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Sample records for cultural anthropology

  1. Anthropological Theory: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to various theoretical perspectives, terms, and influential figures within the field of anthropology. The following historical and conceptual influences on anthropological theory are discussed: (1) the Greek…

  2. Psychological Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module traces the history of psychological anthropology, introducing various schools and perspectives within the field of psychology. First, a discussion is provided of biological determinism, examining its historical development and the…

  3. Subdisciplines of Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the idea that anthropology is composed of a number of subdisciplines and that cultural anthropology has numerous subfields which are the specialty areas for many practicing anthropologists. Beginning with a general discussion…

  4. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  5. Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…

  6. Bibliography of Methods in Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, James, Comp.

    Over 300 resources on methods in cultural anthropology are listed under the following headings: archaeological methods; visual methods, tape recordings, and technical aids; cognitive anthropology and emic methods; community studies and complex societies; cross-cultural and hologeistic methods; ethnohistory; field work techniques and participant…

  7. Journalism and Anthropology: Creation of Cultural Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath-Neimeyer, Paula S.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the important role that anthropological knowledge can play in the study of mass communication, focusing on the contributions that anthropology can make to journalism and mass communication research. Urges journalism and mass communication departments to work cultural studies into their curricula. (MM)

  8. Why Belong? A Conversation about Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, James; Ryan, Carol Ball

    A conversation about cultural anthropology between a college anthropology professor and an English and humanities high school teacher is related. As part of the National Humanities Faculty Why Series, the book is intended to help students, teachers, and citizens maintain and improve their intellectual vigor and human awareness and to help them…

  9. Economic Systems: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module uses a systems approach to allow students to see the connections and similarities which most cultural groups share on the basis of the type of economic organization that they exhibit. The module begins with a general discussion of…

  10. Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

  11. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  12. Ethnographic Film: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module examines concerns that should be addressed when using ethnographic films to explore cross-cultural perspectives. Beginning with a brief discussion of the purpose of ethnographic films, the filmmaker's perspective is discussed, stressing…

  13. Kinship and Social Groups: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces commonly employed terms used in the study of kinship and social groups. Conceptual categories used to describe the social structures of society are defined first, including culture, material culture, nonmaterial culture,…

  14. 77 FR 5837 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... the cultural items may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum...

  15. Cross-Cultural Psychiatry in the Field: Collaborating with Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folmar, Steven; Palmes, Guy K.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric and anthropological collaborations have produced robust literatures on varied topics but there are challenges in the working relation between these two fields. A research into how cultures deal with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in Afghanistan is discussed to highlight the challenges in the working relations between…

  16. Cultivating Common Ground: Cultural Revitalization in Anishinaabe and Anthropological Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores some of the most prominent ways that cultural revitalization has been contemplated within Anishinaabe and anthropological arenas of discourse. She draws reflexively on her own personal positionality and academic theoretical background as well as on her observations of how Anishinaabe anti-clear-cutting…

  17. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  18. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  19. The Cultural Constitution of Cognition: Taking the Anthropological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2011-01-01

    To what extent is cognition affected by culture? And how might cognitive science profit from an intensified collaboration with anthropology in exploring this issue? In order to answer these questions, we will first give a brief description of different perspectives on cognition, one that prevails in most cognitive sciences – particularly in cognitive psychology – and one in anthropology. Three basic assumptions of cognitive science regarding the separability of content and process, the context-independence of processing, and the culture-independence of processing will then be discussed. We argue that these assumptions need to be questioned and scrutinized cross-culturally. A thorough examination of these issues would profit considerably from collaboration with anthropologists, not only by enabling deeper insight into the cultures under scrutiny, but also by synergistic effects that would allow for a more comprehensive understanding of human cognition. PMID:21716578

  20. A Conceptual/Cross-cultural Model for Teaching Anthropology in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    A conceptual/cross-cultural model, developed to help elementary teachers cope with the problems of initiating cultural, ethnic, or anthropology studies, is presented in five sections. (1) A brief description of the structure and methodology of anthropology defines in outline form the fields of cultural and social anthropology, physical…

  1. 77 FR 23501 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... with the cultural item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum...

  2. Cultural anthropology approach to psychopathology of Muslim murderer.

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Satoh, S; Morita, N; Konishi, T; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, H; Oda, S

    1994-03-01

    We report a case involving a 31-year-old Islamic male who murdered his associate under particular circumstances. We took the opportunity to test psychiatrically this man who has been diagnosed in his mother country as a schizophrenic. He came to Japan and was working as a laborer. He is an earnest practicing Muslim. We took an interest in this case because of his bizarre behavior previous to the actual crime. We are interested in the actual method of the murder in relation to Mr. A's cultural and religious background. We demonstrated the significance of the religious cultural knowledge relative to the indigenous ritual for expelling satan and the Islamic pilgrimage to Mekka (Hajj). We conclude that a cultural anthropological and religious viewpoint is necessary in objectively understanding the sources of suffering in patients with mental illness who are from foreign countries. PMID:7933719

  3. Culture and the Educative Process: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Solon T.

    An anthropological perspective on the educative process is presented in the four parts of this book. Part 1, "An Anthropological Overview," suggests some of the many viewpoints from which anthropology says something about education. For instance, methodologically, anthropologists look at the whole context of a learning situation rather than at…

  4. CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGICALLY INFORMED CONCEPTIONS OF CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley; López, Steven R.; Garro, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply two contemporary notions of culture to advance the conceptual basis of cultural competence in psychotherapy: Kleinman’s (1995) definition of culture as what is at stake in local, social worlds, and Mattingly and Lawlor’s (2001) concept of shared narratives between practitioners and patients. The authors examine these cultural constructs within a clinical case of an immigrant family caring for a young boy with an autism-spectrum disorder. Their analysis suggests that the socially based model of culture and the concept of shared narratives have the potential to broaden and enrich the definition of cultural competence beyond its current emphasis on the presumed cultural differences of specific racial and ethnic minority groups. PMID:22122131

  5. Culture Change in the English Classroom: An Anthropological Approach to the Education of Culturally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Helen Louise Kuster

    This library study investigated the problems of (1) what anthropological generalizations are of greatest value for English teachers of culturally disadvantaged students, and (2) how these generalizations are particularly relevant for classroom use. The theoretical and empirical research literature was surveyed and relevant sections were…

  6. Cultural Models of Domestic Violence: Perspectives of Social Work and Anthropology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cyleste C.; Dressler, William W.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a unique theoretical approach and a series of participant-based ethnographic interviewing techniques that are traditionally used in cognitive anthropology to examine and compare social work and anthropology students' cultural models of the causes of domestic violence. The study findings indicate that although social work…

  7. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  8. [Biology and culture: a dimension of collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Song, Leiming; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Biology is the important basis of epidemiological study. Based on biology, psychology, social and cultural factors can influence human's health and disease incidence. The medical mode has changed from "biomedical mode" to "bio-psycho-social medical model" , but culture factor was neglected somewhat during this process, so paying attention to culture factor in anthropologic study and using it as biologic basis in epidemiologic study might be a dimension of collaboration between of anthropology and epidemiology. PMID:26822659

  9. Perfectible Apes in Decadent Cultures: Rousseau's Anthropology Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wokler, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the views of Claude Levi-Strauss and Robert Ardrey who cite Rousseau as a personal influence even though they hold opposing anthropological ideals. The author claims that this situation is due to misinterpretations of Rousseau's work. An interpretation of Rousseau's anthropology is given reconciling the differences. (BC)

  10. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by...

  11. 78 FR 45963 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Item: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Item: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology...: The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native... the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control...

  12. Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

  13. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  14. 77 FR 19697 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... May 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: David Phillips, Curator of Archaeology, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01... culturally affiliated with the sacred objects should contact David Phillips, Curator of Archaeology,...

  15. The ambiguities of disciplinary professionalization: The state and cultural dynamics of Canadian inter-war anthropology.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society. PMID:19848186

  16. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... publication in the Federal Register (62 FR 8265-8266, February 24, 1997). Since that time, two additional... Indians, Michigan. These individuals were described in a Notice published in the Federal Register (74 FR... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University...

  17. Strengthening Pedagogy and Praxis in Cultural Anthropology and Service-Learning: Insights from Postcolonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Maryann

    2004-01-01

    This article argues cultural anthropology would make a good partner to service-learning pedagogy because it offers students a theoretical approach for understanding community life and its power structures. Anthropologists have been dealing with power vis-a-vis the people they study using concepts relevant to the reflection process in…

  18. Applying Medical Anthropology: Developing Diabetes Education and Prevention Programs in American Indian Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Brooke

    1999-01-01

    Medical anthropology provides a broader contextual framework for understanding complex causal factors associated with diabetes among American Indians and how to minimize these factors in education/treatment programs. Discusses historical, epidemiological, and genetic considerations in American Indian diabetes; cultural factors related to foods,…

  19. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  20. The Rise of Class Culture Theory in Educational Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This article chronicles how the ideas of neo-Weberians, Marxists, feminists, and critical race thinkers have merged to create a new cultural production or class culture paradigm of schooling. Reviews of recent ethnographic work illustrates how the articulations among class, race, gender, and sexual identity practices in schools are studied without…

  1. Culture and Commerce in France: An Anthropological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Guessler

    A cooperative effort of the School of Business and the School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Toledo (Ohio) developed a program to provide an opportunity for business students to develop (1) foreign language skills for effective communication and performance in international trade and (2) an awareness of the importance of culture and its…

  2. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  3. ["Qi-Huang" Culture in the context of anthropological perspective of medicine and health].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huailin

    2011-05-01

    The survey of the two Chinese characters "(qi)(huang)" from the perspective of anthropology of medicine and health show that the words represent a variety of meanings. All the TCM related contents, such as physicians, medical works and official position of medicine etc. can be represented by the word. "Qi-huang" culture contained the relevant medical works and the physicians who handed down Chinese medicine, such as Qibo, Bogao, Shaoshi, Leigong, Rongcheng etc., and the contents are more abundant. Previously, less study concerned the historical relics spread extensively in Xinmi City, Henan Province, such as Qibo Shan, Limu Tai, Fenghou Ding etc. "Qi-huang" culture not only remained in the history, but also are living vividly in the present medical civilization. "Qi-huang" culture is not confined within China, but has been spread to the whole world. PMID:21781538

  4. Anthropology and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Walter

    1976-01-01

    Traces anthropology as a discipline from its origins in the 19th century to the present, defines the areas of interest of physical and cultural anthropologists, reviews major anthropological works, and identifies contributions made to American anthropology by sociology, psychology, and economics. (Author/DB)

  5. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  6. Making sense of HIV in southeastern Nigeria: fictional narratives, cultural meanings, and methodologies in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Brown, Peter J; Patterson, Amy E; Burkot, Camilla; Mbakwem, Benjamin C

    2013-06-01

    Fictional narratives have rarely been used in medical anthropological research. This article illustrates the value of such narratives by examining how young people in southeastern Nigeria navigate the cultural resources available to them to make sense of HIV in their creative writing. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, it analyzes a sample (N = 120) from 1,849 narratives submitted by Nigerian youth to the 2005 Scenarios from Africa scriptwriting contest on the theme of HIV. The narratives are characterized by five salient themes: tragedy arising from the incompatibility of sex outside marriage and kinship obligations; female vulnerability and blame; peer pressure and moral ambivalence; conservative Christian sexual morality; and the social and family consequences of HIV. We consider the strengths and limitations of this narrative approach from a theoretical perspective and by juxtaposing our findings with those generated by Daniel Jordan Smith using standard ethnographic research methods with a similar Igbo youth population. PMID:23804317

  7. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...The University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the items meet the definition of sacred objects and repatriation to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the sacred objects may contact the......

  8. [Drawer of boundaries: Franz Boas and the (im)possibility of the concept of culture in anthropology].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The history of anthropology has tended towards two extremes in its analyses of the works of Franz Boas: aggrandizement or underestimation. This disparity can be explained by the author's liminal relationship with two research approaches in anthropology: universalist theories (evolutionism, difussionism, racialism, etc.) and culturalist theories, prevalent between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With this argument in mind, the article discusses the emergence of the Boasian concept of culture and endeavors to show how this concept proves both possible and impossible within the author's own work. PMID:22012102

  9. 77 FR 5839 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology....

  10. Public science of the savage mind: contesting cultural anthropology in the Cold War classroom.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    "What is human about human beings? How did they get that way? How can they be made more so?" These three questions formed the basis of a fifth-grade social studies curriculum project developed in the 1960s called Man: A Course of Study, or MACOS. In the years between the curriculum's development in the 1960s and its controversial implementation in the 1970s, two separate sets of concerns served to problematize the use of anthropological materials in public school classrooms. On the one hand, MACOS designers were wary of the possibly racist interpretations of exploring so-called "primitive" cultures in the classroom. On the other, conservative textbook reformers objected to claims that all cultural solutions to biological problems were morally equivalent. Once MACOS earned a place in national news, it came to embody both hopes for the redemption of American democratic society and fears about the violent nature of humans, depending on one's political perspective. These mixed messages eventually undermined the long-term success of the program as public science. PMID:23686816

  11. 77 FR 46114 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Archaeology, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131... should contact David Phillips, Curator of Archaeology, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01...

  12. The Self in Culture I: Person-Centered Ethnography and Psychoanalytic Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Robert A.

    Concepts and methods intended to enhance the relationship between psychoanalytic theory and psychological anthropology are proposed and illustrations of the application of these concepts and methods are given based on ethnographic data on the Gusii of Kenya. Using five minimum assumptions about the universality of personality, an ethnographic…

  13. New Directions in Social and Cultural Anthropology: Pushing Back the Chairs, Opening the Doors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Beverly B.

    The need to prepare students for intercultural communication and understanding has stimulated interest in global studies. Within the community college, global studies have been encouraged, but also limited by uncertainties in funding and resource commitment. In this period of confusion, it is important that college anthropology instructors adopt…

  14. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  15. Annual Review of Anthropology. Volume 10. 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 15 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in the discipline of anthropology, including archaelology, biological anthropology, linguistics, regional studies, and cultural-social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology in colleges and universities. Topics…

  16. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, that meets the... Humboldt County, CA. The belt was donated to the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the...

  17. Masters of their Conditions III: Clinical applications of theater anthropology in cultural psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Body learning gives actors basic structures and references that enable them to codify their actions in a script or score. With this score, acquired through training, performing and transmitting, actors who work with theater anthropology methodology offer strategies and tools that healers can use with their patients. This actor’s score has inspired a mode of working with patients both to understand the case history and guide the course of therapy. In this approach, patients are like authors who want to act out their dramaturgy, but who need a director-healer to organize the story and help them build their healing process. Together, patient and therapist work on stage to advance the treatment, at the same time enhancing their strategies and methods for collaboration. PMID:24077898

  18. An anthropological hybrid: the pragmatic arrangement of universalism and culturalism in French mental health.

    PubMed

    Fassin, Didier; Rechtman, Richard

    2005-09-01

    As in most European countries, the mental health of immigrants in France has recently been the subject of scientific scrutiny. Since the end of World War II voluntary special mental health services for migrants and refugees have been created in France and especially in Paris, but none has been based on epidemiological data. Generally, this lack of objective data gave rise to the assumption that many immigrants might not be getting the type of services they required. The birth of a new type of service (e.g. for migrants, refugees, ethnic groups, trauma and torture victims) was a political reaction to what was, at the time, expressed as an essential unmet need regarding this very specific population. In this article we review, from an anthropological point of view, the different paradigms that have prevailed over the last 50 years. PMID:16268233

  19. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  20. The Digital Divide as Cultural Practice: A Cognitive Anthropological Exploration of Japan as an "Information Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Tadamasa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the socio-cultural contextualization of the digital divide in Japanese society. I undertake this task by developing a theoretical and methodological framework based on the notion of "culture as models," while explicating the cultural dimensions of the digital divide and the dynamics of ICTs,…

  1. Anthropology and Cultural Pluralism. Three Case Studies: Australia, New Zealand and USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    A historical overview of cultural attitudes in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States reveals that anthropologists greatly influenced the interaction between the Western "modern" culture and the primitive native culture in those countries. Historical analysis of attitudes toward Aborigines, Maoris, and American Indians provides the basis…

  2. Anthropology: Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary G., Ed.

    More than 80 anthropology source materials concentrating on cultural and social anthropology are cited in this annotated bibliography. Materials, located in the McLennan Library at McGill University (Montreal), are listed according to type of material. Library of Congress call numbers are presented; dates of publication range from 1950 to 1985.…

  3. 78 FR 19308 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... a cultural affiliation with the cultural items should contact the University of Denver Museum of... civilizations. He housed his artifact collection in his Ko-Kas-Ki Museum in Pinedale, CO, before transferring it... figurine fragments (DU 3915 A-B) were removed from unknown sites near Gila Crossing Ruin in Maricopa...

  4. The Teaching of Visual Anthropology at Temple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Jay; Chalfen, Richard

    The exploration of nonverbal forms of culture and communication has led to the development of visual anthropology courses within the anthropology department at Temple University. Visual anthropology is conceptualized as the study of human nonlinguistic forms of communication involving film making for data collecting and analysis. Several areas of…

  5. Anthropology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Suzy M., Comp.

    The guide identifies approximately 100 anthropology source materials in the reference department of McLennan Library at McGill University. It was designd to help students doing anthropological research and to illustrate the variety of materials on social and cultural anthropology in the McLennan Library. Physical anthropolgy, linguistics, and…

  6. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  7. Exploring Cognitive Diversity: Anthropological Perspectives on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive sciences currently maintain a troubled relationship (Beller, Bender, & Medin, ). What could rapprochement look like, and how could it be achieved? The seven main articles of this topic present anthropological or anthropologically inspired cross-cultural research on a diverse set of cognitive domains. They serve as an existence proof that not only do synergies abound across anthropology and the other cognitive sciences, but that they are worth achieving. PMID:26344239

  8. 78 FR 34129 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the... control of the Native American cultural items. The National Park Service is not responsible for the... specific burial sites of Native American individuals. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is...

  9. Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kelly; Beagan, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    Despite increased attention to "culturally competent" practice with diverse populations, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people remain relatively invisible within medicine and other health professions. Health care providers (HCPs) frequently dismiss sexual and gender identity as irrelevant to care. This study uses interviews with 24 physicians and 38 LGBTQ-identified women to explore how routine practices in health care can perpetuate or challenge the marginalization of LGBTQ women. While physicians avoid making assumptions to reduce judgment, a "neutral" stance reinforces the hetero- and gender normative status quo. Cultural competence with LGBTQ patients requires learning with, rather than learning about, LGBTQ people's particular health care concerns as well as paying explicit attention to pervasive power relations and normative contexts. PMID:25196115

  10. Anthropology at Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Describes a one-semester general anthropology course designed primarily for interested juniors and seniors as well as six courses which have students "do" anthropology in a way that serves to teach them the field and "interests the kid," e.g. courses in cultural anthropology, archaeology, physical anthropology and school ethnography. (Author/JM)

  11. Medical anthropology and Ebola in Congo: cultural models and humanistic care.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P

    2005-09-01

    Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts. PMID:16267966

  12. Cultural Resources and Cognitive Frames: Keys to an Anthropological Approach to Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrie, Ian

    In this chapter, I suggest a methodological and theoretical framework for preliminary investigations designed to gauge the potential societal response to the discovery of either microbial or intelligent extraterrestrial life. The uncritical use of analogies to the ethnographic record of contact between societies and the discovery of extraterrestrial life has been, rightfully, the target of sharp criticism since the earliest days of the scientific search for this life. However, I argue that by approaching this record with different epistemological premises, and shifting the focus from the material to the symbolic and cognitive dimensions of this contact, one can avoid many of the pitfalls of the analogical mode of argumentation, and provide a solid conceptual basis for the development of an adequate heuristic. Specifically, I draw upon the germinal debate between Sahlins and Obeyesekere over the nature of human meaning-making in the face of radically other societies and their meanings to treat the discovery of an intelligent civilization. In parallel, I draw upon Sharp's discussion of the relationship between the changes in the symbolic order and the material organization of society to suggest that much of this analysis also applies to the discovery of extraterrestrial microbial life. In both cases, I do not argue for a one-to-one correspondence between the historical and the contemporary, but rather use these arguments as illustrations of what I see as particularly profitable modes of conceptualizing the universal human processes of making sense out of novel objects and phenomena. Finally, this chapter argues for a mixed-methods quantitative-qualitative investigation into the character and distribution of societal resources for understanding life and intelligence, rather than the extraterrestrial as such. The qualitative is advanced as a necessary adjunct to the quantitative, as the best method for gaining access to the repertoire of cultural frames upon which

  13. Anthropology: Adrenalin for a Tired High School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Orry

    1973-01-01

    Anthropology, particularly cultural anthropology, can bring new life into an overworked curriculum provided great care is taken in assembling appropriate materials and in devising good instructional approaches. Article provides guides for selection of recommended materials. (Editor/RK)

