescence, and chlorophyll-protein composition in chloroplasts isolated from these leaves. High irradiance slightly increased CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and electron transport activities of irrigated plants but not fluorescence. Drought stress (less than {minus}1 megapascal) depressed CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effect of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport activities and fluorescence in chloroplasts (but not photosystem I activity). The synergistic or distinctive effect of drought and high irradiance is discussed. The experiments with pearl millet and three varieties of sorghum showed that different responses of plants to drought and light stresses can be monitored by plant physiological and biochemical techniques. Some of these techniques may have a potential for selection of stress-resistant varieties using seedlings.

  6. Bioactive and nutritive compounds in Sorghum bicolor (Guinea corn) red leaves and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Abugri, D A; Tiimob, B J; Apalangya, V A; Pritchett, G; McElhenney, W H

    2013-05-01

    Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. We studied its bioactive, nutritive compounds and the effectiveness of four organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether) in isolation of these compounds to gain information regarding its health benefits to consumers. Of the compounds evaluated, the leaves consisted primarily of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids with small amounts of chlorophyll (a and b), lycopene and β-carotene. The fatty acid profiles of the leaves revealed palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid as predominant with each having greater than 5% of the total fatty acid identified. The nutritional implication of these findings is that the consumption of diets prepared with the leaves provides natural antioxidant and essential fatty acids that could fight cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:23265545

  7. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  8. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, M; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Kishor, P B Kavi; Rao, D Manohar

    2015-08-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  9. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, M.; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S. Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Kishor, P. B. Kavi; Rao, D. Manohar

    2015-01-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  10. Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought tolerance provide new and powerful tools for the selection in breeding programmes. Four genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were screened in a dry-down experiment using different approaches to discover physiological and molecular indicators of drought tolerance. Different strategies were identified in response to drought among the four genotypes and the two Sorghum race allowing to state the tolerance of durra race compared to the caudatum one and, within the durra race, the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330. It retained high biomass production and high tolerance index, it had a low threshold of fraction of transpirable soil water and high capacity to recover leaf apparatus after drought stress. Furthermore in this study, the expression levels of four genes highlighted that they could be used as proxy for drought tolerance. Dehdrine (DHN) could be used for screening drought tolerance both in durra and in caudatum races. NADP-Malic Enzyme, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) and Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP2-5), being up-regulated by drought stress only in durra race, have a more limited, though nonetheless useful application. In the tolerant durra genotype IS22330 in particular, the regulation of stomatal openings was strongly related to NADP-Malic Enzyme expression. PMID:26624226

  11. Development of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers using whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with a high degree of polymorphism contribute to the molecular dissection of agriculturally important traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). We designed 5599 non-redundant SSR markers, including regions flanking the SSRs, in whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum line ATx623. (AT/TA)n repeats constituted 26.1% of all SSRs, followed by (AG/TC)n at 20.5%, (AC/TG)n at 13.7% and (CG/GC)n at 11.8%. The chromosomal locations of 5012 SSR markers were determined by comparing the locations identified by means of electronic PCR with the predicted positions of 34 008 gene loci. Most SSR markers had a similar distribution to the gene loci. Among 970 markers validated by fragment analysis, 67.8% (658 of 970) markers successfully provided PCR amplification in sorghum line BTx623, with a mean polymorphism rate of 45.1% (297 of 658) for all SSR loci in combinations of 11 sorghum lines and one sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf) line. The product of 5012 and 0.678 suggests that approximately 3400 SSR markers could be used to detect SSR polymorphisms and that more than 1500 (45.1% of 3400) markers could reveal SSR polymorphisms in combinations of Sorghum lines. PMID:19363056

  12. The Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeoyl-CoA O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexander M; Sattler, Steven A; Regner, Matt; Jones, Jeffrey P; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2016-09-01

    Caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase responsible for methylation of the meta-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) on the pathway to monolignols, with their ring methoxylation status characteristic of guaiacyl or syringyl units in lignin. In order to better understand the unique class of type 2 O-methyltransferases from monocots, we have characterized CCoAOMT from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCCoAOMT), including the SAM binary complex crystal structure and steady-state enzyme kinetics. Key amino acid residues were validated with site-directed mutagenesis. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated a sequential binding mechanism for SbCCoAOMT, wherein SAM binds prior to caffeoyl-CoA, and the enzyme showed allosteric behavior with respect to it. 5-Hydroxyferuloyl-CoA was not a substrate for SbCCoAOMT. We propose a catalytic mechanism in which lysine-180 acts as a catalytic base and deprotonates the reactive hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-CoA. This deprotonation is facilitated by the coordination of the reactive hydroxyl group by Ca(2+) in the active site, lowering the pKa of the 3'-OH group. Collectively, these data give a new perspective on the catalytic mechanism of CCoAOMTs and provide a basis for the functional diversity exhibited by type 2 plant OMTs that contain a unique insertion loop (residues 208-231) conferring affinity for phenylpropanoid-CoA thioesters. The structural model of SbCCoAOMT can serve as the basis for protein engineering approaches to enhance the nutritional, agronomic, and industrially relevant properties of sorghum. PMID:27457122

  13. Involvement of Cytochrome P-450 in the Biosynthesis of Dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench 1

    PubMed Central

    Halkier, Barbara Ann; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1991-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin involves N-hydroxytyrosine, (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime, p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and p-hydroxymandelonitrile as intermediates and has been studied in vitro using a microsomal enzyme system obtained from etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) seedlings. The biosynthesis is inhibited by carbon monoxide and the inhibition is reversed by 450 nm light demonstrating the involvement of cytochrome P-450. The combined use of two differently prepared microsomal enzyme systems and of tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime, and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile as substrates identify two cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases: the N-hydroxylase which converts tyrosine into N-hydroxytyrosine and the C-hydroxylase converting p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile into p-hydroxymandelonitrile. The inhibitory effect of a number of putative cytochrome P-450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P-450. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies raised toward NADPH-cytochrome P-450-reductase isolated from sorghum inhibits the same metabolic conversions as carbon monoxide. No cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase catalyzing an N-hydroxylation reaction has previously been reported in plants. The metabolism of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime is completely dependent on the presence of NADPH and oxygen and results in the production of p-hydroxymandelonitrile with no accumulation of the intermediate p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile in the reaction mixture. The apparent NADPH and oxygen requirements of the oxime-metabolizing enzyme are identical to those of the succeeding C-hydroxylase converting p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. Due to the complex kinetics of the microsomal enzyme system, these requirements may not appertain to the oxime-metabolizing enzyme, which may convert p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime to p-hydroxyacetonitrile by a simple dehydration. Images

  14. Mapping of QTLs underlying flowering time in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    El Mannai, Yousra; Shehzad, Tariq; Okuno, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Due to its critical importance in crop yield, the photoperiodic regulation of flowering time is considered an important trait in sorghum breeding programs. In this study, quantitative trait loci for flowering time were detected using an F2 population derived from a cross between Kikuchi Zairai, a late-flowering cultivar originating from Japan and SC112, an early-flowering cultivar originating from Ethiopia. F2 plants were grown with their parents under a natural day length and a 12 h day length. Two linkage maps were constructed using 213 simple sequence repeats markers. Nine quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time were identified in F2 plants grown under a natural day length, whereas 7 QTLs were identified under a 12 h day length. Five QTLs controlling flowering time were shared under both of the day length conditions. PMID:23136526

  15. Quantitative genetic analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok K; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Munghate, Rajendra S; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Sharma, Hari C

    2015-01-01

    The productivity in sorghum is low, owing to various biotic and abiotic constraints. Combining insect resistance with desirable agronomic and morphological traits is important to increase sorghum productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the variability for various agronomic traits, their heritabilities and nature of gene action to develop appropriate strategies for crop improvement. Therefore, a full diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 crosses including reciprocals were evaluated in replicated trials during the 2013-14 rainy and postrainy seasons. The crosses between the parents with early- and late-flowering flowered early, indicating dominance of earliness for anthesis in the test material used. Association between the shoot fly resistance, morphological, and agronomic traits suggested complex interactions between shoot fly resistance and morphological traits. Significance of the mean sum of squares for GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) of all the studied traits suggested the importance of both additive and non-additive components in inheritance of these traits. The GCA/SCA, and the predictability ratios indicated predominance of additive gene effects for majority of the traits studied. High broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for most of the morphological and agronomic traits. The significance of reciprocal combining ability effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and 100 seed weight, suggested maternal effects for inheritance of these traits. Plant height and grain yield across seasons, days to 50% flowering, inflorescence exsertion, and panicle shape in the postrainy season showed greater specific combining ability variance, indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action/epistatic interactions in controlling the expression of these traits. Additive gene action in the rainy season, and dominance in the postrainy season for days to 50% flowering and plant

  16. Quantitative genetic analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok K.; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Munghate, Rajendra S.; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B.; Sharma, Hari C.

    2015-01-01

    The productivity in sorghum is low, owing to various biotic and abiotic constraints. Combining insect resistance with desirable agronomic and morphological traits is important to increase sorghum productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the variability for various agronomic traits, their heritabilities and nature of gene action to develop appropriate strategies for crop improvement. Therefore, a full diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 crosses including reciprocals were evaluated in replicated trials during the 2013–14 rainy and postrainy seasons. The crosses between the parents with early- and late-flowering flowered early, indicating dominance of earliness for anthesis in the test material used. Association between the shoot fly resistance, morphological, and agronomic traits suggested complex interactions between shoot fly resistance and morphological traits. Significance of the mean sum of squares for GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) of all the studied traits suggested the importance of both additive and non-additive components in inheritance of these traits. The GCA/SCA, and the predictability ratios indicated predominance of additive gene effects for majority of the traits studied. High broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for most of the morphological and agronomic traits. The significance of reciprocal combining ability effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and 100 seed weight, suggested maternal effects for inheritance of these traits. Plant height and grain yield across seasons, days to 50% flowering, inflorescence exsertion, and panicle shape in the postrainy season showed greater specific combining ability variance, indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action/epistatic interactions in controlling the expression of these traits. Additive gene action in the rainy season, and dominance in the postrainy season for days to 50% flowering and plant

  17. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  18. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e.g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community. PMID:24456189

  19. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  20. Targeted mapping of quantitative trait locus regions for rhizomatousness in chromosome SBI-01 and analysis of overwintering in a Sorghum bicolor x S. propinquum population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While rhizome formation is intimately associated with perennialism and the derived benefit of sustainability, the introduction of this trait into temperate-zone adapted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars warrants precise knowledge of the genetics conditioning this trait in order to mini...

  1. Estimating hydrogen cyanide in forage sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen P; O'Donnell, Natalie H; Stewart, Peter N; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2012-06-20

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a toxic chemical that can potentially cause mild to severe reactions in animals when grazing forage sorghum. Developing technologies to monitor the level of HCN in the growing crop would benefit graziers, so that they can move cattle into paddocks with acceptable levels of HCN. In this study, we developed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to estimate HCN in forage sorghum and hay. The full spectral NIRS range (400-2498 nm) was used as well as specific spectral ranges within the full spectral range, i.e., visible (400-750 nm), shortwave (800-1100 nm) and near-infrared (NIR) (1100-2498 nm). Using the full spectrum approach and partial least-squares (PLS), the calibration produced a coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.838 and standard error of cross-validation (SECV) = 0.040%, while the validation set had a R(2) = 0.824 with a low standard error of prediction (SEP = 0.047%). When using a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach, the best model (NIR spectra) produced a R(2) = 0.847 and standard error of calibration (SEC) = 0.050% and a R(2) = 0.829 and SEP = 0.057% for the validation set. The MLR models built from these spectral regions all used nine wavelengths. Two specific wavelengths 2034 and 2458 nm were of interest, with the former associated with C═O carbonyl stretch and the latter associated with C-N-C stretching. The most accurate PLS and MLR models produced a ratio of standard error of prediction to standard deviation of 3.4 and 3.0, respectively, suggesting that the calibrations could be used for screening breeding material. The results indicated that it should be feasible to develop calibrations using PLS or MLR models for a number of users, including breeding programs to screen for genotypes with low HCN, as well as graziers to monitor crop status to help with grazing efficiency. PMID:22594883

  2. Map-Based Cloning of Sbbmc, a Major Locus Controlling the Profuse Wax Trait of Sorghum: a Case Study in Unlocking the Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Sorghum bicolor via Integrated Physiological and Genomic Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as key...

  3. Growth Properties and Biomass Production in the Hybrid C4 Crop Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Youshi; Sazuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Saito, Chieko; Ikeuchi, Masahiro; Kanno, Keiichi; Kojima, Soichi; Hirano, Ko; Kitano, Hideki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Hiroo; Makino, Amane

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid vigor (heterosis) has been used as a breeding technique for crop improvement to achieve enhanced biomass production, but the physiological mechanisms underlying heterosis remain poorly understood. In this study, to find a clue to the enhancement of biomass production by heterosis, we systemically evaluated the effect of heterosis on the growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency in sorghum hybrid [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. Tentaka] and its parental lines (restorer line and maintainer line). The final biomass of Tentaka was 10-14 times greater than that of the parental lines grown in an experimental field, but the relative growth rate during the vegetative growth stage did not differ. Tentaka exhibited a relatively enlarged leaf area with lower leaf nitrogen content per leaf area (Narea). When the plants were grown hydroponically at different N levels, daily CO2 assimilation per leaf area (A) increased with Narea, and the ratio of A to Narea (N-use efficiency) was higher in the plants grown at low N levels but not different between Tentaka and the parental lines. The relationships between the CO2 assimilation rate, the amounts of photosynthetic enzymes, including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, Chl and Narea did not differ between Tentaka and the parental lines. Thus, Tentaka tended to exhibit enlargement of leaf area with lower N content, leading to a higher N-use efficiency for CO2 assimilation, but the photosynthetic properties did not differ. The greater biomass in Tentaka was mainly due to the prolonged vegetative growth period. PMID:26508521

  4. Comparative population genetics of the panicoid grasses: sequence polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium and selection in a diverse sample of sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Martha T; Mitchell, Sharon E; White, Gemma M; Gallego, Javier; Kukatla, Rakesh; Wing, Rod A; Paterson, Andrew H; Kresovich, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Levels of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are critical factors in association mapping methods as well as in identification of loci that have been targets of selection. Maize, an outcrosser, has a high level of sequence variation and a limited extent of LD. Sorghum, a closely related but largely self-pollinating panicoid grass, is expected to have higher levels of LD. As a first step in estimation of population genetic parameters in sorghum, we surveyed 27 diverse S. bicolor accessions for sequence variation at a total of 29,186 bp in 95 short regions derived from genetically mapped RFLPs located throughout the genome. Consistent with its higher level of inbreeding, the extent of LD is at least severalfold greater in sorghum than in maize. Total sequence variation in sorghum is about fourfold lower than that in maize, while synonymous variation is fivefold lower, suggesting a smaller effective population size in sorghum. Because we surveyed a species-wide sample, the mating system, which primarily affects population-level diversity, may not be primarily responsible for this difference. Comparisons of polymorphism and divergence suggest that both directional and diversifying selection have played important roles in shaping variation in the sorghum genome. PMID:15166170

  5. MSH1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides a Source of Phenotypic Diversity in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guomei; Nino-Liu, David O.; Kundariya, Hardik; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Dweikat, Ismail; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) encodes a plant-specific protein that functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts. We showed previously that disruption or suppression of the MSH1 gene results in a process of developmental reprogramming that is heritable and non-genetic in subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, this developmental reprogramming process is accompanied by striking changes in gene expression of organellar and stress response genes. This developmentally reprogrammed state, when used in crossing, results in a range of variation for plant growth potential. Here we investigate the implications of MSH1 modulation in a crop species. We found that MSH1-mediated phenotypic variation in Sorghum bicolor is heritable and potentially valuable for crop breeding. We observed phenotypic variation for grain yield, plant height, flowering time, panicle architecture, and above-ground biomass. Focusing on grain yield and plant height, we found some lines that appeared to respond to selection. Based on amenability of this system to implementation in a range of crops, and the scope of phenotypic variation that is derived, our results suggest that MSH1 suppression provides a novel approach for breeding in crops. PMID:25347794

  6. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of multiple Dof genes of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shubhra; Arya, Gulab C; Malviya, Neha; Bisht, Naveen C; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins represent a family of plant specific transcription factors associated with diverse biological processes, such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light mediated regulation, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, a total of 21 Dof genes from Sorghum bicolor were cloned, sequenced and in silico characterized for homology search, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. The expression profiling of SbDof genes using quantitative RT-PCR in different tissue types and also under drought and salt stresses was attempted. The SbDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth condition. Two of the SbDof genes namely SbDof8 and SbDof12 showed comparatively high level of transcript abundance in all the tissue types tested; whereas some of the SbDof genes showed a distinct tissue specific expression pattern. Further a total of 13 SbDof genes showed differential expression when subjected to either of the abiotic stress i.e. drought or salinity. Three of the SbDof genes namely SbDof12, SbDof19 and SbDof24 were found to be up-regulated in response to drought and salt stress. Comparative analysis of SbDof genes expression revealed existence of a complex transcriptional and functional diversity across plant growth and developmental stages. PMID:27230576

  7. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  8. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  9. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  10. New method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor roots by fluorescence microscopy revealed silicate concentration-dependent phytolith formation.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Milan; Martinka, Michal; Cigáň, Marek; Ravaszová, Frederika; Lux, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Silica phytoliths are microscopic structures of amorphous hydrated silica (SiO2 · nH2O) formed by specialized plant cells. Besides their biological roles, physical, chemical, and structural properties of biogenic silica offer a wide spectrum of applications in many fields of industry and technology. Therefore, processes involved in their formation recently become a very interesting topic to study. However, optical transparency and microscopic sizes of silica phytoliths do not allow their visualization and localization by classical light microscopy methods. Their observation thus requires phytolith isolation, technically difficult or lengthy sample preparation procedures, or a work with toxic chemicals. In this paper we are proposing a novel method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor root endodermal cells by fluorescence microscopy using alkali mounting solution (pH 12). This method offers an easy and quick preparation of the samples and high contrast imaging. Based on our results we can assume that the proposed fluorescent method for silica phytolith investigation allows observation of multiple samples in relatively short time period and thus might be applicable also for high-throughput screenings. Using this method we found out that after a 3-day cultivation of sorghum plants the minimal needed concentration of sodium silicate, limiting the formation of silica phytoliths in the root endodermis, was 25 µmol dm(-3). The positive correlation of sodium silicate concentration in the substrate with the phytolith diameter was also observed. PMID:25262423

  11. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B. K.; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15–215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57–200 days), and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901,  P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247,  P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin. PMID:25729773

  12. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  13. Agronomic characterization of inbred lines and hybrids of sorghum introgressed with QTL for cold tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold temperatures occurring in the early growing season are a major limitation for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivation in the northern and central United States and other temperate regions. Chinese kaoliang sorghum landraces, known to have excellent seedling cold tolerance, were used ...

  14. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses. PMID:26712107

  15. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Maropola, Mapula Kgomotso Annah; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Trindade, Marla

    2015-05-01

    Culture-independent studies rely on the quantity and quality of the extracted environmental metagenomic DNA (mDNA). To fully access the plant tissue microbiome, the extracted plant mDNA should allow optimal PCR applications and the genetic content must be representative of the total microbial diversity. In this study, we evaluated the endophytic bacterial diversity retrieved using different mDNA extraction procedures. Metagenomic DNA from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stem and root tissues were extracted using two classical DNA extraction protocols (CTAB- and SDS-based) and five commercial kits. The mDNA yields and quality as well as the reproducibility were compared. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to assess the impact on endophytic bacterial community structures observed. Generally, the classical protocols obtained high mDNA yields from sorghum tissues; however, they were less reproducible than the commercial kits. Commercial kits retrieved higher quality mDNA, but with lower endophytic bacterial diversities compared to classical protocols. The SDS-based protocol enabled access to the highest sorghum endophytic diversities. Therefore, "SDS-extracted" sorghum root and stem microbiome diversities were analysed via 454 pyrosequencing, and this revealed that the two tissues harbour significantly different endophytic communities. Nevertheless, both communities are dominated by agriculturally important genera such as Microbacterium, Agrobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; which have previously been shown to play a role in plant growth promotion. This study shows that DNA extraction protocols introduce biases in culture-independent studies of environmental microbial communities by influencing the mDNA quality, which impacts the microbial diversity analyses and evaluation. Using the broad-spectrum SDS-based DNA extraction protocol allows the recovery of the most

  16. Genome-wide survey and characterization of greenbug induced NAC transcription factors in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important crop grown world-wide because of its diverse uses as food, forage, and bioenergy feedstock and its wide range of adaption even under the poor nutritional environments. Greenbug can cause severe damage to sorghum plants and economic loss by sucking nutrients from the host whi...

  17. Digestibility of Protein and Starch from Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)is Linked to Biochemical and Structural Features of Grain Endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a principal source of energy and protein for millions of the world’s poorest people, the nutritional value of sorghum is diminished because of low digestibility of grain protein. To address this problem, we analyzed the properties of two lines of sorghum with a common pedigree that differ i...

  18. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  19. Elucidation of the structure and reaction mechanism of Sorghum bicolor hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and its structural relationship to other CoA-dependent transferases and synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SbHCT) from Sorghum bicolor participates in an early step of the phenylpropanoid pathway, exchanging CoA esterified to p-coumaric acid with shikimic or quinic acid, as intermediates in the biosynthesis of the monolignols coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. In order to...

  20. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP. PMID:22315514

  1. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. Suganya; Kumar, M. Saravana; Das, S. Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran. PMID:22400119

  2. Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] Reference Genes in Various Tissues and under Abiotic Stress Conditions for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Data Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar Reddy, Palakolanu; Srinivas Reddy, Dumbala; Sivasakthi, Kaliamoorthy; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable gene expression data from qPCR depends on stable reference gene expression for potential gene functional analyses. In this study, 15 reference genes were selected and analyzed in various sample sets including abiotic stress treatments (salt, cold, water stress, heat, and abscisic acid) and tissues (leaves, roots, seedlings, panicle, and mature seeds). Statistical tools, including geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder, were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for various sample groups. For abiotic stress, PP2A and CYP were identified as the most stable genes. In contrast, EIF4α was the most stable in the tissue sample set, followed by PP2A; PP2A was the most stable in all the sample set, followed by EIF4α. GAPDH, and UBC1 were the least stably expressed in the tissue and all the sample sets. These results also indicated that the use of two candidate reference genes would be sufficient for the optimization of normalization studies. To further verify the suitability of these genes for use as reference genes, SbHSF5 and SbHSF13 gene expression levels were normalized using the most and least stable sorghum reference genes in root and water stressed-leaf tissues of five sorghum varieties. This is the first systematic study of the selection of the most stable reference genes for qPCR-related assays in Sorghum bicolor that will potentially benefit future gene expression studies in sorghum and other closely related species. PMID:27200008

  3. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  4. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  5. Organic amendments impact the availability of heavy metal(loid)s in mine-impacted soil and their phytoremediation by Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Huang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    The amendment of contaminated soil with organic materials is considered to be an environmentally friendly technique to immobilize heavy metal(loid)s and minimize their subsequent bioaccumulation in plants. This study focuses on the effects of different amendment techniques, such as the use of activated carbons (granulated or powder) and farmyard manure at various application rates (2 and 5 %). These techniques were applied on heavy metal(loid)s such as Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, and Al that were present in mine-impacted soil and caused bioaccumulation in cultivated plants. The results showed that, compared with the control, almost all the techniques significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in the amended soil. The bioaccumulation of heavy metal(loid)s in Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced with all techniques, while Zn and Cd concentrations increased with the use of farmyard manure. Also compared with the control, plant growth was significantly decreased with the use of activated carbons, particularly with powder activated carbons, while farmyard manure (at 5 %) significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased plant growth. Among the amendment techniques, powdered activated carbons (at 5 %) were best at reducing the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in soil and plant accumulation. However, it negatively affected the growth of selected plant species. PMID:26411451

  6. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  7. Evaluation of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines and hybrids for cold tolerance under field and controlled environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance in sorghum contributes to emergence, seedling establishment, early vegetative growth, and reduces damping-off diseases under chilling conditions. The objectives of this study were to identify cold tolerant sources and to evaluate and optimize rapid screening techniques un...

  8. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop

  9. Most photorespiratory genes are preferentially expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Florian; Streubel, Monika; Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of C4 plants is the division of labor between two different photosynthetic cell types, the mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells. C4 plants are of polyphyletic origin and, during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, the expression of thousands of genes was altered and many genes acquired a cell type-specific or preferential expression pattern. Several lines of evidence, including computational modeling and physiological and phylogenetic analyses, indicate that alterations in the expression of a key photorespiration-related gene, encoding the glycine decarboxylase P subunit, was an early and important step during C4 evolution. Restricting the expression of this gene to the bundle sheath led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. We were interested in whether the expression of genes related to photorespiration remains bundle sheath specific in a fully optimized C4 species. Therefore we analyzed the expression of photorespiratory and C4 cycle genes using RNA in situ hybridization and transcriptome analysis of isolated mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor. It turns out that the C4 metabolism of Sorghum is based solely on the NADP-dependent malic enzyme pathway. The majority of photorespiratory gene expression, with some important exceptions, is restricted to the bundle sheath. PMID:26976818

  10. Tissue Distributions of Dhurrin and of Enzymes Involved in Its Metabolism in Leaves of Sorghum bicolor1

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Mineo; Poulton, Jonathan E.; Thayer, Susan S.; Conn, Eric E.

    1979-01-01

    The tissue distributions of dhurrin [p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-β-d-glucoside] and of enzymes involved in its metabolism have been investigated in leaf blades of light-grown Sorghum bicolor seedlings. Enzymic digestion of these leaves using cellulase has enabled preparations of epidermal and mesophyll protoplasts and bundle sheath strands to be isolated with only minor cross-contamination. Dhurrin was located entirely in the epidermal layers of the leaf blade, whereas the two enzymes responsible for its catabolism, namely dhurrin β-glucosidase and hydroxynitrile lyase, resided almost exclusively in the mesophyll tissue. The final enzyme of dhurrin biosynthesis, uridine diphosphate glucose:p-hydroxymandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, was found in both mesophyll (32% of the total activity of the leaf blade) and epidermal (68%) tissues. The bundle sheath strands did not contain significant amounts of dhurrin or of these enzymes. It was concluded that the separation of dhurrin and its catabolic enzymes in different tissues prevents its large scale hydrolysis under normal physiological conditions. The well documented production of HCN (cyanogenesis), which occurs rapidly on crushing Sorghum leaves, would be expected to proceed when the contents of the ruptured epidermal and mesophyll cells are allowed to mix. Images PMID:16660850

  11. Most photorespiratory genes are preferentially expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Döring, Florian; Streubel, Monika; Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-05-01

    One of the hallmarks of C4 plants is the division of labor between two different photosynthetic cell types, the mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells. C4 plants are of polyphyletic origin and, during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, the expression of thousands of genes was altered and many genes acquired a cell type-specific or preferential expression pattern. Several lines of evidence, including computational modeling and physiological and phylogenetic analyses, indicate that alterations in the expression of a key photorespiration-related gene, encoding the glycine decarboxylase P subunit, was an early and important step during C4 evolution. Restricting the expression of this gene to the bundle sheath led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. We were interested in whether the expression of genes related to photorespiration remains bundle sheath specific in a fully optimized C4 species. Therefore we analyzed the expression of photorespiratory and C4 cycle genes using RNA in situ hybridization and transcriptome analysis of isolated mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor It turns out that the C4 metabolism of Sorghum is based solely on the NADP-dependent malic enzyme pathway. The majority of photorespiratory gene expression, with some important exceptions, is restricted to the bundle sheath. PMID:26976818

  12. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines For Sorghum Bicolor x Perennial S. Propinquum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an annual S. bicolor x perennial S. propinquum F2 population used in early-generation genetic analysis, we have produced and describe here a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes that segregates for rhizomatousness and many other traits. The genetic map of the recombinant...

  13. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance. PMID:26469084

  14. Mapping QTL for grain yield and other agronomic traits in post-rainy sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Nagaraja Reddy, R; Madhusudhana, R; Murali Mohan, S; Chakravarthi, D V N; Mehtre, S P; Seetharama, N; Patil, J V

    2013-08-01

    Sorghum, a cereal of economic importance ensures food and fodder security for millions of rural families in the semi-arid tropics. The objective of the present study was to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield and other agronomic traits using replicated phenotypic data sets from three post-rainy dry sorghum crop seasons involving a mapping population with 245 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of M35-1 × B35. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 237 markers consisting of 174 genomic, 60 genic and 3 morphological markers. The QTL analysis for 11 traits following composite interval mapping identified 91 QTL with 5-12 QTL for each trait. QTL detected in the population individually explained phenotypic variation between 2.5 and 30.3 % for a given trait and six major genomic regions with QTL effect on multiple traits were identified. Stable QTL across seasons were identified. Of the 60 genic markers mapped, 21 were found at QTL peak or tightly linked with QTL. A gene-based marker XnhsbSFCILP67 (Sb03g028240) on SBI-03, encoding indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.5, was found to be involved in QTL for seven traits. The QTL-linked markers identified for 11 agronomic traits may assist in fine mapping, map-based gene isolation and also for improving post-rainy sorghum through marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23649648

  15. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R.; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance. PMID:26469084

  16. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  17. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  18. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions, and the range of adaptation exhibited by a plant species determines its utility in agriculture. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits unusual tolerance to adverse condit...

  19. Effect of sward surface height and level of herbage depletion on bite features of cattle grazing Sorghum bicolor swards.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L; Carvalho, P C F; Mezzalira, J C; Bremm, C; Galli, J R; Gregorini, P

    2013-09-01

    To maximize herbage DMI, pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) and level of herbage depletion (HD) must be such that variables determining short-term herbage intake such as bite mass (BM) and bite rate (BR) are optimized. The objective of this study was to determine a SSH target and the level of HD as a proportion of the SSH that optimizes BM and BR of beef heifers grazing Sorghum bicolor swards. Two experiments were conducted using 2 S. bicolor swards and 4 beef heifers (25 mo old; 322 kg BW). Experiment 1 compared the effect of 6 pregrazing SSH, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm, on BM, BR, and jaw movements. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of HD level as a proportion of SSH (0.17, 0.34, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.84) on BM, BR, and jaw movements using the optimal pregrazing SSH defined in Exp. 1. Short-term herbage DMI was estimated using a double-weighing technique and corrected for insensible BW loss. Herbage DMI was subsequently used to calculate the BM. Net eating time and jaw movements for apprehension and manipulation + mastication during grazing as well as total jaw movements were determined using the IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research) behavior recorders. Bite rate and the number of total jaw movements per gram herbage DMI were derived from jaw movement count and measurements of herbage DMI. The results of Exp. 1 showed low and high SSH constraint the ease of herbage harvesting. Greater BM are maintained until a SSH of 50 cm is reached (P < 0.05) and then decline at greater SSH due to herbage dispersion. The nonbiting jaw movement rate increased at greater SSH whereas BR decreased (P < 0.05). For both variables, the turning point was close to a SSH of 50 cm. Experiment 2 showed that such an optimization of BM and BR was maintained until an HD level of 0.34 was reached (P < 0.05). There was a linear increase in both the total jaw movements per unit herbage DMI and the nonbiting jaw movements rate (manipulation + mastication) subsequent to levels

  20. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits exceptional tolerance to adverse conditions, in particular, water-limiting environments. This study utilized next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to examine the transcriptome of sorghum plants challenged with osmotic stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in order to elucidate genes and gene networks that contribute to sorghum's tolerance to water-limiting environments with a long-term aim of developing strategies to improve plant productivity under drought. Results RNA-Seq results revealed transcriptional activity of 28,335 unique genes from sorghum root and shoot tissues subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress or exogenous ABA. Differential gene expression analyses in response to osmotic stress and ABA revealed a strong interplay among various metabolic pathways including abscisic acid and 13-lipoxygenase, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and plant defense pathways. Transcription factor analysis indicated that groups of genes may be co-regulated by similar regulatory sequences to which the expressed transcription factors bind. We successfully exploited the data presented here in conjunction with published transcriptome analyses for rice, maize, and Arabidopsis to discover more than 50 differentially expressed, drought-responsive gene orthologs for which no function had been previously ascribed. Conclusions The present study provides an initial assemblage of sorghum genes and gene networks regulated by osmotic stress and hormonal treatment. We are providing an RNA-Seq data set and an initial collection of transcription factors, which offer a preliminary look into the cascade of global gene expression patterns that arise in a drought tolerant crop subjected to abiotic stress. These resources will allow scientists to query gene expression and functional

  1. MicroRNA expression profiles in response to drought stress in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Nada Babiker; Sharma, Neha; Tripathi, Anita; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti

    2016-03-01

    The regulatory role of small non-coding RNAs that are 20-24 nucleotides in length has become the foremost area of research for biologists. A major class of small RNAs represented by the microRNAs (miRNAs), has been implicated in various aspects of plant development including leaf pattering, meristem function, root patterning etc. Recent findings support that miRNAs are regulated by drought and other abiotic stresses in various plant species. In this study, were report the expression profiling of 8 known abiotic stress deregulated miRNAs in 11 elite sorghum genotypes, under watered and drought conditions. Significant deregulation was observed with miR396, miR393, miR397-5p, miR166, miR167 and miR168. Among these, the expression levels of sbi-miR396 and sbi-miR398 were the highest in all the genotypes. The expression of sbi-miR396 was maximum in the grain sorghum HSD3226 under well-watered conditions and the profile shifted towards HSD3221 under drought stress. Forage accessions, N98 and Atlas, showed an opposite behavior in expression patterns of miR397-5p in drought physiologies. Such dynamic expression patterns could be indicative of prevailing drought tolerant mechanisms present in these sorghum accessions. This data provides insights into sorghum miRNAs which may have potential use in improving drought tolerance in sorghum and other cereal crops. PMID:26772909

  2. Highly efficient de novo mutant identification in a Sorghum bicolor TILLING population using the ComSeq approach.

    PubMed

    Nida, Habte; Blum, Shula; Zielinski, Dina; Srivastava, Dhruv A; Elbaum, Rivka; Xin, Zhanguo; Erlich, Yaniv; Fridman, Eyal; Shental, Noam

    2016-05-01

    Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is required both in Targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and in screening of human populations. We previously suggested an approach that combines the mathematical field of compressed sensing with next-generation sequencing to allow such large-scale screening. Based on pooled measurements, this method identifies multiple carriers of heterozygous or homozygous rare alleles while using only a small fraction of resources. Its rigorous mathematical foundations allow scalable and robust detection, and provide error correction and resilience to experimental noise. Here we present a large-scale experimental demonstration of our computational approach, in which we targeted a TILLING population of 1024 Sorghum bicolor lines to detect carriers of de novo SNPs whose frequency was less than 0.1%, using only 48 pools. Subsequent validation confirmed that all detected lines were indeed carriers of the predicted mutations. This novel approach provides a highly cost-effective and robust tool for biologists and breeders to allow identification of novel alleles and subsequent functional analysis. PMID:26959378

  3. Sorghum TILLING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its excellent tolerance to drought/high temperature stresses and low soil fertility, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has emerged as a promising bioenergy crop due to its excellent tolerance to drought/heat stresses. Completion of the sorghum genome sequence has opened new avenues for sor...

  4. Proline over-accumulation alleviates salt stress and protects photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Surender Reddy, P; Jogeswar, Gadi; Rasineni, Girish K; Maheswari, M; Reddy, Attipalli R; Varshney, Rajeev K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2015-09-01

    Shoot-tip derived callus cultures of Sorghum bicolor were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as well as by bombardment methods with the mutated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) gene encoding the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis from glutamate. The transgenics were selfed for three generations and T4 plants were examined for 100 mM NaCl stress tolerance in pot conditions. The effect of salt stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal carbon dioxide concentration, transpiration rates, intrinsic transpiration and water use efficiencies, proline content, MDA levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in 40-day-old transgenic lines and the results were compared with untransformed control plants. The results show that chlorophyll content declines by 65% in untransformed controls compared to 30-38% loss (significant at P < 0.05) in transgenics but not carotenoid levels. Photosynthetic rate (PSII activity) was reduced in untransformed controls almost completely, while it declined by 62-88% in different transgenic lines. Salinity induced ca 100% stomatal closure in untransformed plants, while stomatal conductance was decreased only by 64-81% in transgenics after 4 days. The intercellular CO2 decreased by ca 30% in individual transgenic lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenics compared to untransformed controls. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC1.8.1.7) were quantified in leaves exposed to 100 mM NaCl stress and found higher in transgenics. The results suggest that transgenic lines were able to cope better with salt stress than untransformed controls by protecting photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:26065619

  5. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor: VI. The ma(3) Allele Results in Abnormal Phytochrome Physiology.

    PubMed

    Childs, K L; Pratt, L H; Morgan, P W

    1991-10-01

    Physiological processes controlled by phytochrome were examined in three near-isogenic genotypes of Sorghum bicolor, differing at the allele of the third maturity gene locus. Seedlings of 58M (ma(3) (R)ma(3) (R)) did not show phytochrome control of anthocyanin synthesis. In contrast, seedlings of 90M (ma(3)ma(3)) and 100M (Ma(3)Ma(3)) demonstrated reduced anthocyanin synthesis after treatment with far red and reversal of the far red effect by red. De-etiolation of 48-hour-old 90M and 100M dark-grown seedlings occurred with 48 hours of continuous red. Dark-grown 58M seedlings did not de-etiolate with continuous red treatment. Treatment of seedlings with gibberellic acid or tetcyclacis, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, did not alter anthocyanin synthesis. Levels of chlorophyll and anthocyanin were lower in light-grown 58M seedlings than in 90M and 100M. Etiolated seedlings of all three genotypes have similar amounts of photoreversible phytochrome. Crude protein extracts from etiolated seedlings were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Phytochrome was visualized with Pea-25, a monoclonal antibody directed to phytochrome from etiolated peas. The samples from all three genotypes contained approximately equivalent amounts of a prominent, immunostaining band at 126 kD. However, the sample from 58M did not show a fainter, secondary band at 123 kD that was present in 90M and 100M. The identity and importance of this secondary band at 123 kD is unknown. We propose that 58M is a phytochrome-related mutant that contains normal amounts of photoreversible phytochrome and normal phytochrome protein when grown in the dark. PMID:16668457

  6. Heterotic Trait Locus (HTL) Mapping Identifies Intra-Locus Interactions That Underlie Reproductive Hybrid Vigor in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis. PMID:22761720

  7. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour. PMID:23744121

  8. Evidence for the involvement of hydraulic root or shoot adjustments as mechanisms underlying water deficit tolerance in two Sorghum bicolor genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sutka, Moira R; Manzur, Milena E; Vitali, Victoria A; Micheletto, Sandra; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-03-15

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an ancient drought-tolerant crop with potential to sustain high yields even in those environments where water is limiting. Understanding the performance of this species in early phenological stages could be a useful tool for future yield improvement programs. The aim of this work was to study the response of Sorghum seedlings under water deficit conditions in two genotypes (RedLandB2 and IS9530) that are currently employed in Argentina. Morphological and physiological traits were studied to present an integrated analysis of the shoot and root responses. Although both genotypes initially developed a conserved and indistinguishable response in terms of drought tolerance parameters (growth rate, biomass reallocation, etc.), water regulation displayed different underlying strategies. To avoid water loss, both genotypes adjusted their plant hydraulic resistance at different levels: RedLandB2 regulated shoot resistance through stomata (isohydric strategy), while IS9530 controlled root resistance (anisohydric strategy). Moreover, only in IS9530 was root hydraulic conductance restricted in the presence of HgCl2, in agreement with water movement through cell-to-cell pathways and aquaporins activity. The different responses between genotypes suggest a distinct strategy at the seedling stage and add new information that should be considered when evaluating Sorghum phenotypic plasticity in changing environments. PMID:26803215

  9. The effect of row spacing and seeding rate on biomass production and plant stand characteristics of non-irrigated photoperiod-sensitive sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on yield and plant stand characteristics of high-biomass sorghum, a photoperiod-sensitive sorghum cultivar was sown at three different row spacings and seeding rates for four site-years from 2009 to 2010 in Alabama and Arkansas, USA. Measurement...

  10. Mapping and characterization of Rf5: A new gene conditioning pollen fertility restoration in A1 and A2 cytoplasm in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an aim to further characterize the cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility restoration system in sorghum, a major fertility restoration gene was mapped, along with a second locus capable of partial restoration of pollen fertility. The major fertility restoration gene, Rf5, was located on sorghum ...

  11. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-01-01

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content. PMID:22986923

  12. The OCL3 promoter from Sorghum bicolor directs gene expression to abscission and nutrient-transfer zones at the bases of floral organs

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Krishna K.; Roche, Dominique J.; Clemente, Tom E.; Ge, Zhengxiang; Carman, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims During seed fill in cereals, nutrients are symplasmically unloaded to vascular parenchyma in ovules, but thereafter nutrient transport is less certain. In Zea mays, two mechanisms of nutrient passage through the chalaza and nucellus have been hypothesized, apoplasmic and symplasmic. In a recent study, nutrients first passed non-selectively to the chalazal apoplasm and were then selectively absorbed by the nucellus before being released to the endosperm apoplasm. This study reports that the promoter of OUTER CELL LAYER3 (PSbOCL3) from Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) directs gene expression to chalazal cells where the apoplasmic barrier is thought to form. The aims were to elucidate PSbOCL3 expression patterns in sorghum and relate them to processes of nutrient pathway development in kernels and to recognized functions of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factor family to which the promoter belongs. Methods PSbOCL3 was cloned and transformed into sorghum as a promoter–GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct. Plant tissues from control and transformed plants were then stained for GUS, and kernels were cleared and characterized using differential interference contrast microscopy. Key Results A symplasmic disconnect between the chalaza and nucellus during seed fill is inferred by the combination of two phenomena: differentiation of a distinct nucellar epidermis adjacent to the chalaza, and lysis of GUS-stained chalazal cells immediately proximal to the nucellar epidermis. Compression of the GUS-stained chalazal cells during kernel maturation produced the kernel abscission zone (closing layer). Conclusions The results suggest that the HD-Zip IV transcription factor SbOCL3 regulates kernel nutrition and abscission. The latter is consistent with evidence that members of this transcription factor group regulate silique abscission and dehiscence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, the findings suggest that processes of floral organ

  13. Alkylresorcinol Synthases Expressed in Sorghum bicolor Root Hairs Play an Essential Role in the Biosynthesis of the Allelopathic Benzoquinone Sorgoleone[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel; Rimando, Agnes M.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Schröder, Joachim; Dayan, Franck E.; Nanayakkara, N.P. Dhammika; Pan, Zhiqiang; Noonan, Brice P.; Fishbein, Mark; Abe, Ikuro; Duke, Stephen O.; Baerson, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is considered to be an allelopathic crop species, producing phytotoxins such as the lipid benzoquinone sorgoleone, which likely accounts for many of the allelopathic properties of Sorghum spp. Current evidence suggests that sorgoleone biosynthesis occurs exclusively in root hair cells and involves the production of an alkylresorcinolic intermediate (5-[(Z,Z)-8′,11′,14′-pentadecatrienyl]resorcinol) derived from an unusual 16:3Δ9,12,15 fatty acyl-CoA starter unit. This led to the suggestion of the involvement of one or more alkylresorcinol synthases (ARSs), type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that produce 5-alkylresorcinols using medium to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA starter units via iterative condensations with malonyl-CoA. In an effort to characterize the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the pentadecyl resorcinol intermediate, a previously described expressed sequence tag database prepared from isolated S. bicolor (genotype BTx623) root hairs was first mined for all PKS-like sequences. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that three of these sequences were preferentially expressed in root hairs, two of which (designated ARS1 and ARS2) were found to encode ARS enzymes capable of accepting a variety of fatty acyl-CoA starter units in recombinant enzyme studies. Furthermore, RNA interference experiments directed against ARS1 and ARS2 resulted in the generation of multiple independent transformant events exhibiting dramatically reduced sorgoleone levels. Thus, both ARS1 and ARS2 are likely to participate in the biosynthesis of sorgoleone in planta. The sequences of ARS1 and ARS2 were also used to identify several rice (Oryza sativa) genes encoding ARSs, which are likely involved in the production of defense-related alkylresorcinols. PMID:20348430

  14. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  15. Molecular mapping and candidate gene identification of the Rf2 gene for pollen fertility restoration in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The A1 cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility system in sorghum is used almost exclusively for the production of commercial hybrid seed and thus, the dominant genes that restore male fertility in F1 hybrids are of critical importance to commercial seed production. The genetics of fertility restoration ...

  16. Molecular mapping and characterization of BLMC, a locus for profuse wax (bloom) and enhanced cuticular features of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum exhibits a distinct cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (EW) flakes (or bloom) on sheaths and leaves which is considered as a key morphological trait contributing to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, information on the molecular nature of the trait is lacki...

  17. Potential infection of Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  18. Disease severity and susceptibility of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] to infection by Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  19. Morpho-physiological characterization of cold-and pre-flowering drought tolerance in grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inbreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The relationships between early-season cold temperature germination and preflowering drought stress in eight grain sorghum inbreds were assessed using morphophysiological traits. Study Design: Field was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Place and Duration: The experiment was condu...

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopia sorghum collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS-NPGS) is unknown. In addition, passport information is absent for 83% of these accessions which limit its evaluation and utility. Therefor...

  1. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  2. The Relationship between Population Structure and Aluminum Tolerance in Cultivated Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Caniato, Fernanda F.; Guimarães, Claudia T.; Hamblin, Martha; Billot, Claire; Rami, Jean-François; Hufnagel, Barbara; Kochian, Leon V.; Liu, Jiping; Garcia, Antonio Augusto F.; Hash, C. Tom; Ramu, Punna; Mitchell, Sharon; Kresovich, Stephen; Oliveira, Antônio Carlos; de Avellar, Gisela; Borém, Aluízio; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Schaffert, Robert E.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Acid soils comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands and in these areas aluminum (Al) toxicity impairs root growth, strongly limiting crop yield. Food security is thereby compromised in many developing countries located in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In sorghum, SbMATE, an Al-activated citrate transporter, underlies the AltSB locus on chromosome 3 and confers Al tolerance via Al-activated root citrate release. Methodology Population structure was studied in 254 sorghum accessions representative of the diversity present in cultivated sorghums. Al tolerance was assessed as the degree of root growth inhibition in nutrient solution containing Al. A genetic analysis based on markers flanking AltSB and SbMATE expression was undertaken to assess a possible role for AltSB in Al tolerant accessions. In addition, the mode of gene action was estimated concerning the Al tolerance trait. Comparisons between models that include population structure were applied to assess the importance of each subpopulation to Al tolerance. Conclusion/Significance Six subpopulations were revealed featuring specific racial and geographic origins. Al tolerance was found to be rather rare and present primarily in guinea and to lesser extent in caudatum subpopulations. AltSB was found to play a role in Al tolerance in most of the Al tolerant accessions. A striking variation was observed in the mode of gene action for the Al tolerance trait, which ranged from almost complete recessivity to near complete dominance, with a higher frequency of partially recessive sources of Al tolerance. A possible interpretation of our results concerning the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in cultivated sorghum is discussed. This study demonstrates the importance of deeply exploring the crop diversity reservoir both for a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying the distribution and function of Al tolerance genes and to design efficient molecular breeding strategies aimed at

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Sorghum based on combined sequence data from cpDNA regions and ITS generate well-supported trees with two major lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ng'uni, Dickson; Geleta, Mulatu; Fatih, Moneim; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Wild Sorghum species provide novel traits for both biotic and abiotic stress resistance and yield for the improvement of cultivated sorghum. A better understanding of the phylogeny in the genus Sorghum will enhance use of the valuable agronomic traits found in wild sorghum. Methods Four regions of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA; psbZ-trnG, trnY-trnD, trnY-psbM and trnT-trnL) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to analyse the phylogeny of sorghum based on maximum-parsimony analyses. Key Results Parsimony analyses of the ITS and cpDNA regions as separate or combined sequence datasets formed trees with strong bootstrap support with two lineages: the Eu-sorghum species S. laxiflorum and S. macrospermum in one and Stiposorghum and Para-sorghum in the other. Within Eu-sorghum, S. bicolor-3, -11 and -14 originating from southern Africa form a distinct clade. S. bicolor-2, originally from Yemen, is distantly related to other S. bicolor accessions. Conclusions Eu-sorghum species are more closely related to S. macrospermum and S. laxiflorum than to any other Australian wild Sorghum species. S. macrospermum and S. laxiflorum are so closely related that it is inappropriate to classify them in separate sections. S. almum is closely associated with S. bicolor, suggesting that the latter is the maternal parent of the former given that cpDNA is maternally inherited in angiosperms. S. bicolor-3, -11 and -14, from southern Africa, are closely related to each other but distantly related to S. bicolor-2. PMID:20061309

  4. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall

  5. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains. PMID:26616952

  6. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Green, Abigail R; Lewis, Kevin M; Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-06-19

    Using S-adenosyl-methionine as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the observed reduction in the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio of three brown midrib12 mutants that carry COMT gene missense mutations, we determined the apo-form and S-adenosyl-methionine binary complex SbCOMT crystal structures and established the ternary complex structure with 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde by molecular modeling. These structures revealed many features shared with monocot ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and dicot alfalfa (Medicago sativa) COMTs. SbCOMT steady-state kinetic and calorimetric data suggest a random bi-bi mechanism. Based on our structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic results, we propose that the observed reactivity hierarchy among 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl (and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamyl) aldehyde, alcohol, and acid substrates arises from the ability of the aldehyde to stabilize the anionic intermediate that results from deprotonation of the 5-hydroxyl group by histidine-267. Additionally, despite the presence of other phenylpropanoid substrates in vivo, sinapaldehyde is the preferential product, as demonstrated by its low Km for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. Unlike its acid and alcohol substrates, the aldehydes exhibit product inhibition, and we propose that this is due to nonproductive binding of the S-cis-form of the aldehydes inhibiting productive binding of the S-trans-form. The S-cis-aldehydes most likely act only as inhibitors, because the high rotational energy barrier around the 2-propenyl bond prevents S-trans-conversion, unlike alcohol substrates, whose low 2-propenyl bond rotational energy barrier enables rapid S-cis/S-trans-interconversion. PMID:24948836

  7. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. PMID:24879770

  8. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-01-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. PMID:24879770

  9. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1–0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  10. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-04-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1-0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  11. Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Dhurrin in Seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and Partial Purification of the Enzyme System Involved 1

    PubMed Central

    Halkier, Barbara Ann; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1989-01-01

    The cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin is rapidly synthesized in etiolated seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The dhurrin content of the seedlings increases sigmoidally with the germination time. Shoots of 10 centimeters height contain 850 nanomoles of dhurrin per shoot corresponding to 6% of the dry weight. The biosynthetic activity sharply rises upon germination and reaches a maximum level of 10 nanomoles dhurrin/(hour × shoot) after 48 hours when the shoots are 3 centimeters high. This maximum level is followed by a sharp decline in activity when germination time exceeds 65 hours. Dhurrin and the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme system are primarily located in the upper part of the etiolated shoot where both are evenly distributed between the coleoptile, the primary leaves and the upper 0.5 centimeter of the first internode including the shoot apex. Dhurrin constitutes 30% of the dry weight of the upper 1.2 centimeter of 10 centimeter high shoots. The seed and root contain neither dhurrin nor the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme system. The codistribution of dhurrin and the enzyme system throughout the seedling indicates that production and storage sites are located within the same cell. Purification of the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme by gel filtration or by sucrose gradient centrifugations results in a tenfold increase in specific activity. Further purification is accompained by a decline in specific activity due to loss of essential components as demonstrated by reconstitution experiments. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666964

  12. Genetic mapping of QTLs for sugar-related traits in a RIL population of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Shiringani, Amukelani Lacrecia; Frisch, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    The productivity of sorghum is mainly determined by quantitative traits such as grain yield and stem sugar-related characteristics. Substantial crop improvement has been achieved by breeding in the last decades. Today, genetic mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is considered a valuable tool for trait enhancement. We have investigated QTL associated with the sugar components (Brix, glucose, sucrose, and total sugar content) and sugar-related agronomic traits (flowering date, plant height, stem diameter, tiller number per plant, fresh panicle weight, and estimated juice weight) in four different environments (two locations) using a population of 188 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between grain (M71) and sweet sorghum (SS79). A genetic map with 157 AFLP, SSR, and EST-SSR markers was constructed, and several QTLs were detected using composite interval mapping (CIM). Further, additive x additive interaction and QTL x environmental interaction were estimated. CIM identified more than five additive QTLs in most traits explaining a range of 6.0-26.1% of the phenotypic variation. A total of 24 digenic epistatic locus pairs were identified in seven traits, supporting the hypothesis that QTL analysis without considering epistasis can result in biased estimates. QTLs showing multiple effects were identified, where the major QTL on SBI-06 was significantly associated with most of the traits, i.e., flowering date, plant height, Brix, sucrose, and sugar content. Four out of ten traits studied showed a significant QTL x environmental interaction. Our results are an important step toward marker-assisted selection for sugar-related traits and biofuel yield in sorghum. PMID:20229249

  13. Spatial-temporal analysis of zinc homeostasis reveals the response mechanisms to acute zinc deficiency in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Zhang, Yuan; Shi, Dongqing; Liu, Xiaojing; Qin, Jun; Ge, Qing; Xu, Longhua; Pan, Xiangliang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yiyong; Xu, Jin

    2013-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. The activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CSD) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) correlate with differences in Zn efficiency in plants; therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize the existence of a Zn economy model that saves Zn for these essential Zn proteins during Zn deficiency. However, up to this point, direct evidence for the idea that CSD and/or CA might be priorities for Zn delivery has been lacking. Here, we investigated the spatial-temporal effects of acute Zn depletion and resupply by integrating physiological studies and molecular analyses using hydroponically grown Sorghum. The elevated expression of miR398 repressed CSD expression in roots, whereas the reduced expression of miR528 resulted in a relatively stable level of CSD expression in Sorghum leaves under Zn depletion. Spatial-temporal analysis after Zn resupply to previously depleted plants revealed that the expression and activity of CA were the first to recover after Zn addition, whereas the recovery of the activities of CSD and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was delayed, suggesting that CA receives priority in Zn delivery over CSD and ADH. Our results also indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of the response of Zn deficiency in plants. PMID:23915383

  14. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor (VIII. Shoot Growth, Tillering, Flowering, Gibberellin Biosynthesis, and Phytochrome Levels Are Differentially Affected by Dosage of the ma3R Allele.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. R.; Miller, F. R.; Childs, K. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] homozygous for ma3R lacks a type II, light-stable phytochrome of 123 kD and has a number of phenotypic characteristics consistent with the absence of functional phytochrome B. We have used plants heterozygous at Ma3 (Ma3/ma3R and ma3/ma3R) to determine the effect of dosage of ma3R on plant growth, flowering, gibberellin (GA) levels, and content of the 123-kD phytochrome. Both Ma3/ma3R and ma3/ma3R produced the same number of tillers per plant as their respective homozygous non-ma3R parents. Height of the heterozygotes was intermediate between the homozygous parents, although it was more similar to the non-ma3R genotypes. In both field and growth-chamber environments, the timing of floral initiation and anthesis in the heterozygotes also was intermediate, again more similar to non-ma3R plants. In Ma3/ma3R, levels of GA53, GA19, GA20, and GA1 were almost exactly intermediate between levels detected in Ma3/Ma3 and ma3R/ma3R plants. Immunoblot analysis indicated that there was less of the 123-kD phytochrome in Ma3/ma3R than in homozygous Ma3, whereas none was detected in ma3R/ma3R. The degree of dominance of Ma3 and ma3 over ma3R varies with phenotypic trait, indicating that mechanisms of activity of the 123-kD phytochrome vary among the biochemical processes involved in each phenotypic character. Although the heterozygotes were similar to homozygous Ma3 and ma3 plants in growth and flowering behavior, Ma3/ma3R contained 50% less of the bioactive GA (GA1) than non-ma3R genotypes. Thus, sensitivity to endogenous GAs also may be regulated by the 123-kD phytochrome. To fully regulate plant growth and development, two copies of Ma3 or ma3 are required to produce sufficient quantities of the light-stable, 123-kD phytochrome. PMID:12232257

  15. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  16. Development of basal endosperm transfer cells in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and its relationship with caryopsis growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Gu, Yun-Jie; Liu, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    During sorghum caryopsis development, endosperm epidermal cells near the basal main vascular bundle are specialized by depositing wall ingrowths, differentiating into basal endosperm transfer cells (BETCs). All the BETCs together compose the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL). BETCs are the first cell type to become histologically differentiated during endosperm development. The initiation and subsequent development of BETCs shows the pattern of temporal and spatial gradient. The developmental process of BETL can be divided into four stages: initiation, differentiation, functional, and apoptosis stage. A placental sac full of nutrient solutions would emerge, enlarge, and eventually disappear between the outmost layer of BETL and nucellar cells during caryopsis development. BETCs have dense cytoplasm rich in mitochondria, lamellar rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, and their secretory vesicles. They show a series of typical characteristics of senescence such as nuclei distortion and subcellular organelle deterioration during their specialization. BETCs probably play an active role in nutrient transfer into the starchy endosperm and embryo. The occurrence, development, and apoptosis of BETCs are in close relation to the caryopsis growth and maturation especially the enrichment of endosperm and the growth of embryo. The timing when BETL is fully developed, composed of three to four layers in radial direction and 70 to 80 rows in tangential direction, consists with the timing when average daily gain of caryopsis dry weight reaches its maximum. It is conceivable that measures that delay the senescence and death of BETCs would help to increase the crop yield. PMID:21647822

  17. Sorghum TILLING population-A community resource for sorghum improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought/heat stresses and it...