  14. Virtual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  15. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  16. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and Soil Science 176: 479-493. Lindemann, S. (2009). Success and failure in international river basin management - the case of Southern Africa. Facing global environmental change: environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts. H.-G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, J. Grinet al. Berlin, Springer: 699-710. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington, D.C., Island Press. Pröpper, M., T. Falk, et al. (2013). "Partly subsistent household economies and modern consumerism in the Namibian Kavango: Assets, income, expenditure and socio-economic stratification." Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 379-391. Rieprich, R. (2013). Mapping Environmental Valuations. An Ethnographic Case Study of Ecosystem Services and Landscape Values in Kavango, Namibia. Social and Cultural Anthropology. Hamburg, University of Hamburg. Master of Arts: 111. Röder, A., M. Stellmes, et al. (2013). "Cumulative effects of policy and management actions on ecosystem services. Challenges and methodological approaches in the Future Okavango project." Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 167-183. Röder, A., Pröpper, M., Stellmes, M., Schneibel, A. & Hill, J. (2015): Assessing urban growth and rural land use transformations in a cross-border situation in Northern Namibia and Southern Angola. Land Use Policy 42: 340-254. Rogge, D. M., B. Rivard, et al. (2006). "Iterative spectral unmixing for optimizing per-pixel endmember sets." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44(12): 3725-3736. Sala, O. E., F. S. Chapin III, et al. (2000). "Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2011." Science 287: 1770-1774. Weber, M., N. Krogman, et al. (2012). "Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions." Ecology and Society 17(2)

  17. [ANTHROPOLOGY OF CURSES].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Reyes-Rivas, José Refugio; Mobilli-Rojas, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The symbolic order offers a great number of opportunities for understanding man's greatest fears. Based on Lévi-Strauss' original concept, we can study the symbolic efficacy of curses and enrich it with the most recent contributions of neuroscience, philosophy, and the anthropology of consciousness. This is a report of qualitative research traversed by the methods of phenomenology and symbolic hermeneutics on a rarely addressed subject of unique significance to cultural psychiatry. We have worked on the empirical data of some classic religious curses of great historical value, but we have also inquired into the phenomenon of secular excommunication. Finally, we have interpreted the symbols used in curses and the areas of the psyche that they succeed in mobilizing. We suggest that the primary core of curses is dogma, without which their symbolic efficacy would not be possible. PMID:26323118

  18. Doing dementia better: anthropological insights.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Elizabeth Herskovits

    2011-05-01

    Dementia, or neurodegenerative disease, is a disease category, and yet it is widely described in popular and professional media as a horror story. Patients with dementia and their families frequently report that they are less than pleased with their clinical encounters. This article reveals the deleterious impact that cultural assumptions about dementia have on the care provided, and, through an exploration of anthropological theories of personhood, suggests strategies for seeking improved quality of life through personhood-centered care. PMID:21641511

  19. Networks, narratives and territory in anthropological race classification: towards a more comprehensive historical geography of Europe's culture.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate discourse analysis of politically instrumental imagined identity geographies with the relational and territorial geography of the communities of praxis and interpretation that produce them. My case study is the international community of nationalist scientists who classified Europe's biological races in the 1820s-1940s. I draw on network analysis, relational geography, historical sociology and the historical turn to problematize empirically how spatial patterns of this community's shifting disciplinary and political coalitions, communication networks and power relations emerged, were structured, persisted, changed, interacted and disappeared. I focus especially on core-periphery relations. I argue that if local historical spatial patterns affect those of later phenomena, geographies like that of European integration should be understood in the context of Europe's complex historical cultural geography. Unlike discourse deconstruction alone, this complementary relational de-essentialization of geography can identify large-scale, enduring associations of cultural patterns as well as cultural flux and ambiguity. PMID:21488429

  20. The Sioux and Other Native American Cultures of the Dakotas: An Annotated Bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in Anthropology, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Herbert T., Comp.; Zimmerman, Karen P., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains 1,504 entries focusing on Native American cultures that existed across North and South Dakota in relative isolation from non-Indian influences before and immediately after contact with Whites. The book is aimed particularly at scholars and teachers of Native American studies. Entries include books, journal…

  1. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  2. Is there really such a thing as "one health"? Thinking about a more than human world from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Meike

    2015-03-01

    Today's era of globalization is characterized by intensified interspecies encounters, growing ecological concerns and the (re-)emergence of infectious diseases, manifesting themselves in the interplay of medical and biological, but also social, cultural and political processes. One health approaches - which combine multidisciplinary efforts to stimulate collaborations between different health professionals such as veterinarians, medical practitioners, biologists, and public health professionals - can be understood as a response to this complex interconnectedness. Integrating a social science perspective might prove beneficial to this endeavor. This essay locates the one health discussion on disease ecologies in a more than human world within recent developments in cultural and medical anthropology that focus on the entanglements between health and a multitude of animals, plants or microbes, as they are characteristic of a globalized modernity. The paper aims to examine the social dimensions of human-animal-disease-interactions, claiming that disease is a biocultural phenomenon and that social factors generally play a crucial role in the emergence, spread and management of (infectious) disease. Consequently, it will be argued that there is a need to rethink our objects of inquiry and any given assumptions of human health, the human body or the constitution of "the global" as such. Incorporating the social sciences into one health approaches can help address topics such as consumption patterns, human-animal behavior or environmental conflicts in a novel way and on a grander scale than ever before. Yet, a greater sensitivity to context may entail some skepticism about the idea of one health - not in spite of the complex entanglements between humans, environments, animals and pathogens, but precisely because of them. PMID:24961737

  3. We Must Fight the Militarization of Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roberto J.

    2007-01-01

    When students take introductory courses in cultural anthropology, they learn the techniques necessary for understanding daily life in peasant villages or among bands of hunter-gatherers. Professors teach them about the importance of building rapport with informants, the insights gained from cultural immersion, and the benefits of linguistic…

  4. Veterinary anthropology explored.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Veterinary and social scientists came together at the Centre for Medical Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh in April to discuss areas of common interest and the possibility of defining a new interdisciplinary field of 'veterinary anthropology'. Andrew Gardiner, one of the organisers of the international meeting, reports. PMID:27256260

  5. Anthropology. Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Museum of Natural History.

    This document is a collection of materials developed for the Smithsonian Institution/George Washington University Anthropology for Teachers Program. The program was established to encourage junior and senior high school teachers to integrate anthropology into their social studies and science classes. The materials include several bibliographies:…

  6. Culture, Freedom, and Pedagogy in the Public School Classroom: Learning To Teach from an Anthropological Point of View or Pedagogical Anthropology and the Reform of Public Education. A Teaching Essay (with Associated Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, D. Michael

    Educators must realize that today's public schools are a specialized development out of the universal culture-process. Research anthropologists have identified cross-culturally as enculturation, the process of acquiring a culture. By virtue of being born into a specific socio-cultural group, all humans have culture, and all human groups…

  7. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  8. Cyber anthropology or anthropology in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2012-03-01

    As a variety of anthropology, cyber anthropology is considered to be the fastest growing sub branch in the science. It is based on synergic effects of multimedia systems and hypermedia, using their comparative advantages. One of the least researched fields of cyber anthropology is the relationship of individuals and social groups with a multimedia document in terms of their perception of such subject. This is because the foundation of social-informatics perception in the society is created based on the evidence of a real life, whereas here the perception is established at the level of virtual, i.e. online life. The rhetorical question here is whether an identical content causes the same or different user reactions, depending on whether it was perceived offline or online, i.e. to what extend does the medium (and not the information content) dictate the user perception. In this respect the research titled "Perception of online museum content creators and actual habits of Croatian online museum visitors" can be a "case study" for the impact of "cyber potential" on the classic anthropological paradigm. PMID:22816231

  9. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    central institutions and are implemented in different ways at subordinate levels. Commonly, communities make their own decisions regarding the use of natural resources within the framework of statutory and traditional governance and national legislation. The Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM) has been created between Angola, Namibia and Botswana to deal with transboundary subjects and facilitate informed policies. Developing such informed policies is even more urgent given demographic and climatological predictions. The African population is expected to almost double by the end of this century (Haub 2012), while climate predictions indicate an overall increase in average temperatures, added to by an increase in dry spells during the wet season and overall decreases in precipitation (IPCC 2013). This will result in increasing demands for food, paralleled by less favorable production conditions. The appropriation of resources in the wider region is therefore characterized by various, potentially conflicting demands that are likely to accumulate in space and time (Röder, Stellmes et al. 2013). A particular constraint draws from upstream-downstream issues, with a predicted increase in upstream water utilization for drinking and irrigation, while the Delta region relies on regular flood pulses of clean water to sustain its biodiversity, to which the tourist sector as a major source of national income is linked. This is threatened by the increasing concentrations of pesticides and herbicides used in the frame of irrigation schemes lowering water quality, and the change of flood pulse cycles through damming projects (Lindemann 2009). Besides national policies and regional planning programs, an equally important element in understanding the utilization of natural resources is the individual perspective of actors that may range from the conservation of traditions and cultures to stronger market integration and consumerism (Pröpper, Falk et al. 2013) that

  10. [Psychoanalysis and social anthropology].

    PubMed

    Thisted, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore some subjects originated in the work of psychoanalysts and social anthropologists that generated an interesting discussion about the transmission of cultural trends along generations, as well as psychological family features from one generation to the other: we refer to the Oedipus complex model, as it was introduced by S. Freud, and to Malinowski's work on children's sexuality and incest. This text examines the emergency of fieldwork methodology (ethnography), that is, living in the place in which the research is conducted, sharing native languages and listening to the meanings attributed by the people to aspects of their lives. We also show another perspective, in which the researchers share place, language and customs but study for their own sake in order to justify a theoretical concept: resilience. This is one of the results of the transdisciplinary works -carried out by the UBA anthropology and education teams- to which we refer, together with the discussion about the category "educability" and some issues related to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity. This article proposes a critical approach on the ontological premises of racionalism, idealism and empiricism that preceded the researches mentioned. Finally it presents a perspective in which the imaginary institution of society and the emergency of psychism in singular subjects merge. PMID:23269971

  11. Ecce Homo: Science and Society Need Anthropological Collections.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Bell, Joshua A; Rick, Torben C

    2016-08-01

    Scientific collections are crucial to understanding the biological and cultural diversity of the Earth. Anthropological collections document the human experience and the interactions between people, ecosystems, and organisms. Unfortunately, anthropological collections are often poorly known by the public and face a variety of threats to their permanent care and conservation. PMID:27220779

  12. Teaching Anthropology through Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonney, Rachel A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three uses of folklore in teaching college-level anthropology courses: (1) collecting folklore through interviewing; (2) analyzing folklore themes; and (3) using folklore in puppetry and plays. (KH)

  13. Anthropology and history: the revaluation of history in anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Colić, S

    1999-12-01

    The main premise of this paper is that the accepted view of history based on written documents (historiography) is marked by hierarchical ordering and evaluation implicit in it. The paper examines the context of the negation of history, and the revaluation of history in anthropological research. The lack of written documents concerning particular social groups on the internal plane, but also particular nations (ethnic groups) on the global plane, earned them the name of "nations (groups) without history". This criterion of historicity--the existence of a writing system and written documents--implies the hypothesis about the inferiority of those nations and groups. The attributes of history seen in this way are modernity, linearity and cumulativeness. This system implies ethnocentrism based on a twofold negation: a) the negation history, and b) the negation of otherness. What we must not forget is that the symbolic universes are social products with a history, and in order to understand their meaning, one must understand the history of their production. It is very important to pay close attention to the historical practice of projecting our cultural practices onto others. The question of who determines the history and which views are presented to a particular audience is a matter of power and contest. contemporary history-oriented sociocultural anthropology focuses on the total reconstruction of the way of life and thinking in particular periods of history: on the everyday life. This brought together the intellectual traditions of "new history", ethnology, sociocultural anthropology and the sociology of culture. While modernism stresses the present change versus the static past, postmodernism denies the past ever being static and hypostatises fluidity and change as permanent condition. Postmodernism strives to undermine the old, Euro-centric notion that "we" have a history but "they" do not; it has also lead to social scientists' renewed interest in history. PMID

  14. 77 FR 65403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology.... Heather Edgar, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM...

  15. [Care and anthropology: a thinking process].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cécilia

    2007-09-01

    Caring for human beings, calls for relating unity and diversity in order to respect the equality of cultures and to recognize their cultural differences. Cultural difference is, however, privileged by recent publications within the culture caring domain, based on cultural relativism and disregarding the unity of humanity, transcultu-ral nursing theory is the case. For this reason, some historical elements related to the two original anthropological theories are included in this text to understand the philosophical and ethical implications of transcultural nursing theory. The objective of this article is to analyse six recent publications within the caring and anthropology field, through a reflexive method identifying two different caring traditions and demonstrating their philosophical and ethical reach for caring practice. PMID:17941548

  16. Budget Anthropology. Integrating Anthropology Concepts into a Social Studies Curriculum. Report No. 78-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, G. Alan

    Materials developed by high school anthropology students to investigate and explain American culture are presented. The purpose of the handbook is to aid social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on the American way of life within the context of global culture. The activities presented in the handbook can…

  17. Letter Writing and Learning in Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheld, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Writing has special importance in anthropology. Writing fieldnotes is a central methodology for documenting and analyzing culture, and written personal reflections upon this process are viewed as providing insight into how knowledge is produced by a "situated" researcher. That said, there is little discussion in the discipline about the…

  18. The Effect of Cognitive Training in Anthropology on Ethnocentric Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frech, William P.

    1975-01-01

    The researcher hypothesized that some instances of ethnic prejudice (ethnocentrism) are the result of faulty or inadequate knowledge. This study, therefore, focused on the affective outcome of instruction in two cognitive concepts of cultural anthropology. (Author)

  19. Tracking Porters: Learning the Craft of Techno-Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The anthropological perspective is grounded in socio-cultural theory and forged by a distinct relativist or contextualist epistemological stance. The point is to understand events, concepts and phenomena from the insiders' point of view and to show how this view relates to the particular social and cultural context. In this chapter, we argue that although anthropology has its specific methodology - including a myriad of ethnographic data-gathering tools, techniques, analytical approaches and theories - it must first and foremost be understood as a craft. Anthropology as craft requires a specific 'anthropological sensibility' that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital. PMID:26249185

  20. Anthropology and Education Quarterly. Special Issue: Anthropological Resources and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The theme of the journal of the Council on Anthropology and Education focuses on anthropological resources and teaching. Nine major articles comprise the special issue of the journal. The first article traces the development of the academic study and teaching of anthropology beginning in 1501. Although mentioned as early as the 1500s, anthropology…

  1. Teaching the Anthropology of Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graburn, Nelson H. H.

    1980-01-01

    Explains the organization and objectives of a college level anthropology course devoted to various aspects of tourism. Topics discussed include course content, graduate students and contemporary research on tourism, and the role of tourism in the anthropology curriculum. (DB)

  2. Service-Learning and Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Arthur S.; Colligan, Sumi

    2004-01-01

    This special journal issue is devoted to an exploration of the intersection of service-learning and anthropology. We are interested in the contributions that the field of anthropology can make to community service learning (CSL) and we are interested in how service-learning can and does inform anthropological practice. The assembled papers, 8 case…

  3. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  4. [A anthropological critique of the ethic of care].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Aliénor

    2011-03-01

    This article is a critique of the anthropology of vulnerability and of the needs on which the ethics of care are based. Firstly, this critique confronts the universal postulate of the anthropology of vulnerability to the history of the anthropology of illness. The latter manages to build up a specific disciplinary field in refusing the supervision of the medical sciences and the implicit principle to consider illness as an universal fact. The paper refers to the anthropology of nature and Philippe Descola's work in order to develop a comparative study of the systems of representations, including the naturalism of biomedicine as a model among others. It then presents the descriptions of the representations of vulnerability and the needs which are linked to the four main ontologies defined by anthropology of nature, animism, totemism, analogy and naturalism, and gives a new light to the anthropology on which the ethics of care rest. That anthropology of vulnerability could be an involuntary factor in order to make societies conform to an hygienic constraint. The ethics of care would therefore benefit greatly in freeing themselves from anthropology of vulnerability and focus on their original contextualism; in particular, they would benefit of the knowledge of the limits of naturalism at their basis. It will also allow them to provide a new tool for engineering social transformations in a time, the beginning of XXI century, when cultures happen to mix. PMID:21568114

  5. From Background to Foreground: Toward an Anthropology of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Judith Friedman

    1982-01-01

    An anthropology of knowledge transmission must expand its focus beyond child development, schooling, and cultural continuity in order to probe the relationship between cultural knowledge and scientific knowledge and inquiry and to analyze processes of knowledge construction and transmission, structural variables, cultural assumptions,…

  6. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves. PMID:19618336

  7. Locating difference: A medical anthropology 'at home'?

    PubMed

    Hadolt, B

    1998-12-01

    Although medical anthropologists have been doing research in Western societies for at least two decades, such research has only recently been labelled 'at home'. This paper investigates the usefulness of 'at home' as a programmatic concept for medical anthropology. Some of the developments regarding the heightened concern with Western societies and the prominent 'we-others' dualism in general social/cultural anthropology and medical anthropology since the beginning of the 1980s are outlined. By employing Henrietta Moore's ideas about 'difference between ' and 'difference within ', it is shown that 'at home ', as a relational term, gets its meanings in relation to its counterparts, most prominently 'abroad', and that it is based on the problematic 'we-others' dualism. The paper concludes that 'at home' is an unfavourable starting point for conceptualizing medical anthropological research in Western settings. Instead, in order to avoid the trap of reifying differences between 'we' and 'others', we rather need to take up positions of enquiry from which such categories can emerge as 'differences within '. PMID:26868882

  8. The Development of Man and His Culture: Old World Prehistory. Grade 5. Teacher Guide [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test Form 5, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-Test. Revised, January 1968. Publications No. 25, 31, 23, 24 and 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potterfield, James E.; And Others

    This social studies unit includes a teaching guide, student text, study guide, teacher background material, and composite pretest/posttest covering archaeological methods, evolution, fossils and man, and development of culture during the prehistoric periods in the Old World. It is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed for…

  9. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 6, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 20 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in various areas of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, physical anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology or linguistics in United States…

  10. Anthropology, tooth wear, and occlusion ab origine.

    PubMed

    Young, W G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this essay is to emphasize that anthropology, the study of man in his environments, is a potent tool for scientific discovery and inspiration in dental science. It attempts to capture flashes of creative anthropological insight which have illuminated studies of tooth wear and occlusion in the past. While it documents contributions, understandings, and misunderstandings from Australian and New Zealand dentists, it is not a hagiography. The real saint of this essay is the Australian aborigine. For when men and women are understood in their environments, much is learned from them which challenges preconceptions of our dental science culture. The essay concludes that new, contemporary Australian culture needs to be studied by anthropological approaches if we are to understand how dental erosion is exacerbating tooth wear and damaging the occlusions of contemporary Australians. Much remains to be discovered about contemporary lifestyles, habits, and diets that lead to dental erosion, the principal cause of contemporary tooth wear in this part of the world. PMID:9823723

  11. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them. PMID:9951133

  12. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C.; Throop, C. Jason

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education. PMID:20706551

  13. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C; Throop, C Jason

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education. PMID:20706551

  14. Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Ian; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    A nonsecular medical anthropology insists on the ways medicine and science have constituted 'the secular' itself through the 'secular self'-how medical knowing has been used to craft the secular political subject. As James Boon noted, too often in social theory, "religion gets safely tucked away-restricted theoretically to 'meaning' rather than power" (1998:245). The authors of the six articles in this special issue 'untuck' religiosity from within the norms and numbers of medicine itself, and examine how 'secular' medicine has relied on religious traditions to produce political secularity. These articles demonstrate that 'secular' medicine relies on religious others whose exclusion bespeaks latent religious commitments of citizenship in the modern political realm of health. PMID:26652795

  15. Space migrations: Anthropology and the humanization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finney, Ben R.

    1992-01-01

    Because of its broad evolutionary perspective and its focus on both technology and culture, anthropology offers a unique view of why we are going into space and what leaving Earth will mean for humanity. In addition, anthropology could help in the humanization of space through (1) overcoming socioculture barriers to working and living in space, (2) designing societies appropriate for permanent space settlement, (3) promoting understanding among differentiated branches of humankind scattered through space, (4) deciphering the cultural systems of any extraterrestrial civilizations contacted.

  16. Proposed Anthropology Elective-One Semester. Plan I and Plan II. Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, David; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers two approaches to the teaching of tenth grade anthropology. The first approach is a more traditional approach to the subject area presented with the idea of simply giving the teacher something to build on. The second approach follows "History as Culture Change: An Overview" developed by the Anthropology Curriculum…

  17. 77 FR 32991 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University... Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California, Davis, has completed an inventory of human... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Department of...

  18. 76 FR 56468 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico has completed an inventory of human remains, in... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of...

  19. 77 FR 32983 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University... Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California, Davis, has completed an inventory of human... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Department of...

  20. Neoliberal Individualism in Dutch Universities: Teaching and Learning Anthropology in an Insecure Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Ellen; Grassiani, Erella; Kirk, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on our own experiences and that of several of our colleagues teaching social and cultural anthropology in different Dutch institutions for higher learning. We focus in particular on teaching and learning in two small liberal arts and science (LAS) colleges, where anthropology makes up part of the social science curriculum…

  1. Annual Review of Anthropology. Volume 8, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 23 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in the discipline of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, ethnology, social anthropology, and linguistics. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology in United States colleges and universities. Topics of the…

  2. Culture, territories, and confidence in food: an anthropological view on health in the context of environmental pollution and socio-political tension.

    PubMed

    Bargès, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Pollutants in the environment as well as potential risks to human health and health policies are leading to profound changes in the food chain. Whether dietary patterns and medical interventions are accepted, depends on the cultural and territorial anchorage of the populations, their socio-cultural past as well as scientific uncertainty and modalities of objectification of social actors. Controversies, debates, and the media influence governance. Local and minority experiences open up global perspectives. This paper focuses on the necessary contextualization of events at the crossroads of various social sciences. The exposure of fish-eating native people to methylmercury in Canada is used as an example. PMID:18374451

  3. Culture and Disability in the Pacific. Summaries of Papers Prepared for a Working Session of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania (New Orleans, Louisiana, February 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Maureen, Ed.; Armstrong, Jocelyn, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue is devoted to summaries of 12 papers on culture and disability issues in the Pacific. The summaries presented span Oceania and are based on papers representing Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Nstasinge: The Sickness of a Small Boy from the Finisterre Range in Papua New…

  4. Psychosis in adolescence - an anthropological approach.

    PubMed

    Árkovits, Amaryl; Tényi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Certain young men may react with psychosis to the Eriksonian developmental crisis of identity vs. role diffusion. In its symptomatology, this decompensation belongs to the category of schizophreniphorm psychoses, and may be reappearing within a given timeframe. This can be termed as a "psychosocial moratorium". Approached from a socio-anthropological viewpoint, in our culture deprived of myths and rites, these psychoses may be interpreted as analogous phenomena to initiation rites. The triad of segregation-liminality-reintegration may come useful in the therapeutic interpretation of these phenomena. PMID:26771701

  5. Apaches in Three Dimensions: Anthropology, History and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Leo E.

    As many disciplines as possible should be used in the teaching of Indian Studies. In particular, creative literature adds another dimension to the understanding of Indian culture and the history of Indian-white relations when it is used in conjunction with historical and anthropological material. The serious student should read historical novels…

  6. Co-lingualism, Anthropological Linguistics and Compensatory Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, John

    Noting the close relationship among language, thought, culture, personality, and self awareness, anthropological linguistics acknowledges the powerful and real function language styles play in human life, the close attachment between the individual and his natural manner of speech, and the sensitivity that surrounds an individual's attachment to…

  7. Anthropology for Contemporary Nurses: A Paper for Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The integration of culturally relevant concepts into nursing education is essential for the effective delivery of health care in a modern, multi-ethnic, multi-racial, mobile society. Several key concepts from anthropology and specific areas of individual interpersonal behavior have particular relevance to nursing education. It is important, for…

  8. Future Horizons in Anthropology and Education: The View from 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Robert B.

    1977-01-01

    The outgoing president of the Council on Anthropology and Education discusses "areas of substantive concern that our organization and field might wisely attempt to grow into." He focuses on cultural futuristics, global emphasis, macro approaches, quantitative methodology, political economy, dependency, exploitation, life-long and nonformal…

  9. Integrating a Middle School Art Course with an Anthropological Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    This case study outlines the program that a teacher developed to integrate a course entitled "Southwest Cultures through Art" for middle school students around an anthropological theme. The course featured units on collage, petroglyphs, and pottery but mostly vernacular architecture. The case starts with a description of the context and…

  10. Toward Common Ground: The Uses of Educational Anthropology in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter; Mattheis, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews advances of interest to multicultural educators and researchers in the complementary disciplines of multicultural education and educational anthropology including the culture concept; biological and sociological conceptions of "race;" postmodern understandings of identity and subjectivity; and ethnographic accounts…

  11. On Not Liking What One Sees: Anthropology and the Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nick

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that an anthropological perspective offers exciting possibilities for developing intercultural understanding in the visual arts. Examines the problems encountered when applying this perspective to the visual art of radically different cultures. (JDH)

  12. Cultural barriers to effective communication between Indigenous communities and health care providers in Northern Argentina: an anthropological contribution to Chagas disease prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ninety percent of the aboriginal communities of Argentina are located in areas of endemic vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. Control activities in these communities have not been effective. The goal of this research was to explore the role played by beliefs, habits, and practices of Pilaga and Wichi indigenous communities in their interaction with the local health system in the province of Formosa. This article contributes to the understanding of the cultural barriers that affect the communication process between indigenous peoples and their health care providers. Methods Twenty-nine open ended interviews were carried out with members of four indigenous communities (Pilaga and Wichi) located in central Formosa. These interviews were used to describe and compare these communities’ approach to health and disease as they pertain to Chagas as well as their perceptions of Western medicine and its incarnation in local health practice. Results Five key findings are presented: 1) members of these communities tend to see disease as caused by other people or by the person’s violation of taboos instead of as a biological process; 2) while the Pilaga are more inclined to accept Western medicine, the Wichi often favour the indigenous approach to health care over the Western approach; 3) members of these communities do not associate the vector with the transmission of the disease and they have little awareness of the need for vector control activities; 4) indigenous individuals who undergo diagnostic tests and accept treatment often do so without full information and knowledge; 5) the clinical encounter is rife with conflict between the expectations of health care providers and those of members of these communities. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that there is a need to consider the role of the cultural patterning of health and disease when developing interventions to prevent and control Chagas disease among indigenous communities in Northern Argentina

  13. Should Medical Anthropology be Required for Family Physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Deagle, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The educational preparation of practitioners might change as family medicine shifts its emphasis to a more humanistic approach. Medical anthropology offers particular promise as a training experience. Learning about the role of culture, including beliefs and values surrounding illness, can supplement basic science training. Improved delivery of health care is likely if caregivers are sensitive to cultural dimensions of patients' illnesses. Imagesp1178-ap1179-ap1180-a PMID:21221336

  14. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual. PMID:26256313

  15. Utopian Education and Anti-Utopian Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the connection of education, utopia and anthropology, aiming to tease out some educational implications of anti-utopian anthropological essentialism and to show why these should be staved off. It will be shown how an anthropology that tarnishes human nature operates and how it affects educational intervention in the shaping…

  16. Disciplining the Discipline: Anthropology and the Pursuit of Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Disciplinary knowledge in anthropology occupies a unique position in relation to quality education: anthropology in education and the anthropology of education. This essay differentiates between anthropology as a field, as a repository of content and disciplinary knowledge (anthropology in education), and anthropology as a tool, as a theoretical…

  17. Confessions of an Anthropological Poser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, David Delgado

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's confessions about being an anthropological poser. He shares a series of short fragments that evidence the ways he has drawn the line around his work. He draws some lessons about how to work collaboratively and effectively as Natives, scholars, and Native scholars. He closes this confession by admitting that he…

  18. Anthropological Contributions to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Three recent annual conferences of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) have included symposia on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). This paper reviews these symposia, which dealt with themes associated with the overarching AAA conference themes for each year: in 2004, the SETI session addressed Anthropology, Archaeology, and Interstellar Communication: Science and the Knowledge of Distant Worlds; in 2005, it dealt with Historical Perspectives on Anthropology and SETI; and in 2006, the session examined Culture, Anthropology, and SETI. Among the topics considered in these symposia were analogues for contact with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), examining anthropologists’ experience in the field encountering other cultures-past and present. Similarly, the methodologies of archaeologists provide analogies for making contact with temporally distant civilizations, based on reconstructions from fragmentary information. Case studies helped make such analogies concrete in the symposia. The challenges of comprehending intelligences with different mental worlds was explored through a study of the meetings of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, for example, while the decryption of Mayan hieroglyphics provided lessons on understanding others of own species.

  19. An Evaluation of the Experimental Anthropology Program at Magee Secondary School During the Spring Semester of 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.; And Others

    This study was performed to examine the effectiveness of an experimental anthropology program conducted in a secondary school. A semantic differential scale consisting of ten pairs of bipolar adjectives was administered in pre- and post-test sessions to anthropology students to measure their attitudes toward the following concepts: Culture,…

  20. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  1. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY...

  2. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY 13346.... Jordan Kerber, Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology,...

  3. Teaching a Non-Traditional, Honors Anthropology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Sharlotte

    An undergraduate "Anthropology Through Science Fiction" honors course is described. Participation in the course was by invitation only and included both anthropology and non-anthropology majors. By using science fiction, non-anthropology students quickly became familiar with weekly topics and anthropology majors found the readings a new way to…

  4. Deaf epistemologies as a critique and alternative to the practice of science: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Goedele A M

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, and responding to the criticism of orientalism, anthropology has engaged in a self-critical practice, working toward a postcolonial perspective on science and an epistemological stance of partial and situated knowledge (Pinxten, 2006; Pinxten & Note, 2005). In deaf studies, anthropological and sociological studies employing qualitative and ethnographic methods have introduced a paradigm shift. Concepts of deaf culture and deaf identity have been employed as political tools, contributing to the emancipation process of deaf people. However, recent anthropological studies in diverse local contexts indicate the cultural construction of these notions. From this viewpoint, deaf studies faces a challenge to reflect on the notions of culture, emancipation, and education from a nonexclusive, noncolonial perspective. Deaf studies research in a global context needs to deal with cultural and linguistic diversity in human beings and academia. This calls for epistemological reflection and new research methods. PMID:20415278

  5. Iberia: population genetics, anthropology, and linguistics.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Martínez-Laso, J; Alonso-García, J

    1999-10-01

    Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians have been studied for HLA and mitochondrial DNA markers, and the data analysis suggests that pre-Neolithic gene flow into Iberia came from ancient white North Africans (Hamites). The Basque language has also been used to translate the Iberian-Tartesian language and also Etruscan and Minoan Linear A. Physical anthropometry of Iberian Mesolithic and Neolithic skeletons does not support the demic replacement in Iberia of preexisting Mesolithic people by Neolithic people bearing new farming technologies from Europe and the Middle East. Also, the presence of cardial impressed pottery in western Mediterranean Europe and across the Maghreb (North Africa) coasts at the beginning of the Neolithic provides good evidence of pre-Neolithic circum-Mediterranean contacts by sea. In addition, pre-dynastic Egyptian El-Badari culture (4,500 years ago) is similar to southern Iberian Neolithic settlements with regard to pottery and animal domestication. Taking the genetic, linguistic, anthropological, and archeological evidence together with the documented Saharan area desiccation starting about 10,000 years ago, we believe that it is possible that a genetic and cultural pre-Neolithic flow coming from southern Mediterranean coasts existed toward northern Mediterranean areas, including at least Iberia and some Mediterranean islands. This model would substitute for the demic diffusion model put forward to explain Neolithic innovations in Western Europe. PMID:10510567

  6. Integrating Anthropology in Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how anthropology can be integrated into the social studies classroom focusing on second and fifth grade levels. Demonstrates how different subject areas can be integrated with anthropology, such as history, geography, science, mathematics, and art. Covers topics such as foods, American Indian folklore, moonsticks, and myths and legends.…

  7. Degree Program in Applied Sociology/Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights.

    The Northern Kentucky University Bachelor of Science in Applied Sociology and Anthropology (ASAN), which is described in this report, involves a strong liberal arts background combined with a thorough preparation in social science research skills. ASAN students take introductory and basic methods courses in sociology and anthropology, applied…

  8. Pre-collegiate Anthropology: Progress or Peril?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    Pre-collegiate anthropology is traced from the 1940's, when it was nothing more than an incidental footnote in most social studies textbooks, to 1978, when, according to a survey of state social studies specialists, it was part of the social studies curriculum in most states. Reasons for the development of pre-collegiate anthropology during the…

  9. Smithsonian Publications Bring Anthropology to the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ruth O.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the continuing contribution of "Anthronotes," a Smithsonian publication supporting efforts to teach pre-collegiate anthropology. Anthronotes works to keep teachers informed about recent findings in anthropology, help teachers use community and instructional materials in their courses, and create a support network for teachers interested…

  10. History and future of visual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2011-03-01

    Visual recording of communication processes between communities or individuals by means of filming of photographing is of significant importance in anthropology, as it documents on site the specific features of various social communities in their encounter with the researcher. In terms of film industry, it is a sort of ethno-documentary pursuing originality and objectivity in recording the given subject, thus fulfilling the research mission. However, the potential of visual anthropology significantly exceeds the mere audiovisual recording of ethnologic realities. Modern methods of analysing and evaluating the role of visual anthropology suggest that it is a technical research service aimed at documenting the status quo. If the direction of proactive approach were taken, then the term ,visual anthropology' could be changed to ,anthropology of the visual,. This apparently cosmetic change of name is actually significantly more accurate, suggesting the denoted proactive swift in perceiving visual anthropology, where visual methods are employed to ,provoke< the reaction of an individual or of the community. In this way the "anthropology of the visual, is promoted to a new scientific sub-anthropological discipline. PMID:21661369

  11. Reflections on the Future of Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference’s theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline. PMID:20027285

  12. Better together: Thinking anthropologically about genetics.

    PubMed

    Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Goldberg, Amy

    2016-08-01

    What are the effects that genetics has had on Anthropological research and how can we think anthropologically about Genetics? Just as genetic data have encouraged new hypotheses about human phenotypic variation, evolutionary history, population interaction, and environmental effects, so too has Anthropology offered to genetic studies a new interpretive locus in its history and perspective. This introduction examines how the fields of Anthropology and Genetics have arrived at a crucial moment at which their interaction requires careful examination and critical reflection. The papers discussed here exemplify how we may engage in such a trans-disciplinary conversation. They speak to the future of thoughtful interaction between genetic and anthropological literature and seek a new integration that embodies the holism of the human biological sciences. PMID:27312265

  13. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations. PMID:24700144

  14. Digital-Visual-Sensory-Design Anthropology: Ethnography, Imagination and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this article I outline how a digital-visual-sensory approach to anthropological ethnography might participate in the making of relationship between design and anthropology. While design anthropology is itself coming of age, the potential of its relationship with applied visual anthropology methodology and theory has not been considered in the…

  15. Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea; Medin, Douglas L

    2012-07-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive science (CS) subdisciplines currently maintain a troubled relationship. With a debate in topiCS we aim at exploring the prospects for improving this relationship, and our introduction is intended as a catalyst for this debate. In order to encourage a frank sharing of perspectives, our comments will be deliberately provocative. Several challenges for a successful rapprochement are identified, encompassing the diverging paths that CS and anthropology have taken in the past, the degree of compatibility between (1) CS and (2) anthropology with regard to methodology and (3) research strategies, (4) the importance of anthropology for CS, and (5) the need for disciplinary diversity. Given this set of challenges, a reconciliation seems unlikely to follow on the heels of good intentions alone. PMID:22685087

  16. Anthropology in the cognitive sciences: the value of diversity.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Sara J

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) offer a provocative proposal outlining several reasons why anthropology and the rest of cognitive science might consider parting ways. Among those reasons, they suggest that separation might maintain the diversity needed to address larger problems facing humanity, and that the research strategies used across the disciplines are already so diverse as to be incommensurate. The present paper challenges the view that research strategies are incommensurate and offers a multimethod approach to cultural research that can help to establish common ground while maintaining diversity. PMID:22593022

  17. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail. PMID:3548583

  18. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries. PMID:27430039

  19. Informal Kinship-Based Fostering Around the World: Anthropological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2015-01-01

    Anthropological research around the world has documented informal, kinship-based foster care cross culturally. That research suggests that children are more likely to benefit from informal kinship-based fostering in cultural contexts where fostering expands the pool of relatives rather than substituting one parent for another, fostering is expected to provide children with positive opportunities for learning and development, and/or children are granted some autonomy or decision-making power. However, informal kinship-based fostering seems to place children at risk in cultural contexts where the process of children’s attachment to caregivers resembles the Western child development model, communities are highly stratified along socioeconomic lines, and/or exploitation of children is permitted. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for both research and policy. PMID:26973709

  20. Bridging Psychiatric and Anthropological Approaches: The Case of “Nerves” in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Britt; Barg, Frances K.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wittink, Marsha N.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatrists and anthropologists have taken distinct analytic approaches when confronted with differences between emic and etic models for distress: psychiatrists have translated folk models into diagnostic categories whereas anthropologists have emphasized culture-specific meanings of illness. The rift between psychiatric and anthropological research keeps “individual disease” and “culture” disconnected and thus hinders the study of interrelationships between mental health and culture. In this article we bridge psychiatric and anthropological approaches by using cultural models to explore the experience of nerves among 27 older primary care patients from Baltimore, Maryland. We suggest that cultural models of distress arise in response to personal experiences, and in turn, shape those experiences. Shifting research from a focus on comparing content of emic and etic concepts, to examining how these social realities and concepts are coconstructed, may resolve epistemological and ontological debates surrounding differences between emic and etic concepts, and improve understanding of the interrelationships between culture and health. PMID:20428332

  1. Anthropological Diplomacy: Issues and Principles. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Mario D.; And Others

    The focus of this volume is anthropological diplomacy: the promotion of peace and prevention of war by knowing, understanding, and appreciating the basic affirmations of society. Eight articles examine the role of race, language, and culture in inter-ethnic and international relations. Vinson Sutlive, Jr. examines the interrelationship of race and…

  2. An Anthropology of "Familismo": On Narratives and Description of Mexican/Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Alvarez, Edith Alejandra Castaneda; Turner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research on core cultural values has been central to behavioral and clinical research in ethnic groups. "Familismo" is one such construct, theorized as the strong identification and attachment of Hispanic persons with their nuclear and extended families. Our anthropological research on this concept among Mexicans and Mexican immigrants in the…

  3. Anthropology and International Business. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrie, Hendrick, Ed.

    The range and possibilities of "business anthropology" are explored in fourteen papers. The papers are presented in an order designed to illustrate five major roles for anthropologists interested in working with business: (1) conducting cross-cultural orientation programs for business personnel working in foreign countries or with different…

  4. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or......

  5. Saying Good-Bye: An Anthropological Examination of a Commencement Ritual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolda, Peter Mark

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines college commencement, a formal campus exiting ritual orchestrated for students as they conclude their academic careers. The manuscript is focused on a single commencement ritual that illuminates the power of rituals to transmit cultural norms and provides an anthropological perspective that benefits scholars, practitioners, and…

  6. 77 FR 48536 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...The Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and associated funerary objects and a present-day Indian tribe. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be......

  7. The Difference that Diaspora Makes: Thinking through the Anthropology of Immigrant Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukose, Ritty A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I examine the possibility of a productive dialogue between diaspora studies and the anthropology of immigrant education in the United States. Arguing that their respective views on the nation-state is a key source for their different orientations toward migrant social and cultural worlds, I nevertheless argue that an engagement…

  8. Expanding the Dialogue: A Response to Bird and Godwin's "Film in the Undergraduate Anthropology Classroom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to S. Elizabeth Bird and Jonathan P. Godwin's article "Film in the Undergraduate Anthropology Classroom: Applying Audience Response Research in Pedagogical Practice." The intention of my response is to expand the dialogue on film use to promote cultural understanding in university classes and campus-wide. Through…

  9. Anthropology 101 and English 101: Ethnography as Data Source and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, John H.