  18. Sorghum TILLING Population - A Community Resource for Sorghum Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Sorghum is also a promising bioenergy crop due to its excellent tolerance to drought/heat stresses. Compl...

  19. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  20. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  1. Effect of sorghum seedlings and previous crop, on soil fluorescent pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The hypotheses that sorghum seedlings [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varying in sorgoleone production will differentially modify soil microorganisms and will effect subsequent planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings were tested. Methods: Wheat cultivar Lewjain, and sorghum genotypes ...

  2. INOCULATION STRATEGIES TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FUSARIUM AND ALTERNARIA SPECIES INFECTING SORGHUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three bioassays were assessed for experimental utility to either characterize fungal species potentially pathogenic to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] or to screen germplasm for advancement in breeding programs. Isolates of species commonly associated with sorghum, Alternaria alternata, Fusari...

  3. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production. PMID:27232754

  4. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Natalie S.; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A.; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J.; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production. PMID:27232754

  5. Toward Nutritional Enhancement of Sorghum for Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most important cereal worldwide. Sorghum is used primarily for animal feed in the developed world but, particularly in semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia, it is a principal source of energy and protein for millions of the poorest people. While...

  6. Early season cold tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperatures at 15°C or below limit germination and seedling establishment for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) during early season planting. To better understand the genetics of early season cold tolerance in sorghum, mapping of quantitative trait loci (...

  7. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation is used commonly in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yield so WUE could be determined. Two precision weighing lysimeters were used to accurate...

  8. Bridging conventional and molecular genetics of sorghum insect resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable production of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depends on effective control of insect pests as they continue to compete with humans for the sorghum crop. Insect pests are major constraint in sorghum production, and nearly 150 insect species are serious pests of this crop worldwide,...

  9. Registration of A/BTX3363 black sorghum germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasms A. and B.Tx3363 (Reg. Nos. GP-___) were developed and released by Texas Agrilife Research sorghum breeding program in July 2012. Tx3363 is a grain sorghum seed parent designed to produce a very dark-colored (ie, black) grain hybrid in combination...

  10. Spatial arrangement, population density and legume species effect of yield of forage sorghum-legume intercropping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a stress tolerant forage crop grown extensively in the Southern High Plains. However, sorghum forage quality is lower than that of corn. Intercropping sorghum with legumes can improve quality and productivity of forage. However, tall statured sorghum limits the resources...

  11. Analysis of the cell-wall xylan component of brown midrib mutants of Sorghum bicolor L. by LC-MS^n^

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum stalks and leaves are a potential renewable source of lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to liquid biofuels. The plant cell wall is a composite of primarily cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignin poses a particular challenge for enzymatic conversion as it acts as a barrier to hyd...

  12. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  13. FINE MAPPING OF A GENE CONTROLLING THE REACTION TO A FUNGAL PATHOGEN AND ITS HOST-SELECTIVE TOXIN, THE PC LOCUS OF SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milo disease in sorghum is caused by isolates of the soil-borne fungus Periconia circinata that produce PC-toxin. Susceptibility to milo disease is conditioned by a single, semi-dominant gene, termed Pc. The susceptible allele (Pc) converts to a resistant form (pc) spontaneously at a gametic frequen...

  14. Identification of novel drought-responsive microRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs from Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench by high-throughput sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Amit; Smita, Shuchi; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M.; Bansal, Kailash C.

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and thus the control plant development and stress responses. In order to identify drought-responsive miRNAs and tasi-RNAs in sorghum, we constructed small RNA libraries from a drought tolerant (M35-1) and susceptible (C43) sorghum genotypes grown under control and drought stress conditions, and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Ninety seven conserved and 526 novel miRNAs representing 472 unique miRNA families were identified from sorghum. Ninety-six unique miRNAs were found to be regulated by drought stress, of which 32 were up- and 49 were down-regulated (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2) at least in one genotype, while the remaining 15 miRNAs showed contrasting drought-regulated expression pattern between genotypes. A maximum of 17 and 18 miRNAs was differentially regulated under drought stress condition in the sensitive and tolerant genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that genotype dependent stress responsive regulation of miRNAs may contribute, at least in part, to the differential drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes. We also identified two miR390-directed TAS3 gene homologs and the auxin response factors as tasi-RNA targets. We predicted more than 1300 unique target genes for the novel and conserved miRNAs. These target genes were predicted to be involved in different cellular, metabolic, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and developmental processes. Genome-wide identification of stress-responsive miRNAs, tasi-RNAs and their targets identified in this study will be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying drought stress responses and genetic improvement of biomass production and stress tolerance in sorghum. PMID:26236318

  15. The relationship between population structure and aluminum tolerance in cultivated sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acid soils comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands and in these areas aluminum (Al) toxicity impairs root growth, strongly limiting crop yield. Food security is thereby compromised in many developing countries that are located in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In sorghum, SbMATE,...

  16. Domestication to Crop Improvement: Genetic Resources for Sorghum and Saccharum (Andropogoneae)

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Sally L.; Shapter, Frances M.; Henry, Robert J.; Cordeiro, Giovanni; Izquierdo, Liz; Lee, L. Slade

    2007-01-01

    Background Both sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) are members of the Andropogoneae tribe in the Poaceae and are each other's closest relatives amongst cultivated plants. Both are relatively recent domesticates and comparatively little of the genetic potential of these taxa and their wild relatives has been captured by breeding programmes to date. This review assesses the genetic gains made by plant breeders since domestication and the progress in the characterization of genetic resources and their utilization in crop improvement for these two related species. Genetic Resources The genome of sorghum has recently been sequenced providing a great boost to our knowledge of the evolution of grass genomes and the wealth of diversity within S. bicolor taxa. Molecular analysis of the Sorghum genus has identified close relatives of S. bicolor with novel traits, endosperm structure and composition that may be used to expand the cultivated gene pool. Mutant populations (including TILLING populations) provide a useful addition to genetic resources for this species. Sugarcane is a complex polyploid with a large and variable number of copies of each gene. The wild relatives of sugarcane represent a reservoir of genetic diversity for use in sugarcane improvement. Techniques for quantitative molecular analysis of gene or allele copy number in this genetically complex crop have been developed. SNP discovery and mapping in sugarcane has been advanced by the development of high-throughput techniques for ecoTILLING in sugarcane. Genetic linkage maps of the sugarcane genome are being improved for use in breeding selection. The improvement of both sorghum and sugarcane will be accelerated by the incorporation of more diverse germplasm into the domesticated gene pools using molecular tools and the improved knowledge of these genomes. PMID:17766842

  17. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

  18. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum. PMID:20528920

  19. Assessment of molecular diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopian sorghum collection maintained at the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has not been studied. In addition, 83% of the accessions in the Ethiopian collection lack passport information which has constrained their eval...

  20. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  1. Metabolic consequences of knocking out UGT85B1, the gene encoding the glucosyltransferase required for synthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Cecilia K; O'Donnell, Natalie H; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2016-02-01

    Many important food crops produce cyanogenic glucosides as natural defense compounds to protect against herbivory or pathogen attack. It has also been suggested that these nitrogen-based secondary metabolites act as storage reserves of nitrogen. In sorghum, three key genes, CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and UGT85B1, encode two Cytochrome P450s and a glycosyltransferase, respectively, the enzymes essential for synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Here, we report the use of targeted induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) to identify a line with a mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the N-terminal region of UGT85B1. Plants homozygous for this mutation do not produce dhurrin and are designated tcd2 (totally cyanide deficient 2) mutants. They have reduced vigor, being dwarfed, with poor root development and low fertility. Analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) shows that tcd2 mutants accumulate numerous dhurrin pathway-derived metabolites, some of which are similar to those observed in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 genes. Our results demonstrate that UGT85B1 is essential for formation of dhurrin in sorghum with no co-expressed endogenous UDP-glucosyltransferases able to replace it. The tcd2 mutant suffers from self-intoxication because sorghum does not have a feedback mechanism to inhibit the initial steps of dhurrin biosynthesis when the glucosyltransferase activity required to complete the synthesis of dhurrin is lacking. The LC-MS analyses also revealed the presence of metabolites in the tcd2 mutant which have been suggested to be derived from dhurrin via endogenous pathways for nitrogen recovery, thus indicating which enzymes may be involved in such pathways. PMID:26493517

  2. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha(-1) grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha(-1) independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  3. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V.; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  4. Factors affecting the alkaline cooking performance of selected corn and sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dent corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) sample sets representative of commonly grown hybrids and diverse physical attributes were analyzed for nixtamalization performance. The influence of kernel characteristics including hardness, density, starch properties (thermal, pasting...

  5. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  6. Lignin modification to improve sorghum for cellulosic and thermal bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifying lignin content and composition are major targets for bioenergy feedstock improvement for both cellulosic and thermal bioenergy conversion. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is currently being developed as a dedicated bio-energy feedstock. Our goals are to improve sorghum biomass for both biochemic...

  7. Genetic dissection of early season cold tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance during stand establishment at soil temperature of 15C (or below) is an important agronomic trait for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), generally lacks cold tolerance and is adversely affected by the stress during germination,...

  8. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  9. An induced sorghum mutant population suitable for bioenergy research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] inbred line BTx623 has served as a parent for development of several mapping populations, also providing a source for the generation of DNA libraries for physical mapping, and as the inbred line selected for sorghum genome sequencing. Since genetic mapping,...

  10. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  11. Sorghum TILLING Population - A Community Resource for Shorghum Improvement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought / heat stresses and...

  12. Evaluation of sweet sorghum germplasm for the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has become a favorable biofuel feedstock for ethanol production. Among the essential traits for successful production and use of sweet sorghum in Southeastern United States for renewable fuel are high biomass, high BRIX, lodging resistance, as well as res...

  13. Water and radiation use efficiencies in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE), the amount of biomass produced per unit water consumed, can enhance crop productivity and yield potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting water productivity among eight sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes, whi...

  14. Interspecific Sorghum Breeding Using S. macrospermum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been improved by public and private breeding programs utilizing germplasm mostly from within the species. Different cross-incompatibility mechanisms have prevented its hybridization with species in other sections of the genus. These incompatibilities...

  15. Enhancing water use efficiency with plant feedback irrigation control: The case for sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench L.) is a well-adapted and widely grown grain crop in the U.S. Southern High Plains and other semi-arid regions. Sorghum has several advantages over corn (Zea mays L.) in this region. Sorghum planting dates are more flexible, making it easier to plant as a compan...

  16. Fertilizer induced nitrous oxide emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Watanabe, Takeshi; Uchino, Hiroshi; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Wani, Suhas P; Ito, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics were determined using a closed chamber technique during the rainy season (June-October) of 2010. The study included two treatments, nitrogen (N) at a rate of 90 kg/ha and a control without N fertilizer application. The N(2)O emissions strongly coincided with N fertilization and rainfall events. The cumulative N(2)O-N emission from Alfisols was 1.81 N(2)O-N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.15 N(2)O-N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. Similarly, the N(2)O-N emission from Vertisols was 0.70 N(2)O-N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.09 N(2)O-N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. The mean N(2)O-N emission factor for fertilizer induced emissions from the Alfisols was 0.90% as compared to 0.32% for Vertisols. Our results suggest that the N(2)O emissions are dependent on the soil properties. Therefore, the monitoring of N(2)O emissions from different agro-ecological regions, having different soil types, rainfall characteristics, cropping systems and crop management practices are necessary to develop comprehensive and accurate green house gas inventories. PMID:22967492

  17. Non-flowering Sorghum spp. hybrids: Perennial, sterile, high-biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass forage feedstocks. Utilization of such hybrids is limited, however, by both th...

  18. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  19. Registration of partially converted germplasm from 44 accessions of the USDA-ARS Ethiopian and Sudanese sorghum collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-four sources of late-maturing sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm (Reg. No. PI 665639 to PI 665682) were converted to early-maturing, dwarf-height enhanced F3 families, and were released by the National Sorghum Foundation, the United Sorghum Checkoff Program, the USDA-ARS, and MMR ...

  20. Yield and morpho-agronomical evaluation of food-grade white sorghum hybrids grown in Southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a gluten-free grain that is gaining attention as a food crop that can be used in the management of celiac disease. At present, sorghum is widely grown in many semiarid regions of the world. New food-grade sorghum cultivars are of particular interest in...

  1. Comparative Genome Mapping of Sorghum and Maize

    PubMed Central

    Whitkus, R.; Doebley, J.; Lee, M.

    1992-01-01

    Linkage relationships were determined among 85 maize low copy number nuclear DNA probes and seven isozyme loci in an F(2) population derived from a cross of Sorghum bicolor ssp. bicolor X S. bicolor ssp. arundinaceum. Thirteen linkage groups were defined, three more than the 10 chromosomes of sorghum. Use of maize DNA probes to produce the sorghum linkage map allowed us to make several inferences concerning processes involved in the evolutionary divergence of the maize and sorghum genomes. The results show that many linkage groups are conserved between these two genomes and that the amount of recombination in these conserved linkage groups is roughly equivalent in maize and sorghum. Estimates of the proportions of duplicated loci suggest that a larger proportion of the loci are duplicated in the maize genome than in the sorghum genome. This result concurs with a prior estimate that the nuclear DNA content of maize is three to four times greater than that of sorghum. The pattern of conserved linkages between maize and sorghum is such that most sorghum linkage groups are composed of loci that map to two maize chromosomes. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesized ancient polyploid origin of maize and sorghum. There are nine cases in which locus order within shared linkage groups is inverted in sorghum relative to maize. These may have arisen from either inversions or intrachromosomal translocations. We found no evidence for large interchromosomal translocations. Overall, the data suggest that the primary processes involved in divergence of the maize and sorghum genomes were duplications (either by polyploidy or segmental duplication) and inversions or intrachromosomal translocations. PMID:1360933

  2. Genomics of sorghum.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a subject of plant genomics research based on its importance as one of the world's leading cereal crops, a biofuels crop of high and growing importance, a progenitor of one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a botanical model for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. A rich history of genome analysis, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the genome of a leading inbred, provides a foundation for invigorating progress toward relating sorghum genes to their functions. Further characterization of the genomes other than Saccharinae cereals may shed light on mechanisms, levels, and patterns of evolution of genome size and structure, laying the foundation for further study of sugarcane and other economically important members of the group. PMID:18483564

  3. Massive Sorghum Collection Genotyped with SSR Markers to Enhance Use of Global Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Gardes, Laetitia; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Rami, Jean-François; Rivallan, Ronan; Li, Yu; Lu, Ping; Wang, Tianyu; Folkertsma, Rolf T.; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Hash, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Large ex situ collections require approaches for sampling manageable amounts of germplasm for in-depth characterization and use. We present here a large diversity survey in sorghum with 3367 accessions and 41 reference nuclear SSR markers. Of 19 alleles on average per locus, the largest numbers of alleles were concentrated in central and eastern Africa. Cultivated sorghum appeared structured according to geographic regions and race within region. A total of 13 groups of variable size were distinguished. The peripheral groups in western Africa, southern Africa and eastern Asia were the most homogeneous and clearly differentiated. Except for Kafir, there was little correspondence between races and marker-based groups. Bicolor, Caudatum, Durra and Guinea types were each dispersed in three groups or more. Races should therefore better be referred to as morphotypes. Wild and weedy accessions were very diverse and scattered among cultivated samples, reinforcing the idea that large gene-flow exists between the different compartments. Our study provides an entry to global sorghum germplasm collections. Our reference marker kit can serve to aggregate additional studies and enhance international collaboration. We propose a core reference set in order to facilitate integrated phenotyping experiments towards refined functional understanding of sorghum diversity. PMID:23565161

  4. Field screening of sweet sorghum inbred lines for pest resistance and biomass production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one of the favorable biofuel feedstocks for ethanol production. Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is one of the most serious foliar-feeding insect pests in sorghum production in the southeastern US states. Sev...

  5. Genetic and Physiological Analysis of an Irradiated Bloomless Mutant (Epicuticular Wax Mutant) of Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L).Moench.) is one of the most drought tolerant and water efficient grass species. A distinctive feature of sorghum is the profuse deposition of epicuticular wax or bloom on the abaxial side of the leaf and sheaths which has been proposed as one of the possible trait contr...

  6. Genetic and physiological analysis of an irradiated bloomless mutant (epicuticular wax mutant) of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L).Moench.) is one of the most drought tolerant and water efficient grass species. A distinctive feature of sorghum is the profuse deposition of epicuticular wax or bloom on the abaxial side of the leaf and sheaths which has been proposed as a possible trait contributing t...

  7. Genetic enhancement of cold tolerance to overcome a major limitation in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance during stand establishment at cool soil temperature of 54ºF to 59ºF (12 ºC to 15ºC) is a key agronomic trait for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]), lacks cold tolerance and is adversely affected by cool temperatures during ger...

  8. General and specific combining ability of F1-hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising biofuel crop that accumulates fermentable sugar in the stalk and can be directly fermented as bioethanol. Currently, most of sweet sorghum cultivars are pure lines. However, developing high-yielding hybrids has many advantages. To date there...

  9. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  10. Argonomic practices of dryland grain sorghum maturity, yield, and test weight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or milo, is drought tolerant, is easy to incorporate into winter wheat crop rotations, has a low cost of production compared to corn, and the late date of planting provides flexibility in early-season weed control. Grain sorghum is an important crop in so...

  11. Agronomic factors affecting dryland grain sorghum maturity and production in northeast Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important dryland crop in southeast Colorado, but expansion into northeast Colorado is thought to be limited due to the shorter growing season. The study examined whether sorghum production could be expanded into northeast Colorado. A 2-year study ...

  12. Advances in plant genomics research and their application in sorghum breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), a leading cereal crop, has the important role as staple food, animal feed, construction material, and fuels in developed and developing countries. Recently, the new use of sorghum as renewable feedstocks for biofuels has been promoting more global interest in so...

  13. A TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE THE RISK OF GENE FLOW THROUGH SORGHUM POLLEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical impediment to field testing and deployment of transgenic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the threat of gene flow to weedy relatives through pollen. A technique using sorghum with A3 cytoplasmic male sterility to control transgene flow through pollen while using non- transgenic po...

  14. The sorghum brown midrib mutants, tools to improve biomass for feed and bio-fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) serves as an important model for bioenergy crop development. brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr-6 and -12) mutants affect phenylpropanoid metabolism resulting in reduced lignin concentrations and altered lignin composition in sorghum, which increases the conversion efficiency of b...

  15. Pedigreed mutant library- a unique resource for sorghum improvement and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a versatile crop used for food, feeder, fodder, and biofuel. Due to its superior resilience to drought and high temperature stresses and low soil fertility, sorghum is becoming increasingly important in meeting the growing need for food and energy in face of de...

  16. Opportunities and challenges of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a grass crop with thick stalks adapted to warm climates. Sweet sorghum (SS) has a juicy, sweet stalk. The juice can be pressed from the stalks, directly fermented or boiled down to make syrup. The plant residue remaining can be burned to run the mill or cogene...

  17. Sustainable sorghum cropping systems for flexible forage/bio-energy use under limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L.), a versatile and nutritious cereal grain crop is equally useful as forage and feedstock for livestock and bioenergy applications, respectively. Further, sorghum is highly suitable for the Ogallala Aquifer (OA) region because of its inherent water saving properties and ...

  18. Evaluation of public sweet sorghum A-lines for use in hybrid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fundamental need for commercialization of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] as a bioenergy crop is an adequate seed supply, which will require development of hybrid varieties using dwarf seed-parent lines. A set of 6 public sweet sorghum A-lines (Dwarf Kansas Sourless, KS9, N36, N38, N39...

  19. Heterosis and combining ability of F1 hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sugar-based biofuel crop that is well-suited to tropical environments. Most sweet sorghum cultivars are open-pollinated, but hybrids could offer yield and seed production advantages. Fifteen hybrids were generated among five female and three male pa...

  20. Post-harvest changes in sweet sorghum I: brix and sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was done to measure the deterioration of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after harvest. Three varieties of sorghum were grown in Louisiana and harvested at 90, 115, and 140 days after planting (DAP). Whole stalks were cut from the field at soil level, stripped, and topped...

  1. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  2. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential impacts of global climate change on crop productivity have drawn much attention in recent years. To investigate these impacts on grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] productivity, we calibrated the CERES-Sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT...

  3. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum and winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation commonly is used in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yields so WUE could be determined. Two precision ...

  4. Registration of a diverse collection of sorghum genetic stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 507 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genetic stocks (Reg. No. PI66327 through PI663723), originally curated by the late Dr. Keith F. Schertz, was registered. This collection is consisting of, among others, lines with distinct morphological and physiological attributes, irradiat...

  5. Evapotranspiration of corn and forage sorghum for silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Southern High Plains, dairies have expanded and have increased the regional demand for forage and silage. The objectives were to measure water use and determine crop coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) produced for silage on the Southern ...

  6. Nitrogen rates for biomass sorghum production across tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass yields and nutrient removal across different tillage systems and nitrogen rates are not well established for forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grown as an energy source in the Southeast. An experiment was initiated in long-term conventional and conservation tillage systems on a Comp...

  7. Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potentially high-yielding hardy energy crop to produce lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Mapping and identifying genes und...

  8. Yield component analysis of grain sorghum grown under water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed leaf senescence, or 'stay green', in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench L.) allows continued photosynthesis under drought conditions which can result in normal grain fill and larger yields compared with senescent cultivars. The objective of this study was to compare the yield response of ...

  9. High biomass sorghum production across tillage systems and nitrogen rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy production has traditionally focused on perennial crops; however, these crops require an establishment period before they can be utilized. High biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grown as an annual crop can be used during this establishment period, but typical yields and nutrient...

  10. Development of hybrid sweet sorghum for the Southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  11. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  12. Lifetime fecundity of F1 crop-wild sorghum hybrids: implications for gene flow from transgenic sorghum in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are developing transgenic crops with enhanced nutrition and higher yields for Africa, but few studies have assessed possible environmental risks of growing these crops. Plans to release transgenic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) should consider consequences of gene flow to wild relatives, whi...

  13. Justification of the choice of units for mains-noah soil cultivation of sweet sorghum and their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The article is devoted to problems of improving the efficiency of tillage crops. Presents an approach that focuses on the application of resource-saving technologies. To investigate the relationship between the financial welfare of the management and selection of units for primary processing of the soil. Conducted economic evaluation and identified the energy efficiency of main processing of the soil under sweet sorghum.

  14. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  15. Evaluation of selected sorghum lines and hybrids for resistance to grain mold and long smut fungi in Senegal, West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain mold in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a major worldwide problem; damage caused by this fungal disease complex includes a reduction in yield (loss of seed mass), grain density, and germination. Long smut is another important fungal disease in sorghum and potential threat to food sec...

  16. Applying genotyping (TILLING) and phenotyping analyses to elucidate gene function in a chemically induced sorghum mutant population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought / heat stresses and ...

  17. Biomass sorghum production and components under different irrigation/tillage systems for the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeking renewable energy sources is necessary to reduce the US dependence on foreign oil. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) may be a reasonable alternative as an energy crop in the Southern U.S. because it is drought resistant. An experiment was developed to evaluate several types of sorghum as bioenergy...

  18. Tillage and cattle grazing effects on soil properties and grain yields in a dryland wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are grown in a dryland three-year wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation in the U.S. Southern High Plains. Cattle- grazing has been integrated into the WSF cropping system as a means to intensify dryland production when using ...

  19. Estimating the relative effects of the endosperm traits of waxy and high protein digestibility on yield in grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench) is an important crop that is widely grown in dry climates across the world. The grain is used for food, feed and industrial purposes and the quality of the grain influences the relative utility for each prospective use. In sorghum grain, both the waxy endosperm ...

  20. Sorghum Germplasm Profiling to Assist Breeding and Gene Identification for Biofortification of Grain Mineral and Protein Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is the world’s fifth most important grain crop, and is a widely consumed staple in subtropical semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Biofortification of sorghum by increasing mineral micronutrient (especially iron and zinc) and protein concentration is of widespread intere...

  1. Identification and mapping of a single recessive gene that confers resistance to the white sugarcane aphid in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Known for its resilience in arid environments, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a multi-functioning staple food crop grown around the world. Sorghum produces grain, sugar, and cellulose-material that can be used for: livestock feed, human consumption, ethanol production, and building materials. Despite...

  2. Leaf dhurrin content is a quantitative measure of the level of pre- and post-flowering drought tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-flowering drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing the production of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in Mediterranean and semiarid tropical climates. The nonsenescent trait, stay-green, is the most significant criterion for assessing post flowering drought tolerance in sorghum. H...