    At Utica College, Anthropology 101 seeks to help students begin to detect ethnocentrism in themselves and others, to get an understanding of the varieties of cultural systems, and to see their own society as simply one example of shapes a society can take. An "ethnography project" is a useful device in advancing these goals. Students are…

  10. Film in the Undergraduate Anthropology Classroom: Applying Audience Response Research in Pedagogical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, S. Elizabeth; Godwin, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    While we often assume media are highly effective tools for learning, research shows an unpredictable relationship between text and audience response, with variable interpretation being the norm. This can be especially problematic in anthropology, whose central goal is to understand different cultures; some studies suggest that films may reinforce…

  11. Immunogenetics as a tool in anthropological studies.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Middleton, Derek; Hollenbach, Jill A; Buhler, Stéphane; Di, Da; Rajalingam, Raja; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mack, Steven J; Thorsby, Erik

    2011-06-01

    The genes coding for the main molecules involved in the human immune system--immunoglobulins, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)--exhibit a very high level of polymorphism that reveals remarkable frequency variation in human populations. 'Genetic marker' (GM) allotypes located in the constant domains of IgG antibodies have been studied for over 40 years through serological typing, leading to the identification of a variety of GM haplotypes whose frequencies vary sharply from one geographic region to another. An impressive diversity of HLA alleles, which results in amino acid substitutions located in the antigen-binding region of HLA molecules, also varies greatly among populations. The KIR differ between individuals according to both gene content and allelic variation, and also display considerable population diversity. Whereas the molecular evolution of these polymorphisms has most likely been subject to natural selection, principally driven by host-pathogen interactions, their patterns of genetic variation worldwide show significant signals of human geographic expansion, demographic history and cultural diversification. As current developments in population genetic analysis and computer simulation improve our ability to discriminate among different--either stochastic or deterministic--forces acting on the genetic evolution of human populations, the study of these systems shows great promise for investigating both the peopling history of modern humans in the time since their common origin and human adaptation to past environmental (e.g. pathogenic) changes. Therefore, in addition to mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms and other markers, immunogenetic polymorphisms represent essential and complementary tools for anthropological studies. PMID:21480890

  12. Immunogenetics as a tool in anthropological studies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Middleton, Derek; Hollenbach, Jill A; Buhler, Stéphane; Di, Da; Rajalingam, Raja; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mack, Steven J; Thorsby, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The genes coding for the main molecules involved in the human immune system – immunoglobulins, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) – exhibit a very high level of polymorphism that reveals remarkable frequency variation in human populations. ‘Genetic marker’ (GM) allotypes located in the constant domains of IgG antibodies have been studied for over 40 years through serological typing, leading to the identification of a variety of GM haplotypes whose frequencies vary sharply from one geographic region to another. An impressive diversity of HLA alleles, which results in amino acid substitutions located in the antigen-binding region of HLA molecules, also varies greatly among populations. The KIR differ between individuals according to both gene content and allelic variation, and also display considerable population diversity. Whereas the molecular evolution of these polymorphisms has most likely been subject to natural selection, principally driven by host–pathogen interactions, their patterns of genetic variation worldwide show significant signals of human geographic expansion, demographic history and cultural diversification. As current developments in population genetic analysis and computer simulation improve our ability to discriminate among different – either stochastic or deterministic – forces acting on the genetic evolution of human populations, the study of these systems shows great promise for investigating both the peopling history of modern humans in the time since their common origin and human adaptation to past environmental (e.g. pathogenic) changes. Therefore, in addition to mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms and other markers, immunogenetic polymorphisms represent essential and complementary tools for anthropological studies. PMID:21480890

  13. Application and limitations of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G

    2015-06-01

    The use of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research was been well documented in the literature. This article explores the varied settings in which endoscopy is beneficial in gathering visual data for interpretation related to cultural remains and artifacts. Endoscopic data may be used to assist in the pursuit of answering such bioanthropological questions as sex, age at death, presence of paleopathologies, dental conditions, and cultural practices. Endoscopy is often used to guide and document biopsy procedures as well as the retrieval of artifacts from within poorly accessible locations such as body cavities, coffins, or tombs. In addition, endoscopic data is used to examine such archaeological features as tomb structure and design. A contrast between the medical and anthropological approach is described. Endoscopic research is enhanced when applied in conjunction with additional varied imaging modalities. While invasive, endoscopy is a nondestructive methodological approach. As with all methods, endoscopy has application and interpretational limitations, which can be described as limitations resulting from instrumentation, and those arising from personnel less familiar with the various approaches to endoscopy in both field and laboratory settings. PMID:25998646

  14. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940

    PubMed Central

    Turda, Marius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists’ professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism. PMID:24363494

  15. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists' professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism. PMID:24363494

  16. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners. PMID:26753444

  17. Welcome home, Descartes! rethinking the anthropology of the body.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    For many scholars, the Cartesian mind/body split is one of the fundamental mistakes of the Western scientific tradition. Anthropologists who study notions of the body in cultures around the world regularly take Descartes as their point of departure. Many also suggest that breaking free from Descartes is politically liberating: if the mindful body could be rediscovered, society could move away from its materialist, positivist, and commodity-fetishizing ways. Beyond the Body Proper is anthropology's best and most comprehensive anti-Cartesian manifesto to date. This volume brings together some of the finest studies on the cultural and historical diversity of bodies and minds. Yet anthropologists' blanket rejection of the mind/body dualism seems politically self-defeating. If anthropologists want to criticize racism, gender hierarchies, or discrimination against disabled people, they need to believe that the mind is independent from the body. In other words, they need to uphold the Cartesian split. PMID:19271351

  18. Making Anthropology a Part of the Elementary Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    1990-01-01

    Contends that anthropology should provide the focus for the elementary social studies curriculum. Delineates concepts and generalizations for such a curriculum and suggests activities to build anthropological understanding. (GG)

  19. Boas, Darwin, science, and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H S

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a new reading of Franz Boas's philosophy of science and his approach to the understanding of culture and behavior. It points out that his approach had important parallels with the worldview of the major figures associated with pragmatism and suggests that a similar perspective can be useful today. PMID:14992220

  20. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors. PMID:24308254

  1. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  2. Anthropology with Activism: Settling Its Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.

    2014-01-01

    This response to Katherine Schultz's Presidential Address to the Council on Anthropology and Education explores the themes of temporality and reflexivity in activist scholarship, with Schultz's research as prime example. The need to take action to address a crisis, juxtaposed to the counter need to take time for scholarly reflection and…

  3. Communications and Conferencing Software for Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, James

    Recent developments in the field of computer communication are reviewed, and ways in which these technologies can be used to make anthropology more productive and effective are examined. Computer communication is defined as the communication of symbolic information from one location to another electronically over phone lines, satellite links, or…

  4. The Theological Anthropology of Thomas Groome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Theological anthropology in the work of Thomas Groome can be understood by exploring the relationship between subjectivity and knowledge in his major works. This relationship is constituted by five fundamental elements: the knowing subject in religious education as existential, liberational, pedagogical, theological, and critical. A comprehension…

  5. Anthropology: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's research guide for the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is designed for junior and senior high school teachers to integrate anthropology into their social studies and science classes. The information in this packet consists of a list of books for teachers and students, classroom activities, and other…

  6. A Course Evolves-Physical Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an online physical anthropology course at Palomar College (California) that evolved from online tutorials. Discusses the ability to update materials on the Web more quickly than in traditional textbooks; creating Web pages that are readable by most Web browsers; test security issues; and clarifying ownership of online…

  7. Archaeology and Anthropological Teaching Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography and background paper has been prepared to cover topics most frequently encountered in the field of archaeology and anthropology education: career information, excavation, fieldword opportunities, artifact identification, and preservation. The information included should provide avenues along which topics may be pursued further…

  8. Anthropological Materials Available from the Smithsonian Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Museum of Natural History.

    This bulletin is a detailed list of source materials and resource packets for teachers, covering specific topics from the perspectives of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnography. All materials listed are available through the Smithsonian Institution. Pricing information is given with each item, and many materials are free of charge. Materials…

  9. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  10. Evaluation in the Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Marion J.

    Reviewed in this summary are the seven evaluations completed by the Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP) of their own materials for grades 1-7. These seven are: 1) cognitive achievement within the premises of a single discipline approach and differential teacher preparation; 2) differential cognitive achievement by grade level holding teatment by…

  11. Anthropology's disenchantment with the cognitive revolution(1).

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin should be congratulated for their generous attempt at expressive academic therapy for troubled interdisciplinary relationships. In this essay, I suggest that a negative answer to the central question ("Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?") is not necessarily distressing, that in retrospect the breakup seems fairly predictable, and that disenchantment with the cognitive revolution is nothing new. PMID:22685098

  12. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  13. 75 FR 14461 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR. The human remains and associated funerary object were removed... Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology professional staff...

  14. [Theoretical perspectives on medicine and the medical profession: an anthropological approach].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S

    1991-08-01

    The medical field and profession are studied from the theoretical point of view of the social sciences. The most representative works on this subject are presented. The analysis shows that conservative positivism and orthodox Marxism are the main obstacles to development in this field of study. At the same time it suggests the concept of culture and the anthropological method of research as the best means for the overcoming of some of the main contradictions which paralyse its progress. PMID:1820621

  15. The benefits of anthropological approaches for health promotion research and practice.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, A; Weijts, W; Reddy, P; Meijer-Weitz, A

    2001-04-01

    In recent years health education practitioners have been looking for ways to extend the social psychological analysis of human behavior with approaches that focus on the cultural and social context of human behavior. In this article the value of the 'thick description' approach, borrowed from anthropology, is explored by examples from the Caribbean and South Africa. It demonstrates that an anthropological approach has much to offer as a basis for sound interventions for understanding human behavior. However, although an anthropological approach offers valuable starting points for interventions, its broad scope exceeds the traditional goals of health education (changing health beliefs, health counseling). Interventions will not aim at informing individuals, but at improving cultures. They may concern the change of basic cultural and social structures such as gender roles. To limit the risk of ethnocentrism, adequate ways need to be developed to make optimal use of the information thick description offers, while avoiding ethnocentrism. The article ends with a discussion concerning the assets of a dialogical approach towards health promotion. A dialogue between health promoters and their target population may help solve the problem of ethnocentrism in broadly scoped interventions. PMID:11345657

  16. Managing Student Culture and Culture Shock: A Case from European Tirol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Martha C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the anthropology field school or structured cultural-immersion experience held in the summer at a castle in German-speaking Italy. Students from the United States experience culture shock but usually learn new social and survival skills. (SLD)

  17. Native Indian Youth in Museums: Success in Education at the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Madeline Bronsdon

    In 1979, the Native Indian Youth in Museums project began placing Musqueam teenagers in the University of British Columbia's Museum of Anthropology to teach them about traditional coastal Indian culture, and train them to share this information with museum visitors. Co-sponsored by the Native Indian Youth Advisory Society and the Native Youth…

  18. Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives. [And] Instructor's Manual to Accompany Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David E., Ed.; Whitten, Phillip, Ed.

    Forty-seven articles comprise this reader designed for beginning college students and instructors in an introductory anthropology course. Original contributions from both anthropologists and non-anthropologists are reprinted. The readings, drawn primarily from the popular press but including some of the discipline's "classical" articles, are…

  19. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington...

  20. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  1. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department..., Anthropology Department, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... associated funerary objects may contact the Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department....

  2. 76 FR 28075 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit... Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI. The human remains and associated funerary objects... Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  3. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... condition. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western...

  4. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  5. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... may contact Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human...

  6. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains....

  7. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... and associated funerary objects should contact LouAnn Wurst, Department of Anthropology,...

  8. 76 FR 14067 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, Amherst...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Anthropology, Amherst, MA and Nantucket Historical Association, Nantucket, MA AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary object in the possession of the University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, Amherst... human remains was made by University of Massachusetts, Department of Anthropology, professional staff...

  9. 75 FR 30427 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is..., Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID, that meet the definitions of ``unassociated... Laboratory of Anthropology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the five cultural...

  10. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    PubMed

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico. PMID:22073441

  11. Froude number corrections in anthropological studies.

    PubMed

    Steudel-Numbers, Karen; Weaver, Timothy D

    2006-09-01

    The Froude number has been widely used in anthropology to adjust for size differences when comparing gait parameters or other nonmorphological locomotor variables (such as optimal walking speed or speed at gait transitions) among humans, nonhuman primates, and fossil hominins. However, the dynamic similarity hypothesis, which is the theoretical basis for Froude number corrections, was originally developed and tested at much higher taxonomic levels, for which the ranges of variation are much greater than in the intraspecific or intrageneric comparisons typical of anthropological studies. Here we present new experimental data on optimal walking speed and the mass-specific cost of transport at that speed from 19 adult humans walking on a treadmill, and evaluate the predictive power of the dynamic similarity hypothesis in this sample. Contrary to the predictions of the dynamic similarity hypothesis, we found that the mass-specific cost of transport at experimentally measured optimal walking speed and Froude number were not equal across individuals, but retained a significant correlation with body mass. Overall, the effect of lower limb length on optimal walking speed was weak. These results suggest that the Froude number may not be an effective way for anthropologists to correct for size differences across individuals, but more studies are needed. We suggest that researchers first determine whether geometric similarity characterizes their data before making inferences based on the dynamic similarity hypothesis, and then check the consistency of their results with and without Froude number corrections before drawing any firm conclusions. PMID:16485296

  12. Geostatistics and spatial analysis in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Relethford, John H

    2008-05-01

    A variety of methods have been used to make evolutionary inferences based on the spatial distribution of biological data, including reconstructing population history and detection of the geographic pattern of natural selection. This article provides an examination of geostatistical analysis, a method used widely in geology but which has not often been applied in biological anthropology. Geostatistical analysis begins with the examination of a variogram, a plot showing the relationship between a biological distance measure and the geographic distance between data points and which provides information on the extent and pattern of spatial correlation. The results of variogram analysis are used for interpolating values of unknown data points in order to construct a contour map, a process known as kriging. The methods of geostatistical analysis and discussion of potential problems are applied to a large data set of anthropometric measures for 197 populations in Ireland. The geostatistical analysis reveals two major sources of spatial variation. One pattern, seen for overall body and craniofacial size, shows an east-west cline most likely reflecting the combined effects of past population dispersal and settlement. The second pattern is seen for craniofacial height and shows an isolation by distance pattern reflecting rapid spatial changes in the midlands region of Ireland, perhaps attributable to the genetic impact of the Vikings. The correspondence of these results with other analyses of these data and the additional insights generated from variogram analysis and kriging illustrate the potential utility of geostatistical analysis in biological anthropology. PMID:18257009

  13. [Anthropology play a key role in simulated portrait].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Biao

    2006-08-15

    The technology of simulated portrait played a key role in criminal cases' deterction recently, while anthropology is attached to it tightly. This paper analyzed and discussed the impact of anthropology in simulated portrait by means of studying the relationship between races, regions figures skeletons and physiognomy. PMID:17080677

  14. Course File for "Documentary Film, Visual Anthropology, and Visual Sociology."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaselli, Keyan G.; Shepperson, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course that addresses and relocates questions of representation and reconstruction in the context of reflexive explanations for ethnographic films. Examines questions of power/power relations; anthropological and media construction of the Other; and trends in visual anthropology. Contextualizes the course within the human experience of…

  15. The Committee on Anthropology and Education. Report and Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Education, Washington, DC.

    The document consists of a report by the chairman of the Committee on Anthropology and Education and six essays commissioned by the committee. In addressing the need to support educational anthropology programs, the report suggests: creation of a national fellowship program for graduate students; interchanges among educational anthropology…

  16. A Program for High School Social Studies: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Pam

    GRADES OR AGES: High School. SUBJECT MATTER: Anthropology. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers three units: 1) "The Study of Man"; 2) "Introduction to Physical Anthropology," including the process of evolution, descent and change in time, chronology of events, dawn of man, fossil man, race, and definitions of race; and 3)…

  17. Anthropology - Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Skidmore Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Margaret

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit may be used as an introduction to the study of anthropology, the influence of ecology on the study of anthropology, and an introduction to the physical school environment. For best results, it should be used at the beginning of the…

  18. Public Anthropology as Public Pedagogy: An Autobiographical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…

  19. Contemporary Culture: A Model for Teaching a Culture's Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom

    Current approaches to teaching culture which have adapted the anthropological model to contemporary life situations can serve as a guide to the organization of traditional civilization course material, from which exercises can be developed. Culture instruction should incorporate a cross-cultural dimension, be authentically contemporary, and be…

  20. An anthropological view of the forest culture of Peten, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, N.B.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional farmers and harvesters of non-timber forest products in Peten treat the forest in ways that conserve and regenerate its resources. They believe no one owns the forest outright. Humans share it with other life forms and therefore no one has the right to monopolize or destroy forest resources. Traditional Peteneros find a use for almost everything in the forest, and believe it neither smart nor proper to use a given area for a single purpose, for example, to clear an area of all trees and devote it exclusively to a cattle pasture. In the traditional system most medicinal plants, basic foodstuffs, fuelwoods and construction materials are taken from the bosque (secondary forests within walking distance of human settlements). Peteneros` sustainable use of bosques eases pressure on the monte (primary forests). In the monte Peteneros` harvesting practices are protective of resources, causing minimal damage. Finding almost everything in the forest useful, Peteneros believe all soils and plants should be tended and allowed to regenerate. However, modern developments such as uncontrolled logging, large-scale, unorganized colonization, cattle raising and market demands leading to monocropped farm plots imperil the forests of Peten and a way of life that subsumes a practical conservation ethic.

  1. [Death as a process: an anthropological perspective].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Bárbara

    2013-09-01

    This article combines recent approximations that question the homology between death and biological demise from an anthropological perspective with the tradition of studies that review the death rituals in the Andean geographical area. In particular, it examines how in El Cajón, Catamarca, Northeast Argentina the dead are incorporated in the cosmologic scheme, and how death, being the initial step for this to occur, is not merely a biological event but also a highly dynamic social process. Based on ethnographical field work and using multiple-session open interviews and participant observation as methodological tools, it presents an analytical proposal that seeks to transcend the homology between death and biological demise, suggesting a notion that includes not only the organic dimension but also the social dimension: the process of death. PMID:23989575

  2. Dismemberment and disarticulation: A forensic anthropological approach.

    PubMed

    Porta, Davide; Amadasi, Alberto; Cappella, Annalisa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Magli, Francesca; Gibelli, Daniele; Rizzi, Agostino; Picozzi, Massimo; Gentilomo, Andrea; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    The dismemberment of a corpse is fairly rare in forensic medicine. It is usually performed with different types of sharp tools and used as a method of concealing the body and thus erasing proof of murder. In this context, the disarticulation of body parts is an even rarer event. The authors present the analysis of six dismemberment cases (well-preserved corpses or skeletonized remains with clear signs of dismemberment), arising from different contexts and in which different types of sharp tools were used. Two cases in particular showed peculiar features where separation of the forearms and limbs from the rest of the body was performed not by cutting through bones but through a meticulous disarticulation. The importance of a thorough anthropological investigation is thus highlighted, since it provides crucial information on the manner of dismemberment/disarticulation, the types of tools used and the general context in which the crime was perpetrated. PMID:26708349

  3. Culture, Meaning, and Interstellar Message Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traphagan, J. W.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation explores the concept of culture as it is used in anthropology and instances of contact between anthropologists and terrestrial "alien" civilizations and considers how these can inform thinking about potential contact with ETI.

  4. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a ‘grand synthesis’ is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely ‘cultural’ fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted. PMID:21041203

  5. Interfacing anthropology and epidemiology: the Bedouin Arab Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hundt, G A; Forman, M R

    1993-04-01

    This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both came to the study with previous experience in interdisciplinary work. The specific study objectives were (1) a description of infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women at various stages of settlement, (2) an examination of the trend in these infant feeding practices, (3) a comparison of the extent to which different infant feeding practices are related to infant morbidity and growth after adjustment for exposure to social change and other covariates. The data collection took place in 1981-83 and the analysis from 1984-88. In this paper, two areas of the study are discussed in depth: the duration of exclusive breast feeding during the practice of the traditional postpartum 40 day rest period, and the development of a culture-specific scale of socioeconomic status. Through these examples, we highlight the use of ethnographic data and the merging of epidemiology and anthropology from hypothesis generation through data collection, data analysis and interpretation. PMID:8480241

  6. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  7. A Pilot Study Integrating Visual Form and Anthropological Content for Teaching Children Ages 6 to 11 about Cultures and Peoples of the World; Specifically, the Preparation of a Danced Presentation with Lecture Interpreting Some of the Cultural Values in West and Central African Communities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primus, Pearl E.

    A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the use of dance as a method for improving and extending curriculum content of world cultures in elementary schools. The secondary objectives emphasized nonverbal experience as a means of interpreting the patterns of cultural values in West and Central Africa. Most of the 41 presentations of the dance…

  8. Anthropological Approach of Adherence Factors for Antihypertensive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sarradon-Eck, Aline; Egrot, Marc; Blance, Marie Anne; Faure, Muriella

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Uncontrolled high blood pressure leads clinicians to wonder about adherence degree among hypertensive patients. In this context, our study aims to describe and analyze patients' experience of antihypertensive drugs in order to shed light on the multiple social and symbolic logics, forming part of the cultural factors shaping personal medication practices. Methods: The medical inductive and comprehensive anthropological approach implemented is based on an ethnographic survey (observations of consultations and interviews). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 68 hypertensive patients (39 women and 29 men, between the ages of 40 and 95, of whom 52 were over 60) who had been receiving treatment for over a year. Results: Antihypertensive drugs are reinterpreted when filtered through the cultural model of physiopathology (the body as an engine). This symbolic dimension facilitates acceptance of therapy but leads to a hierarchization of other prescribed drugs and of certain therapeutic classes (diuretics). Prescription compliance does not solely depend on the patient's perception of cardiovascular risk, but also on how the patient fully accepts the treatment and integrates it into his or her daily life; this requires identification with the product, building commitment and self-regulation of the treatment (experience, managing treatment and control of side effects, intake and treatment continuity). Following the prescription requires a relationship based on trust between the doctor and patient, which we have identified in three forms: reasoned trust, emotional trust and conceded trust. Conclusion: Consideration and understanding of these pragmatic and symbolic issues by the treating physician should aid practitioners in carrying out their role as medical educators in the management of hypertension. This paper was originally published in French, in the journal Pratiques et organisation des soins 39(1): 3-12. PMID:21532764

  9. A Social Anthropology of Education: The Case of Chiapas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, John C.

    1977-01-01

    Social anthropological theory is used to analyze the relationship of education to sociocultural change resulting from the interaction of the local ecological system and national influences in two rural regions of the Chiapas. (Author/AM)

  10. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  11. Seeking a rapprochement between anthropology and the cognitive sciences: a problem-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Cohen, Emma

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin question the necessity of including social anthropology within the cognitive sciences. We argue that there is great scope for fruitful rapprochement while agreeing that there are obstacles (even if we might wish to debate some of those specifically identified by Beller and colleagues). We frame the general problem differently, however: not in terms of the problem of reconciling disciplines and research cultures, but rather in terms of the prospects for collaborative deployment of expertise (methodological and theoretical) in problem-driven research. For the purposes of illustration, our focus in this article is on the evolution of cooperation. PMID:22711677

  12. Searching for "voices": feminism, anthropology, and the global debate over female genital operations.

    PubMed

    Walley, C J

    1997-08-01

    This article lays the groundwork for a feminist and anthropological political response to female genital "operations" that transcends the current debate over the phenomenon, which is couched in terms of cultural relativism or of politically-informed outrage. After an introduction, the study considers the politics involved in assigning a name to the procedure and explains the author's reason for choosing female genital "operation" over the more commonly used "circumcision," "mutilation," or "torture." In the next section, clitoridectomy is contextualized through a recounting of the circumstances under which the procedure was performed in the western Kenyan village of Kikhome in 1988. This discussion focuses on the ceremonies surrounding the circumcisions of young men and women, the author's attempts to discover how the young women involved really felt about the tradition, and a review of the anthropological literature on the significance and impact of these practices. The analysis then examines the international controversy surrounding female genital mutilation and provides an overview of the colonial discourse on female genital mutilation in Africa to expose 1) the origins of justifications for colonial dominance in the dominance of non-Western women by non-Western men and 2) the fact that use of cultural arguments that fuse women and tradition can support culturally-defined power relationships. The article concludes with a consideration of who is qualified to speak out against female genital mutilation given the fact that all women and all debates are the products of longstanding, tenacious power relationships. PMID:12293482

  13. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses. PMID:22399435

  14. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  15. An Integrated Approach to Diabetes Prevention: Anthropology, Public Health, and Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Mishra, Shiraz I.; Niforatos, Joshua; Regino, Lidia; Bulten, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is an enormous public health problem with particular concern within Hispanic communities and among individuals with low wealth. However, attempts to expand the public health paradigm to include social determinants of health rarely include analysis of social and contextual factors considered outside the purview of health research. As a result, conceptualization of the dynamics of diabetes health disparities remains shallow. We argue that using a holistic anthropological lens has the potential to offer insights regarding the nature of the interface between broader social determinants, health outcomes and health disparity. In a primarily Hispanic, immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we conducted a mixed methods study that integrates an anthropological lens with a community engaged research design. Our data from focus groups, interviews, a survey and blood sampling demonstrate the need to conceptualize social determinants more broadly, more affectively and more dynamically than often considered. These results highlight a need to include, in addition to individual-level factors that are traditionally the focus of public health and more innovative structural factors that are currently in vogue, an in-depth, qualitative exploration of local context, social environment, and culture, and their interactions and intersectionality, as key factors when considering how to achieve change. The discussion presented here offers a model for culturally situated and contextually relevant scientific research. This model achieves the objectives and goals of both public health and anthropology while providing valuable insights and mechanisms for addressing health disparity such as that which exists in relation to diabetes among Hispanic immigrants in New Mexico. Such an approach has implications for how research projects are designed and conceptualizing social determinants more broadly. The discussion presented provides insights with relevance for both disciplines

  16. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  17. History in the gene: negotiations between molecular and organismal anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study of primate phylogeny and human evolution on the molecular level, asserted its claim to the privilege of interpretation regarding hominoid, hominid, and human phylogeny and evolution vis-à-vis other historical sciences such as evolutionary biology, physical anthropology, and paleoanthropology. This process will be discussed on the basis of three key conferences on primate classification and evolution that brought together exponents of the respective fields and that were held in approximately ten-years intervals between the early 1960s and the 1980s. I show how the anthropological gene and genome gained their status as the most fundamental, clean, and direct records of historical information, and how the prioritizing of these epistemic objects was part of a complex involving the objectivity of numbers, logic, and mathematics, the objectivity of machines and instruments, and the objectivity seen to reside in the epistemic objects themselves. PMID:19244721

  18. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. PMID:26949023

  19. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  20. Human Images: A Communications Approach to Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    The premise of this 14 week anthropology course is that endeavors by the mass media should be understood as cultural enterprises. Students will examine the means by which anthropologists, photographers, filmmakers, writers, new reporters or other observers translate their observations of another culture to members of their own culture. The Eskimo…

  1. Culture and Cognition in Information Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holvikivi, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at explaining the outcomes of information technology education for international students using anthropological theories of cultural schemas. Even though computer science and engineering are usually assumed to be culture-independent, the practice in classrooms seems to indicate that learning patterns depend on culture. The…

  2. Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at a conference entitled, 'Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology,' held November 28, 1990, at NASA's Science and Technology Laboratory. One reason for this conference was to facilitate information exchange among a diverse group of anthropologists. Much of the research in anthropology that has made use of satellite image processing, geographical information systems, and global positioning systems has been known to only a small group of practitioners. A second reason for this conference was to promote scientific dialogue between anthropologists and professionals outside of anthropology. It is certain that both the development and proper application of new technologies will only result from greater cooperation between technicians and 'end-users.' Anthropologists can provide many useful applications to justify the costs of new technological development.

  3. Clinical and anthropological perspectives on chemical relaxing of afro-textured hair.

    PubMed

    Aryiku, S A; Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Jablonski, N G

    2015-09-01

    The culturally engrained practice of 'relaxing' afro-textured hair has been linked with hair and scalp disorders. Herein, we discuss the evolution of human hair types, focusing in particular on afro-textured hair. We explore the biological features of this hair type, and discuss the different methods employed to straighten afro-textured hair, focusing in particular on chemical straightening. We also examine clinical, anthropological, and psychological issues associated with this latter practice. Examples of common scalp pathologies associated with chronic hair relaxing, such as alopecia, hair breakage, caustic burns and irritant contact dermatitis, are also highlighted. The data presented herein should enable clinicians to engage in culturally appropriate discussions with their patients about issues of appearance and conformity. PMID:25764359

  4. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Malott, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  5. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    PubMed

    Malott, R W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  6. [The biolaw anthropological basis. A philosofical reflection of biolaw].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Fernández Postigo, José

    2015-01-01

    From a basic terminological clarification, we seek to examine briefly what can be acknowledged as the two biggest attempts of foundation in the Biolaw contemporary area, that of the Kantian tradition and that of the anthropological and metaphysical realism. Through a critical examination of the first one, we attempt to show that only from a freedom or an autonomy assumed from the anthropological and metaphysical realism, is possible to hold a Biolaw as a true impervious limit against the technological power regarding human life and human procreation. PMID:26030012

  7. Contribution of anthropology to the study of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica; Dove, Michael; Lahsen, Myanna; Mathews, Andrew; McElwee, Pamela; McIntosh, Roderick; Moore, Frances; O'Reilly, Jessica; Orlove, Ben; Puri, Rajindra; Weiss, Harvey; Yager, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the challenge that climate change poses and crafting appropriate adaptation and mitigation mechanisms requires input from the breadth of the natural and social sciences. Anthropology's in-depth fieldwork methodology, long engagement in questions of society-environment interactions and broad, holistic view of society yields valuable insights into the science, impacts and policy of climate change. Yet the discipline's voice in climate change debates has remained a relatively marginal one until now. Here, we identify three key ways that anthropological research can enrich and deepen contemporary understandings of climate change.

  8. Exchanging hats: a gendered perspective on teaching clinical medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the progression of topics used to highlight gender in a clinical medical anthropology class. As the class moves through themes such as the use of high-technology medicine and doctor-patient communication, issues of the socially constructed nature of gender are brought to the fore. Included in this article are students' reflections on how they try to make sense of diverse notions of human sexuality and gender identity, and how these insights can be included in anthropological studies of clinical spaces. PMID:12956212

  9. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  10. 76 FR 28077 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of...

  11. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... associated funerary objects may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of...

  12. Anthropological Studies of Native American Place Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Traces development of Native American place name studies from Boas (1880s) to the present. Argues that place names convey information about physical environments but also reveal how people perceive, conceptualize, and utilize their environment. Suggests the utility of place names as a framework for cultural analysis and describes recent…

  13. Math in a Cultural Context: Two Case Studies of a Successful Culturally Based Math Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry; Hogan, Maureen P.; Webster, Joan Parker; Yanez, Evelyn; Adams, Barbara; Clark, Stacy; Lacy, Doreen

    2005-01-01

    Math in a Cultural Context (MCC) was developed from ethnographic work with Yup'ik elders and teachers. The need for culturally based curricula seems obvious to those in the field of educational anthropology, but not necessarily to policymakers. Two case studies of novice teachers, one cultural "insider" and one "outsider," illustrate how each…

  14. Deviance as Pedagogy: From Nondominant Cultural Capital to Deviantly Marked Cultural Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Pierre Bourdieu's concept of cultural capital has been employed extensively in sociological, educational, and anthropological research. However, Bourdieu's conceptualization of cultural capital has often been misread to refer only to "high status" or dominant cultural norms and resources at the cost of…

  15. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies... in possession of the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las... made by the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas,...

  16. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  17. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains and... made by the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University professional staff in...

  18. 78 FR 45961 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Denver Museum of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the...

  19. 78 FR 45962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the human...

  20. 75 FR 14463 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology... Anthropology, Seattle, WA. The human remains were removed from Huckleberry Island, Skagit County, WA. This... assessment of the human remains was made by the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology...

  1. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit... of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit... Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  2. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated...

  3. 77 FR 46116 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... Museum of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation with the appropriate... Maxwell Museum of Anthropology at the address below by September 4, 2012. ADDRESSES: Heather...

  4. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology... University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910,...

  5. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  6. Anthropology. CUNY Panel: Rethinking the Disciplines. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mencher, Joan P.; Nash, June; Francis-Okongwu, Anne; Susser, Ida.

    This collection of four essays examines the ways in which anthropology, as a discipline, reflects ongoing scholarship on gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. In "The Impact of Gender Studies on Anthropology," Joan P. Mencher reviews the effects of gender studies on physical anthropology, archeology, and developmental…

  7. The Review of and Reaction to Selected Anthropology Projects by Professional Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.

    The main concern of this paper is to determine the accuracy and representativeness of anthropology material from: Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP); Education Development Center's Man A Course of Study (MACOS); Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH); University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies; Anthropology Curriculum…

  8. Missing the Forest for the Trees: Reconciling History and Anthropology. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Susan G.

    Many anthropologists believe that anthropology stands to gain from devoting greater attention to history and historical questions. A successful synthesis of anthropology and history would not be difficult to achieve for several reasons. First, the two disciplines share fundamentally similar subject matters. Anthropology is the exploration of the…

  9. Minority Education: Anthropological Perspectives. Social and Policy Issues in Education: The University of Cincinnati Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn, Ed.; Jordan, Cathie, Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of current anthropological thinking on the education of minority students, bringing the perspectives of educational anthropology to bear on understanding minority education and resolving its inequities. At the core of the book are some papers from an invited session of the American Anthropological Association in…

  10. Culture-Specific Counseling: An Alternative Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwachuku, Uchenna T.; Ivey, Allen E.

    1991-01-01

    Promotes culture-specific counseling approach, which starts with the culture and its people and searches out natural helping styles. Uses case model drawn from African-Igbo culture and applies anthropological constructs that seek to discover more culturally sensitive approach to counseling theory, to training in counseling skills and knowledge,…

  11. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process. PMID:24611314

  12. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gleize, Yves; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  13. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  14. Acculturation and Its Discontents: A Case for Bringing Anthropology Back into the Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Anthropologists’ contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline’s perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept. Although other disciplines, particularly psychology and sociology, have dominated the field of acculturation research more recently, they mostly have done so with a narrow focus. While it is important to acknowledge the pitfalls of anthropology’s past study of acculturation, there are important features of the acculturation construct that continue to be relevant. Among these are the study of acculturation as a process that is multidimensional; the investigation of how different kinds of power affect the acculturation process; the impacts of attitudes, actions and policies of the receiving group on how acculturation proceeds; the role of “real history” in understanding processes of acculturation; and the global perspective on these processes. We suggest ways in which anthropologists can reignite the field of acculturation research by engaging with Redfield, Linton and Herskovits’ framework and subsequent anthropological literature. PMID:27595125

  15. Anthropology with an Agenda: Four Forgotten Dance Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…

  16. Transforming Conflict Resolution Education: Applying Anthropology alongside Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avruch, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the role graduate students can play in transforming their education in the emergent field of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, as occurs at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR), at George Mason University, Washington, DC. It also unpacks how anthropology plays a role in the education of these students at…

  17. Methodology in Pre-Collegiate Anthropology: A Secondary School Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, James Russel

    Today's young people must cope with a shrinking planet earth; deal with complex human relationships and the dynamics of explosive social and technological change; and function in a world which has few precedents especially in the area of social change. This thesis delineates a practical methodology for teaching high school anthropology based on…

  18. Applied Anthropology in a Sex Equity Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, C. David; Scotten, Kathryn

    Growing out of experience in the Pacific Institute for Nonsexist Education (PINE), this paper describes how an evaluation approach derived from oral history and anthropology was used to document the lessons learned about the design and operation of a sex equity technical assistance program. A brief overview describes the PINE program which…

  19. Anthropology, Dance, and Education: Integrated Curriculum in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karli; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Vissicaro, Pegge; Fredrickson, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    The integration of dance into K-12 curriculum can help students to learn better, encouraging deeper exploration and active engagement with content knowledge. The purpose of this intervention study was to determine how the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affects student learning of content knowledge in…

  20. The origins of American physical anthropology in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mann, Alan

    2009-01-01

    With its location on a river with easy access to the sea, its central placement between the English speaking colonies to the north and south and its trading connections with the western frontier, there were many reasons Philadelphia became one of the most important towns of prerevolutionary America. In the early 1770s, it was the site of the first meeting organized to deal with the perceived inequities of the British government toward the colonies. It was where Thomas Jefferson wrote much of the Declaration of Independence, whose soaring statements reflecting the Age of Enlightenment spoke of the equality of all men. It was to this debate, centered on just who was included in this declaration that the origins of physical anthropology in America can be traced. Notable men in the early phases of this disputation included Samuel Stanhope Smith and especially Samuel George Morton, considered the founder of American physical anthropology. The American School of Anthropology, which argued for the polygenic origins of human races was substantially founded on Morton's work. Recent accusations that Morton manipulated data to support his racist views would appear unfounded. The publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862-63 effectively ended the earlier debates. By the time of the American Civil War, 1861-65, physical anthropology was beginning to explore other topics including growth and development and anthropometry. PMID:19890866

  1. Teacher Centers as a Social Phenomenon: An Anthropological Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Alanson

    1979-01-01

    This article discusses the social and educational conditions that have supported the development of teacher centers, using a perspective from social anthropology, Malinowski's "functional" theory of institutions. Teacher centers are seen as a reflection of growing teacher power in a climate of shifting authority structures. (SJL)

  2. Anthropology of Education and Educational Research: CAE Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses distinctions between the anthropology of education and educational research. Although the educationist generally has a technocist view of the reality of schooling (how to do it more efficiently), the anthropologist deals with the relational reality of schooling (what events mean to participants). (SLD)

  3. "The Good Child": Anthropological Perspectives on Morality and Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechter, Anne-Meike

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no clearly delineated field that could be described as "the anthropology of morality". There exists, however, an increasingly visible and vocal interest in issues of morality among anthropologists. Although there has been a lack of explicit study, it has become clear that anthropologists have, in fact, been concerned…

  4. THE ANTHROPOLOGY CURRICULUM PROJECT--GRADES TWO AND FIVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, WILFRID C.; CLUNE, FRANCIS J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A SECOND-YEAR PROJECT REPORT OF A 5-YEAR EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AN ANTHROPOLOGY CURRICULUM FOR GRADES 1 THROUGH 7. THE MATERIAL IS IN A SELF-CONTAINED UNIT PACKAGE FOR EACH GRADE, REQUIRES 4 TO 5 WEEKS PER UNIT, AND IS DESIGNED TO FIT INTO A SOCIAL STUDIES COURSE WITHOUT DISRUPTION OF NORMAL SCHOOL ACTIVITIES. EACH UNIT…

  5. [On the anthropological relevance of pain].

    PubMed

    Bozzaro, C

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is increasingly being confronted with expectations that it provide more permanent and comprehensive freedom from pain - and the prospect of being pain free is partially even being held out by medical science itself. In our cultural context, there is now the established idea that pain is something that medical science and technology can - and must - "get rid of." This idea is particularly problematic when it comes to chronic pain. Furthermore, it obscures the fact that pain is a significant element of life and one that can have existential meaning. Therefore, it is crucial to reflect on the scope of this wish for medicine to relieve and eliminate pain. PMID:27363850

  6. Anthropological perspectives on injections: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, A. V.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative studies from developing countries have pointed to the widespread popularity of injections. In addition to their use by formal and informal providers and traditional healers, there is now increasing evidence of the use of injections and injection equipment by lay people. Epidemiological research links the large number of unsafe injections to serious bloodborne infections such as viral hepatitis B and C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The present article examines the reasons behind the demand for injections by consumers and the administration of unnecessary or unsafe injections by different types of provider. Interventions aimed at reducing the risk of unsafe injections are discussed in relation to cultural and social factors as well as those factors associated with health systems. Suggestions are made for approaches to the design of such interventions. PMID:10686748

  7. Claiming space for an engaged anthropology: spatial inequality and social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Low, Setha M

    2011-01-01

    I use the concept of “engaged anthropology” to frame a discussion of how “spatializing culture” uncovers systems of exclusion that are hidden or naturalized and thus rendered invisible to other methodological approaches. “Claiming Space for an Engaged Anthropology” is doubly meant: to claim more intellectual and professional space for engagement and to propose that anthropology include the dimension of space as a theoretical construct. I draw on three fieldwork examples to illustrate the value of the approach: (1) a Spanish American plaza, reclaimed from a Eurocentric past, for indigenous groups and contemporary cultural interpretation; (2) Moore Street Market, an enclosed Latino food market in Brooklyn, New York, reclaimed for a translocal set of social relations rather than a gentrified redevelopment project; (3) gated communities in Texas and New York and cooperatives in New York, reclaiming public space and confronting race and class segregation created by neoliberal enclosure and securitization. PMID:22145154

  8. FREUD, JUNG AND BOAS: THE PSYCHOANALYTIC ENGAGEMENT WITH ANTHROPOLOGY REVISITED.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Robert

    2015-06-20

    Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis. It argues that it is no coincidence that this engagement occurred after their return from America in 1909, where they had come into first-hand contact with the challenges of Franz Boas. PMID:26665301

  9. Review. Understanding kuru: the contribution of anthropology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2008-11-27

    To understand kuru and solve the problems of its cause and transmission required the integration of knowledge from both anthropological and medical research. Anthropological studies elucidated the origin and spread of kuru, the local mortuary practices of endocannibalism, the social effects of kuru, the life of women and child-rearing practices, the kinship system of the Fore and their willingness to incorporate outsiders into it, the myths, folklore and history of the Fore and their neighbours, sorcery as a powerful social phenomenon and way of explaining the causation of disease, and concepts of the treatment of disease. Many scientists from different disciplines, government officers and others have contributed to this chapter of medical history but it is the Fore people who have contributed the most, through their suffering, their cooperative and reliable witness to kuru, and their participation, in various ways, in the research process itself. PMID:18849287

  10. Freud, Jung and Boas: the psychoanalytic engagement with anthropology revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis. It argues that it is no coincidence that this engagement occurred after their return from America in 1909, where they had come into first-hand contact with the challenges of Franz Boas. PMID:26665301

  11. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-01-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers. PMID:24234584

  12. Understanding kuru: the contribution of anthropology and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    To understand kuru and solve the problems of its cause and transmission required the integration of knowledge from both anthropological and medical research. Anthropological studies elucidated the origin and spread of kuru, the local mortuary practices of endocannibalism, the social effects of kuru, the life of women and child-rearing practices, the kinship system of the Fore and their willingness to incorporate outsiders into it, the myths, folklore and history of the Fore and their neighbours, sorcery as a powerful social phenomenon and way of explaining the causation of disease, and concepts of the treatment of disease. Many scientists from different disciplines, government officers and others have contributed to this chapter of medical history but it is the Fore people who have contributed the most, through their suffering, their cooperative and reliable witness to kuru, and their participation, in various ways, in the research process itself. PMID:18849287

  13. The Archaeological Record Speaks: Bridging Anthropology and Linguistics

    PubMed Central

    Balari, Sergio; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Camps, Marta; Longa, Víctor M.; Lorenzo, Guillermo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of language, as treated within Evolutionary Anthropology, under the light offered by a biolinguistic approach. This perspective is presented first. Next we discuss how genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data, which are traditionally taken as evidence for the presence of language, are circumstantial as such from this perspective. We conclude by discussing ways in which to address these central issues, in an attempt to develop a collaborative approach to them. PMID:21716806

  14. The archaeological record speaks: bridging anthropology and linguistics.

    PubMed

    Balari, Sergio; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Camps, Marta; Longa, Víctor M; Lorenzo, Guillermo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of language, as treated within Evolutionary Anthropology, under the light offered by a biolinguistic approach. This perspective is presented first. Next we discuss how genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data, which are traditionally taken as evidence for the presence of language, are circumstantial as such from this perspective. We conclude by discussing ways in which to address these central issues, in an attempt to develop a collaborative approach to them. PMID:21716806

  15. Some anthropological aspects of the prehistoric Tyrolean ice man.

    PubMed

    Seidler, H; Bernhard, W; Teschler-Nicola, M; Platzer, W; zur Nedden, D; Henn, R; Oberhauser, A; Sjøvold, T

    1992-10-16

    The corpse of a Late Neolithic individual found in a glacier in Oetztal is unusual because of the intact nature of all body parts that resulted from the characteristics of its mummification process and its protected geographical position with regard to glacier flow. Anthropological data indicate that the man was 25 to 40 years old, was between 156 and 160 centimeters in stature, had a cranial capacity of between 1500 and 1560 cubic centimeters, and likely died of exhaustion. PMID:1411539

  16. [Theories of stages of life within the anthropology of romanticism].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Pia-Johanna; Schweizer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The essay discusses the importance and prominence of theories about different stages of life in the anthropological and medical discourse of romanticism. This discourse has clearly a stabilising and restaurative function, favouring the age of moderate manhood. The political and social regulative implications of these theories demand a restaurative roll-back. The essay is based on a concept of sociology of knowledge formation. PMID:17575867