  3. Pollen tube growth after intergeneric pollinations of iap-homozygous Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization within Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench has been the primary means of creating genetic diversity for improvement. While considerable variation exists within S. bicolor, there are traits that could be improved if secondary and tertiary germplasm pools were accessible through hybridization. ...

  4. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  5. Parametric optimization of feruloyl esterase production from Aspergillus terreus strain GA2 isolated from tropical agro-ecosystems cultivating sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Kamle, Avijeet; Mongolla, Poornima; Joseph, Joveeta

    2011-09-01

    A fungal strain, Aspergillus terreus strain GA2, isolated from an agricultural field cultivating sweet sorghum, produced feruloyl esterase using maize bran. In order to obtain maximum yields of feruloyl esterase, the solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions for enzyme production were standardized. Effective feruloyl esterase production was observed with maize bran as substrate followed by wheat bran, coconut husk, and rice husk among the tested agro-waste crop residues. Optimum particle size of 0.71- 0.3 mm and moisture content of 80% favored enzyme production. Moreover, optimum feruloyl esterase production was observed at pH 6.0 and a temperature of 30 degrees C. Supplementation of potato starch (0.6%) as the carbon source and casein (1%) as the nitrogen source favored enzyme production. Furthermore, the culture produced the enzyme after 7 days of incubation when the C:N ratio was 5. Optimization of the SSF conditions revealed that maximum enzyme activity (1,162 U/gds) was observed after 7 days in a production medium of 80% moisture content and pH 6.0 containing 16 g maize bran [25% (w/v)] of particle size of 0.71-0.3 mm, 0.6% potato starch, 3.0% casein, and 64 ml of formulated basal salt solution. Overall, the enzyme production was enhanced by 3.2-fold as compared with un-optimized conditions. PMID:21952371

  6. Registration of N641 and N642 waxy Grain Sorghum Genetic Stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss-of-function mutations in the granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) gene result in an endosperm with a waxy appearance and a near absence of amylose starch. waxy grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines, AN641, BN641, and RN642 (PI 672150 to PI 672152) were developed jointly by the USDA...

  7. Evaluation of interallelic waxy, heterowaxy, and wild-type grain sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four near-isogenic Wheatland × Tx430 grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] hybrids differing in allelic status at the Waxy locus were grown in yield trials to determine their potential to expand existing sources of low-amylose starch. The hypothesis tested was that agronomic performance and gr...

  8. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  9. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  10. Tillage and grazing effects on yields of a dryland wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining irrigation well capacity in the U.S. Southern High Plains has increased reliance on less productive and inherently riskier dryland cropping systems. No- and stubblemulch-tillage (SM) stabilize production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown ...

  11. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin ...

  12. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens Fusarium thapsinum and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots, diseases that pose serious constraints for yield and quality of juice a...

  13. RELEASE OF THREE SORGHUM GENETIC STOCKS WITH STACKED BROWN MIDRIB GENES bmr-6 AND bmr-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genetic stocks, BN611, A/BN612, and RN613, with stacked brown midrib genes bmr-6 and bmr-12 were developed jointly by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska. The genetic s...

  14. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance genes present in sorghum line SC112-14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) affecting all aerial tissues of the plant. The most effective strategy for its control is the incorporation of resistance genes. Therefore, the anthracnose resistance response pr...

  15. Early and late maturing grain sorghum under variable climatic conditions in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains, variable climatic conditions prevail between and within growing seasons. As this area continues to experience drought conditions, and water resources for irrigation become more limited, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production may become a more popular choice to sus...

  16. Producing sorghum cellulosic feedstock for advanced biofuels production and its impact on soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According Energy Policy Act of 2005, the U.S. must produce 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels in 2022. Cellulosic material is considered a renewable and environmental improved alternative source for energy production. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is considered a high cellulosic biomass producti...

  17. Genomic selection of biomass traits in a global collection of 976 sorghum accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial genetic diversity exists in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a key lignocellulosic biofuel species in the United States. The implementation of genomic, genetic tools to select and enhance current germplasm will greatly accelerate new variety development. Our objectives in this study are to add...

  18. Crop rotation affects corn, grain sorghum, and soybean yields and nitrogen recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping system and fertilizer N studies are essential towards understanding production potential and yield stability of corn (Zea mays L.), grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in rain-fed environments. A no-till experiment (2007-13) was conduc...

  19. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  20. Irrigation seedling rates, and row type effects on grain sorghum in the Midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops and may help reduce depletion of aquifers used by agriculture for irrigation. A study at Stoneville, MS, in 2012 and 2013 examined the effects of seeding rates (98 000, 148 000, 197 600, and 248 000 ...

  1. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens fusarium thapsinum and macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots has been reported, even though these diseases pose serious constraints f...

  2. Early changes due to sorghum biofuel cropping systems in soil microbial communities and metabolic functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems should address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes are important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (< 0.9%)...

  3. Genomic selection of biomass yield in a global collection of one thousand sorghum accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for a large, sustainable supply of biomass in lignocelluloses-based biofuel production requires the development of dedicated bioenergy crops. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been identified as a key lignocellulosic biofuel species in the United States. The objectives in this study were to det...

  4. Parasitism and predation of stink bug (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) eggs in sorghum in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stink bugs, including the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), are responsible for losses of millions of dollars in reduced yields and costs of control in cotton. Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, has been shown to be an effective trap...

  5. Heterosis and combining ability for yield components in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol....

  6. Evaluation of hybrid sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop for the southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  7. Understanding genetic control of biotic stress resistance in sorghum for applied breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) improvement deals with development of new crop cultivars which are superior to existing cultivars for traits of interest like high yield, better quality, resistance to pests and diseases, and specific usability traits (Reddy et al 2011; Ashok Kumar et al 2013). ...

  8. Selection System for the Stay-Green Drought Tolerance Trait in Sorghum Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-flowering drought tolerance is an essential trait for increasing the production of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and other cereals in Mediterranean and semiarid tropical climates. Current methodologies for identifying the nonsenescent (stay-green) trait require the right intensity of dr...

  9. Early Changes Due to Sorghum Biofuel Cropping Systems in Soil Microbial Communities and Metabolic Functioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of biofuel production cropping systems needs to address not only energy yields but also the impacts on soil attributes important for long-term sustainability. In this study, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping systems were initiated on a low organic matter soil (<0.9%) wi...

  10. The impacts of lignin modifications on fungal pathogen and insect interactions in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is currently being developed as a dedicated bioenergy feedstock. Modifying lignin content and composition are major targets for bioenergy feedstock improvement. However, lignin has long been implicated as playing a critical role in plant defense responses agains...

  11. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  12. Yield and forage value of a dual-purpose bmr-12 sorghum hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop for rainfed production systems with 2.7 million ha grown in the USA in 2013. The brown-midrib (bmr) mutations, especially bmr-12, have resulted in low stover lignin and high fiber digestibility without reducing grain yield in some sor...

  13. SorghumFDB: sorghum functional genomics database with multidimensional network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; You, Qi; Zhang, Liwei; Yi, Xin; Yan, Hengyu; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) has excellent agronomic traits and biological properties, such as heat and drought-tolerance. It is a C4 grass and potential bioenergy-producing plant, which makes it an important crop worldwide. With the sorghum genome sequence released, it is essential to establish a sorghum functional genomics data mining platform. We collected genomic data and some functional annotations to construct a sorghum functional genomics database (SorghumFDB). SorghumFDB integrated knowledge of sorghum gene family classifications (transcription regulators/factors, carbohydrate-active enzymes, protein kinases, ubiquitins, cytochrome P450, monolignol biosynthesis related enzymes, R-genes and organelle-genes), detailed gene annotations, miRNA and target gene information, orthologous pairs in the model plants Arabidopsis, rice and maize, gene loci conversions and a genome browser. We further constructed a dynamic network of multidimensional biological relationships, comprised of the co-expression data, protein–protein interactions and miRNA-target pairs. We took effective measures to combine the network, gene set enrichment and motif analyses to determine the key regulators that participate in related metabolic pathways, such as the lignin pathway, which is a major biological process in bioenergy-producing plants. Database URL: http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/sorghum/index.html. PMID:27352859

  14. SorghumFDB: sorghum functional genomics database with multidimensional network analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; You, Qi; Zhang, Liwei; Yi, Xin; Yan, Hengyu; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) has excellent agronomic traits and biological properties, such as heat and drought-tolerance. It is a C4 grass and potential bioenergy-producing plant, which makes it an important crop worldwide. With the sorghum genome sequence released, it is essential to establish a sorghum functional genomics data mining platform. We collected genomic data and some functional annotations to construct a sorghum functional genomics database (SorghumFDB). SorghumFDB integrated knowledge of sorghum gene family classifications (transcription regulators/factors, carbohydrate-active enzymes, protein kinases, ubiquitins, cytochrome P450, monolignol biosynthesis related enzymes, R-genes and organelle-genes), detailed gene annotations, miRNA and target gene information, orthologous pairs in the model plants Arabidopsis, rice and maize, gene loci conversions and a genome browser. We further constructed a dynamic network of multidimensional biological relationships, comprised of the co-expression data, protein-protein interactions and miRNA-target pairs. We took effective measures to combine the network, gene set enrichment and motif analyses to determine the key regulators that participate in related metabolic pathways, such as the lignin pathway, which is a major biological process in bioenergy-producing plants.Database URL: http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/sorghum/index.html. PMID:27352859

  15. Variation in Biomass Composition Components among Forage, Biomass, Sorghum-Sudangrass, and Sweet Sorghum Types

    SciTech Connect

    Stefaniak, T. R.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Bean, B. W.; Dighe, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Rooney, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Alternative biomass sources must be developed if the United States is to meet the goal in the U.S. Energy Security Act of 2007 to derive 30% of its petroleum from renewable sources, and several different biomass crops are currently in development. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one such crop that will be an important feedstock source for biofuel production. As composition influences productivity, there exists a need to understand the range in composition observed within the crop. The goal of this research was to assess the range in dietary fiber composition observed within different types of biomass sorghums. A total of 152 sorghum samples were divided into the four end-use types of sorghum: biomass, forage, sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet. These samples were analyzed chemically using dietary fiber analysis performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using published protocols. Significant variation among the groups was detected for glucan and ash. Positive and highly significant correlations were detected between structural carbohydrates in the biomass and sweet sorghums while many of these correlations were negative or not significant in the forage and sorghum-sudangrass types. In addition, a wide range of variation was present within each group indicating that there is potential to manipulate the composition of the crop.

  16. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

    1996-01-01

    The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

  17. The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in higher plants. The (E)- and (Z)-isomers of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime as intermediates in the biosynthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench

    SciTech Connect

    Halkier, B.A.; Olsen, C.E.; Moller, B.L. )

    1989-11-25

    The biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin has been studied with a microsomal preparation obtained from etiolated seedlings of sorghum. The biosynthetic pathway involves tyrosine, N-hydroxytyrosine, and p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime as early intermediates. The use of deuterium-labeled tyrosine and mass spectrometric analyses demonstrate that the alpha-hydrogen atom of tyrosine is retained in the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. This excludes p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxime as intermediate in the pathway. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was developed to separate the (E)- and (Z)-isomers of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. The microsomal enzyme system was found to produce initially the (E)-isomer of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. An isomerase then converts the (E)-isomer to the (Z)-isomer, which is the isomer preferentially utilized by the microsomal enzyme system in the subsequent biosynthetic reactions. The (E)-isomer produced in situ is more efficiently converted to the (Z)-isomer than exogenously added (E)-isomer and may thus be metabolically channeled.

  18. Registration of sorghum germplasm Tx3408 and Tx3409 with tolerance to sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis saccari (Zehntner)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) germplasm lines Tx3408 and Tx3409 were developed and released from Texas A&M AgriLife Research and the USDA-ARS in 2015. Both of these lines were developed from intentional crosses using the pedigree method of plant breeding. The breeding crosses for these l...

  19. METHANE EMISSION BY GOATS CONSUMING DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CONDENSED TANNIN-CONTAINING LESPEDEZA AND SORGHUM-SUDANGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boer (7/8) x Spanish wethers (24; BW = 34.1 kg, SE = 1.02) were used to determine effects of dietary levels of a condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage Kobe lespedeza (Lespedeza striata; K) and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor; G) on methane emission. Treatments were K levels (DM basis) of 100,...

  20. An overview of CERES-Sorghum as implemented in the cropping systems model version 4.5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the fifth most important grain crop globally. It stands out for its diversity of plant types, end-uses, and roles in cropping systems. This diversity presents opportunities but also complicates evaluation of production options, especially under climate uncert...

  1. Development of a sweet sorghum juice clarification method in the manufacture of industrial feedstocks for value-added products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in interest of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for small, medium, and large-scale manufacture of renewable, biobased fuels and chemicals. New fermentation organisms hold tremendous potential for the production of biobased fuels, chemical...

  2. Characterization of a multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum that displays significant enhancement in seed number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars and germplasm display branched inflorescence or panicle, characterized by spikelets composed of a single sessile, fertile floret that develop into viable seed and one or two adjacent sterile pedicellate florets (Monoseeded [MSD] trait). Based on total nu...

  3. Grain sorghum response to irrigation scheduling with the time-temperature threshold method and deficit irrigation levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies using the Time Temperature Threshold (TTT) method for irrigation scheduling have been documented for cotton, corn, and soybean. However, there are limited studies of the irrigation management of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) with this plant-feedback system. In this two-year study, th...

  4. OCCURRENCE OF THE WAXY ALLELES WXA AND WXB IN WAXY SORGHUM PLANT INTRODUCTIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON GRAIN THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of two waxy alleles, wxa associated with no detectable Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS), and wxb associated with apparently inactive GBSS was recently reported in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). In this paper, the occurrence of the wxa and wxb alleles in the USDA-ARS photoperi...

  5. Developmental and genetic analysis of a short leaf mutant, a key resource for plant architecture modification in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modification in plant architecture have been demonstrated as one of the major contributing factors that ushered in the Green Revolution resulting in achieving dramatic increases in grain yield for wheat and rice. For sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.), possible alteration in plant architecture is ...

  6. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  7. Reducing plant abiotic and biotic stress: Drought and attacks of greenbugs, corn leaf aphids, and virus disease in dryland sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-year spatial overlay patterns of plants, insects and soil water may yield insights for management for reducing biotic and abiotic stresses in dryland crops. A study of non-irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was conducted in a Pullman clay loam on the semi-arid High Plain of ...

  8. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Hugo E; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Hash, C Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-09-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from "converted" sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the "FT" family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense ("Johnsongrass"), one of the world's most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 (-)  (6)). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops. PMID:27335143

  9. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Hugo E.; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P.; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Hash, C. Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from “converted” sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the “FT” family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense (“Johnsongrass”), one of the world’s most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 − 6). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops. PMID:27335143

  10. 2-Nitro-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionate and aci-1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane, two intermediates in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench

    SciTech Connect

    Halkier, B.A.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Moller, B.L. )

    1991-01-15

    The biosynthetic pathway for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin derived from tyrosine has been studied in vitro by using ({sup 18}O)oxygen and a microsomal enzyme system obtained from etiolated sorghum seedlings. The products formed were purified by HPLC and TLC, and the incorporation of ({sup 18}O)oxygen was monitored by mass spectrometry. In the presence of NADPH and ({sup 18}O)dioxygen, L-tyrosine is converted to (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldhyde oxime with quantitative incorporation of an ({sup 18}O)oxygen atom into the oxime function. These data demonstrate that the conversion of N-hydroxytyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime involves additional N-hydroxylation and N-oxidation reactions giving rise to the formation of 2-nitro-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, which by decarboxylation produces aci-1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane. Both compounds are additional intermediates in the pathway. The two ({sup 18}O)oxygen atoms introduced by the N-hydroxylations are enzymatically distinguishable as demonstrated by the specific loss of the oxygen atom introduced by the first N-hydroxylation reaction in the subsequent conversion of aci-1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane to (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. A high flux of intermediates through the microsomal enzyme system is obtained with N-hydroxytyrosine as a substrate. This renders the conversion of the aci-nitro compound rate limiting and results in its release from the active site of the enzyme system and accumulation of the tautomeric nitro compound.

  11. The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in higher plants. Identification of three hydroxylation steps in the biosynthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench and the involvement of 1-ACI-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane as an intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Halkier, B.A.; Moller, B.L. )

    1990-12-05

    N-Hydroxytyrosine, (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde oxime, p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and p-hydroxymandelonitrile are established intermediates in the biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and biosynthetic activity using a microsomal enzyme system isolated from etiolated sorghum seedlings demonstrate a requirement for three oxygen molecules in the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. Two oxygen molecules are consumed in the conversion of tyrosine to (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime, indicating the existence of a previously undetected hydroxylation step in addition to that resulting in the formation of N-hydroxytyrosine. Radioactively labeled 1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane was chemically synthesized and tested as a possible intermediate. Biosynthetic experiments demonstrate that the microsomal enzyme system metabolizes the nitro compound to the subsequent intermediates in dhurrin synthesis (Km = 0.05 mM; Vmax = 14 nmol/mg of protein/h). Low amounts of 1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane are produced in the microsomal reaction mixtures when tyrosine is used as substrate. These data support the involvement of 1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane or more likely its aci-nitro tautomer as an intermediate between N-hydroxytyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. The conversion of (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehydeoxime to p-hydroxymandelonitrile requires a single oxygen molecule. The oxygen molecule is utilized for hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile into p-hydroxymandelonitrile. This indicates that the conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime into p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile proceeds by a simple dehydration reaction.

  12. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  13. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  14. Registration of BN611, A/BN612, RN613 Sorghum Genetic Stocks with Stacked bmr-6 and bmr-12 Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genetic stocks, BN611, A/BN612, and RN613, with stacked brown midrib genes bmr-6 and bmr-12 were developed jointly by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, and were rele...

  15. Sequencing of an Anthracnose-resistant sorghum genotype and mapping of a major QTL reveal strong candidate genes for Anthracnose resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex. Sacc. and Trotter 1913, is an economically damaging disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in hot and humid production regions of the world. Control of anthracnose is almost exclusively through the use of genet...

  16. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Root Dynamics of Sorghum, Clover, and Soybean Grown Under Sustainable and Conventional Agricultural Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 (ambient + 360 ppm) on root dynamics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), and soybean (Glycine max) produced under conventional (tillage following winter fallow) and sustainable (no-till following clover winter cover crop) agr...

  17. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  18. ANIMAL PERFORMANCE, CARCASS QUALITY, AND TISSUE RESIDUES WITH BEEF STEERS FED FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGES GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH LIQUID DIGESTED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed sewage sludges are a renewable resource which have potential as a fertilizer material on agricultural land. Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) silages, grown on soil treated with Pensacola liquid digested sludge (LDS) turned under prior to planting, were fed as the main i...

  19. Population genetics structure of glyphosate-resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers) does not support a single origin of the resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; de Haro, Luis Alejandro; Distefano, Ana J; Carolina Martínez, Maria; Lía, Verónica; Papa, Juan C; Olea, Ignacio; Tosto, Daniela; Esteban Hopp, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Single sequence repeats (SSR) developed for Sorghum bicolor were used to characterize the genetic distance of 46 different Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) accessions from Argentina some of which have evolved toward glyphosate resistance. Since Johnsongrass is an allotetraploid and only one subgenome is homologous to cultivated sorghum, some SSR loci amplified up to two alleles while others (presumably more conserved loci) amplified up to four alleles. Twelve SSR providing information of 24 loci representative of Johnsongrass genome were selected for genetic distance characterization. All of them were highly polymorphic, which was evidenced by the number of different alleles found in the samples studied, in some of them up to 20. UPGMA and Mantel analysis showed that Johnsongrass glyphosate-resistant accessions that belong to different geographic regions do not share similar genetic backgrounds. In contrast, they show closer similarity to their neighboring susceptible counterparts. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components using the clusters identified by K-means support the lack of a clear pattern of association among samples and resistance status or province of origin. Consequently, these results do not support a single genetic origin of glyphosate resistance. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene from glyphosate-resistant and susceptible accessions collected from different geographic origins showed that none presented expected mutations in aminoacid positions 101 and 106 which are diagnostic of target-site resistance mechanism. PMID:24223277

  20. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Joseph A; Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rholfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:15660154

  1. Preservation of chopped sweet sorghum using sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhoff, S.R.; Bender, D.A.; Okos, M.R.; Peart, R.M.

    1983-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an attractive feedstock for fermentation but its sugars degrade quickly after harvest. The effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage and temperature on the storability of chopped Rio sweet sorghum was studied. Four SO/sub 2/ dosage levels (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% w.b.) and five storage temperatures (-16, 2, 12, 22 and 32/sup 0/C) were investigated. The samples were stored in constant temperature incubators for three months. Fermentable sugars, sample pH and initial and final SO/sub 2/ levels were determined. All three non-zero levels of SO/sub 2/ adequately preserved the chopped sweet sorghum with no significant decrease in the total fermentable sugars.

  2. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  3. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  4. Morpho-physiological and proteome level responses to cadmium stress in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potentiality associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the pro...

  5. Cloning and expression analyses of Sucrose non-fermenting-1-Related Kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm, and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench) L.]. Multiple sequence alignment data show...

  6. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  7. Gas Exchange Characteristics of the Sorghum-Striga Host-Parasite Association

    PubMed Central

    Press, Malcolm C.; Tuohy, Janet M.; Stewart, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange characteristics are reported for both members of the sorghum-Striga host-parasite association. Both Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze had transpiration rates considerably in excess of those of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, cv CSH1). Stomatal conductance in both Striga spp. showed little response to periods of darkness and moderate water stress. Low rates of net CO2 fixation and high rates of dark respiration led to no net daily (24 hours) C gain, and Striga would appear to be reliant on its host for photosynthate. Infection of sorghum plants with either S. hermonthica or S. asiatica reduced host photosynthetic capacity. Infected sorghum plants were also more prone to water stress, but reduced rates of CO2 fixation could not be accounted for in terms of lower stomatal conductance. Lower stomatal conductances were associated with an increase in water use efficiency (WUE) in uninfected sorghum; however, Striga-infected sorghum plants had lower WUE than those of uninfected plants. We suggest that Striga exerts a specific effect on processes affecting C acquisition in sorghum leaves. The water relations of S. hermonthica and S. asiatica are not characteristic of plants growing in semiarid environments and are more likely to reflect the nature of the parasitic life-style. Despite transfer of water and solutes from host to parasite, the reduction in C fixation observed in infected sorghum plants appears to be the major determinant of growth reductions observed in sorghum supporting Striga. PMID:16665527

  8. Sorghum Midge Resistance in Grain Sorghum Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although grain sorghum is a good rotation crop, the plants are impacted by a variety of insects and pathogens from the seedling stage through maturity in the Coastal Plain region. Nine insect pests of sorghum in southern Georgia were detected in 2006. They were, in order of importance: sorghum mid...

  9. Sorghums as energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  10. Registration of N619 to N640 grain sorghum lines with waxy or wild-type endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines A N619 to A N636 (Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670134 to Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670151); B N619 to B N636 (Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 671777 to Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 671794); and R N637 to R N640 (Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670152 to Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670155) comprise nine pairs of...

  11. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    1) Vermerris W, Saballos A (2012) Genetic enhancement of sorghum for biomass utilization. In Paterson, A. (Ed.) Genetics and Genomics of the Saccharinae, Springer, New York, NY. pp. 391-428. 2) Felderhoff T, Murray SC, Klein PE, Sharma A, Hamblin MT, Kresovich S, Vermerris W, Rooney, WL (2012) QTLs for energy-related traits in a sweet x grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] mapping population. Crop Science 52: 2040-2049. 3) Sattler SE, Palmer NA, Saballos A, Greene AM, Xin Z, Sarath G, Vermerris W, Pedersen JF (2012) Identification and characterization of four missense mutations in Brown midrib12 (Bmr12), the caffeic acid O-methyltranferase (COMT) of sorghum. BioEnergy Research (in press) DOI 10.1007/s12155-012-9197-z 4) Saballos A, Sattler S, Sanchez E, Foster TP, Xin Z, Kang CH, Pedersen J, Vermerris W (2012). Brown midrib2 encodes the major 4-coumarate:CoA ligase involved in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The Plant Journal 70: 818-830. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04933. 5) Vermerris, W (2011) Survey of genomics approaches to improve bioenergy traits in maize, sorghum and sugarcane. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 53: 105-119 6) Saballos A, Ejeta G, Sanchez E, Kang CH, Vermerris W (2009) A genome-wide analysis of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] identifies SbCAD2 as the Brown midrib6 gene. Genetics 181: 783-795. 7) Saballos A, Vermerris W, Rivera L, Ejeta G (2008) Allelic association, chemical characterization and saccharification properties of brown midrib mutants of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). BioEnergy Research 2: 193-204 8) Felderhoff TJ. (2012) QTLs for energy related traits in a sweet x grain RIL sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] population. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Publications in preparation (tentative titles) 9) Felderhoff T, Murray SC, Klein PE, Sharma A, Hamblin MT, Kresovich S, Vermerris W, Rooney, WL (2013) QTLs for biomass and juice

  12. SOR1, a gene associated with bioherbicide production in sorghum root hairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

    2004-10-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] roots exude a potent bioherbicide known as sorgoleone, which is produced in living root hairs and is phytotoxic to broadleaf and grass weeds at concentrations as low as 10 microM. Differential gene expression was studied in sorghum (S. bicolorxS. sudanense) cv. SX17 between roots with abundant root hairs and those without root hairs using a modified differential display approach. A differentially expressed gene, named SOR1, was cloned by using Rapid Amplification of the 5' ends of cDNA (5'-RACE). Real-time PCR analysis of multiple tissues of sorghum SX17 revealed that the SOR1 transcript level in root hairs was more than 1000 times higher than that of other tissues evaluated, including immature leaf, mature leaf, mature stem, panicle, and roots with hairs removed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that SOR1 was expressed in the sorgoleone-producing roots of sorghum SX17, shattercane [S. bicolor (L.) Moench], and johnsongrass [S. halepense (L.) Pers.], but not in the shoots of sorghum or in the roots of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) 'Summer Flavor 64Y', in which sorgoleone production was not detected by HPLC analysis. Similarity searches indicated that SOR1 probably encodes a novel desaturase, which might be involved in the formation of a unique and specific double bonding pattern within the long hydrocarbon tail of sorgoleone. PMID:15361534

  13. Targeted expression of SbMATE in the root distal transition zone is responsible for sorghum aluminum resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for crop production on acid soils that comprise significant portions of the world’s lands. Al resistance in the cereal crop, Sorghum bicolor, is mainly achieved by Al-activated root apical citrate exudation, which is mediated by the plasma ...