  17. Physical anthropology: the search for general processes and principles.

    PubMed

    Lasker, G W

    1970-02-01

    Physical anthropology consists of two interdependent types of study: (1) the biological history of man and (2) general biological processes in man (such as mechanisms of evolution and growth). Popular interest may focus on the former, the fascinating story of the origin of man and of specific people, but the latter affords physical anthropology potential practical value in respect to medicine, dentistry, public health, and population policy. The study of general processes is the study of human beings in particular situations, not for what we can learn about these particular populations but for the sake of generalization about mankind anywhere in comparable situations. This is, of course, the purpose of experimental science in general, but in anthropology the method is usually comparative. Long ago the study of the growth of the two sexes and of children in different countries was started on a comparative basis as was the study of the so-called secular change in adult stature. By 1911 Franz Boas had compared the changes in stature and head form of children of several different immigrant groups in the United States. There have since been comparative studies of the amount and distribution of body fat (but not yet adequate comparative measurements of the relation of tissue components to diet and to diseases). Demographic patterns, inbreeding, outbreeding, and their effects are other general problems. The Human Adaptability Project of the International Biological Program promises studies of human response to heat, cold, altitude, and other conditions on a wide international basis. If supported, these could turn physical anthropology's search in a useful direction. The functional biology of people of even out-of-the-way communities will be compared with each other. These studies can yield general statements concerning human response to types of ecological situation including such sociocultural conditions as those of hunting-gathering tribes and urban slums. PMID:19681215

  18. DNA fingerprinting in anthropological genetics: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael H; Beaty, Kristine G

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the variable-number tandem repeat method used to identify individuals and giving researchers the first DNA fingerprints. These initial methods were used in anthropological genetics, a field that uses a comparative approach to answer questions about human history, including the discernment of the origin of Native American populations and the discrimination of clan affiliation from individuals in Siberia. The technological and methodological advances since this time have led to the use of many more markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Y chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and direct sequencing not only to identify individuals, but to examine frequencies and distributions of markers (or "prints") of entire populations. In the field of anthropological genetics these markers have been used to reconstruct evolutionary history and answer questions concerning human origins and diaspora, migration, and the effects of admixture and adaptation to different environments, as well as susceptibility and resistance to disease. This review discusses the evolution of DNA markers since their application by Sir Alec Jeffreys and their applications in anthropological genetics. PMID:24245746

  19. DNA fingerprinting in anthropological genetics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the variable-number tandem repeat method used to identify individuals and giving researchers the first DNA fingerprints. These initial methods were used in anthropological genetics, a field that uses a comparative approach to answer questions about human history, including the discernment of the origin of Native American populations and the discrimination of clan affiliation from individuals in Siberia. The technological and methodological advances since this time have led to the use of many more markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Y chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and direct sequencing not only to identify individuals, but to examine frequencies and distributions of markers (or “prints”) of entire populations. In the field of anthropological genetics these markers have been used to reconstruct evolutionary history and answer questions concerning human origins and diaspora, migration, and the effects of admixture and adaptation to different environments, as well as susceptibility and resistance to disease. This review discusses the evolution of DNA markers since their application by Sir Alec Jeffreys and their applications in anthropological genetics. PMID:24245746

  20. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropologists are concerned with every aspect of the culture they are investigating. One of the five main branches of anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, concerns itself with studying the relationship between behavior and culture. This paper explores the concept that changing the behavior of our culture - its beliefs and values - towards science is at the heart of science education reform. There are five institutions that socio-cultural anthropologists use to study the social organization of cultures: the educational system is only one of them. Its function - across all cultures - is to serve as a mechanism for implementing change in cultural beliefs and values. As leaders of science education reform, the Alabama model contends that we must stop the struggle with our purpose and get on with the business of leading culture change through an integrated stakeholder systems approach. This model stresses the need for the interaction of agencies other than education - including government, industry, the media and our health communities to operate in an integrated and systemic fashion to address the issues of living among a technically literate society. Twenty-five years of science education reform needs being voiced and programs being developed has not produced the desired results from within the educational system. This is too limited a focus to affect any real cultural change. It is when we acknowledge that students spend only an average of 12 percent of their life time in schools, that we can begin to ask ourselves what are our students learning the other 88 percent of their time - from their peers, their parents and the media - and what should we be doing to address this cultural crisis in these other arenas in addition to the educational system? The Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition (AMSTEC) is a non-profit 501c(3) organization operating in the state of Alabama to provide leadership in improving mathematics, science, and technology

  1. Bamboozled: A Visual Culture Text for Looking at Cultural Practices of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Nancy S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade art educators have engaged in a dialogue about a reconceptualization of art education theory and practice. This reconceptualization has roots in cultural studies, anthropology, and critical theory. One focus has been on the notion of art as visual culture. This article is organized into four sections. The first section looks…

  2. Political myths and totalitarianism: an anthropological analysis of their causal interrelationship.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the key political, anthropological and socio-cultural functions of political myths in the appearance and functioning of totalitarian regimes. A special emphasis is put on structural elements of the myth (mythemes) and the mythic content (narratives) in the processes of artificial construction of a new society (community) based on the myth-inspired ideological postulates. The paper argues that the establishment of totalitarianism marked a certain anthropological devolution. This devolution, in turn, proceeds through the deconstruction of civil society as an organic social sphere and the artificial construction of a new political community based on ideological postulates and political myths. In support of this assertion, it is first shown how the mythical narratives--transformed into political concepts and programs--were the basis of (re)interpretation of the world, society and individual, and essentially determined the nature and functioning of the totalitarian regimes. Then, the specific political myths are analyzed and compared, as well as their content and origin, and particularly their dual function. It in turn is analyzed in the framework of the classical society-community dichotomy, where the (civil) society is founded socio-politically on the social contract, and the (political) community socio-anthropologically on political myth. In a situation of identity and legitimacy crisis, anomie and the weakening of social cohesion--the characteristic conditions of the great economic and political crisis of the early twentieth century that enabled the emergence of totalitarianism--society as a contracting community does not work. A strong need for meaning (at the individual and societal level) affects the citizens' susceptibility to (political) concepts of (re)constitution of (political) community with which they can identify. Right there, totalitarian movements use the cohesive power of the political myth that replaces the rationally based

  3. Vital Signs building work-up: The Museum of Anthropology

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, M.S.; Erwine, B.

    1997-12-31

    The paper will present the structure and the results of an in depth study of the Museum of Anthropology, designed by Arthur Erickson Architects for the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and completed in 1976. Part of the Vital Signs Curriculum Project created by Cris Benton and administered through the University of California at Berkeley, this analytic project was designed and carried out by a faculty/student team in the Department of Architecture at the University of Washington. The significance of this study is the simultaneous presentation of qualitative and quantitative information about the thermal and luminous environment of this building.

  4. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact... cultural items should contact WSU at the address below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Mary Collins... the cultural items should contact Mary Collins, Director of the Museum of Anthropology at...

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Urban Violence: An Anthropological Study

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva-Mannel, Juliana; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Martin, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to understand how “distress” is experienced by patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the social-cultural context of São Paulo, Brazil, an urban environment marked by social inequality and high levels of violence. A qualitative study was conducted between 2008 and 2010 with PTSD patients (F43.1, ICD-10, 1997) who had been victims of robberies and kidnappings in São Paulo. Dense ethnographic observations were carried out, as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with ten adult patients. The analysis method used was based on anthropology. The results show that it is particularly important to distinguish between perceptions of different forms of the experience of social suffering and perceptions of health and illness held by victims and biomedical experts. The cause of PTSD is more often associated with the personal problems of the victim than with the specific traumatic event. The distress described in terms of what is considered a “normal” reaction to violence and what is considered a symptom of PTSD. The findings indicate that the diagnostic of PTSD can be understood in relation to the different contexts within a culture. The ethnographic approach serves not only to illuminate individual suffering but also the social suffering experienced by the residents of São Paulo. PMID:24284352

  6. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline’s main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of “multidisciplinarity,” to the adoption of theoretically imbued “interdisciplinarity.” The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other. PMID:18833344

  7. The Index of Vulnerability: An anthropological method linking social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Paula Skye

    2016-08-01

    Researchers need measures of vulnerability that are grounded in explicit theoretical and conceptual frameworks, that are sensitive to local contexts, and that are easy to collect. This paper presents the Index of Vulnerability (IoV), a quantitative yet anthropologically-informed method connecting social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes. The IoV combines measures of five life domains; food insecurity, water insecurity, access to healthcare, social support, and social status. Scores on this index increase for each life domain where the individual falls into a "high risk" category. Thus, individuals with the highest IoV scores are those who are at risk across multiple life domains. This approach makes the IoV malleable to local contexts, as scholars can choose which measure of each life domain is most appropriate for their study population. An anthropological study conducted among 225 Awajún adults living in the Peruvian Amazon from March to November of 2013 showed that men with higher IoV scores had significantly lower summary fat skinfolds, lower triglyceride levels, and a greater probability of reporting moderate to severe somatic symptoms and poor perceived health. Awajún women with higher IoV scores had significantly elevated perceived stress levels and a greater probability of reporting poor perceived health and moderate to severe somatic and depressive symptoms. Importantly, comparing the IoV to its constituent parts shows that it predicts a wider range of mental and physical health outcomes than any of the life domains alone. The IoV is presented here in relation to the broader political-economic and cultural context of the Awajún, forwarding a critical biocultural approach within anthropology, and demonstrating the IoV's utility for other scholars and practitioners. PMID:27340916

  8. Regulating Emotions and Aiming for a Ph.D.: Excerpts from "Anthropology Matters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Ingie

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will present a range of experiences of graduate socialisation that have been discussed in past articles in the journal "Anthropology Matters". These are the experiences of social anthropology Ph.D. students in the United Kingdom. The overarching theme for the article is "regulating emotions", and the excerpts presented illustrate…

  9. Stones and Bones: A Laboratory Approach to Physcial Anthropology, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisman, Milton S.

    This packet provides sample lessons from the program "Stones and Bones: A Laboratory Approach to Physical Anthropology." The samples are from the unit of 20 lessons that are investigative-oriented for students to explore anthropological topics. Unit 1, "In Search of Human Ancestors. How We Study Our Past: Stories Told by Fossils," includes…

  10. To Mould or to Bring Out? Human Nature, Anthropology and Educational Utopianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Against narrow understandings of educational research, this article defends the relevance of philosophical anthropology to ethico-political education and contests its lack of space in the philosophy of education. My approximation of this topic begins with comments on philosophical anthropology; proceeds with examples from the history of…

  11. Islamic Pedagogy and Embodiment: An Anthropological Study of a British Madrasah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This anthropological study of a higher education British Madrasah was undertaken to increase our awareness of the spectrum of sensory experiences that shape Islamic pedagogy. We started our anthropological study from an Islamic premise of the inseparable nature of knowledge and the sacred. Pedagogy is defined as not a matter of simple methods and…

  12. 78 FR 45957 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Columbia University, Department of Anthropology, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Columbia University, Department of Anthropology, New..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... in this notice by August 29, 2013. ADDRESSES: Dr. Nan Rothschild, Department of...

  13. 76 FR 43714 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology... Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact the Oregon State University Department of...

  14. 76 FR 43716 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology, Corvallis, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Oregon State University Department of Anthropology... Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... affiliated with the human remains may contact ] the Oregon State University Department of...

  15. Council on Anthropology and Education Quarterly, Vol. VII, No. 1, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcott, John H., Ed.

    Eight papers which discuss the teaching of anthropology are presented in the February issue of this quarterly publication. The papers, organized into four sections, represent four major interests of anthropologists. In the first section, the teaching of anthropology as an activity is emphasized. Two authors present ideas on employing the processes…

  16. Reflections on John Monaghan's "Computer Algebra, Instrumentation, and the Anthropological Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to John Monaghan's "Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach" focus on a variety of issues related to the ergonomic approach (instrumentation) and anthropological approach to mathematical activity and practice. These include uses of the term technique; several possibilities for integration of the two approaches;…

  17. A Flexible Pre-Major Model for British Columbia Departments of Anthropology. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinbest, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    The Sociology/Anthropology Articulation Committee has engaged in a project resulting in tandem reports for each of the respective disciplines, which identify flexible pre-majors for both Sociology and Anthropology and summarize the specific types of courses that must be taken by students to allow them to transfer into third year of a major. A…

  18. Terra--An Experiment in Culture Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Charles

    1978-01-01

    A high school anthropology teacher guided students in creating a new culture with distinct elements of social control, economy, decision making, family, religion, space, time, status, language, tension outlets, rituals, symbols, property, idealogy, and manners. The activity included a field trip lasting several days during which the class lived…

  19. 76 FR 54485 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, has completed an... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Repatriation of...

  20. Optimal Foraging Theory and the Racecar Driver: The Impact of Student-Centered Learning on Anthropological Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Stommen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of anthropological pedagogy, adding to recent articles regarding needed change in anthropology teaching methods. All have in common the practice of anthropology in the classroom. The author used the theory of optimal foraging to encourage students to operationalize human behavior. The economic benefit that…

  1. American Indians of Idaho. Volume 1. Aboriginal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deward E., Jr.

    A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…

  2. Reflections on the Cultural Dimensions of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrell, Mike; Gloet, Marianne

    1999-01-01

    Draws on social anthropology, educational administration, and neoinstitutionalism studies to explore educational administration in a cross-cultural setting. Discusses effects of cultural differences on organizational behavior in an Australian-Malaysian collaboration in higher education in Malaysia. The Australian subculture failed to become…

  3. The Paradox of Culture in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rodney H.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the work in intercultural communication studies in the past decade, especially in the field of applied linguistics, has been devoted to "disinventing" the notion of culture. The problem with the word "culture" as it has been used in anthropology, sociology, and in everyday life, it has been pointed out, is that it is…

  4. Culture and Mathematics in School: Boundaries between "Cultural" and "Domain" Knowledge in the Mathematics Classroom and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Hand, Victoria; Taylor, Edd V.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is about culture and mathematics teaching and learning. The authors' goal is to offer a thoughtful treatment of the role of culture in the teaching and learning of mathematics and to synthesize literature that is relevant to this concern from multiple subdisciplines in education, including math education, educational anthropology,…

  5. Cross-Cultural Literacy: Ethnographies of Communication in Multiethnic Classrooms. Studies in Education and Culture (Volume 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravia-Shore, Marietta, Ed.; Arvizu, Steven F., Ed.

    This book, which presents ethnographic studies of multiethnic classrooms and schools in their community context, was designed to illuminate the benefits of an anthropological approach that recognizes the centrality of culture in education. Papers are grouped under three headings: (1) Cross-Culturally Compatible Schooling; (2) Community Contexts;…

  6. Medical Anthropology in Africa: The Trouble with a Single Story.

    PubMed

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2016-01-01

    In the growing number of publications in medical anthropology about sub-Saharan Africa, there is a tendency to tell a single story of medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior. The heavy reliance on telling this singular story means that there is very little exposure to other stories. In this article, I draw on five books published in the past five years to illustrate the various components that make up this dominant narrative. I then provide examples of two accounts about medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior in Africa that deviate from this dominant narrative, in order to show the themes that alternative accounts have foregrounded. Ultimately, I make a plea to medical anthropologists to be mindful of the existence of this singular story and to resist the tendency to use its components as scaffolding in their accounts of medicine, health, and health-seeking behavior in Africa. PMID:26457563

  7. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  8. Violence, addiction, recovery: An anthropological study of Mexico's anexos.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Anderson, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery. Our findings indicate that poverty, addiction, and drug-related violence have fueled the proliferation of anexos They also suggest that anexos offer valuable health, social, and practical support, but risk exacerbating the suffering of residents through coercive rehabilitation techniques. Emphasizing this tension, this article considers the complex relationship between coercion and care, and poses fundamental questions about what drug recovery consists of in settings of poverty and violence. PMID:27535824

  9. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity. PMID:19069005

  10. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp. PMID:26628292

  11. [Contributions of anthropology to an ethical approach to aging].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ayéndez, M

    2000-06-01

    This article summarizes a presentation on the meanings and implications that crossing the old-age threshold has on the self-perception of the older adult. It draws from anthropological studies on the meaning of old age and sickness in old age that emphasize that meaning in old age for the older adult is the outcome of his/her considerations on aging in terms of individual experiences and the continuity of identity amidst the social and biological changes associated with old age. Implications for decision-making about medical treatment, the right to privacy, and the right to receive care in the less-restrictive possible environment for patient autonomy as well as interpretations about self-respect and self-determination are discussed. PMID:10909712

  12. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of preschool children exposed to pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, E A; Meza, M M; Aquilar, M G; Soto, A D; Garcia, I E

    1998-01-01

    In this comparative study, we compensated for many of the known variables that influence children's growth and development by selecting two groups of 4-5-year-old Yaqui children who reside in the Yaqui Valley of northwestern Mexico. These children share similar genetic backgrounds, diets, water mineral contents, cultural patterns, and social behaviors. The major difference was their exposure to pesticides. Pesticides have been applied to the agricultural area of the valley since the late 1940s. In 1990, high levels of multiple pesticides were found in the cord blood of newborns and in breast milk. Building on anthropological methods for rapid rural appraisal of problems within the environment, a Rapid Assessment Tool for Preschool Children (RATPC) was developed to measure growth and development. The children of the agrarian region were compared to children living in the foothills, where pesticide use is avoided. The RATPC measured varied aspects of physical growth and abilities to perform, or function in, normal childhood activities. No differences were found in growth patterns. Functionally, the exposed children demonstrated decreases in stamina, gross and fine eye-hand coordination, 30-minute memory, and the ability to draw a person. The RATPC also pointed out areas in which more in-depth research on the toxicology of pesticides would be valuable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9618351

  13. Indigenous populations in Mexico: medical anthropology in the work of Ruben Lisker in the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2014-09-01

    Ruben Lisker's research on the genetic hematological traits of Mexican indigenous populations illustrates the intersection of international health policies and the local modernizing nationalism of the Mexican post-revolution period. Lisker's surveys of blood group types, and of G6PD (glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase) and hemoglobin variants in indigenous populations, incorporated linguistic criteria in the sampling methods, and historical and cultural anthropological accounts in the interpretation of results. In doing so, Lisker heavily relied on the discourse and the infrastructure created by the indigenista program and its institutions. Simultaneously, Lisker's research was thoroughly supported by international and bilateral agencies and programs, including the malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. As a member of the scientific elite he was able to make original contributions to the postwar field of human population genetics. His systematic research illustrates the complex entanglement of local and international contexts that explains the co-construction of global knowledge on human variation after WWII.(1.) PMID:25022488

  14. "Your time or mine?" An anthropological view of the tragic temporal contradictions of biomedical practice.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, R

    1988-01-01

    The symbolic construction and use of time in health care is examined both in relation to social control of patients and to the power/powers accorded to and claimed by physicians. After reviewing classical medical sociology approaches of Zerubavel and Roth, it is suggested that an anthropological approach using concepts of disease, illness, and sickness and especially the last make it possible to produce a more adequate analysis. The cultural performance of sickness is seen in a framework of power, space, and time, and comparisons drawn between preindustrial and industrial patterns of healing (including Hahn's detailed ethnographic account of the practice of an internist in the United States). It is argued that medicine as it is at present practiced in industrial society inevitably requires health workers and especially physicians to distance themselves in time from the experience of their patients by taking the present-tense account of perceived illness (the history), which they initially share, and translating it into timeless, almost disembodied, disease. The physicians' special position in relation to time makes symbolically possible their control not only over patients' access to space and use of time but also over patients' autonomy in controlling the body and its boundaries. Finally, it is proposed that, although the contradiction arises from the theory and practice of biomedicine itself, the ability of health workers to overcome it is related to the extent to which the exercise of power within medicine reinforces (or is reinforced by) the ideology of the society in which it operates. PMID:3278988

  15. Rumour of angels and heavenly midwives: anthropology of transpersonal events and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Lahood, Gregg

    2007-03-01

    Some contemporary women can experience non-ordinary states of consciousness when childbearing. The purpose of this paper is to bring a 'transpersonal' frame to these non-ordinary states of consciousness (hereafter: NOSC). Transpersonal psychology is an interdisciplinary movement in Western science that studies 'religious', 'peak' or 'healing' experiences in different cultures and social contexts. Between 2001 and 2006 in Auckland, New Zealand, while engaged in anthropological fieldwork, I collected stories from mothers, fathers, and midwives who had participated in transpersonal events during childbirth. I will compare the local women's NOSC with ethnographic accounts of spirit-possession and its relationship to indigenous midwifery then revisit and reconstruct the witch-hunts of Medieval Europe from this perspective. Midwives are encouraged to learn to identify and support women's NOSC during labour and birth as many women find strength and wisdom by passing through these states in labour. The subject is also critical to men, whether they are present with women and birth as fathers or health professionals. The hoped for result of this inquiry is to revalorise NOSC among birth-giving mothers, and to educate birth attendants in this field. PMID:17127114

  16. Cultural Development. Social Studies: Course II-Unit II. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ellen K.

    This teachers guide for a secondary course on cultural development builds upon earlier sequential learning courses and deals with concepts and generalizations drawn from the field of anthropology. Primary objectives are to develop students' understanding and awareness of culture. Five sections comprise this 10-week course. The nature of culture is…

  17. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.

    2003-04-01

    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  18. The Œdipus complex, crystallizer of the debate between psychoanalysis and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Smadja, Eric

    2011-08-01

    The way that anthropologists understand the Oedipus complex, in particular, is a good example of how they understand psychoanalysis in general. Indeed, it has crystallized a set of reactions marked by ignorance, misunderstanding, distortion and screening out and at the same time has provoked suspicion among anthropologists as to psychoanalysis, according to the preconceptions of the various schools of thought and authors implied, and this from the very first contacts up to nowadays. In what way did the psychoanalysts contribute to this and what representation did they, in turn, elaborate of anthropology? The purpose of this paper is to expose the epistemological and historical conditions of the emergence of this debate, and then to develop it by following chronology up to the 1950s and 1960s, while differentiating three major cultural areas, Great Britain, the USA and France, in order to get a clearer picture. From that point on, we will try to diversify our inquiry and to formulate some interpretative hypotheses. In particular, we think that a traumatic event may have inaugurated and organized the history of the relationship between the two disciplines, producing a situation of acculturation with multiple impacts, if we identify them with two cultures coming into contact: what is at stake here is Totem and Taboo in which Freud carries through the first major psychoanalytical approach of the interpretation of ethnographic facts, that leads him to transplant the universality of the Oedipus complex to the very root of the first social institutions and to pinpoint the presence of unconscious processes in their genesis. PMID:21843245

  19. El Museo Nacional de Antropologia de Mexico. (The Mexican National Museum of Anthropology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gilberto

    1970-01-01

    Designed as a potential attraction of tourist income and for popular education, the National Museum of Anthropology provides instruction for children and adults, publications, public lectures, library services, and other educational services. (LY)

  20. 77 FR 23502 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... to follow up questions from the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Aqua Caliente Indian... Anthropology is responsible for notifying the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Aqua...

  1. Voices, Genres, Writers, and Audiences for the "Anthropology and Education Quarterly."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Frederick

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history of the "Quarterly," and describes its readership as increasingly tending to include readers outside of university anthropology departments. Invites a wider range of contributors to submit articles, stories, poems, etc. (KH)

  2. Virtual anthropology: useful radiological tools for age assessment in clinical forensic medicine and thanatology.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Savall, Frédéric; Rousseau, Hervé; Crubézy, Eric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Virtual anthropology consists of the introduction of modern slice imaging to biological and forensic anthropology. Thanks to this non-invasive scientific revolution, some classifications and staging systems, first based on dry bone analysis, can be applied to cadavers with no need for specific preparation, as well as to living persons. Estimation of bone and dental age is one of the possibilities offered by radiology. Biological age can be estimated in clinical forensic medicine as well as in living persons. Virtual anthropology may also help the forensic pathologist to estimate a deceased person's age at death, which together with sex, geographical origin and stature, is one of the important features determining a biological profile used in reconstructive identification. For this forensic purpose, the radiological tools used are multislice computed tomography and, more recently, X-ray free imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound investigations. We present and discuss the value of these investigations for age estimation in anthropology. PMID:25735613

  3. Giving an account of one's pain in the anthropological interview.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I analyze the illness stories narrated by a mother and her 13-year-old son as part of an ethnographic study of child chronic pain sufferers and their families. In examining some of the moral, relational and communicative challenges of giving an account of one's pain, I focus on what is left out of some accounts of illness and suffering and explore some possible reasons for these elisions. Drawing on recent work by Judith Butler (Giving an Account of Oneself, 2005), I investigate how the pragmatic context of interviews can introduce a form of symbolic violence to narrative accounts. Specifically, I use the term "genre of complaint" to highlight how anthropological research interviews in biomedical settings invoke certain typified forms of suffering that call for the rectification of perceived injustices. Interview narratives articulated in the genre of complaint privilege specific types of pain and suffering and cast others into the background. Giving an account of one's pain is thus a strategic and selective process, creating interruptions and silences as much as moments of clarity. Therefore, I argue that medical anthropologists ought to attend more closely to the institutional structures and relations that shape the production of illness narratives in interview encounters. PMID:19957024

  4. Listening to disembodied voices: anthropological and psychiatric challenges.

    PubMed

    Basu, Helene

    2014-12-01

    What is the role of the voice in Indian explanatory models of madness and psychiatric nosology? Anthropological and psychiatric challenges, it is argued, are crystallised in the voice, a medium that signifies the intersection of models of occult madness and schizophrenia. The psychiatry and religious healing practised at a Sufi shrine in Gujarat differed in terms of the status accorded to the voice: psychiatry interpreted the voice as a symptom of mental disorder, whereas religious healing used the medium in ambiguous practices of possession trance, combining performances of madness and healing. Although 'doing trance' is considered an essential part in the process of healing, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia do not experience trance. Their patiency is displaced onto a caretaker. Psychiatric theories resting on the somatised mind partly converge with theories of madness based on sorcery and possession in so far as both posit a direct link between the brain and behaviour. Against the background of the contested religious healing sites that are currently debated in Indian public mental health, attention to multiple dimensions of the voice reveals its significance as an alternative to the psychiatric institutionalisation of people coping with mental disorder. The voice reconciles the dichotomy between scientific psychiatry and traditional ritual healing, partly by making sense of madness by engaging with the sense of hearing. PMID:24962129

  5. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology. PMID:25242577

  6. [Michael Servetus' physiology in the light of his anthropology].

    PubMed

    Spielmann, J; Sebestyén, M

    1983-01-01

    This essay starts with a short description of the life and works of Michael Servetus. Then the part of the innovator the Spanish physician played in describing the minor circulation is being examined alongside the contributions made by other contemporary physicians who tried to explain this physiological process. The ideas of the philosophical anthropology of Servetus are represented with special stress of the fact that beyond the theological frame, in his main opus Christianismi restitutio there are typical characteristics from the Renaissance (i.e. ethic relativism etc.). At the end it becomes clear that the description of the minor circulation is only to serve the purpose of explaining Servetus's theological thesis according to which the seat of the soul is in the blood. He stipulates that the "sensible soul" is to be found in the choroidal plexus of the ventricles of the brain or else in the pineal gland. It is one of the merits of Servetus, too, that he had foreseen the capillaries (capillares) which he describes as well in the case of the lung vessels as in the case of the choroidal plexus in the brain. The last part deals with the history and background of the new edition of Christianismi restitutio, published 1790 in Nuremberg, which again is based on some recent archival research. PMID:6085975

  7. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  8. Project to Incorporate Anthropological Concepts of Human Diversity in Secondary School Social Studies Curricula (Project Anthropology). Final Report, 2/1/80 to 1/31/82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannangelo, Duane M.; And Others

    Learning modules emphasizing the anthropological aspects of human and race relations to supplement social studies textbooks used in grades 7-12 were developed. The final report describes pre-project activities, module development, and project evaluation and accomplishments. Pre-project activities included media publicity, reviewing social studies…

  9. Estimation and evidence in forensic anthropology: sex and race.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2009-05-01

    Forensic anthropology typically uses osteological and/or dental data either to estimate characteristics of unidentified individuals or to serve as evidence in cases where there is a putative identification. In the estimation context, the problem is to describe aspects of an individual that may lead to their eventual identification, whereas in the evidentiary context, the problem is to provide the relative support for the identification. In either context, individual characteristics such as sex and race may be useful. Using a previously published forensic case (Steadman et al. (2006) Am J Phys Anthropol 131:15-26) and a large (N = 3,167) reference sample, we show that the sex of the individual can be reliably estimated using a small set of 11 craniometric variables. The likelihood ratio from sex (assuming a 1:1 sex ratio for the "population at large") is, however, relatively uninformative in "making" the identification. Similarly, the known "race" of the individual is relatively uninformative in "making" the identification, because the individual was recovered from an area where the 2000 US census provides a very homogenous picture of (self-identified) race. Of interest in this analysis is the fact that the individual, who was recovered from Eastern Iowa, classifies very clearly with [Howells 1973. Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference Among Recent Human Populations. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology; 1989. Skull Shape and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. Easter Islander sample in an analysis with uninformative priors. When the Iowa 2000 Census data on self-reported race are used for informative priors, the individual is clearly identified as "American White." This analysis shows the extreme importance of an informative prior in any forensic application. PMID:19226642

  10. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  11. Teaching Geographic Field Methods to Cultural Resource Management Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    There are perhaps 10,000 technicians in the United States who work in the field known as cultural resource management (CRM). The typical field technician possesses a bachelor's degree in anthropology, geography, or a closely allied discipline. The author's experience has been that few CRM field technicians receive adequate undergraduate training…

  12. Challenges and Questions Concerning "Culturally-Sensitive Design"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Ross A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the inception of the field of anthropology, scholars have debated a definition for the word "culture." The number of definitions available and the diverging schools of thought means that there is little hope for consensus on the issue, if in fact consensus need be reached. But such an impasse poses a dilemma for people who are involved with…

  13. An Anthropologist Explores the Culture of Video Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Michael L. Wesch, an assistant professor of cultural anthropology at Kansas State University, was writing a paper about social networking and other interactive tools, which are collectively referred to as Web 2.0, when he decided to make use of the technology to spread his message. So he put together a short video with examples of Web 2.0…

  14. The Origins of Jewish Guilt: Psychological, Theological, and Cultural Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The idea that guilt and Judaism are closely interlinked has a long historical legacy. After discussing recent work on anthropology and emotion focusing on shame and guilt, we examine three theories purporting to account for this link: psychoanalytic, theological, and guilt as a cultural stereotype particularly the notion of the Jewish mother. PMID:26425245

  15. Anthropological analysis of taekwondo--new methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Cular, Drazen; Munivrana, Goran; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the order and importance of impacts of particular anthropological characteristics and technical and tactical competence on success in taekwondo according to opinions of top taekwondo instructors (experts). Partial objectives include analysis of metric characteristics of the measuring instrument, and determining differences between two disciplines (sparring and technical discipline of patterns) and two competition systems (WTF and ITF). In accordance with the aims, the research was conducted on a sample of respondents which consisted of 730 taekwondo instructors from 6 continents and from 69 countries (from which we selected 242 instructors), who are at different success levels in both taekwondo competition systems (styles) and two taekwondo disciplines. The respondents were divided into 3 qualitative subsamples (OST-USP-VRH) using the dependant variable of accomplished results of the instructor. In 6 languages, they electronically evaluated the impact in percentage value (%) of motor and functional skills (MOTFS), morphological characteristics (MORF), psychological profile of an athlete (PSIH), athletic intelligence (INTE) and technical and tactical competence - (TE-TA) on success in taekwondo. The analysis of metric characteristics of the constructed instrument showed a satisfactory degree of agreement (IHr) which is proportional to the level of respondent quality, i.e. it grows along with the increase in instructor quality in all analysed disciplines of both systems. Top instructors assigned the highest portion of impact on success to the motor and functional skills (MOTFS) variable: WTF-SPB=29.1, ITF-SPB=29.2, WTF-THN=35.0, ITF-THN=32.0). Statistically significant differences in opinions of instructors of different styles and disciplines were not recorded in any of the analysed variables. The only exception is the psychological profile of an athlete variable, which WTF instructors of sparring (AM=23.7%), on a significance

  16. Cultural Consensus and Cultural Diversity: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Human Service Providers' Models of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cyleste C.; Dressler, William W.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses mixed methods and theory from cognitive anthropology to examine the cultural models of domestic violence among domestic violence agency workers, welfare workers, nurses, and a general population comparison group. Data collection and analysis uses quantitative and qualitative techniques, and the findings are integrated for…

  17. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benish, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  18. In Face of Growing Stress and Conservatives' Attacks, Cultural-Studies Scholars Ponder Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural studies, an amalgam of literature, social history, sociology, anthropology, and media studies, looks at the intersection of culture and politics. The discipline is still evolving and has drawn criticism, but proponents do not want it to become too institutionalized at the risk of losing its critical integrity. (MSE)

  19. What is culturally informed psychiatry? Cultural understanding and withdrawal in the clinical encounter

    PubMed Central

    Leseth, Anne Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    What is culturally informed psychiatry? What does it mean, and why is it important? These questions are discussed with a focus on the cultural aspects of the clinical encounter. The DSM-5 Outline for Cultural Formulation was developed as a method of assessing the cultural factors affecting the clinical encounter. It calls for the assessment of the cultural features of the relationship between the patient and the clinician; however, there is a lack of debate about what this means in practice. Clinicians run the risk of withdrawal rather than cultural understanding when facing patients with different cultural backgrounds. Using ethnographic material from anthropological fieldwork, I suggest that the encounter with cultural differences could be a useful point of departure for the clinician to develop cultural understanding. It is argued that recognising the experiences of differences is crucial in strengthening transcultural communication and preventing misdiagnosis in the clinician–patient encounter. PMID:26755952

  20. Motivating donors to genetic research? Anthropological reasons to rethink the role of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Lynöe, Niels

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore the contribution from social anthropology to the medical ethical debates about the use of informed consent in research, based on blood samples and other forms of tissue. The article springs from a project exploring donors' motivation for providing blood and healthcare data for genetic research to be executed by a Swedish start-up genomics company. This article is not confined to empirical findings, however, as we suggest that anthropology provides reason to reassess the theoretical understanding of autonomy as generally defined by Beauchamp and Childress. Careful consideration of the trust expressed by donors through the act of donation, furthermore, suggests that there is reason to redirect the ethical scrutiny from informed consent to issues concerning institutional arrangements and social responsibility. In particular, we suggest that an anthropological approach could facilitate a reconsideration of the political implications of using informed consent as a regulatory practice in tissue-based research. PMID:16645794

  1. Material Proximities and Hotspots: Toward an Anthropology of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hannah; Kelly, Ann H

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a research program for an anthropology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (collectively known as VHFs). It begins by reviewing the social science literature on Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fevers and charting areas for future ethnographic attention. We theoretically elaborate the hotspot as a way of integrating analysis of the two routes of VHF infection: from animal reservoirs to humans and between humans. Drawing together recent anthropological investigations of human–animal entanglements with an ethnographic interest in the social production of space, we seek to enrich conceptualizations of viral movement by elaborating the circumstances through which viruses, humans, objects, and animals come into contact. We suggest that attention to the material proximities—between animals, humans, and objects—that constitute the hotspot opens a frontier site for critical and methodological development in medical anthropology and for future collaborations in VHF management and control. PMID:24752909

  2. The development of anthropology and colonial policy in the Netherlands: 1800-1960.

    PubMed

    Ellen, R F

    1976-10-01

    Although there have been studies of both Dutch colonial policy in the Indies and the development of anthropology in the Netherlands, there has been no systematic examination of the historical relations between them. This paper attempts this for a period of 160 years from the collapse of the Dutch East India Company to the birth of an independent Indonesian state. During this time, the need of successive governments for information on subject peoples was matched by the requirements of scholars for suitable conditions and locations for their work. As Dutch anthropology emerged in the nineteenth century and developed in the twentieth it was closely related to the prevailing political climate--state capitalism, liberal, and ethical policies. The analysis shows how there is a 'fit' between these and certain dominant anthropological styles and interests, principally in the form of empiricism, customy law studies, "Leiden" structuralism, and functionalism. PMID:797707

  3. Forensic and Anthropological Application of Body Asymmetry: A Comment on Gutnik et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2016-04-01

    The present communication describes the application of bilateral asymmetry in forensic casework and anthropological research. Bilateral asymmetry is normal in the human body. The body's asymmetry is attributable to genetic and environmental (evolutionary) reasons. Handedness is a factor related to bilateral asymmetry. Gutnik et al. (2015) supported previous research, showing that the dominant side of the body is stronger than the other side due to additional stress and strain, and thus has augmented musculature and increased mass. The note is intended to elaborate on the applications of body asymmetry in forensic and anthropological practice. PMID:27166335

  4. [Genetics and anthropology of Caucasian nations and the problem of "caucasoids" origin].

    PubMed

    Nazarova, A F; Aslanishvili, V O; Alkhutov, S M

    2004-01-01

    Anthropological investigations have shown that representatives of European and mongoloid races lived in the river basin of Aragvi from late Stone Age. These data confirm a viewpoint of academician V.P. Alekssev (1974) that population of the Caucasus was compound in race terms from the ancient times. Situation of the Caucasian peoples on the dendrogrammes built corresponds in general to the data of national anthropologists. Clusterization of other europeoid ethnic groups also corresponds in general to the anthropological and historical data and confirms hypothesis which we have set up earlier about differentiation of europeoids, north mongoloids and amerinds of the same population which lived in Asia in palaeolith. PMID:15771089

  5. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity. PMID:21199844

  6. A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test: Form 1, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-test. Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This composite form for pretest and posttest measures students' knowledge of anthropological concepts, study methods, and words, the Arunta and Kazak tribes, and the American way of life. It is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed to be used with curriculum guides for grades 1 and 4 (SO 011 790-795). The test consists of 30…

  7. "And This Is How You Shall Ask": Linguistics, Anthropology, and Education in the Work of David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry; McDermott, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article celebrates the life and work of David M. Smith, former Council on Anthropology and Education president and founder of the University of Pennsylvania Ethnography in Education Research Forum, tracing his contributions to the fields of linguistics, anthropology, and education through the dual lens of his ten research principles and Walt…

  8. Difficult Collective Deliberations: Anthropological Notes toward a Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the 1970s, Lawrence Cremin urged researchers to remember that education is more than schooling. Few heeded this call, perhaps because of the absence of the theoretical framework needed to make this more than a platitude. As a cultural anthropologist, I argue that education is a fundamental human activity that is infinitely…

  9. Mission Registers as Anthropological Questionnaires: Understanding Limitations of the Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines common sources of error for scholars using mission registers to study California Indian history. Draws examples from mission register studies of the Chumash tribe to illustrate problems resulting from missing entries, name changes, linguistic errors, and cross-cultural confusion about naming taboos and kin relationships. Contains 34…

  10. Bringing Anthropology Home: Latina/o Students, Ethnographic Research, and U.S. Rural Communities. Occasional Paper No. 57. Latino Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Victor

    Very few Latinos earn doctorates in anthropology, and the number enrolling in undergraduate programs is also not encouraging. This paper addresses the low and stagnant number of "new" Latino doctorates in anthropology, discusses reasons for this poor showing, and presents a possible solution--an approach to the study of anthropology that…

  11. CAE 2000 Presidential Address: The Council on Anthropology and Education as a Crossroad Community: Reflections on Theory-Oriented and Practice-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anthropology and educational research, characterizing the Council on Anthropology and Education as a "crossroad community" and discussing conversations in this crossroad community (e.g., studies oriented toward contributing to anthropological theory or to educational practice). Calls for a horizontal synthesis…

  12. American Indian Reader: Anthropology. Book One of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    The anthropological reader about American Indians presents 28 articles dated from 1968 to 1971. It is divided into 4 parts: the anthropologist: the man and the discipline; a giant step between 2 worlds; scientific investigation: archaeology; and early agricultural and economy: 3 studies. Also included are (1) discussion: an anthropologist as…

  13. The Kamunts Project: A Great Basin Application of Vicos-type Research and Development Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Allen C.

    An attempt to apply the broad principles of Holmberg's 1958 research and development anthropology in a social and environmental context, the Kamunts Project involves a Southern Paiute community. Utilizing Holmberg's methodology of contextual mapping and strategy intervention, Southern Utah State College (SUSC) is participating as technical advisor…

  14. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  15. Infantile Autism. A Clinical and Phenomenological-Anthropological Investigation Taking Language as the Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Gerhard

    A clinical and phenomenological-anthropological investigation taking language as the guide, the study of infantile autism concentrates upon an analysis of the idiosyncratic language of autistic children and of what is revealed by the way they use it. Following the presentation of very detailed case histories of five of the autistic children…

  16. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Housing Areas: Lessons from Oaxaca City, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Arthur D.

    The anthropological study of the city's role in the evolution of human systems requires the use of both macro and micro levels of analysis. From the macro perspective, the city is viewed as part of a wider complex society, while from the micro point of view, the city provides the context for understanding specific human institutions or processes…

  17. Philosophical Anthropology and Educational Change: Wilhelm Von Humbolt and the Prussian Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carla R.

    1973-01-01

    After the defeat by Napoleon, Prussia endeavored to rebuild its war torn country by instituting sweeping social and educational reforms. This effort marked one of the few instances in which philosophical anthropology formed the explicit basis of a successful program of social change. (Author/KM)

  18. Toward a New Philosophical Anthropology of Education: Fuller Considerations of Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Stephen; Garrison, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical anthropology is philosophical inquiry into human nature that seeks to answer the fundamental question of what generally characterizes human beings and differentiates them from other creatures and things. Political theories considerably influence educational theories. We call attention to the fact that the three main political…

  19. Anti-Family Fantasies in "Cutting-Edge" Anthropological Kinship Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Anthropology began as archeology--not just the archaeology of "prehistoric" human or quasi-human bones and stones, but also the study of other things presumably archaic. The most notable of these was the social life and thought of the world's remaining peoples who could be taken as proxies for those who supplied these bones and used these stones…

  20. 75 FR 67999 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections Facility, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given...

  1. The "Encounter" as an "Event of Truth" in Education: An Anthropological-Pedagogical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantazis, Vasileios E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Vasileios Pantazis examines how two philosophers having different orientations acknowledge and study the phenomenon of the "encounter" ("Begegnung") and its fundamental importance to human life and education. On the one hand, Otto Friedrich Bollnow drew on existential philosophy and philosophical anthropology in his analysis of the…

  2. Enduring Inequities, Imagined Futures--Circulating Policy Discourses and Dilemmas in the Anthropology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a slightly revised version of the CAE Presidential Address delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in New Orleans, LA on November 20, 2010. The address inaugurated a CAE program change in which a full evening session was devoted to the talk, including commentaries by Hugh Mehan and Sofia…

  3. Minority Student Response to the Anthropology of Asian Black Populations. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles P.

    Since 1970, the University of Chicago has offered three undergraduate anthropology courses on Philippine Negrito and Malay and Thai aboriginal black populations. Between 1975 and 1981, 72 students, including American blacks, Filipinos, and other Asians, attended the courses. The instructor's observations of students' responses to the courses…

  4. Africa, Roots and Pride for Afro-Americans. An Instructional Unit for High School Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Margaret H.