  14. Infrageneric Phylogeny and Temporal Divergence of Sorghum (Andropogoneae, Poaceae) Based on Low-Copy Nuclear and Plastid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Huan; Wen, Jun; Peterson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The infrageneric phylogeny and temporal divergence of Sorghum were explored in the present study. Sequence data of two low-copy nuclear (LCN) genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 4 (Pepc4) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), from 79 accessions of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides together with those from outgroups were used for maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Bayesian dating based on three plastid DNA markers (ndhA intron, rpl32-trnL, and rps16 intron) was used to estimate the ages of major diversification events in Sorghum. The monophyly of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides (with the latter nested within Sorghum) was strongly supported by the Pepc4 data using BI analysis, and the monophyly of Sorghum was strongly supported by GBSSI data using both ML and BI analyses. Sorghum was divided into three clades in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms: the subg. Sorghum lineage; the subg. Parasorghum and Stiposorghum lineage; and the subg. Chaetosorghum and Heterosorghum lineage. Two LCN homoeologous loci of Cleistachne sorghoides were first discovered in the same accession. Sorghum arundinaceum, S. bicolor, S. x drummondii, S. propinquum, and S. virgatum were closely related to S. x almum in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms, suggesting that they may be potential genome donors to S. almum. Multiple LCN and plastid allelic variants have been identified in S. halepense of subg. Sorghum. The crown ages of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides and subg. Sorghum are estimated to be 12.7 million years ago (Mya) and 8.6 Mya, respectively. Molecular results support the recognition of three distinct subgenera in Sorghum: subg. Chaetosorghum with two sections, each with a single species, subg. Parasorghum with 17 species, and subg. Sorghum with nine species and we also provide a new nomenclatural combination, Sorghum sorghoides. PMID:25122516

  15. Natural variation in synthesis and catabolism genes influences dhurrin content in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in over 1,000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucos...

  16. Impacts of climate change on sorghum productivity in India: Simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Gangadhar Rao, D.; Katyal, J.C.; Sinha, S.K.; Srinivas, K.

    1995-12-31

    An attempt was made to assess the impact of climate change on the crop productivity of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in India. Climate change scenarios were projected for three sorghum growing areas in India using three global climate models (GCMs) namely; Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS), Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and United Kingdom Meteorology Office (UKMO). The three diverse sorghum growing areas selected were Hyderabad, Akola, and Solapur. In the first two regions sorghum is grown in the rainy season, whereas in the third region it is grown in the post rainy season. Crop growth was simulated using the CERES-sorghum simulation model with climate change scenarios generated by the GCMs. The simulations were run with and without the direct effects of doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, under dryland, low N conditions, and under nonlimiting water and nutrient conditions. The simulated results indicated a decrease in yield and biomass of rainy season sorghum at Hyderabad and Akola under all climate change scenarios. Post rainy season sorghum grown at Solapur on stored soil water showed a marginal increase in yield. The positive effects of increased CO{sub 2}, if any, were masked by the adverse effects of predicted increase in temperature resulting in shortened crop growing seasons.

  17. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tongcheng; Ko, Jonghan; Wall, Gerard W.; Pinter, Paul J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Kim, Han-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Potential impacts of climate change on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) productivity were investigated using the CERES-sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.5. The model was first calibrated for a sorghum cultivar grown in a free air CO2 enrichment experiment at the University of Arizona, Maricopa, Arizona, USA in 1998. The model was then validated with an independent dataset collected in 1999. The simulated grain yield, growth, and soil water of sorghum for the both years were in statistical agreement with the corresponding measurements, respectively. Neither simulated nor measured yields responded to elevated CO2, but both were sensitive to water supply. The validated model was then applied to simulate possible effects of climate change on sorghum grain yield and water use efficiency in western North America for the years 2080-2100. The projected CO2 fertilizer effect on grain yield was dominated by the adverse effect of projected temperature increases. Therefore, temperature appears to be a dominant driver of the global climate change influencing future sorghum productivity. These results suggest that an increase in water demand for sorghum production should be anticipated in a future high-CO2 world.

  18. Effect of sorghum-sudangrass and velvetbean cover crops on plant-parasitic nematodes associated with potato production in Florida.

    PubMed

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W; McSorley, R

    2001-12-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  19. Effect of Sorghum-Sudangrass and Velvetbean Cover Crops on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Potato Production in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.

    2001-01-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  20. A Sorghum Mutant Resource as an Efficient Platform for Gene Discovery in Grasses[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John; Chen, Junping; Wang, Bo; Hayes, Chad; Emendack, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a versatile C4 crop and a model for research in family Poaceae. High-quality genome sequence is available for the elite inbred line BTx623, but functional validation of genes remains challenging due to the limited genomic and germplasm resources available for comprehensive analysis of induced mutations. In this study, we generated 6400 pedigreed M4 mutant pools from EMS-mutagenized BTx623 seeds through single-seed descent. Whole-genome sequencing of 256 phenotyped mutant lines revealed >1.8 million canonical EMS-induced mutations, affecting >95% of genes in the sorghum genome. The vast majority (97.5%) of the induced mutations were distinct from natural variations. To demonstrate the utility of the sequenced sorghum mutant resource, we performed reverse genetics to identify eight genes potentially affecting drought tolerance, three of which had allelic mutations and two of which exhibited exact cosegregation with the phenotype of interest. Our results establish that a large-scale resource of sequenced pedigreed mutants provides an efficient platform for functional validation of genes in sorghum, thereby accelerating sorghum breeding. Moreover, findings made in sorghum could be readily translated to other members of the Poaceae via integrated genomics approaches. PMID:27354556

  1. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  2. The sorghum photoperiod sensitivity gene, Ma3, encodes a phytochrome B.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, K L; Miller, F R; Cordonnier-Pratt, M M; Pratt, L H; Morgan, P W; Mullet, J E

    1997-01-01

    The Ma3 gene is one of six genes that regulate the photoperiodic sensitivity of flowering in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). The ma3R mutation of this gene causes a phenotype that is similar to plants that are known to lack phytochrome B, and ma3 sorghum lacks a 123-KD phytochrome that predominates in light-grown plants and that is present in non-ma3 plants. A population segregating for Ma3 and ma3 was created and used to identify two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers linked to Ma3. These two markers were cloned and mapped in a recombinant inbred population as restriction fragment length polymorphisms. cDNA clones of PHYA and PHYC were cloned and sequenced from a cDNA library prepared from green sorghum leaves. Using a genome-walking technique, a 7941-bp partial sequence of PHYB, was determined from genomic DNA from ma3 sorghum. PHYA, PHYB, and PHYC all mapped to the same linkage group. The Ma3-linked markers mapped with PHYB more than 121 centimorgans from PHYA and PHYC. A frameshift mutation resulting in a premature stop codon was found in the PHYB sequence from ma3 sorghum. Therefore, we conclude that the Ma3 locus in sorghum is a PHYB gene that encodes a 123-kD phytochrome. PMID:9046599

  3. A Sorghum Mutant Resource as an Efficient Platform for Gene Discovery in Grasses.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yinping; Burke, John; Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Chen, Junping; Wang, Bo; Hayes, Chad; Emendack, Yves; Ware, Doreen; Xin, Zhanguo

    2016-07-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a versatile C4 crop and a model for research in family Poaceae. High-quality genome sequence is available for the elite inbred line BTx623, but functional validation of genes remains challenging due to the limited genomic and germplasm resources available for comprehensive analysis of induced mutations. In this study, we generated 6400 pedigreed M4 mutant pools from EMS-mutagenized BTx623 seeds through single-seed descent. Whole-genome sequencing of 256 phenotyped mutant lines revealed >1.8 million canonical EMS-induced mutations, affecting >95% of genes in the sorghum genome. The vast majority (97.5%) of the induced mutations were distinct from natural variations. To demonstrate the utility of the sequenced sorghum mutant resource, we performed reverse genetics to identify eight genes potentially affecting drought tolerance, three of which had allelic mutations and two of which exhibited exact cosegregation with the phenotype of interest. Our results establish that a large-scale resource of sequenced pedigreed mutants provides an efficient platform for functional validation of genes in sorghum, thereby accelerating sorghum breeding. Moreover, findings made in sorghum could be readily translated to other members of the Poaceae via integrated genomics approaches. PMID:27354556

  4. Ethanol from sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Day, D,F.

    1980-08-01

    Sweet sorghum has long been of interest to sugar farmers and sugar processors. The thought has been that one could plant the sweet sorghum on fallow land and harvest it and process it in September, before the start of the regular sugar cane griding season. Several disadvantages have prevented its use in sugar production, but these seem much less of a problem if ethanol is to be produced. The DOE has targeted sweet sorghum as a prime crop for ethanol production, and the planting of 14 million new acres in sweet sorghum is the underlying assumption in a DOE plant to produce 11 billion gallons of alcohol fuel by the year 2000.

  5. Transcriptome Characterization and Functional Marker Development in Sorghum Sudanense

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qiuwen; Liu, Yanlong; Yang, Xiaocui

    2016-01-01

    Sudangrass, Sorghum sudanense, is an important forage in warm regions. But little is known about its genome. In this study, the transcriptomes of sudangrass S722 and sorghum Tx623B were sequenced by Illumina sequencing. More than 4Gb bases were sequenced for each library. For Tx623B and S722, 88.79% and 83.88% reads, respectively were matched to the Sorghum bicolor genome. A total of 2,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected by RNA-Seq between the two libraries, including 849 up-regulated genes and 1,548 down-regulated genes. These DEGs could be divided into three groups by annotation analysis. A total of 44,495 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered by aligning S722 reads to the sorghum reference genome. Of these SNPs, 61.37% were transition, and this value did not differ much between different chromosomes. In addition, 16,928 insertion and deletion (indel) loci were identified between the two genomes. A total of 5,344 indel markers were designed, 15 of which were selected to construct the genetic map derived from the cross of Tx623A and Sa. It was indicated that the indel markers were useful and versatile between sorghum and sudangrass. Comparison of synonymous base substitutions (Ks) and non-synonymous base substitutions (Ka) between the two libraries showed that 95% orthologous pairs exhibited Ka/Ks<1.0, indicating that these genes were influenced by purifying selection. The results from this study provide important information for molecular genetic research and a rich resource for marker development in sudangrass and other Sorghum species. PMID:27152648

  6. Sorghum and millet proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum and millet proteins are an important source of dietary protein for significant numbers of people living throughout Africa and parts of Asia. Compared to other food proteins, such as those found in milk, eggs and wheat, little is known about the functionality of sorghum and millet proteins. ...

  7. Sorghum and Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum and maize are closely related cereal grains grown throughout the world. Sorghum, a drought tolerant crop grown in semi-arid regions, is a basic food staple in many parts of the developing world, while primarily an animal feed in western countries. Maize, a major worldwide crop, is used for...

  8. Characterization of Transposable Elements in Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copies elements distributed within 172 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs are ancient except some terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TEs expansion in L. bicolor; the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 500,000 years ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, contributes to genome assembly and to a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution, and provides a valuable resource for the ongoing Laccaria Pan-Genome project supported by the U.S.-DOE Joint Genome Institute.

  9. Community resources and strategies for association mapping in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is a powerful strategy for identifying genes underlying quantitative traits in plants. We have assembled and characterized genetic and phenotypic diversity of a sorghum panel suitable for association mapping, comprised of 377 accessions representing all major cultivated races (t...

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  11. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called dedicated bioenergy crops including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  12. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  13. Structural and spectroscopic characterisation of a heme peroxidase from sorghum.

    PubMed

    Nnamchi, Chukwudi I; Parkin, Gary; Efimov, Igor; Basran, Jaswir; Kwon, Hanna; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Agirre, Jon; Okolo, Bartholomew N; Moneke, Anene; Nwanguma, Bennett C; Moody, Peter C E; Raven, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    A cationic class III peroxidase from Sorghum bicolor was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme contains a high-spin heme, as evidenced by UV-visible spectroscopy and EPR. Steady state oxidation of guaiacol was demonstrated and the enzyme was shown to have higher activity in the presence of calcium ions. A Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential of -266 mV vs NHE was determined. Stopped-flow experiments with H2O2 showed formation of a typical peroxidase Compound I species, which converts to Compound II in the presence of calcium. A crystal structure of the enzyme is reported, the first for a sorghum peroxidase. The structure reveals an active site that is analogous to those for other class I heme peroxidase, and a substrate binding site (assigned as arising from binding of indole-3-acetic acid) at the γ-heme edge. Metal binding sites are observed in the structure on the distal (assigned as a Na(+) ion) and proximal (assigned as a Ca(2+)) sides of the heme, which is consistent with the Ca(2+)-dependence of the steady state and pre-steady state kinetics. It is probably the case that the structural integrity (and, thus, the catalytic activity) of the sorghum enzyme is dependent on metal ion incorporation at these positions. PMID:26666777

  14. A Genomic Resource for the Development, Improvement, and Exploitation of Sorghum for Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, Zachary W.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Mathew T.; Boyles, Richard E.; Shakoor, Nadia; Zielinski, Kelsey J.; Rauh, Bradley L.; Bridges, William C.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    With high productivity and stress tolerance, numerous grass genera of the Andropogoneae have emerged as candidates for bioenergy production. To optimize these candidates, research examining the genetic architecture of yield, carbon partitioning, and composition is required to advance breeding objectives. Significant progress has been made developing genetic and genomic resources for Andropogoneae, and advances in comparative and computational genomics have enabled research examining the genetic basis of photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, composition, and sink strength. To provide a pivotal resource aimed at developing a comparative understanding of key bioenergy traits in the Andropogoneae, we have established and characterized an association panel of 390 racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse Sorghum bicolor accessions with 232,303 genetic markers. Sorghum bicolor was selected because of its genomic simplicity, phenotypic diversity, significant genomic tools, and its agricultural productivity and resilience. We have demonstrated the value of sorghum as a functional model for candidate gene discovery for bioenergy Andropogoneae by performing genome-wide association analysis for two contrasting phenotypes representing key components of structural and non-structural carbohydrates. We identified potential genes, including a cellulase enzyme and a vacuolar transporter, associated with increased non-structural carbohydrates that could lead to bioenergy sorghum improvement. Although our analysis identified genes with potentially clear functions, other candidates did not have assigned functions, suggesting novel molecular mechanisms for carbon partitioning traits. These results, combined with our characterization of phenotypic and genetic diversity and the public accessibility of each accession and genomic data, demonstrate the value of this resource and provide a foundation for future improvement of sorghum and related grasses for bioenergy production

  15. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomic Profiling of Sorghum propinquum using a Rice Genome Array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Xiuqin; Huang, Liyu; Liu, Xiaoyue; Zong, Ying; Zhu, Linghua; Yang, Daichang; Fu, Binying

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is one of the world's most important cereal crops. S. propinquum is a perennial wild relative of S. bicolor with well-developed rhizomes. Functional genomics analysis of S. propinquum, especially with respect to molecular mechanisms related to rhizome growth and development, can contribute to the development of more sustainable grain, forage, and bioenergy cropping systems. In this study, we used a whole rice genome oligonucleotide microarray to obtain tissue-specific gene expression profiles of S. propinquum with special emphasis on rhizome development. A total of 548 tissue-enriched genes were detected, including 31 and 114 unique genes that were expressed predominantly in the rhizome tips (RT) and internodes (RI), respectively. Further GO analysis indicated that the functions of these tissue-enriched genes corresponded to their characteristic biological processes. A few distinct cis-elements, including ABA-responsive RY repeat CATGCA, sugar-repressive TTATCC, and GA-responsive TAACAA, were found to be prevalent in RT-enriched genes, implying an important role in rhizome growth and development. Comprehensive comparative analysis of these rhizome-enriched genes and rhizome-specific genes previously identified in Oryza longistaminata and S. propinquum indicated that phytohormones, including ABA, GA, and SA, are key regulators of gene expression during rhizome development. Co-localization of rhizome-enriched genes with rhizome-related QTLs in rice and sorghum generated functional candidates for future cloning of genes associated with rhizome growth and development. PMID:23536906

  16. Comparative Sequence Analysis of the Sorghum Rph Region and the Maize Rp1 Resistance Gene Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Emberton, John; SanMiguel, Phillip; Ogden, Matthew; Llaca, Victor; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    A 268-kb chromosomal segment containing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genes that are orthologous to the maize (Zea mays) Rp1 disease resistance (R) gene complex was sequenced. A region of approximately 27 kb in sorghum was found to contain five Rp1 homologs, but most have structures indicating that they are not functional. In contrast, maize inbred B73 has 15 Rp1 homologs in two nearby clusters of 250 and 300 kb. As at maize Rp1, the cluster of R gene homologs is interrupted by the presence of several genes that appear to have no resistance role, but these genes were different from the ones found within the maize Rp1 complex. More than 200 kb of DNA downstream from the sorghum Rp1-orthologous R gene cluster was sequenced and found to contain many duplicated and/or truncated genes. None of the duplications currently exist as simple tandem events, suggesting that numerous rearrangements were required to generate the current genomic structure. Four truncated genes were observed, including one gene that appears to have both 5′ and 3′ deletions. The maize Rp1 region is also unusually enriched in truncated genes. Hence, the orthologous maize and sorghum regions share numerous structural features, but all involve events that occurred independently in each species. The data suggest that complex R gene clusters are unusually prone to frequent internal and adjacent chromosomal rearrangements of several types. PMID:12481055

  17. Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

  18. Genome-environment associations in sorghum landraces predict adaptive traits.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ramu, Punna; Deshpande, Santosh; Hash, C Tom; Bonnette, Jason; Juenger, Thomas E; Hyma, Katie; Acharya, Charlotte; Mitchell, Sharon E; Buckler, Edward S; Brenton, Zachary; Kresovich, Stephen; Morris, Geoffrey P

    2015-07-01

    Improving environmental adaptation in crops is essential for food security under global change, but phenotyping adaptive traits remains a major bottleneck. If associations between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and environment of origin in crop landraces reflect adaptation, then these could be used to predict phenotypic variation for adaptive traits. We tested this proposition in the global food crop Sorghum bicolor, characterizing 1943 georeferenced landraces at 404,627 SNPs and quantifying allelic associations with bioclimatic and soil gradients. Environment explained a substantial portion of SNP variation, independent of geographical distance, and genic SNPs were enriched for environmental associations. Further, environment-associated SNPs predicted genotype-by-environment interactions under experimental drought stress and aluminum toxicity. Our results suggest that genomic signatures of environmental adaptation may be useful for crop improvement, enhancing germplasm identification and marker-assisted selection. Together, genome-environment associations and phenotypic analyses may reveal the basis of environmental adaptation. PMID:26601206

  19. Genome-environment associations in sorghum landraces predict adaptive traits

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ramu, Punna; Deshpande, Santosh; Hash, C. Tom; Bonnette, Jason; Juenger, Thomas E.; Hyma, Katie; Acharya, Charlotte; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Buckler, Edward S.; Brenton, Zachary; Kresovich, Stephen; Morris, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Improving environmental adaptation in crops is essential for food security under global change, but phenotyping adaptive traits remains a major bottleneck. If associations between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and environment of origin in crop landraces reflect adaptation, then these could be used to predict phenotypic variation for adaptive traits. We tested this proposition in the global food crop Sorghum bicolor, characterizing 1943 georeferenced landraces at 404,627 SNPs and quantifying allelic associations with bioclimatic and soil gradients. Environment explained a substantial portion of SNP variation, independent of geographical distance, and genic SNPs were enriched for environmental associations. Further, environment-associated SNPs predicted genotype-by-environment interactions under experimental drought stress and aluminum toxicity. Our results suggest that genomic signatures of environmental adaptation may be useful for crop improvement, enhancing germplasm identification and marker-assisted selection. Together, genome-environment associations and phenotypic analyses may reveal the basis of environmental adaptation. PMID:26601206

  20. Effect of inulin on textural and sensory characteristics of sorghum based high fibre biscuits using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chandralekha; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Mitra, Jayeeta

    2014-10-01

    Five blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour (25.0-45.0 %) and whole wheat flour were used to make biscuits using inulin (5.0-10.0 %) and guar gum (1.0-2.0 %). An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of fat replacer (inulin) and sorghum flour on the quality of high fibre and low calorie biscuits. For this purpose, the biscuit dough and the biscuit samples were analyzed. The analysis was based on hardness of the dough, hardness of the biscuit, fracturability and overall acceptability (OAA) scores. Results showed that increasing the amount of sorghum flour in biscuit increased the dough hardness and biscuit hardness, whereas, biscuit fracturability decreased and OAA scores increased up to the level at which sorghum flour ranged from 35.0 to 40.0 % after which it decreased. An increase in the amount of inulin was followed by an increase in biscuit hardness, while, fracturability and OAA scores decreased and there was little effect on the dough hardness. Optimum conditions generated from the analysis was 40.8 % sorghum flour, 6.5 % inulin and 1.0 % guar gum. The predicted response in terms of dough hardness, fracturability, biscuit hardness and OAA were 212.4 g, 36.4 mm, 4.8 kg and 7.06, respectively. The desirability of the optimum condition was 0.827. PMID:25328223

  1. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World's Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered. PMID:27417755

  2. Sorghums for methane production. Annual report, April 1983-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hiler, E.A.; Miller, F.R.; Monk, R.L.; McBee, G.G.; Creelman, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an integrated system for methane production utilizing high-energy sorghum as the feedstock. Because of its wide geographic adaptability, its high gas-production potential, and the fact that it is already cultivated on over 15 million acres annually in the U.S., sorghum represents a significant potential energy resource that can be converted to methane by anaerobic digestion. This report provides specifics of research activities in the sorghums-for-methane program sponsored by Gas Research Institute and cofunded by Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Researchers in the program include plant breeders, sorghum physiologists, agronomists, agricultural and systems engineers, and agricultural economists. Major research emphases are genetic manipulation, physiology and production systems, harvesting, storage, processing, and conversion systems; and economic and systems analyses. First-year results indicate that: (1) the proposed sorghum-methane system is in the realm of economic feasibility, and (2) research emphases in storage and high-efficiency conversion are critical to the economic implementation of the system. An innovative approach to combine the storage and conversion processes in a two-stage system is being investigated. Increased research emphasis is being placed on storage and conversion aspects of the system.

  3. NEW USES OF SORGHUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new research project at the USDA-ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center (GMPRC) on New Uses of Sorghum was recently started. This research project was created partially in response to lobbying efforts by the NGSP. The new project currently has one full-time scientist, Dr. Scott Bean,...

  4. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    PubMed Central

    Tarpley, Lee; Vietor, Donald M

    2007-01-01

    Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice) than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening) culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's) than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81%) recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis) and primarily through a path that includes an apoplasmic step. In

  5. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H; Epps, Ethan; Kerr, Alexandra; Mills, Gabriel; Cromwell, Jay; Lugin, Yelena; Phillips, Christine; et al

    2015-12-01

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures ofmore » selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.« less

  6. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H; Epps, Ethan; Kerr, Alexandra; Mills, Gabriel; Cromwell, Jay; Lugin, Yelena; Phillips, Christine; Paterson, Andrew H

    2015-12-01

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures of selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.

  7. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity. PMID:12223597

  8. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  9. Synthesis of Early Heat Shock Proteins in Young Leaves of Barley and Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Adrian K.; Critchley, Christa

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of early heat-shock proteins in young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) was studied by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Analysis of whole leaf protein patterns demonstrated clearly the enhanced resolution of heat-shock proteins, especially those of low molecular weight, when separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Comparison between the two cereals showed that a greater number and diversity of heat-shock proteins were induced in the subtropical C4 (sorghum) species compared to the temperate C3 (barley) species. Fractionation of whole leaf proteins into soluble and membrane fractions showed the majority of heat-shock proteins to be associated with the soluble fraction in both sorghum and barley. However, several low molecular mass (17-24 kilodalton) heat-shock proteins were clearly identified in the membrane fractions, indicating a likely association with thylakoid membranes in vivo during the early stages of a heat-shock response in both species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667750

  10. Effect of epicuticular wax on UV scattering of sorghum leaves and canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawhey, Cheryl I.; Grant, Richard H.

    2003-11-01

    Sorghum bicolor is grown in equatorial regions that have naturally high ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposures. To determine whether the increased wax production on the sorghum leaves and sheaths protects the plant by increased scattered radiation from the plant surface, the effects of wax amount on UVB reflectances were examined in greenhouse and field experiments involving three isolines of sorghum -- wild-type and two wax mutants. Reflectance of the wild-type sheath was found to be a result of the wax present while that on the mutant sheaths was not dependent on wax amount. Overhead UVB exposure corresponded with reduced sheath and increased leaf UVB reflectance for wild-type but negligible changes in both sheath and leaf reflectance for the two mutants. Although the sheath reflectances of wild-type were twice that of the two mutants, the negligible difference in leaf reflectance between isolines resulted in negligible differences in the canopy bi-directional reflectance, even at high view angles. The UVA canopy reflectance factors of the three sorghum isolines were measured at 0.03 at viewing angles near nadir on clear sky days. Predicted reflectance factors were calculated using the SAIL model then compared with the measured reflectance factors to evaluate the effect of sky diffuse fraction on the measured differences.

  11. Characterization of Novel Sorghum brown midrib Mutants from an EMS-Mutagenized Population

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Overall, most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles. PMID:25187038

  12. Manipulation of root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Owens, Thomas G; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

    2004-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) roots exude a potent bioherbicide sorgoleone. Previous work indicates that sorgoleone is produced in living root hairs. We have developed a mist system that resulted in abundant production of root hairs exuding sorgoleone and a mat system that significantly inhibited root hair development and consequently sorgoleone production. Applying Ag+ (an ethylene action inhibitor) at 1.2 mM to the seedlings grown in the mist system also inhibited root hair formation and elongation. Hypoxic conditions in the mist system did not result in the inhibition of root hair growth as compared to the standard air atmosphere (20.8% O2). Applying ethephon (an ethylene-releasing agent) at 0.031 mM to the roots of seedlings grown in the mat system with water running at 1 ml/min reversed the inhibition of root hair development by water movement. These results indicate that either water movement or ethylene can be utilized to manipulate root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings. It is hypothesized that water movement reduced the local ethylene concentration on the root surface and consequently inhibited root hair development of sorghum seedlings grown in the mat system. PMID:15074666

  13. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Natalie H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2013-12-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentrations of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism. Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20% PEG (-0.5 MPa) for an extended period had significantly higher concentrations of dhurrin in their shoots but lower dhurrin concentrations in their roots. The total amount of dhurrin in the shoots of plants from the various treatments was not significantly different on a per mass basis, although a greater proportion of shoot N was allocated to dhurrin. Following transfer from medium containing 20% PEG to medium lacking PEG, shoot dhurrin concentrations decreased but nitrate concentrations increased to levels potentially toxic to grazing ruminants. This response is likely due to the resumption of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress. PMID:24080394

  14. Sorghum Midge Resistance in 16 Grain Sorghum Hybrids - 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum is a good dryland rotation crop in the southern Coastal Plain region, where it is impacted by a variety of insects and pathogens from the seedling stage through maturity. Diseases were of minimal importance in 2008. Ten insect pests of sorghum were recorded in southern Georgia in 2008...

  15. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. PMID:26470168

  16. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  18. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  19. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  20. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  1. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  2. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  3. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    PubMed

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa. PMID:18191263

  4. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  5. Conversion of lower lignin mutants of Sorghum bicolor (L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Government has targeted aggressive development of ethanol as one route for decreasing oil dependence and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving future production targets depends on expanding feedstock sources beyond corn and towards lignocellulose. This is expected to inclu...

  6. Thermal stability of alpha-amylase from malted jowar (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Siva Sai; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna; Rao, A G Appu

    2005-08-24

    Malted cereals are rich sources of alpha-amylase, which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of internal alpha-(1-4)-glycosidic bonds of starch, leading to liquefaction. Amylases play a role in the predigestion of starch, leading to a reduction in the water absorption capacity of the cereal. Among the three cereal amylases (barley, ragi, and jowar), jowar amylase is found to be the most thermostable. The major amylase from malted jowar, a 47 kDa alpha-amylase, purified to homogeneity, is rich in beta structure ( approximately 60%) like other cereal amylases. T(m), the midpoint of thermal inactivation, is found to be 69.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Thermal inactivation is found to follow first-order kinetics at pH 4.8, the pH optimum of the enzyme. Activation energy, E(a), is found to be 45.3 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-)(1). The activation enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS*), and free energy change (DeltaG) are calculated to be 44.6 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-)(1), 57.1 +/- 0.3 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1), and 25.2 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-)(1), respectively. The thermal stability of the enzyme in the presence of the commonly used food additives NaCl and sucrose has been studied. T(m) is found to decrease to 66.3 +/- 0.3, 58.1 +/- 0.2, and 48.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C, corresponding to the presence of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 M NaCl, respectively. Sucrose acts as a stabilizer; the T(m) value is found to be 77.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C compared to 69.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in the control. PMID:16104815

  7. Characterization of some useful traits in sweet sorghum for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple yearly harvests can increase crop productivity but the crop may encounter different environmental challenges (such as early-spring cold or late-fall frost) depending on cultivation zones. Sweet sorghum as a feedstock may be planted early to get a double harvest or be rotated with sugarcane ...

  8. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World’s Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered. PMID:27417755

  9. A comparison of water use and water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum in the rain-fed, Midwestern, US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, M.; Salas Fernandez, M.; VanLoocke, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing consensus among model projections that climate change may increase the frequency and intensity of drought in the rain-fed, maize-dominated, Midwestern US. Uncertainty in the availability of water, combined with an increased demand for non-grain ethanol feedstock, may necessitate expanding the production of more water-use-efficient and less drought sensitive crops for biomass applications. Research suggests that biomass sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is more drought tolerant and can produce more biomass than maize in water-limiting environments; however, sorghum water use data are limited for the rain-fed Midwestern US. To address this gap, a replicated (n=3) side-by-side trial was established in Ames, Iowa to determine cumulative water use and water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum. Data were collected by micrometeorological stations located in the center of each plot and used to calculate cumulative evapotranspiration throughout the 2014 growing season using the residual energy balance method. Continuous micrometeorological measurements were supplemented by periodic measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and above-ground biomass. At mid-point of the growing season, preliminary data analysis revealed similar water use for sorghum and maize. Data collection will continue for the remainder of the growing season, at which point a stronger conclusion can be drawn. This research will provide important insight on the potential hydrologic effects of expanding biomass sorghum production in the Midwestern, US.

  10. Biogasification of sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has been operating a 1200-gallon, anaerobic solids-concentrating digester at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. This digester development work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Gas Research Institute to provide an effective community waste treatment and energy recovery concept for smaller communities. As a result, an economically attractive, water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment system was developed that includes the digestion of water hyacinth and sludge to methane. A further extension of the community waste treatment concept is to include agricultural wastes in the energy recovery scheme. Therefore, during 1986 a test program was initiated to obtain data on the digestion of sorghum in the solids concentrating digester. Performance data was collected at both mesophilic and thermophilic operating conditions at total organic loading rates of 0.25 and 0.5 pounds per cubic foot of digester volume per day, respectively. Excellent methane yields were obtained during twelve months of stable and uninterrupted operation. This paper summarizes the performance data obtained on sorghum in this digester. 7 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Composition of the Aliphatic Components of Suberin of the Endodermal Fraction from the First Internode of Etiolated Sorghum Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The stems from etiolated seedlings of Sorghum bicolor were separated into epidermal and endodermal fractions by manually removing the stele from the cortex. The epidermal fraction was shown to contain a lipid polymer whose monomeric composition was characteristic of cutin with dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as a major component (25%). The endodermal fraction contained a lipid polymer whose monomeric composition was characteristic of suberin: hexadecanoic acid 12%, octadecenol 6%, octadecenoic acid 23%, ω-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid 17%, hexadecanedioc acid 8%, ω-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid 8%, and octadecenedioic acid 12%. This endodermal polymer is thought to be the suberin component of the Casparian band. PMID:16660742

  12. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  13. Structure and Expression of a Dhurrinase (β-Glucosidase) from Sorghum1

    PubMed Central

    Cicek, Muzaffer; Esen, Asim

    1998-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has two isozymes of the cyanogenic β-glucosidase dhurrinase: dhurrinase-1 (Dhr1) and dhurrinase-2 (Dhr2). A nearly full-length cDNA encoding dhurrinase was isolated from 4-d-old etiolated seedlings and sequenced. The cDNA has a 1695-nucleotide-long open reading frame, which codes for a 565-amino acid-long precursor and a 514-amino acid-long mature protein, respectively. Deduced amino acid sequence of the sorghum Dhr showed 70% identity with two maize (Zea mays) β-glucosidase isozymes. Southern-blot data suggested that β-glu-cosidase is encoded by a small multigene family in sorghum. Northern-blot data indicated that the mRNA corresponding to the cloned Dhr cDNA is present at high levels in the node and upper half of the mesocotyl in etiolated seedlings but at low levels in the root—only in the zone of elongation and the tip region. Light-grown seedling parts had lower levels of Dhr mRNA than those of etiolated seedlings. Immunoblot analysis performed using maize-anti-β-glucosidase sera detected two distinct dhurrinases (57 and 62 kD) in sorghum. The distribution of Dhr activity in different plant parts supports the mRNA and immunoreactive protein data, suggesting that the cloned cDNA corresponds to the Dhr1 (57 kD) isozyme and that the dhr1 gene shows organ-specific expression. PMID:9536065

  14. Storage characteristics of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Weight loss, percent extraction, and juice Brix were determined in stored sweet sorghum harvested as billets and stalks. Stalks lost less weight and maintained juice quality longer than billets. Storage requirements after harvest should determine the harvesting method.

  15. Research update: Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of photoperiod-sensitive forage sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass against non-photoperiod-sensitive sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, or corn silage. Forages were planted on two dates at two locations (Marshfield and Hancock, WI). Results suggested some ...

  16. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for °Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  17. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Xin, Zhanguo; Kovacs, Frank A; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been previously shown to encode cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), which catalyzes the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in this gene have been shown to reduce the abundance of lignin, enhance digestibility, and improve saccharification efficiencies and ethanol yields. Nine sorghum lines harboring five different bmr6 alleles were identified in an EMS-mutagenized TILLING population. DNA sequencing of Bmr6 revealed that the majority of the mutations impacted evolutionarily conserved amino acids while three-dimensional structural modeling predicted that all of these alleles interfered with the enzyme's ability to bind with its NADPH cofactor. All of the new alleles reduced in vitro CAD activity levels and enhanced glucose yields following saccharification. Further, many of these lines were associated with higher reductions in acid detergent lignin compared to lines harboring the previously characterized bmr6-ref allele. These bmr6 lines represent new breeding tools for manipulating biomass composition to enhance forage and feedstock quality. PMID:26172142

  18. Genetic variation and expression diversity between grain and sweet sorghum lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological scientists have long sought after understanding how genes and their structural/functional changes contribute to morphological diversity. Though both grain (BT×623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines originated from the same species Sorghum bicolor L., they exhibit obvious phenotypic variations. However, the genome re-sequencing data revealed that they exhibited limited functional diversity in their encoding genes in a genome-wide level. The result raises the question how the obvious morphological variations between grain and sweet sorghum occurred in a relatively short evolutionary or domesticated period. Results We implemented an integrative approach by using computational and experimental analyses to provide a detail insight into phenotypic, genetic variation and expression diversity between BT×623 and Keller lines. We have investigated genome-wide expression divergence between BT×623 and Keller under normal and sucrose treatment. Through the data analysis, we detected more than 3,000 differentially expressed genes between these two varieties. Such expression divergence was partially contributed by differential cis-regulatory elements or DNA methylation, which was genetically determined by functionally divergent genes between these two varieties. Both tandem and segmental duplication played important roles in the genome evolution and expression divergence. Conclusion Substantial differences in gene expression patterns between these two varieties have been observed. Such an expression divergence is genetically determined by the divergence in genome level. PMID:23324212

  19. Sorghum mutant RG displays antithetic leaf shoot lignin accumulation resulting in improved stem saccharification properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving saccharification efficiency in bioenergy crop species remains an important challenge. Here, we report the characterization of a Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) mutant, named REDforGREEN (RG), as a bioenergy feedstock. Results It was found that RG displayed increased accumulation of lignin in leaves and depletion in the stems, antithetic to the trend observed in wild type. Consistent with these measurements, the RG leaf tissue displayed reduced saccharification efficiency whereas the stem saccharification efficiency increased relative to wild type. Reduced lignin was linked to improved saccharification in RG stems, but a chemical shift to greater S:G ratios in RG stem lignin was also observed. Similarities in cellulose content and structure by XRD-analysis support the correlation between increased saccharification properties and reduced lignin instead of changes in the cellulose composition and/or structure. Conclusion Antithetic lignin accumulation was observed in the RG mutant leaf-and stem-tissue, which resulted in greater saccharification efficiency in the RG stem and differential thermochemical product yield in high lignin leaves. Thus, the red leaf coloration of the RG mutant represents a potential marker for improved conversion of stem cellulose to fermentable sugars in the C4 grass Sorghum. PMID:24103129

  20. Promotion of Sorghum Callus Growth by the s-Triazine Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Nadar, Hassan M.; Clegg, Max D.; Maranville, Jerry W.

    1975-01-01

    Growth-promoting action of simazine and other s-triazine herbicides was detected by the use of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L]. Moench) callus tissue and the chlorophyll retention test. Soil application of simazine [2-chloro-4, 6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] at sublethal levels nearly doubled the growth-promoting action of sorghum root exudates. Treated plants yielded up to 26% more total protein than untreated plants. This indicated that the level of callus growth-promoting action in the root exudate of the plant has a positive effect on its final total protein yield and confirms a positive effect of simazine on total protein content in certain instances. The results may provide a new understanding of the mode of action of s-triazines applied at sublethal levels in increasing protein content and certain enzymic activities of treated plants. It is speculated that the growth-promoting action of these herbicides is hormonal in nature and most likely kinetin-like. PMID:16659386

  1. Convergent evolution of perenniality in rice and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Hu, F Y; Tao, D Y; Sacks, E; Fu, B Y; Xu, P; Li, J; Yang, Y; McNally, K; Khush, G S; Paterson, A H; Li, Z-K

    2003-04-01

    Annual and perennial habit are two major strategies by which grasses adapt to seasonal environmental change, and these distinguish cultivated cereals from their wild relatives. Rhizomatousness, a key trait contributing to perenniality, was investigated by using an F(2) population from a cross between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relative, Oryza longistaminata. Molecular mapping based on a complete simple sequence-repeat map revealed two dominant-complementary genes controlling rhizomatousness. Rhz3 was mapped to the interval between markers OSR16 [1.3 centimorgans (cM)] and OSR13 (8.1 cM) on rice chromosome 4 and Rhz2 located between RM119 (2.2 cM) and RM273 (7.4 cM) on chromosome 3. Comparative mapping indicated that each gene closely corresponds to major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rhizomatousness in Sorghum propinquum, a wild relative of cultivated sorghum. Correspondence of these genes in rice and sorghum, which diverged from a common ancestor approximately 50 million years ago, suggests that the two genes may be key regulators of rhizome development in many Poaceae. Many additional QTLs affecting abundance of rhizomes in O. longistaminata were identified, most of which also corresponded to the locations of S. propinquum QTLs. Convergent evolution of independent mutations at, in some cases, corresponding genes may have been responsible for the evolution of annual cereals from perennial wild grasses. DNA markers closely linked to Rhz2 and Rhz3 will facilitate cloning of the genes, which may contribute significantly to our understanding of grass evolution, advance opportunities to develop perennial cereals, and offer insights into environmentally benign weed-control strategies. PMID:12642667

  2. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  3. Sorghum allelopathy – from ecosystem to molecule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference have also been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse loca...

  4. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sorghum Fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum fiber has potential to serve as a low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Sorghum fiber from a decortication process was used for this study. The approximate chemical composition of sorghum fiber is 30% starch, 18% hemicellulose, 11% cellulose, 11% protein, 10% crude fat, and 3% ...

  5. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Sweet sorghums are tall sorghums that accumulate soluble sugars in their stems. After squeezing the stalk...

  6. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and...

  7. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and...

  8. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and...

  9. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and...

  10. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and...

  11. IMPACT OF OZONE ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grain sorghum(sorghum vulgare Pers.) is an important animal feed crop, and it is sometimes planted as a substitute for field corn. Although sorghum is grown in areas of the central and southern U.S. where potentially damaging concentrations of 03 exist, no data are available rega...

  12. Resistance to Water Flow in the Sorghum Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wayne S.; Ritchie, Joe T.

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of the location and magnitude of the resistance to water flow in a plant is fundamental for describing whole plant response to water stress. The reported magnitudes of these resistances vary widely, principally because of the difficulty of measuring water potential within the plant. A number of interrelated experiments are described in which the water potential of a covered, nontranspiring leaf attached to a transpiring sorghum plant (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) was used as a measure of the potential at the root-shoot junction. This allowed a descriptive evaluation of plant resistance to be made. The water potentials of a covered, nontranspiring leaf and a nonabsorbing root in solution, both attached to an otherwise actively transpiring and absorbing plant, were found to be similar. This supported the hypothesis that covered leaf water potential was equilibrating at a point shared by the vascular connections of both leaves and roots, i.e. the nodal complex of the root-shoot junction or crown. The difference in potential between a covered and exposed leaf together with calculated individual leaf transpiration rates were used to evaluate the resistance between the plant crown and the exposed leaf lamina called the connection resistance. There was an apparent decrease in the connection resistance as the transpiration rate increased; this is qualitatively explained as plant capacitance. Assuming that the covered leaf water potential was equal to that in the root xylem at the point of water absorption in the experimental plants with relatively short root axes, calculated radial root resistances were strongly dependent on the transpiration rate. For plants with moderate to high transpiration rates the roots had a slightly larger resistance than the shoots. PMID:16661138

  13. Suitability of sorghum stalk fibers for production of particleboard.

    PubMed

    Khazaeian, Abolghasem; Ashori, Alireza; Dizaj, Mostafa Yahyavi

    2015-04-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) stalk (SS) as a promising raw material for particleboard manufacturing. The SS particles and industrial hardwood particles in various proportions were used as the raw materials for the surface and core layers of the three-layer particleboards. Commercial urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive was used as a binder. Morphological and chemical characteristics of the SS were evaluated. Effects of five variable parameters on the physical (thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA)), and mechanical (modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB)) properties of the particleboards were determined. Other parameters such as type of resin (UF), hardener content (1%), type of hardener (NH4Cl), press closing time (5 mm/s), board density (0.70 g/cm(3)), and press pressure (30 kg/m(2)) were held constant. Fractional factorial was used to find the optimum condition for the studied variable parameters. The morphological results showed that SS had comparable fiber length with softwoods and fiber width and wall thickness values greater than the hardwood of common forest species. They had higher hot-water solubility values, lignin and ash contents than those of the other woody materials. The experimental results showed that increasing of SS particles usage in the surface layer significantly affects the board properties. Containing 50 wt% SS particles in the surface, the MOE and MOR values exceed the minimum requirements of the European norms (EN) standards, for general purposes. All of the particleboards produced from SS had IB higher than the EN standard requirement. The presence of SS in the particleboards resulted in higher WA and TS values. All the mechanical properties of the boards decreased when the press temperature was increased from 160 to 180°C. Finally, it can be stated that SS has enough potential as a supplement fibrous material, in combination with industrial

  14. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstocks: Switchgrass and High Biomass Sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, P.; Kakani, V. G.; Huhnke, R.

    2015-12-01

    We compared eddy covariance measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes from co-located two major dedicated lignocellulosic feedstocks, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and high biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), in Oklahoma during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Monthly ensemble averaged net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peak values of 36-37 μmol m-2 s-1 in both ecosystems. Similar magnitudes (weekly average of daily integrated values) of NEE (10-11 g C m-2 d-1), gross primary production (GPP, 19-20 g C m-2 d-1), ecosystem respiration (ER, 10-12 g C m-2 d-1), and evapotranspiration (ET, 6.2-6.7 mm d-1) were observed in both ecosystems. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of both ecosystems had similar response to air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). An optimum Ta was slightly over 30 °C for NEE and approximately 35 °C for ET, and an optimum VPD was approximately 3 kPa for NEE and ET in both ecosystems. The switchgrass field was a larger carbon sink, with a cumulative seasonal carbon uptake of 406-490 g C m-2 compared to 261-330 g C m-2 by the sorghum field. Despite similar water use patterns during the active growing period, seasonal cumulative ET was higher in switchgrass than in sorghum. The ratio of seasonal sums of GPP to ET yielded ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE) of 9.41-11.32 and 8.98-9.17 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The ratio of seasonal sums of net ecosystem production (NEP) to ET was 2.75-2.81 and 2.06-2.18 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The switchgrass stand was a net carbon sink for four to five months (April/May-August), while sorghum was a net carbon sink only for three months (June-August). Our results imply that the difference in carbon sink strength and water use between two ecosystems was driven mainly by the length of the growing season.

  15. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. PMID:26336093

  16. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol−1) or elevated (800 µmol mol−1) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. PMID:26336093

  17. Identification of sorghum hybrids with high phenotypic stability using GGE biplot methodology.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Almeida Filho, J E; Daher, R F; Menezes, C B; Cardoso, M J; Godinho, V P C; Torres, F E; Tardin, F D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sorghum hybrids that have both high yield and phenotypic stability in Brazilian environments. Seven trials were conducted between February and March 2011. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 25 treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of 20 simple pre-commercial hybrids and five witnesses of grain sorghum. Sorghum genotypes were analyzed by the genotype main effects + genotype environment interaction (GGE) biplot method if significant genotype x environment interaction, adaptability, and phenotypic stability were detected. GGE biplot methodology identified two groups of environments, the first composed of Água Comprida-MG, Montividiu-GO, and Vilhena- RO and the second of Guaíra-SP and Sete Lagoas-MG. The BRS 308 and 1G282 genotypes were found to have high grain yield, adaptability, and phenotypic stability and are thus indicated for cultivation in the first and second groups of environments, respectively. PMID:27323167

  18. Protein enrichment of grain sorghum by submerged culture of the amylolytic yeastsSchwanniomyces occidentalis andLipomyces kononenkoae.

    PubMed

    Horn, C H; du Preez, J C; Kilian, S G

    1992-07-01

    Cultivation of aSchwanniomyces occidentalis derepressed mutant in a 10% (w/v) gelatinized grain sorghum slurry increased the crude protein content of the biomass from an initial value of 12% to 41% (dry) within 20 h, with no detectable residual starch. Co-cultivation ofCandida utilis with theS. occidentalis mutant improved the final crude protein content to 47% within 18 h, whereas a co-culture ofC. utilis with aLipomyces kononenkoae mutant resulted in a cultivation time of 50 h with a significantly lower protein content and a low final α-amylase activity. In a 15% (w/v) grain sorghum slurry aC. utilis/S. occidentalis co-culture increased the protein content to about 44% within 30 h. Yeast cultivation increased the lysine and threonine content of the final biomass considerably. PMID:24425515

  19. Sorghum for human food--a review.

    PubMed

    Anglani, C

    1998-01-01

    A brief review of literature on sorghum for human foods and on the relationship among some kernel characteristics and food quality is presented. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow maize, are better than those prepared with whole sorghum alone. A porridge formulation with a 30:40:30 mix of sorghum, maize and cassava respectively, has been shown to be the most acceptable combination. The cooked porridge Aceda has lower protein digestibility and higher biological value than the uncooked porridge Aceda. Sorghum is not considered breadmaking flour but the addition of 30% sorghum flour to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate produces a bread, evaluated as good to excellent. PMID:9839838

  20. In vivo monoubiquitination of anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase occurs at Lys624 in germinating sorghum seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Feria, Ana-Belén; Ni, Hong; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an important cytosolic regulatory enzyme that plays a pivotal role in numerous physiological processes in plants, including seed development and germination. Previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides of ~110 kDa and 107 kDa (p110 and p107, respectively) on immunoblots of clarified extracts of germinating sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds. In order to establish the biochemical basis for this observation, a 460 kDa PEPC heterotetramer composed of an equivalent ratio of p110 and p107 subunits was purified to near homogeneity from the germinated seeds. Mass spectrometry established that p110 and p107 are both encoded by the same plant-type PEPC gene (CP21), but that p107 was in vivo monoubiquitinated at Lys624 to form p110. This residue is absolutely conserved in vascular plant PEPCs and is proximal to a PEP-binding/catalytic domain. Anti-ubiquitin IgG immunodetected p110 but not p107, whereas incubation with a deubiquitinating enzyme (USP-2 core) efficiently converted p110 into p107, while relieving the enzyme's feedback inhibition by L-malate. Partial PEPC monoubiquitination was also detected during sorghum seed development. It is apparent that monoubiquitination at Lys624 is opposed to phosphorylation at Ser7 in terms of regulating the catalytic activity of sorghum seed PEPC. PEPC monoubiquitination is hypothesized to fine-tune anaplerotic carbon flux according to the cell's immediate physiological requirements for tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates needed in support of biosynthesis and carbon-nitrogen interactions. PMID:24288181

  1. Effect of sulfur fertilization on chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and utilization by lambs of sorghum silage.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M R; Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Hawkins, G W

    1995-06-01

    Effects of S fertilization, 0 or 138 kg of S/ha, as (NH4)2SO4 on chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and utilization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage by wether lambs was investigated. Pioneer 947' sorghum forage was ensiled at the soft dough growth stage. Sulfur fertilization increased (P < .01) concentrations of S, N, K, Mn, and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of Fe, Cu, Al, and acetic acid after ensiling. Sulfur-fertilized sorghum silage (N:S = 12) and non-S fertilized silage (N:S = 15) were fed alone and supplemented with urea to achieve 14% CP (N:S = 18 and 23, respectively) to 24 crossbred (1/2 Dorset, 1/4 Finn, 1/4 Rambouillet) wether lambs in a metabolism trial. Sulfur fertilization decreased apparent lignin digestibility and increased apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF, and hemicellulose (P < .05), apparent absorption and retention of S, N, P, K, Mg, and Mn (P < .01), and apparent absorption of Ca (P < .05). Apparent absorption and retention of Cu and Al were lower (P < .05) in lambs fed the S-fertilized silages. Digestibilities of DM and NDF were increased by N-supplementation in the non S-fertilized silage (N x S interaction, P < .05). Nitrogen supplementation increased (P < .01) blood urea nitrogen and apparent absorption and retention of N. Results indicate that S fertilization enhanced forage quality primarily due to increased TNC concentration, digestibility of hemicellulose, and N utilization by lambs but could exacerbate Cu deficiency where Cu levels are marginal. PMID:7673075

  2. Historical Synthesis-Analysis of Changes in Grain Nitrogen Dynamics in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling the complexity underpinning nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) can be physiologically approached via examining grain N sources and N internal efficiency (NIE) (yield to plant N content ratio). The main objective of this original research paper is to document and understand sorghum NUE and physiological mechanisms related to grain N dynamics. The study of different grain N sources, herein defined as the reproductive-stage shoot N remobilization (Remobilized N), reproductive-stage whole-plant N content (Reproductive N), and vegetative-stage whole-plant N content (Vegetative N), was pursued with the goal of synthesizing scientific literature for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crop. A detailed literature review was performed and summarized on sorghum NUE (13 studies; >250 means) with three Eras, defined by the year of the study, named as Old Era (1965–1980); Transient Era (1981–2000); and New Era (2001–2014). The most remarkable outcomes from this synthesis were: (1) overall historical (1965–2014) cumulative yield gain was >0.5 Mg ha-1 (yields >7 Mg ha-1); (2) NIE did not change across the same time period; (3) grain N concentration (grain %N) accounted for a large proportion (63%) of the variation in NIE; (4) NIE increased as grain %N diminished, regardless of the Eras; (5) Remobilized N was strongly (>R2 0.6) and positively associated with Vegetative N, presenting a unique slope across Eras; and (6) a trade-off was documented for the Remobilized N and Reproductive N (with large variation,

  3. In vivo monoubiquitination of anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase occurs at Lys624 in germinating sorghum seeds

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an important cytosolic regulatory enzyme that plays a pivotal role in numerous physiological processes in plants, including seed development and germination. Previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides of ~110kDa and 107kDa (p110 and p107, respectively) on immunoblots of clarified extracts of germinating sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds. In order to establish the biochemical basis for this observation, a 460kDa PEPC heterotetramer composed of an equivalent ratio of p110 and p107 subunits was purified to near homogeneity from the germinated seeds. Mass spectrometry established that p110 and p107 are both encoded by the same plant-type PEPC gene (CP21), but that p107 was in vivo monoubiquitinated at Lys624 to form p110. This residue is absolutely conserved in vascular plant PEPCs and is proximal to a PEP-binding/catalytic domain. Anti-ubiquitin IgG immunodetected p110 but not p107, whereas incubation with a deubiquitinating enzyme (USP-2 core) efficiently converted p110 into p107, while relieving the enzyme’s feedback inhibition by l-malate. Partial PEPC monoubiquitination was also detected during sorghum seed development. It is apparent that monoubiquitination at Lys624 is opposed to phosphorylation at Ser7 in terms of regulating the catalytic activity of sorghum seed PEPC. PEPC monoubiquitination is hypothesized to fine-tune anaplerotic carbon flux according to the cell’s immediate physiological requirements for tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates needed in support of biosynthesis and carbon–nitrogen interactions. PMID:24288181

  4. Transcriptional regulation of sorghum defense determinants against a phloem-feeding aphid.

    PubMed

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Salzman, Ron A; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    When attacked by a phloem-feeding greenbug aphid (Schizaphis graminum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) activates jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated genes, as well as genes outside known wounding and SA signaling pathways. A collection of 672 cDNAs was obtained by differential subtraction with cDNAs prepared from sorghum seedlings infested by greenbug aphids and those from uninfested seedlings. Subsequent expression profiling using DNA microarray and northern-blot analyses identified 82 transcript types from this collection responsive to greenbug feeding, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or SA application. DNA sequencing analyses indicated that these encoded proteins functioning in direct defense, defense signaling, oxidative burst, secondary metabolism, abiotic stress, cell maintenance, and photosynthesis, as well as proteins of unknown function. In response to insect feeding, sorghum increased transcript abundance of numerous defense genes, with some SA-dependent pathogenesis-related genes responding to greenbug more strongly than to SA. In contrast, only weak induction of MeJA-regulated defense genes was observed after greenbug treatment. However, infestation tests confirmed that JA-regulated pathways were effective in plant defense against greenbugs. Activation of certain transcripts exclusively by greenbug infestation was observed, and may represent unique signal transduction events independent of JA- and SA-regulated pathways. Results indicate that plants coordinately regulate defense gene expression when attacked by phloem-feeding aphids, but also suggest that aphids are able to avoid triggering activation of some otherwise potentially effective plant defensive machinery, possibly through their particular mode of feeding. PMID:14701914

  5. Transcriptional Regulation of Sorghum Defense Determinants against a Phloem-Feeding Aphid1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Salzman, Ron A.; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    When attacked by a phloem-feeding greenbug aphid (Schizaphis graminum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) activates jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated genes, as well as genes outside known wounding and SA signaling pathways. A collection of 672 cDNAs was obtained by differential subtraction with cDNAs prepared from sorghum seedlings infested by greenbug aphids and those from uninfested seedlings. Subsequent expression profiling using DNA microarray and northern-blot analyses identified 82 transcript types from this collection responsive to greenbug feeding, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or SA application. DNA sequencing analyses indicated that these encoded proteins functioning in direct defense, defense signaling, oxidative burst, secondary metabolism, abiotic stress, cell maintenance, and photosynthesis, as well as proteins of unknown function. In response to insect feeding, sorghum increased transcript abundance of numerous defense genes, with some SA-dependent pathogenesis-related genes responding to greenbug more strongly than to SA. In contrast, only weak induction of MeJA-regulated defense genes was observed after greenbug treatment. However, infestation tests confirmed that JA-regulated pathways were effective in plant defense against greenbugs. Activation of certain transcripts exclusively by greenbug infestation was observed, and may represent unique signal transduction events independent of JA- and SA-regulated pathways. Results indicate that plants coordinately regulate defense gene expression when attacked by phloem-feeding aphids, but also suggest that aphids are able to avoid triggering activation of some otherwise potentially effective plant defensive machinery, possibly through their particular mode of feeding. PMID:14701914

  6. Fermentation patterns of forage sorghum ensiled under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Macrae, I C

    1991-03-01

    The effects of temperature, aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the silo and plant characteristics [water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents, growing season] on the fermentation characteristics of a tropical forage species, Sorghum bicolor cv. sugar-drip, were investigated. Silages fermented in oxygen-impermeable bags were well preserved and had low pH (3.7), high lactic acid [72 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) ≡ 80% of total acids], and low butyric acid (0.12 g kg(-1) DM) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (57 g kg(-1) total nitrogen contents. Conversely, the use of oxygen-permeable bags as silos allowed aerobic decomposition of the ensiled forages. Increasing the incubation temperature lowered the population of lactic acid bacteria, reduced lactic acid production and caused the pH to rise. The heterofermentative Leuconostoc spp. predominated on fresh forages but homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum began to dominate after 5 and 8 days of fermentation. Heterofermentative lactobacilli, notably Lactobacillus brevis, were dominant among the isolates obtained from 100-day silages. Varying the WSC contents, by crushing and/or chopping the forage, and growing season did not significantly affect the fermentation quality of the resulting silages. It was concluded that the maintenance of anaerobic conditions is essential if good quality silage is to be produced from tropical forage species. PMID:24424934

  7. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  12. Allelic variants in the PRR37 gene play and the human-mediated dispersal and diversification of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication and spread of crops by early humans is of interest from a historical perspective and is of practical importance to present-day agriculturists. From its origin in northeastern Africa, cultivation of the tropical cereal sorghum spread north and south of the equator beginning approxi...

  13. Incomplete transfer of accessory loci influencing SbMATE expression underlies genetic background effects for aluminum tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired root development caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause for grain yield reduction for crops cultivated on acid soils which are widespread worldwide. In sorghum, the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, is due to the function of SbMATE, which is an Al-activated root citrate transporte...

  14. Physiological Changes in Cultured Sorghum Cells in Response to Induced Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ronald J.; Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Puryear, Jeffrey D.; Smith, Roberta H.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cultivars Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were grown as callus cultures under induced, prolonged water stress (8 weeks), with polyethylene glycol in the medium. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and organic acids in callus were measured at the end of the growth period to determine differences in response to prolonged water stress. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and malate were the predominant solutes detected in all callus at all water potentials. All cultivars had high levels of solutes in the absence of water stress and low levels in the presence of prolonged water stress. However, at low water potentials, low levels of solutes were observed in drought-tolerant cultivar callus and high solute levels were observed in drought-susceptible cultivar callus. Estimated sucrose concentrations were significantly higher in water-stressed, susceptible cultivar callus. Large solute concentrations in susceptible cultivar callus were attributed to osmotic adjustment and/or reduced growth during water stress. PMID:16664867

  15. Sorghum germplasm resistance to anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose is one of the most damaging diseases for sorghum production. The disease can be successfully managed through the use of resistant cultivars, but the development of resistant cultivars is hindered by extensive variation in virulence within the pathogen population. Additional sources of ...

  16. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetically unreduced (2n) embryo sacs (ES) form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction) has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory) in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction. PMID:21223576

  17. Comparing the water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum grown in the rain-fed, Midwestern US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Heaton, E.; Miguez, F.; Salas Fernandez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty in the quantity and timing of precipitation in a changing climate, combined with an increased demand for non-grain ethanol feedstock, may necessitate expanding the production of more water-use-efficient and less drought sensitive crops for biofuel applications. Research suggests that biomass sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is more drought tolerant and can produce more biomass than maize in water-limiting environments; however, sorghum water use data are scarce for the rain-fed Midwestern US. To address this gap, a replicated (n=3) side-by-side trial was established in Ames, Iowa to determine cumulative water use and water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum throughout the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Latent heat flux was estimated using the residual in the energy balance technique. Continuous micrometeorological measurements were supplemented by periodic measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and above-ground biomass. Water use (WU), aboveground biomass, and water-use-efficiency (WUE) were found to be similar for both crop types in 2014; data from the 2015 growing season are currently being processed. In 2015, leaf gas exchange measurements were made with a portable photosynthesis instrument. Photosynthetic parameters from gas exchange measurements will be implemented in a semi-mechanistic crop model (BioCro) as a method for scaling WUE estimates across the rain-fed Midwestern US driven with future climate projections. This research highlights the importance of understanding the potential effects of expanding biomass sorghum production on the hydrologic cycle of the Midwestern, US.

  18. Photomorphogenesis and photoassimilation in soybean and sorghum grown under broad spectrum or blue-deficient light sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britz, S. J.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    The role of blue light in plant growth and development was investigated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench. cv Rio) grown under equal photosynthetic photon fluxes (approximately 500 micromoles per square meter per second) from broad spectrum daylight fluorescent or blue-deficient, narrow-band (589 nanometers) low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps. Between 14 and 18 days after sowing, it was possible to relate adaptations in photosynthesis and leaf growth to dry matter accumulation. Soybean development under LPS light was similar in several respects to that of shaded plants, consistent with an important role for blue light photoreceptors in regulation of growth response to irradiance. Thus, soybeans from LPS conditions partitioned relatively more growth to leaves and maintained higher average leaf area ratios (mean LAR) that compensated lower net assimilation rates (mean NAR). Relative growth rates were therefore comparable to plants from daylight fluorescent lamps. Reductions in mean NAR were matched by lower rates of net photosynthesis (A) on an area basis in the major photosynthetic source (first trifoliolate) leaf. Lower A in soybean resulted from reduced leaf dry matter per unit leaf area, but lower A under LPS conditions in sorghum correlated with leaf chlorosis and reduced total nitrogen (not observed in soybean). In spite of a lower A, mean NAR was larger in sorghum from LPS conditions, resulting in significantly greater relative growth rates (mean LAR was approximately equal for both light conditions). Leaf starch accumulation rate was higher for both species and starch content at the end of the dark period was elevated two- and three-fold for sorghum and soybean, respectively, under LPS conditions. Possible relations between starch accumulation, leaf export, and plant growth in response to spectral quality were considered.

  19. Solid state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol, produced from renewable resources, such as corn, sugar cane and sweet sorghum, is used as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline. For biofuels to become economical, means of lowering production costs must be found. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol from sorghum. Formic acid, +/- cellulase, and yeast were applied to fresh field-chopped sorghum and then packed tightly into five-gallon plastic silos. Counter-current extraction methods were used as a means of biofuel separation. Sorghum receiving 5 IU/grain dry weight cellulase produced 37.7 liters of ethanol per metric ton on a wet weight basis. Sorghum not receiving cellulose additives produced 23.4 liters of ethanol per metric ton. An ethanol plant of intermediate size (565,272 liters of anhydrous ethanol/year) can operate using sorghum grown on less than 1400 acres.

  20. Evaluation of four sorghum varieties in the utilization of sorghum flour tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...

  1. Outbreak of sorghum/sugarcane aphid on sorghum: First detections, distribution, and notes on management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of an invasive aphid was discovered damaging grain sorghum in Texas and neighboring states in 2013. It may be a new variant of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, that has a high preference for sorghum, or a very closely related species (M. sorghi). We designate it sorghum/sugarcane ...

  2. Dhurrin Synthesis in Sorghum Is Regulated at the Transcriptional Level and Induced by Nitrogen Fertilization in Older Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2002-01-01

    The content of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varies depending on plant age and growth conditions. The cyanide potential is highest shortly after onset of germination. At this stage, nitrogen application has no effect on dhurrin content, whereas in older plants, nitrogen application induces an increase. At all stages, the content of dhurrin correlates well with the activity of the two biosynthetic enzymes, CYP79A1 and CYP71E1, and with the protein and mRNA level for the two enzymes. During development, the activity of CYP79A1 is lower than the activity of CYP71E1, suggesting that CYP79A1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dhurrin synthesis as has previously been shown using etiolated seedlings. The site of dhurrin synthesis shifts from leaves to stem during plant development. In combination, the results demonstrate that dhurrin content in sorghum is largely determined by transcriptional regulation of the biosynthetic enzymes CYP79A1 and CYP71E1. PMID:12114576

  3. A chloroplast DNA deletion located in RNA polymerase gene rpoC2 in CMS lines of sorghum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Muthukrishnan, S; Liang, G H; Schertz, K F; Hart, G E

    1993-01-01

    Fertile lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb HindIII chloroplast DNA fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. DNA/DNA hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. Fertile plants from S. versicolor, S. almum, S. halepense, and Sorghastrum nutans (Yellow Indiangrass) also have the 3.8 kb fragment, and CMS lines studied containing A1, A2 and A3 cytoplasms have the 3.7 kb fragment. The size difference between the two fragments was localized to a 1.0 kb SacI-HindIII fragment by restriction mapping. A 165 bp deletion, which is flanked by a 51 bp tandem repeat, was identified in the CMS lines by sequencing the clones. Comparison of the two sequences with those from maize, rice, tobacco, spinach, pea, and liverwort revealed that the deleted sequence is located in the middle of the RNA polymerase beta" subunit encoded by the gene rpoC2. The amino acid sequence deleted in the CMS lines is in a monocot-specific region which contains two protein motifs that are characteristic of several transcriptional activation factors, namely, a leucine zipper motif and an acidic domain capable of forming an amphipathic alpha-helix. Further studies designed to determine whether or not the deletion is involved in CMS of sorghum are underway. PMID:8437572

  4. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( p<0.05) reduction in alpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  5. IVDMD, total sugars, and lignin measurements on normal and brown midrib (bmr) sorghums at various stages of development

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Monson, W.G.; Gaines, T.P.

    1981-11-01

    Reduced lignin concentrations found in brown midrib (bmr) mutants of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., have great potential for increasing the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of sorghum forage. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of five bmr mutants on IVDMD, lignin concentration and total sugars of young vegetative forage that would be used for grazing or hay. Forage from bmr 12 and bmr 18 harvested 4 weeks after planting was significantly higher in IVDMD than their normal counterparts in each of the 3 years tested. Three other mutants were not consistently higher in IVDMD indicating a possible environmental interaction. Total reducing and non-reducing sugars were not related to IVDMD and the bmr mutants did not have a significantly different total sugar concentration than normal types. Four weeks after planting, IVDMD of bmr 12 forage was 7.2 and 5.6 percentage units higher than normal forage for leaves and stems, respectively. The differences observed for the bmr gene should lead to significant improvement in animal performance.

  6. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. PMID:22582625

  7. Inheritance and Identification of a Major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) that Confers Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and a Novel QTL for Plant Height in Sweet Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Davis, Richard F; Knoll, Joseph E; Anderson, William; Wang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are a pest on many economically important row crop and vegetable species and management relies on chemicals, plant resistance, and cultural practices such as crop rotation. Little is known about the inheritance of resistance to M. incognita or the genomic regions associated with resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In this study, an F2 population (n = 130) was developed between the resistant sweet sorghum cultivar 'Honey Drip' and the susceptible sweet cultivar 'Collier'. Each F2 plant was phenotyped for stalk weight, height, juice Brix, root weight, total eggs, and eggs per gram of root. Strong correlations were observed between eggs per gram of root and total eggs, height and stalk weight, and between two measurements of Brix. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to generate single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The G-Model, single marker analysis, interval mapping, and composite interval mapping were used to identify a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3 for total eggs and eggs per gram of root. Furthermore, a new QTL for plant height was also discovered on chromosome 3. Simple sequence repeat markers were developed in the total eggs and eggs per gram of root QTL region and the markers flanking the resistance gene are 4.7 and 2.4 cM away. These markers can be utilized to move the southern root-knot nematode resistance gene from Honey Drip to any sorghum line. PMID:26574655

  8. A high-density genetic recombination map of sequence-tagged sites for sorghum, as a framework for comparative structural and evolutionary genomics of tropical grains and grasses.

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, John E; Abbey, Colette; Anderson, Sharon; Chang, Charlene; Draye, Xavier; Hoppe, Alison H; Jessup, Russell; Lemke, Cornelia; Lennington, Jennifer; Li, Zhikang; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Sin-Chieh; Luo, Lijun; Marler, Barry S; Ming, Reiguang; Mitchell, Sharon E; Qiang, Dou; Reischmann, Kim; Schulze, Stefan R; Skinner, D Neil; Wang, Yue-Wen; Kresovich, Stephen; Schertz, Keith F; Paterson, Andrew H

    2003-01-01

    We report a genetic recombination map for Sorghum of 2512 loci spaced at average 0.4 cM ( approximately 300 kb) intervals based on 2050 RFLP probes, including 865 heterologous probes that foster comparative genomics of Saccharum (sugarcane), Zea (maize), Oryza (rice), Pennisetum (millet, buffelgrass), the Triticeae (wheat, barley, oat, rye), and Arabidopsis. Mapped loci identify 61.5% of the recombination events in this progeny set and reveal strong positive crossover interference acting across intervals of Sorghum bicolor and S. propinquum, but not to variation in levels of intraspecific allelic richness. While cDNA and genomic clones are similarly distributed across the genome, SSR-containing clones show different abundance patterns. Rapidly evolving hypomethylated DNA may contribute to intraspecific genomic differentiation. Nonrandom distribution patterns of multiple loci detected by 357 probes suggest ancient chromosomal duplication followed by extensive rearrangement and gene loss. Exemplifying the value of these data for comparative genomics, we support and extend prior findings regarding maize-sorghum synteny-in particular, 45% of comparative loci fall outside the inferred colinear/syntenic regions, suggesting that many small rearrangements have occurred since maize-sorghum divergence. These genetically anchored sequence-tagged sites will foster many structural, functional and evolutionary genomic studies in major food, feed, and biomass crops. PMID:14504243

  9. Transformation of the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2011-01-01

    Most boreal and temperate forest trees form a mutualistic symbiosis with soil borne fungi called ectomycorrhiza (ECM). In this association both partners benefit due to nutrient exchange at the symbiotic interface. Laccaria bicolor is the first mycorrhizal fungus with its genome sequenced thus making possible for the first time to analyze genome scale gene expression profiles of a mutualistic fungus. However, in order to be able to take full advantage of the genome sequence, reverse genetic tools are needed. Among them a high throughput transformation system is crucial. Herein we present a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of L. bicolor by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on critical steps affecting the success and efficiency of the approach. PMID:21636986

  10. A Nonsense Mutation in a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Responsible for the Sorghum brown midrib6 Phenotype1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saathoff, Aaron J.; Haas, Eric J.; Palmer, Nathan A.; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Sarath, Gautam; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    brown midrib6 (bmr6) affects phenylpropanoid metabolism, resulting in reduced lignin concentrations and altered lignin composition in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Recently, bmr6 plants were shown to have limited cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195), the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamoyl aldehydes (monolignals) to monolignols. A candidate gene approach was taken to identify Bmr6. Two CAD genes (Sb02g024190 and Sb04g005950) were identified in the sorghum genome based on similarity to known CAD genes and through DNA sequencing a nonsense mutation was discovered in Sb04g005950 that results in a truncated protein lacking the NADPH-binding and C-terminal catalytic domains. Immunoblotting confirmed that the Bmr6 protein was absent in protein extracts from bmr6 plants. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Bmr6 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved group of CAD proteins, which function in lignin biosynthesis. In addition, Bmr6 is distinct from the other CAD-like proteins in sorghum, including SbCAD4 (Sb02g024190). Although both Bmr6 and SbCAD4 are expressed in sorghum internodes, an examination of enzymatic activity of recombinant Bmr6 and SbCAD4 showed that Bmr6 had 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater activity for monolignol substrates. Modeling of Bmr6 and SbCAD4 protein structures showed differences in the amino acid composition of the active site that could explain the difference in enzyme activity. These differences include His-57, which is unique to Bmr6 and other grass CADs. In summary, Bmr6 encodes the major CAD protein involved in lignin synthesis in sorghum, and the bmr6 mutant is a null allele. PMID:19363091

  11. Stomatal Behavior and Water Status of Maize, Sorghum, and Tobacco under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.

    1974-01-01

    Diurnal changes in the vertical profiles of irradiance incident upon the adaxial leaf surface (I), leaf resistance (r1), leaf water potential (ψ), osmotic potential (π), and turgor potential (P) were followed concurrently in crops of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Pa602A), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench cv. RS 610), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Havanna Seed 211) on several days in 1968 to 1970 when soil water potentials were low. The r1, measured with a ventilated diffusion porometer, of the leaves in the upper canopy decreased temporarily after sunrise [∼0530 hours Eastern Standard Time] as I increased, but then r1 increased again between 0700 and 0830 hr Eastern Standard Time as the ψ, measured with a pressure chamber, decreased rapidly from the values of −7, −4 and −6 bars at sunrise to minimal values of −18, −22 and −15 bars near midday in the maize, sorghum, and tobacco, respectively. The π, measured with a vapor pressure osmometer, also decreased after sunrise, but not to the same degree as the decrease in ψ, so that a P of zero was reached in some leaves between 0730 and 0800 hours. The lower (more negative) π of leaves in the upper canopy than those in the lower canopy gave the upper leaves a higher P at a given ψ than the lower leaves in all three species; leaves at intermediate heights had an intermediate P. This difference between leaves at the three heights in the canopy was maintained at all values of ψ. The r1 remained unchanged over a wide range of P and then increased markedly at a P of 2 bars in maize, −1 bar in sorghum, and near zero P in tobacco: r1 also remained constant until ψ decreased to −17, −20, and −13 bars in leaves at intermediate heights in maize, sorghum, and tobacco, respectively. In all three species r1 of leaves in the upper canopy increased at more negative values of ψ than those at the base of the canopy, and in tobacco, leaves in the upper canopy wilted at more negative values of ψ than

  12. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  13. Ultrastructure of the ducts of the reproductive tract of males of Melipona bicolor bicolor lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Dallacqua, R P; da Cruz-Landim, C

    2003-10-01

    The present paper describes the ultrastructural features of seminal vesicle, post-vesicular vas deferens and ejaculatory duct of Melipona bicolor bicolor from newly emerged and mature males. Although the results do not show very consistent morphological signs of secretory activity by the epithelium of these organs, lipidic droplets and lamellar granules present in mature males' seminal vesicles and the vacuoles present in post-vesicular vas deferens are probably secretion. Besides, the spermatozoa in the lumen are immersed in a material of characteristic structure, which must be produced in superior regions of the reproductive system of immature males, not studied here. The presence of sperm cells, apparently in cytoplasm vesicles of seminal vesicle and post-vesicular vas deferens, suggests spermiophagy by their epithelium. PMID:12969027

  14. Genetic dissection of bioenergy traits in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, and high biomass yield. Because of the species’ great genetic diversity (Murray et al. 2009), and the fact that sorghum is a diploid, seed-propagated crop...

  15. Sweet sorghum processing for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Schmulevich, I.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.

    1983-12-01

    Several processing techniques for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum were investigated. Fermentating chopped stalks yielded more ethanol than shredded sorghum or juice. Leaf removal prior to fermentation resulted in higher yields per unit feedstock. Removal of solids after fermentation yielded slightly more ethanol than solids removal before fermentation.

  16. Genetic diversity in sorghum transpiration efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important grain crop and is becoming increasingly important as a biofuel feedstock due to its superior tolerance to water deficit stress. Sorghum is commonly grown under rain-fed conditions in the Southern Plains and other semi-arid regions in the world. Thus, its product...

  17. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a very attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Two traits are of particular interest: The sweet sorghum trait, which results in the accumulation of ...

  18. Comparative Life Histories of Greenbugs and Sugarcane Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Coinfesting Susceptible and Resistant Sorghums.

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P

    2016-02-01

    Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism. PMID:26357844

  19. Osmotic Adjustment in Leaves of Sorghum in Response to Water Deficits 1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Madeleine M.; Turner, Neil C.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships among the total water potential, osmotic potential, turgor potential, and relative water content were determined for leaves of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench cvs. `RS 610' and `Shallu') with three different histories of water stress. Plants were adequately watered (control), or the soil was allowed to dry slowly until the predawn leaf water potential reached either −0.4 megapascal (MPa) (treatment A) or −1.6 MPa (treatment B). Severe soil and plant water deficits developed sooner after cessation of watering in `Shallu' than in `RS 610', but no significant differences in osmotic adjustment or tissue water relations were observed between the two cultivars. In both cultivars, the stress treatments altered the relationship between leaf water potential and relative water content, resulting in the previously stressed plants maintaining higher tissue water contents than control plants at the same leaf water potential. The osmotic potential at full turgor in the control sorghum was −0.7 MPa: stress pretreatment significantly lowered the osmotic potential to −1.1 and −1.6 MPa in stress treatments A and B, respectively. As a result of this osmotic adjustment, leaf turgor potentials at a given value of leaf water potential exceeded those of the control plants by 0.15 to 0.30 MPa in treatment A and by 0.5 to 0.65 MPa in treatment B. However, zero turgor potential occurred at approximately the same value of relative water content (94%) irrespective of previous stress history. From the relationship between turgor potential and relative water content there was an approximate doubling of the volumetric elastic modulus, i.e. a halving of tissue elasticity, as a result of stress preconditioning. The influence of stress preconditioning on the moisture release curve is discussed. PMID:16660224

  20. Variability of Phyllochron, Plastochron and Rate of Increase in Height in Photoperiod-sensitive Sorghum Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Clerget, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Gozé, E.; Rattunde, H. F. W.; Ney, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims West African sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties are generally highly photoperiod-sensitive, which is a necessary adaptation to the variable onset date of the rainy season and the variable dates of sowing in the savannah zone. Depending on sowing date, plants can produce from 12 to >40 leaves on the main culm, with height varying from 1 m to more than 5 m. The present study aimed to better understand the complex phenology of these variables. Methods A 2-year series of monthly sowings of three West African sorghum varieties was conducted near Bamako, Mali. Drought stress was avoided by supplemental irrigation. Rate of initiation of primordia at the stem apex was recorded, together with rate of leaf emergence and increase in plant height. Key Results Leaf initiation and appearance rates (plastochron−1 and phyllochron−1) were constant for a given sowing date in cases where less than 20 leaves were produced (generally observed with late sowing dates). In contrast, rates were bilinear for early sowing dates, for which plants produced more than 20 leaves. The secondary rates, which occurred from the 20th leaf onwards, were only half of the initial rate. Plastochron and phyllochron showed large variations among sowing dates, and were correlated with the rate of plant height increase. The initial plastochron and phyllochron were positively correlated with soil temperature and negatively correlated with both day length and day-to-day change of day length prevailing at plant emergence, but these factors explained only half of the variation observed. Conclusions Although they belong to different genetic groups and have different height and photoperiod sensitivity, the three varieties studied exhibited similar response patterns of development rates among phenological phases and seasons, with the local landrace showing the greatest variation due to its longer vegetative phase and longer stem internodes. The possible adaptive advantages in African

  1. Free-air CO2 enrichment of sorghum: soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Prior, S A; Torbert, H A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Kimball, B A

    2008-01-01

    The positive impact of elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration on crop biomass production suggests more carbon inputs to soil. Further study on the effect of elevated CO(2) on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics is key to understanding the potential for long-term carbon storage in soil. Soil samples (0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 20-cm depths) were collected after 2 yr of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] production under two atmospheric CO(2) levels: (370 [ambient] and 550 muL L(-1) [free-air CO(2) enrichment; FACE]) and two water treatments (ample water and limited water) on a Trix clay loam (fine, loamy, mixed [calcareous], hyperthermic Typic Torrifluvents) at Maricopa, AZ. In addition to assessing treatment effects on soil organic C and total N, potential C and N mineralization and C turnover were determined in a 60-d laboratory incubation study. After 2 yr of FACE, soil C and N were significantly increased at all soil depths. Water regime had no effect on these measures. Increased total N in the soil was associated with reduced N mineralization under FACE. Results indicated that potential C turnover was reduced under water deficit conditions at the top soil depth. Carbon turnover was not affected under FACE, implying that the observed increase in soil C with elevated CO(2) may be stable relative to ambient CO(2) conditions. Results suggest that, over the short-term, a small increase in soil C storage could occur under elevated atmospheric CO(2) conditions in sorghum production systems with differing water regimes. PMID:18453395

  2. Consequences of transferring three sorghum genes for secondary metabolite (cyanogenic glucoside) biosynthesis to grapevine hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Franks, T K; Powell, K S; Choimes, S; Marsh, E; Iocco, P; Sinclair, B J; Ford, C M; van Heeswijck, R

    2006-04-01

    A multigenic trait (biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite, dhurrin cyanogenic glucoside) was engineered de novo in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). This follows a recent report of transfer of the same trait to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using three genetic sequences from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor): two cytochrome P450-encoding cDNAs (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a UDPG-glucosyltransferase-encoding cDNA (sbHMNGT). Here we describe the two-step process involving whole plant transformation followed by hairy root transformation, which was used to transfer the same three sorghum sequences to grapevine. Transgenic grapevine hairy root lines that accumulated transcript from none, one (sbHMNGT), two (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) or all three transgenes were recovered and characterisation of these lines provided information about the requirements for dhurrin biosynthesis in grapevine. Only lines that accumulated transcripts from all three transgenes had significantly elevated cyanide potential (up to the equivalent of about 100 mg HCN kg(-1) fresh weight), and levels were highly variable. One dhurrin-positive line was tested and found to release cyanide upon maceration and can therefore be considered 'cyanogenic'. In in vitro dual co-culture of this cyanogenic hairy root line or an acyanogenic line with the specialist root-sucking, gall-forming, aphid-like insect, grapevine phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Fitch), there was no evidence for protection of the cyanogenic plant tissue from infestation by the insect. Consistently high levels of dhurrin accumulation may be required for this to occur. The possibility that endogenous grapevine gene expression is modulated in response to engineered dhurrin biosynthesis was investigated using microarray analysis of 1225 grapevine ESTs, but differences in patterns of gene expression associated with dhurrin-positive and dhurrin-negative phenotypes were not identified. PMID:16604459

  3. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  6. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage - 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to sorghum midge and bird damage in 2011. Although their damage was relatively low in general in 2011, nine insect pests were observed on sorghum in south Georgia. They could be listed in order of importance as follows: sorghum midge, leaf-f...

  7. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  8. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  9. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity. PMID:25672324

  10. Methods for accurate quantification of LTR-retrotransposon copy number using short-read sequence data: a case study in Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Hawkins, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and their mobility impacts genome structure and function in myriad ways. Because of their abundance, activity, and repetitive nature, the characterization and analysis of TEs remain challenging, particularly from short-read sequencing projects. To overcome this difficulty, we have developed a method that estimates TE copy number from short-read sequences. To test the accuracy of our method, we first performed an in silico analysis of the reference Sorghum bicolor genome, using both reference-based and de novo approaches. The resulting TE copy number estimates were strikingly similar to the annotated numbers. We then tested our method on real short-read data by estimating TE copy numbers in several accessions of S. bicolor and its close relative S. propinquum. Both methods effectively identify and rank similar TE families from highest to lowest abundance. We found that de novo characterization was effective at capturing qualitative variation, but underestimated the abundance of some TE families, specifically families of more ancient origin. Also, interspecific reference-based mapping of S. propinquum reads to the S. bicolor database failed to fully describe TE content in S. propinquum, indicative of recent TE activity leading to changes in the respective repetitive landscapes over very short evolutionary timescales. We conclude that reference-based analyses are best suited for within-species comparisons, while de novo approaches are more reliable for evolutionarily distant comparisons. PMID:27295958

  11. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.

  12. Yield, nutrient removal, and quality of sorghum grain and biomass as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Moresco, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 1983 and 1984 at two locations using one conventional (ATx399xRTx430) and two high energy sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench) to evaluate the effects of N and P applications on grain, biomass, and fermentable carbohydrate production. Genotype and N most influenced grain and biomass yields at both locations. Cultivars ATx399xRTx430 and ATx623xRTx430 produced more grain, but less biomass than ATx623xRio. Applied N increased grain yields at College Station more in 1984 than in 1983, indicating a decrease in soil N after one year of total dry matter removal. Less yield response to N was observed at Weslaco. Applied P had little effect on grain or biomass production at either location. Applied N increased grain and biomass concentrations and uptake of most nutrients. Increased nutrient removals generally resulted more from increases in dry matter production than from changes in nutrient concentrations. Apparent N uptake efficiency was higher at College Station (41 to 53%) than at Weslaco (24 to 37%). Complete aboveground dry matter removal of high energy sorghums resulted in an additional removal of 100 to 180 kg K and 40 to 50 kg N/ha when compared with conventional sorghum produced for grain only. Genotype influenced stalk fermentable carbohydrate yields, with ATx623xRio producing substantially greater amounts than the other hybrids. Applied N decreased structural carbohydrates, while nonstructural carbohydrates remained unchanged. Stalk fermentable carbohydrate fuels, however, increased linearly with N application because of higher biomass yields with applied N.

  13. Tissue-Specific Differences in Cytosine Methylation and Their Association with Differential Gene Expression in Sorghum1[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meishan; Xu, Chunming; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

    2011-01-01

    It has been well established that DNA cytosine methylation plays essential regulatory roles in imprinting gene expression in endosperm, and hence normal embryonic development, in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Nonetheless, the developmental role of this epigenetic marker in cereal crops remains largely unexplored. Here, we report for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) differences in relative cytosine methylation levels and patterns at 5′-CCGG sites in seven tissues (endosperm, embryo, leaf, root, young inflorescence, anther, and ovary), and characterize a set of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (TDMRs). We found that the most enriched TDMRs in sorghum are specific for the endosperm and are generated concomitantly but imbalanced by decrease versus increase in cytosine methylation at multiple 5′-CCGG sites across the genome. This leads to more extensive demethylation in the endosperm than in other tissues, where TDMRs are mainly tissue nonspecific rather than specific to a particular tissue. Accordingly, relative to endosperm, the other six tissues showed grossly similar levels though distinct patterns of cytosine methylation, presumably as a result of a similar extent of concomitant decrease versus increase in cytosine methylation that occurred at variable genomic loci. All four tested TDMRs were validated by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Diverse sequences were found to underlie the TDMRs, including those encoding various known-function or predicted proteins, transposable elements, and those bearing homology to putative imprinted genes in maize (Zea mays). We further found that the expression pattern of at least some genic TDMRs was correlated with its tissue-specific methylation state, implicating a developmental role of DNA methylation in regulating tissue-specific or -preferential gene expression in sorghum. PMID:21632971

  14. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on soybean and sorghum gas exchange in conventional and no-tillage systems.

    PubMed

    Prior, S A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Arriaga, F J

    2010-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration has led to concerns about potential effects on production agriculture. In the fall of 1997, a study was initiated to compare the response of two crop management systems (conventional tillage and no-tillage) to elevated CO(2). The study used a split-plot design replicated three times with two management systems as main plots and two atmospheric CO(2) levels (ambient and twice ambient) as split plots using open-top chambers on a Decatur silt loam soil (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudults). The conventional system was a grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with winter fallow and spring tillage practices. In the no-tillage system, sorghum and soybean were rotated, and three cover crops were used [crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Over multiple growing seasons, the effect of management and CO(2) concentration on leaf-level gas exchange during row crop (soybean in 1999, 2001, and 2003; sorghum in 2000, 2002, and 2004) reproductive growth were evaluated. Treatment effects were fairly consistent across years. In general, higher photosynthetic rates were observed under CO(2) enrichment (more so with soybean) regardless of residue management practice. Elevated CO(2) led to decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, which resulted in increased water use efficiency. The effects of management system on gas exchange measurements were infrequently significant, as were interactions of CO(2) and management. These results suggest that better soil moisture conservation and high rates of photosynthesis can occur in both tillage systems in CO(2)-enriched environments during reproductive growth. PMID:20176833

  15. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  16. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  17. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D; Brun, A; Danchin, E; Duchaussoy, F; Gibon, J; Kohler, A; Lindquist, E; Pereda, V; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, HJ; Wuyts, J; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M; Brokstein, P; Canbeck, B; Cohen, D; Courty, PE; Coutinho, PM; Delaruelle, C; Detter, J C; Deveau, A; DiFazio, Stephen P; Duplessis, S; Fraissinet-Tachet, L; Lucic, E; Frey-Klett, P; Fourrey, C; Feussner, I; Gay, G; Grimwood, Jane; Hoegger, P J; Jain, P; Kilaru, S; Labbe, J; Lin, Y C; Legue, V; Le Tacon, F; Marmeisse, R; Melayah, D; Montanini, B; Muratet, M; Nehls, U; Niculita-Hirzel, H; Oudot-Le Secq, M P; Peter, M; Quesneville, H; Rajashekar, B; Reich, M; Rouhler, N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yin, Tongming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chalot, M; Henrissat, B; Kues, U; Lucas, S; Van de Peer, Y; Podila, G; Polle, A; Pukkila, P J; Richardson, P M; Rouze, P; Sanders, I R; Stajich, J E; Tunlid, A; Grigoriev, I.

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants1,2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  18. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  19. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Marie F.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Kirkwood, Jay S.; Collins, Carl C.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Jahn, Courtney E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end products of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  20. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Marie F; Heuberger, Adam L; Kirkwood, Jay S; Collins, Carl C; Wolfrum, Edward J; Broeckling, Corey D; Prenni, Jessica E; Jahn, Courtney E

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end products of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  1. Duplicate and Conquer: Multiple Homologs of PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 Enhance Phosphorus Acquisition and Sorghum Performance on Low-Phosphorus Soils1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hufnagel, Barbara; de Sousa, Sylvia M.; Assis, Lidianne; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Leiser, Willmar; Azevedo, Gabriel C.; Negri, Barbara; Larson, Brandon G.; Shaff, Jon E.; Pastina, Maria Marta; Barros, Beatriz A.; Weltzien, Eva; Rattunde, Henry Frederick W.; Viana, Joao H.; Clark, Randy T.; Falcão, Alexandre; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto F.; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Low soil phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint for crop production in tropical regions. The rice (Oryza sativa) protein kinase, PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 (OsPSTOL1), was previously shown to enhance P acquisition and grain yield in rice under P deficiency. We investigated the role of homologs of OsPSTOL1 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) performance under low P. Association mapping was undertaken in two sorghum association panels phenotyped for P uptake, root system morphology and architecture in hydroponics and grain yield and biomass accumulation under low-P conditions, in Brazil and/or in Mali. Root length and root surface area were positively correlated with grain yield under low P in the soil, emphasizing the importance of P acquisition efficiency in sorghum adaptation to low-P availability. SbPSTOL1 alleles reducing root diameter were associated with enhanced P uptake under low P in hydroponics, whereas Sb03g006765 and Sb03g0031680 alleles increasing root surface area also increased grain yield in a low-P soil. SbPSTOL1 genes colocalized with quantitative trait loci for traits underlying root morphology and dry weight accumulation under low P via linkage mapping. Consistent allelic effects for enhanced sorghum performance under low P between association panels, including enhanced grain yield under low P in the soil in Brazil, point toward a relatively stable role for Sb03g006765 across genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. This study indicates that multiple SbPSTOL1 genes have a more general role in the root system, not only enhancing root morphology traits but also changing root system architecture, which leads to grain yield gain under low-P availability in the soil. PMID:25189534

  2. Highly efficient de novo mutant identification in a sorghum bicolor tilling population using the ComSeq approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare SNPs is required both in Targeting induced local lesions IN genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and analogously in screening human populations. We formerly suggested an approach that combines the celebrated mathematical field of c...

  3. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. PMID:24787319

  4. Effect of different cover crops on C and N cycling in sorghum NT systems.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Ileana; Quiroga, Alberto; Noellemeyer, Elke

    2016-08-15

    In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) (V), and rye-vetch mixture (VR) cover crops. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. Soil was sampled once a year at 0.06 and 0.12m depth for total C, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and-nitrogen (MBN) determinations. Shoot and root biomass of sorghum and cover crops, litter biomass, and their respective carbon and nitrogen contents were determined. Soil temperatures at 0.06 and 0.12m depth, volumetric water contents and nitrate concentrations were determined at sowing, and harvest of each crop, and during sorghum's vegetative phase. NT led to a small increase in MBC and MBN, despite low litter and root biomass residue. Cover crops increased litter, root biomass, total C, MBC, and MBN. Relationships between MBC, MBN, and root-C and -N adjusted to logistic models (R(2)=0.61 and 0.43 for C and N respectively). Litter cover improved soil moisture to 45-50% water filled pore space and soil temperatures not exceeding 25°C during the warmest month. Microbial biomass stabilized at 20.1gCm(-2) and 1.9gNm(-2) in the upper 0.06m. Soil litter disappearance was a good indicator of mineral N availability. These findings support the view that cover crops, specifically legumes in NT systems can increase soil ecosystem services related to water and carbon storage, habitat for biodiversity, and nutrient availability. PMID:27107651

  5. Forage and bioenergy feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops will find it advantageous to grow low risk multi-purpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum by sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable...

  6. Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass in central Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the yield and nutrient composition of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn planted on 2 dates and harvested using single or multiple-cut harvest strategies at 2 research stations (Marshfield and Ha...

  7. Characterization of sorghum grain and evaluation of sorghum flour in a Chinese egg noodle system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a gluten free grain that has potential to be used as an alternative to wheat flour for the Celiac Sprue market. There are thousands of sorghum lines that have not been characterized for grain, flour or end product quality. The objective of the research was to gain an understanding among g...

  8. Genetic variations in the hybrids of rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Deming, Z; Shanbao, C; Xiaolan, D; Junhua, F; Xianbin, S; Yonghui, L; Liancheng, L; Bensong, X

    1985-08-01

    Some of results from morphological and cytological observations and esterase-isozyme studies of a rice-sorghum hybrid are presented in this paper. There is a great diversity of morphological characters and some special characteristics in the progenies of the hybrids of rice with sorghum. The meiosis of pollen mother cells in the early generations of the hybrid was found to be abnormal. One main band coinciding with one found in sorghum but lacking in rice appeared in the majority of the hybrid lines. This band is characteristic of a are the specificities of the distant hybridization of rice and sorghum, and is rarely observed in the intervariety hybrids or hybrids between subspecies of Oryza sativa, indica and japonica. On the basis of these facts we concluded that the hybrids obtained are true hybrids of rice and sorghum. PMID:24253065

  9. Two forward genetic screens for vein density mutants in sorghum converge on a cytochrome P450 gene in the brassinosteroid pathway.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Govinda; Thakur, Vivek; Dionora, Jacqueline; Karki, Shanta; Wanchana, Samart; Acebron, Kelvin; Larazo, Nikki; Garcia, Richard; Mabilangan, Abigail; Montecillo, Florencia; Danila, Florence; Mogul, Reychelle; Pablico, Paquito; Leung, Hei; Langdale, Jane A; Sheehy, John; Kelly, Steven; Quick, William Paul

    2015-10-01

    The specification of vascular patterning in plants has interested plant biologists for many years. In the last decade a new context has emerged for this interest. Specifically, recent proposals to engineer C(4) traits into C(3) plants such as rice require an understanding of how the distinctive venation pattern in the leaves of C(4) plants is determined. High vein density with Kranz anatomy, whereby photosynthetic cells are arranged in encircling layers around vascular bundles, is one of the major traits that differentiate C(4) species from C(3) species. To identify genetic factors that specify C(4) leaf anatomy, we generated ethyl methanesulfonate- and γ-ray-mutagenized populations of the C(4) species sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and screened for lines with reduced vein density. Two mutations were identified that conferred low vein density. Both mutations segregated in backcrossed F(2) populations as homozygous recessive alleles. Bulk segregant analysis using next-generation sequencing revealed that, in both cases, the mutant phenotype was associated with mutations in the CYP90D2 gene, which encodes an enzyme in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway. Lack of complementation in allelism tests confirmed this result. These data indicate that the brassinosteroid pathway promotes high vein density in the sorghum leaf, and suggest that differences between C(4) and C(3) leaf anatomy may arise in part through differential activity of this pathway in the two leaf types. PMID:26333774

  10. Kinetic features of xylan de-polymerization in production of xylose monomer and furfural during acid pretreatment for kenaf, forage sorghums and sunn hemp feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kamireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic study of acid pretreatment was conducted for sorghum non-brown mid rib (SNBMR) (Sorghum bicolor L Moench), sorghum-brown mid rib (SBMR), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L) and kenaf (Gossypiumhirsutum L), focusing on rates of xylose monomer and furfural formation. The kinetics was investigated using two independent variables, reaction temperature (150 and 160°C) and acid concentration (1 and 2 wt%), with a constant dry biomass loading of 10 wt% and a treatment time up to 20 min while sampling the mixture every 2 min. The experimental data were fitted using a two-step kinetic model based on irreversible pseudo first order kinetics at each step. Varied kinetic orders on the acid concentration, ranging from 0.2 to >3, were observed for both xylose and furfural formation, the values depending on the feedstock. The crystallinity index of raw biomass was shown to be a major factor influencing the rate of both xylose and furfural formation. As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the activation energy and biomass crystallinity index for xylose formation.

  11. Kinetic features of xylan de-polymerization in production of xylose monomer and furfural during acid pretreatment for kenaf, forage sorghums and sunn hemp feedstocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kamireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic study of acid pretreatment was conducted for sorghum non-brown mid rib (SNBMR) (Sorghum bicolor L Moench), sorghum-brown mid rib (SBMR), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L) and kenaf (Gossypiumhirsutum L), focusing on rates of xylose monomer and furfural formation. The kinetics was investigated using two independent variables, reaction temperature (150 and 160°C) and acid concentration (1 and 2 wt%), with a constant dry biomass loading of 10 wt% and a treatment time up to 20 min while sampling the mixture every 2 min. The experimental data were fitted using a two-step kinetic model based on irreversible pseudo first ordermore » kinetics at each step. Varied kinetic orders on the acid concentration, ranging from 0.2 to >3, were observed for both xylose and furfural formation, the values depending on the feedstock. The crystallinity index of raw biomass was shown to be a major factor influencing the rate of both xylose and furfural formation. As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the activation energy and biomass crystallinity index for xylose formation.« less

  12. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications. PMID:12059160

  13. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT AND SORGHUM FLOUR BLENDS FOR COOKIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum flour was fractionated into two particle sizes (greater than 0.18 mm, and less than 0.18 mm). Water holding capacity was higher for coarser particle size sorghum flour than the finer sized. The pasting characteristics of starch from the fractionated and unfractionated sorghum flours varied...

  14. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  15. Grain Sorghum is a Viable Feedstock for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and bio-based products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relatio...

  16. Ethanol production performance of ozone treated tannin grain sorghum flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum lines containing tannins have been reported to exhibit increased resistance to drought, birds, mold, preharvest germination, and higher grain yield than non-tannin grain sorghum lines, but tannins have been considered an adverse factor in the utilization of sorghum as a feedstock for b...

  17. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  19. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum panicle worm is an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The sorghum panicle worm complex consists of larvae of two highly polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Heli...

  20. Sorghum protein structure and chemistry: Implications for nutrition and functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is the 5th most widely grown cereal crop in the world and has desirable agronomic traits such as drought resistance and heat tolerance. Sorghum is a major food source in developing nations and is widely used as feed grain in Western countries. There is increasing interest in sorghum food pr...

  1. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  2. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty seven grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in 2014 in Tifton, and a total of 10 insect pests were observed. While sorghum midge and bird damage was relatively low, sorghum webworm and aphid damage was high. Those insects in order of importance are: sug...

  3. Phyllomedusa bicolor skin secretion and the Kambô ritual

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ritual of Kambô or Sapo is a type of voluntary envenomation. During this purification ritual a shaman healer, from various South American countries, deliberately burns the right shoulder with a glowing stick from a fireplace. Excretions of Phyllomedusa bicolor (or Giant Leaf Frog, Kambô or Sapo) are then applied to these fresh wounds. This ritual is used as a means of purification of the body, supposedly brings luck to hunters, increases stamina and enhances physical and sexual strength. All the peripheral and most of the central effects of the secretion can be ascribed to the exceptionally high content of active peptides, easily absorbed through burned skin. This article describes the ritual and the bio-active peptides from the secretion. PMID:26413084

  4. Dinoflagellate-Related Amphidinolides from the Brazilian Octocoral Stragulum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Gomes, Bruno A; Luongo, Elvira; Torres, Maria C M; Santos, Evelyne A; Cutignano, Adele; Pessoa, Otília D L; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Fontana, Angelo

    2016-07-22

    Benthic cnidarians are colonial marine animals that host a rich population of associated and symbiotic microorganisms. In a recent paper we described for the first time the isolation of amphidinolide P (1) from the Brazilian octocoral Stragulum bicolor. Amphidinolides and similar compounds had been previously reported only from dinoflagellates of the genus Amphidinium; thus the presence of 1 in the invertebrate opens intriguing questions on the role and occurrence of these molecules in marine ecosystems. Here we report the identification of four further amphidinolides from the same soft coral, including the known amphidinolide T1 (2) and the new analogues here named amphidinolides C4 (3), B8 (4), and B9 (5). The chemical structures have been elucidated mainly by extensive study of spectroscopic data. Cytotoxic activities of 3 and 4 were evaluated against the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116. PMID:27400333

  5. Jejunal pseudodiverticulosis in a swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Haist, V; von Dörnberg, K; Jacobsen, B

    2012-11-01

    Necropsy examination of an 8-year-old female swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) from a zoological garden revealed four intestinal diverticular outpouchings at the mesenteric border of the jejunum, which were partly ruptured causing a fatal peritonitis. Microscopically, affected small intestinal segments were characterized by an abrupt gap in the muscular layer with subsequent herniation of respective mucosal and submucosal layers, interpreted as acquired pseudodiverticula. Multifocal perforations of these diverticula were associated with prominent fibrinosuppurative serositis with leakage of ingesta. In addition, there was intestinal nematodal endoparasitism with accompanying neutrophilic to eosinophilic enteritis. Small intestinal pseudodiverticula resembling human colonic diverticulosis are rare in animals and can lead to fatal peritonitis by faecal impaction, subsequent transmural inflammation and eventual perforation. PMID:22717131

  6. Mimicking bicolor by changing the reflectance of the substrate in a one-dimensional periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ye, Yong-Hong; Yang, Li

    2013-11-01

    In nature, some beetles can display bicolor on their elytra. In order to explore the bicolor mechanism, we experimentally studied the optical and structural properties of the Carabus lafossei beetle. We found a multilayer structure in the cuticle of the beetle. Due to the different multilayer thicknesses in different areas, the beetle displayed bicolor. Here, we provide another approach to fabricate bicolor by depositing the same multilayer stack on a substrate with different reflectances at different areas. In this paper, the substrate with different reflectances is achieved by prefabricating sculpted hexagons (SU-8) on a silicon substrate. By coating a (ZnS/MgF2)3.5 multilayer, the sculpted structure displays green color at the ridges (SU-8/silicon area) and yellow color at the basins (silicon area). PMID:24216662

  7. A molecular cytogenetic map of sorghum chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Islam-Faridi, M N; Childs, K L; Klein, P E; Hodnett, G; Menz, M A; Klein, R R; Rooney, W L; Mullet, J E; Stelly, D M; Price, H J

    2002-01-01

    We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. In addition, the order of several tightly linked molecular markers was clarified by FISH analysis. The FISH results indicate that markers from the linkage map positions 0.0-81.8 cM reside in the short arm of chromosome 1 whereas markers from 81.8-242.9 cM are located in the long arm of chromosome 1. The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. In contrast, this region represents only 0.7% of the total genetic map distance of this chromosome. Variation in recombination frequency among euchromatic chromosomal regions also was apparent. The integrated data underscore the value of cytological data, because minor errors and uncertainties in linkage maps can involve huge physical regions. The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. Such a molecular cytogenetic infrastructure would be inherently cross-linked with other genomic tools and thereby establish a cytogenomics system with extensive utility in development and application

  8. Adaptability and stability of genotypes of sweet sorghum by GGEBiplot and Toler methods.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, U J; Nunes, J A R; da C Parrella, R A; Souza, E D; da Silva, A R; Emygdio, B M; Machado, J R A; Tardin, F D

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol and energy production. The crop is adaptable and can be grown under a wide range of cultivation conditions in marginal areas; however, studies of phenotypic stability are lacking under tropical conditions. Various methods can be used to assess the stability of the crop. Some of these methods generate the same basic information, whereas others provide additional information on genotype x environment (G x E) interactions and/or a description of the genotypes and environments. In this study, we evaluated the complementarity of two methods, GGEBiplot and Toler, with the aim of achieving more detailed information on G x E interactions and their implications for selection of sweet sorghum genotypes. We used data from 25 sorghum genotypes grown in different environments and evaluated the following traits: flowering (FLOW), green mass yield (GMY), total soluble solids (TSS), and tons of Brix per hectare (TBH). Significant G x E interactions were found for all traits. The most stable genotypes identified with the GGEBiplot method were CMSXS643 for FLOW, CMSXS644 and CMSXS647 for GMY, CMSXS646 and CMSXS637 for TSS, and BRS511 and CMSXSS647 for TBH. Especially for TBH, the genotype BRS511 was classified as doubly desirable by the Toler method; however, unlike the result of the GGEBiplot method, the genotype CMSXS647 was also found to be doubly undesirable. The two analytical methods were complementary and enabled a more reliable identification of adapted and stable genotypes. PMID:26400352

  9. Influence of CeO2 nanoparticles on growth and physiology of sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Linlin; Liang, Wei-zhen; Kinsey, Erin; Rauh, Bradley; Kresovich, Stephen; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are commonly used as polishing agents for industry and fuel additives to decrease the particulate matter emissions. CeO2 NPs may be encountered in the soil and water environment through their life cycle or accidental releases, and have potential phytotoxicity effects. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects of CeO2 NPs in soil on plant growth and physiology. The objective of this research is to determine the physiological responses of three sorghums (Grassl, BtX623 and Rio) to the effect of CeO2 nanoparticles in potting soil environment. Sorghums were germinated and grown in potting soil in the greenhouse for three weeks cultivation with treatments of 0, 100, 500, 1000 mg CeO2 NPs per kg soil. Plant parameters, such as length, weight, and biomass of root and leaves were measured in each treatment with 12 replications. After three weeks germination, the sorghum plants were dig out and the roots were examined and scanned by the Silverfast SE Plus scanner to compare and analyze their dimensions and shapes. To further study the growth and physiological changes in plants due to the presence of CeO2 NPs in soil, one selected type of sorghum (Grassl) was grown under the four different CeO2 NPs concentration treatments for six months until plant maturity, and was also cut and harvested three times to study CeO2 NPs effect on plant re-growth. At the end of each growing period, above ground vegetative tissues were air-dried, grounded to 2mm particle size and compositional traits were estimated by using near-infrared spectroscopy. The influence of nanoparticles was observed on some of the plant traits. Preliminary results showed the influence of CeO2 NPs on the roots growth, as Grassl and Btx623 in 100 mgkg‑1 treatment grew significantly faster than other concentrations; however no significant difference between control and 100 mgkg‑1 treatment in Rio. CeO2 NPs concentration of 100 mgkg‑1 had no impact on sorghum

  10. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  11. Photocontrol of Sorghum Leaf Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Martine; Crétin, Claude; Keryer, Eliane; Vidal, Jean; Gadal, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the light effect on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the C4 plant sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers., var Tamaran) leaves was investigated. Following exposure to light a new isozyme of PEPC, specific for the green leaf and responsible for primary CO2 fixation in photosynthesis, was established. Northern blot experiments revealed the presence of PEPC mRNA showing a molecular weight of 3.4 kilobases. During the greening process, concomitant to enzyme activity, PEPC protein and PEPC messenger RNA amounts increased considerably. This photoresponse was shown to be under phytochrome control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665664

  12. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Daniela; de Godoy, Fabiana; Hamaji, Thais Alves; Blanco, Silvia Regina; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Rossi, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%–80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis. PMID:23055803

  13. A web-based decision support system for managing panicle caterpillars in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum headworms are economically important insect pests of sorghum throughout the United States and are often ranked 1st or 2nd in importance among the myriad of insects that feed on sorghum, depending on the geographic location where the sorghum is grown. Sorghum producers, crop consultants, and...

  14. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] on soybean and sorghum root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.H.; Prior, S.A.; Runion, G.B. )

    1993-05-01

    Aboveground plant responses to elevated CO[sub 2] concentration are well documented. However, very little is known about crop root responses to CO[sub 2] enrichment, especially under field environments. This study evaluates the effects of increased serial CO[sub 2] concentration on root systems of a C[sub 3] [soybean (Glycine max (L>) Merr.)] and C[sub 4] [sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.)] crop. Plants were grown in open top field chambers under two levels of CO[sub 2]. Root systems were sampled at physiological maturity by uprooting the plant from the soil while concurrently measuring vertical pull resistance. Root variables (length, dry weight, and tissue density), except for number of roots, were significantly increased under elevated CO[sub 2]. The positive effects of extra CO[sub 2] on soybean roots partitioned into taproot and lateral roots were similar to patterns previously described. The number of soybean nodules increased under CO[sub 2]-enriched conditions, but no effect on nodule dry weight was seen. Elevated CO[sub 2] increased root dry weight more so than root length. The larger root systems observed under CO[sub 2] enrichment was reflected in an overall increase in vertical pull resistance. Several root variables exhibited significant CO[sub 2] X species interactions (except root number) with differences between CO[sub 2] levels seen with sorghum. Fine root data obtained from soil cores (30 cm) also showed that extra CO[sub 2] influenced root dry weight density more so than root length density. Under elevated CO[sub 2] conditions, root dry weight density more so than root tissue density values tended to be greater in the top 15 cm of the soil profile, but not lower in the profile (i.e., 15-30 cm). The fine root data exhibited few CO[sub 2] X species interactions. Results from this study indicate that additional atmospheric C[sub 2] will affect crop root systems.

  15. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean. PMID:27019687

  16. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean. PMID:27019687

  17. Variation of Transpiration Efficiency in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  18. Future for sorghum regarding its water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the planet's Earth appearance from space, water is a minor component of the plant's mass and the considerably less is present as fresh water available for crop production. Sorghum is ideally suited for grain and silage production in water limited areas because of its ability to yield higher ...

  19. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  20. The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.