    This three to four-week high school anthropology unit examines the African heritage of black Americans. The unit was written for students in an inner city all black public high school. Objectives are to foster a sense of pride in black Americans' heritage, learn how black Americans can discover their roots, examine causes and consequences of the…

  5. Inviting Discomfort: Foregrounding Emotional Labour in Teaching Anthropology in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Helen Mary

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the potential and limitations of Megan Boler's "pedagogy of discomfort" in a post-apartheid yet heavily racialised South Africa. Taking an 'ethnographic sensibility' to anthropological teaching, this paper sketches the social and historical context of discomfort produced by everyday classroom…

  6. The Study of Small Groups and Microevolution: A Project for Physical Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a hands-on project in which anthropology students play the role of professional physical anthropologist in collecting and analyzing data on a small group of contemporary humans. Use of simulated data to represent ancestral populations results in an analysis of microevolution. (KH)

  7. Annotated Bibliography on Cognitive Anthropology and Sociolinguistics. Ecological Theory of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meihls, Janet Lee; Streeck, Jurgen

    This annotated bibliography focuses on the fields of cognitive anthropology and sociolinguistics. Topics covered include: (1) classroom ethnographies; (2) conversational and discourse analysis; (3) ecological and sociological approaches to the study of education and schooling; (4) ethnomethodology; (5) communication and speech act theory; (6)…

  8. [Theory of Argentine cultural "isoidia"].

    PubMed

    Pagés Larraya, F

    1982-03-01

    For the epidemiological study of mental pathology in the Argentine Republic the country has been systematically divided into 25 Cultural Areas, to which it is necessary to add the "megalopolis" of Buenos Aires City and conurbation. Each one of these Cultural Areas is analysed according to the anthropological method, which enables us to comprise an innumerable series of epidemiological variants. We investigate, for example, in every one of them the situation of the mentally sick within the community and the cultural attitude of the latter towards mental illness. For statistical purposes of Psychiatrical Epidemiology an experimental study of the prevalence of this type of disease is carried out in each of the above mentioned areas. As a complement to this investigation an analysis of the Institutional Prevalence of Mental Pathology has been performed, i.e., of the patients attended at the State Establishments, be they national, provincial or municipal. PMID:7136824

  9. Reasons for eating: personal experiences in nutrition and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christine S

    2002-02-01

    Social, ecological, physiological and cognitive processes all influence choices among foods that cumulate in dietary intake. This broad research field is studied by nutritionists, agricultural economists and consumer researchers, specialists in ingestive behaviour, biosocial psychologists and cognitive anthropologists of food acceptance, sociologists and anthropologists of social roles of food and historians, folklorists, geographers and other cultural scholars of belief systems surrounding food research. Each discipline has its primary concerns, sometimes with other close fields. This workshop considered merits and mechanisms of inclusive research meetings, journals and books as physical units as well as separate workers and facilities for virtual conferences, documents and organizations. PMID:11883919

  10. Educational Theory as Theory of Culture: A Vichian Perspective on the Educational Theories of John Dewey and Kieran Egan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Theodora

    2005-01-01

    At the center of every well-constructed theory of education is a philosophical anthropology-reasoned speculation as to the origins on man's conditions in the history of culture, especially the particular phenomenon of consciousness that underlies historical periods. Using the lens of one of the most significant theories of culture produced, we…

  11. Thoughts toward a Theory on the Effect of the Common Individual on Socio-Cultural Change: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Joy

    Studies show that culture change initiated by the common individual is slow, but like the geologic forces shaping our earth, it is persistent and inevitable. Anthropology's response to Freud began the culture-and-personality school that stressed psychological rather than biological foundations of behavior. Recent studies perceive individuals as…

  12. Bangladesh History, Society and Culture: An Introductory Bibliography of Secondary Materials. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertocci, Peter J., Comp.

    A list of descriptive scholarly works relevant to Bangladesh are compiled in an introductory bibliography for nonspecialist users that describes essential aspects of Bangladesh's history, society, and culture. History is emphasized, but the listing also includes documents about social/cultural anthropology, sociology, demography, economics,…

  13. Collective resistance to HPAI H5N1 surveillance in the Thai cockfighting community: Insights from a social anthropology study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde C; Figuié, Muriel; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Valeix, Sophie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Ducrot, Christian; Roger, François; Binot, Aurélie

    2015-06-01

    Farmers may organize themselves to collectively manage risks such as animal diseases. Our study shows some evidence of such organization among fighting cock owners in Thailand. Fighting cocks were specifically targeted by HPAI (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza) H5N1 surveillance and control measures in Thailand because they were thought to pose a high risk of spreading diseases. In this work, we used a social-anthropological approach to gain an inside view of the issues associated with HPAI H5N1 surveillance in the cockfighting community in Thailand. Based on a qualitative analysis of data collected through in-depth interviews and observation of cockfighters' practices, we found that fighting cock owners share a sense of belonging to the same community based on a common culture, values, interests, practices, and internal rules, including rules to manage poultry diseases. During the HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, these rules may have contributed to mitigating the potential risk associated with the intense movements of fighting cocks inside the country. Nevertheless, this community, despite the high awareness and know-how of its members regarding poultry diseases, has shown a strong reluctance to comply with HPAI surveillance programs. We suggest that this reluctance is due to important gaps between the logic and rationales underlying surveillance and those associated with cockfighting activities. Our study highlights the need for multi and trans-disciplinary research involving the social sciences to analyze interactions between stakeholders and the collective actions implemented by communities to face risks. PMID:25800453

  14. Anthropology and the menopause: the development of a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Kaufert, P A

    1982-11-01

    A theoretical framework has been presented in which the menopause was treated as an event for which the definition and meaning must vary from one socio-cultural context to another. Depending on whether the stereotype of the menopause and the peri-menopausal woman in a society is positive or negative, it will offer either a benefit or a threat to the self-esteem of women as they enter the peri-menopause. Women whose self-esteem is already high will not be as susceptible to a negative stereotype as women whose self-esteem is low. Among the latter, the further fall in their self-image will be the key aetiological factor accounting for psychological distress among women in the peri-menopause. PMID:7154971

  15. "A terror to their neighbors": beliefs about mental disorder and violence in historical and cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Monahan, J

    1992-01-01

    This tribute to the enduring legacy of Bernard Diamond explores public perceptions of a link between mental disorder and violent behavior. Research on contemporary American beliefs is summarized and compared both to historical accounts of public perceptions in Western cultures and to anthropological investigations of public perceptions in non-Western cultures. The conclusion of these reviews is that the belief that mental disorder bears some moderate association with violent behavior is both historically invariant and culturally universal. PMID:1633340

  16. Why be against Darwin? Creationism, racism, and the roots of anthropology.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, I review recent works in science studies and the history of science of relevance to biological anthropology. I will look at two rhetorical practices in human evolution--overstating our relationship with the apes and privileging ancestry over emergence--and their effects upon how human evolution and human diversity have been understood scientifically. I examine specifically the intellectual conflicts between Rudolf Virchow and Ernst Haeckel in the 19th century and G. G. Simpson and Morris Goodman a century later. This will expose some previously concealed elements of the tangled histories of anthropology, genetics, and evolution-particularly in relation to the general roles of race and heredity in conceptualizing human origins. I argue that scientific racism and unscientific creationism are both threats to the scholarly enterprise, but that scientific racism is worse. PMID:23124443

  17. Anthropology and decision making about chronic technological disasters: Mixed waste remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses two related case studies of decision making about the remediation of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The three goals of the paper are to (1) place current decision-making efforts in the varied and evolving social, political, regulatory, economic, and technological contexts in which they occur; (2) present definitions and attributes of {open_quotes}successful{close_quotes} environmental decision making from the perspectives of key constituency groups that participate in decision making; and (3) discuss the role of anthropology in addressing environmental decision making. Environmental decision making about remediation is extraordinarily complex, involving human health and ecological risks; uncertainties about risks, technological ability to clean up, the financial costs of clean up; multiple and sometimes conflicting regulations; social equity and justice considerations; and decreasing budgets. Anthropological theories and methods can contribute to better understanding and, potentially, to better decision making.

  18. Toward an Anthropology of Insurance and Health Reform: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Amy; Mulligan, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a special issue of Medical Anthropology Quarterly on health insurance and health reform. We begin by reviewing anthropological contributions to the study of financial models for health care and then discuss the unique contributions offered by the articles of this collection. The contributors demonstrate how insurance accentuates--but does not resolve tensions between granting universal access to care and rationing limited resources, between social solidarity and individual responsibility, and between private markets and public goods. Insurance does not have a single meaning, logic, or effect but needs to be viewed in practice, in context, and from multiple vantage points. As the field of insurance studies in the social sciences grows and as health reforms across the globe continue to use insurance to restructure the organization of health care, it is incumbent on medical anthropologists to undertake a renewed and concerted study of health insurance and health systems. PMID:26698645

  19. Cultural traits as units of analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Lyman, R. Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process. PMID:21041205

  20. Reconsidering the Placebo Response from a Broad Anthropological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Nichter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how the full range of human experience may catalyze a placebo response. The placebo effect has been characterized as something to control in clinical research, something to cultivate in clinical practice, and something present in all healing encounters. We examine domains in which the term ‘placebo’ is used in discourse: clinical research, clinical practice, media representations of treatment efficacy, and lay interpretations of placebo—an under-researched topic. We briefly review major theoretical frameworks proposed to explain the placebo effect: classical conditioning, expectancy, the therapeutic relationship, and sociocultural ‘meaning.’ As a corrective to what we see as an over-emphasis on conscious cognitive approaches to understanding placebo, we reorient the discussion to argue that direct embodied experience may take precedence over meaning-making in the healing encounter. As an example, we examine the neurobiology of rehearsing or visualizing wellness as a mode of directly (performatively) producing an outcome often dismissed as a ‘placebo response.’ Given body/mind/emotional resonance, we suggest that the placebo response is an evolutionarily adaptive trait and part of healing mechanisms operating across many levels—from genetic and cellular to social and cultural. PMID:19107582

  1. The embodied liminalities of occupational overuse syndrome: Medical anthropology quarterly.

    PubMed

    Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on interviews with sufferers of OOS (occupational overuse syndrome) in Aoteraoa/New Zealand, this article explores the liminalities associated with OOS and the ways in which this liminality is embodied. While successful rehabilitation could lead back to employment, the respondents' fragility while living with OOS and its accompanying social stigma render such rehabilitation both literally and symbolically "out of reach". Their situations reveal social isolation, loss of identities, pain, and functional disability that have been incorporated into renegotiated identities and biographies in which respondents have become exquisitely self-absorbed, exercising constant bodily surveillance and discipline in order to manage their symptoms. We suggest that this problematic extends beyond biographical disruption to encompass the concept of injury to an embodied sense of integrity for people who were notable prior to their affliction for their reputations as extremely competent and conscientious workers. The embodied meaning of OOS in this environment is not so much to have fallen "out of culture" as Hilbert (Ewan et al. 1991) suggests, but to be liminal in Turner's sense of "threshold people" (Turner 1969:56) "ground down to a uniform condition to be fashioned anew." PMID:22905437

  2. Scientometric analysis of anthropology in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 1980-1996.

    PubMed

    Bencetic Klaić, Z; Klaić, B

    1997-06-01

    Anthropologists from the Republic of Croatia have published 254 scientific papers in the period from 1980-1996, that are included in the secondary publication Social Science Citation Index. Scientists working in the scientific subfield anthropology participate with approximately 2% in the overall scientific output of the Republic of Croatia. Thirty-six international articles were published (14.2% of the total number), while the rest of 218 papers were published solely by domestic authors. An average anthropological paper is published by 3.06 authors, and approximately one-third of all articles by a single author. The major part of scientific papers (237 articles or 93.3%), Croatian anthropologists have published in a domestic primary scientific journal Collegium Antropologicum. All scientific papers together obtained 380 citations or 1.5 citations per article. The citation of articles is approximately 60% above the expected average for the respective journals. Published international papers had 6.6 citations, while articles by domestic authors had 0.65 citation per paper. Anthropological scientific papers obtained 154 independent citations and participate with 40.5% in the total number of citations. In the first five years after publishing, 166 articles (65.4% of the total number) were not cited, while the world's average for the scientific subfield anthropology was greater, 79.5% uncited articles. Only 19.4% of international papers and 72.9% of domestic papers were not cited in this five-year period. Based on scientometric indicators of a scientific output, that is, the number of published papers, partial scientific contribution, i.e., partial authorship, and scientific influence, i.e. number of citations, a method for the evaluation of scientific papers and their authors has been suggested in this paper. PMID:9225525

  3. Comments on Tobin's Contribution to Comparative Research in Anthropology and in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tobin's work has been groundbreaking. Famously, he and his team put together a sophisticated comparative study of three ways of doing pre-school--in Japan, China, and the United States (1989). As such, this study has precedents in anthropology. What is unique in Tobin's work is that he got people from one place to comment on what they…

  4. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results. PMID:26926105

  5. [The Base of the Skull. Rudolf Virchow between Pathology and Anthropology].

    PubMed

    Seemann, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his scientific career, the pathologist and anthropologist Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) examined countless skulls, gradually changing his perspective on this object of research. Initially, he was mainly concerned with pathologically deformed skulls. From the 1850s onwards, he gradually developed a more anthropological approach, and anthropology increasingly came to dominate his scientific interest. This article shows how different influences became central for the establishment of his specific and dynamic model of the human skull development and its successful application in anthropology. Crucial for this process were Virchow's collaboration with his teacher Robert Froriep (1804-1861) in the department of pathology of the Charité, his research on cretinism and rickets, as well as his description of the base of the skull as the center of skull development. His research work was attended by and showed a reciprocal interaction with the buildup of large skull collections. This article uses Virchow's original publications on skull pathology as well as his still preserved skull specimens from the collection of the Berlin Museum of Medical History at the Charité for an integrated text and object based analysis. PMID:27476256

  6. Anthropology and genetics of the caucasus peoples and the problem of the origin of the caucasoids.

    PubMed

    Nazarova, A F; Alkhutov, S M

    2008-03-01

    The electrophoretical polymorphisms of some blood proteins were studied in the Talysh population of Pirasora situated in South-East Azerbaidjan. We calculated the gene frequencies of these polymorphisms and determined the genetic distances between the Talyshes and some Iranian populations of North, Central and South Iran, Afghans, and three populations of Azerbaijan. The Talyshes are very close to Iranians of Shiraz, whereas they are distant from the Azerbaijanians. Anthropological investigations showed that the Caucasoids and Mongoloids lived in the Aragvi Basin since the Eneolithic period. This was stated by Alexeev (1974), who emphasized the mixture of the Caucasus populations from ancient times on. We calculated the genetic distances between the Caucasus populations and numerous populations of other geographic regions, considering 28 alleles of 12 loci of blood group, serum protein and red cell enzyme polymorphisms and constructed the dendrogram of these populations. The position of the Caucasus populations in the dendrogram corresponds on principle to the earlier anthropological observations. The clustering of the Caucasoid populations corresponds completely with anthropological and historical data, and supports our earlier hypothesis (Nazarova 1999) concerning the differentiation of Caucasoids, Northern Mongoloids and Amerinds from the populations, which inhabitated Asia in palaeolithic times. PMID:18435205

  7. [150th birth anniversary of Izidor Brennsohn, Latvian historian of medicine and researcher of Lithuanian anthropology].

    PubMed

    Andriusis, Aurimas; Viksna, Arnis

    2004-01-01

    This publication is dedicated to the 150th birth anniversary of a famous German-writing Latvian physician, historian of medicine, and anthropologist of Jewish descent Izidor Brennsohn, and to his ties with Lithuania. I. Brennsohn's works on physicians and the development of health care in Kurland, Livland, and Estland laid the foundations for the contemporary historiography of medicine in Latvia and Estonia. To a certain extent, these works could also be viewed as a digest of the sources of Lithuanian history of medicine, especially in regard to the regions on the boarder with Latvia, as well as to various personalities. However, Brennsohn's most important link with Lithuania was his doctoral thesis "On Lithuanian anthropology" ("Zur Anthropologie der Litauer"), defended at Dorpat (Tartu) University in 1883. It was one of the first works dealing with Lithuanian ethnic anthropology as a whole. Although, material of thesis could not be used for wider generalizations, still, it is one of rare and valuable 19th century sources of Lithuanian anthropology. Brennsohn's legacy deserves greater attention from people researching medical history in Lithuania. PMID:15456980

  8. Improved Knowledge Retention Among Clinical Pharmacy Students Using an Anthropology Classroom Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Parton, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Design. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom’s Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Assessment. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (p<0.0001). Significant knowledge retention was maintained with basic terms, but declined with complex terms between 6 and 12 months. Conclusion. The anthropology assessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT. PMID:25258445

  9. Becoming respectable: T. Dale Stewart and the acceptance of forensic anthropology in the academic community.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K A

    2000-03-01

    Before World War II, forensic anthropology was of peripheral interest to a few anthropologists willing to assist in investigations by law enforcement agencies. A strong bias that "police work" was unbecoming to the scholarly pursuits of academics persisted into the post-war years. Changes took place as a consequence of T. Dale Stewart's case work in the identification of human remains with the FBI from 1943 to 1969, his directorship of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) beginning in 1962, and his work with the Armed Forces after 1948. This paper discusses the historic period of transition of attitudes and practices in the contexts of Stewart's contributions and the cases and teaching programs of one of his contemporaries. Theodore D. McCown at the University of California at Berkeley, during the period of 1939 to 1969. The establishment of the Physical Anthropology Section within the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972 and the creation of the T. Dale Stewart award for distinguished service in forensic anthropology advanced those laboratory research programs and medical-legal investigations conducted by present-day forensic anthropologists. PMID:10782943

  10. Professional Culture: The Boundary Between Theory and Practice in Design. Revised Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Setha M.

    This paper describes two research projects in the anthropology of landscape architecture design which show that "professional culture" restrictions often prevent anthropologists from putting their theories into practice. The first research project grew out of the author's assumption that landscape architecture students were not producing socially…

  11. Culture and Diplomacy in the Third World. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Mario D., Ed.; And Others

    New ground has been broken in what is labeled as "anthropological diplomacy"--a study of the theory and practice of peace promotion and/or conflict resolution between/among micro-units (e.g., tribes) or macro-units (e.g., nation-states) based on sound knowledge of a society's fundamental cultural premises. There are six papers. The first…

  12. Learning and Work Programs: Transitional Educative Cultures. Research and Development Series No. 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarog, Katherine J.; Crowe, Michael R.

    A comparative case study of education and work programs was conducted from an anthropological frame of reference to determine how each sets up a program culture for learners to achieve program goals. Three variables structured into the original research design of the project were (1) the length of the program; (2) the type of community served, and…

  13. Teaching Culture: Imagined Communities and National Fantasies in the O.J. Simpson Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Argues for a complex and contradictory presentation of culture in the language classroom. Uses theories of nationalism to examine treatment of the O.J. Simpson case. Coverage from popular news magazines is read through the lens of anthropology and of literary and social theory. (Author/VWL)

  14. On Some Possible Links between Personality Theory, Cultural Levels of Adaptation, and Christian Theology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Ralph G.

    The purpose of this paper is to link several sets of ideas in personality theory to each other and to Christian theology; link several sets of ideas in personality theory and cultural anthropology to each other and to Christian theology; and demonstrate that various social phenomena are not the domain of any particular social or behavioral science…

  15. Incarnational Immersion-Based Learning in Cultural Contexts: A Charity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trokan, John

    2005-01-01

    The Religious Pastoral Studies and Behavioral Sciences Departments of a Midwestern college have collaborated in offering academic courses in theology and anthropology that include service immersion experiences with people of diverse cultures in South Dakota, North Carolina, New Mexico, Kentucky, and Honduras. This paper explores the incarnational…

  16. Mother-infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: what biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, James J; Ball, Helen L; Gettler, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an evolutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge clinical wisdom regarding "normal" infant sleep, and over the past two decades the perspective of evolutionary pediatrics has challenged the supremacy of pediatric sleep medicine in defining what are appropriate sleep environments and behaviors for healthy human infants. In this review, we employ a biocultural approach that integrates diverse lines of evidence in order to illustrate the limitations of pediatric sleep medicine in adopting a view of infants that prioritizes recent western social values over the human infant's biological heritage. We review what is known regarding infant sleeping arrangements among nonhuman primates and briefly explore the possible paleoecological context within which early human sleep patterns and parent-infant sleeping arrangements might have evolved. The first challenges made by anthropologists to the pediatric and SIDS research communities are traced, and two decades of studies into the behavior and physiology of mothers and infants sleeping together are presented up to the present. Laboratory, hospital and home studies are used to assess the biological functions of shared mother-infant sleep, especially with regard to breastfeeding promotion and SIDS reduction. Finally, we encourage other anthropologists to participate in pediatric sleep research using the unique skills and insights anthropological data provide. By employing comparative, evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives an anthropological approach stimulates new research insights that influence the traditional medical paradigm and help to make it more inclusive

  17. Magical realism: a cultural intervention for traumatized Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    De Rios, M D

    1997-01-01

    A case study is presented of two Spanish-speaking immigrant children who were run over in an automobile accident and hospitalized, to describe a culturally congruent play-therapy technique. Drawing on the work of Pynoos and Nader, the author argues for an anthropological approach in play therapy to create hyperaroused states for the traumatized child and to use cultural super heroes-what is termed "magical realism." Such an approach can be used with Latin American traumatized children as well as with children from other Third World countries to provide a culturally appropriate intervention to treat the psychological sequelae of trauma. PMID:9277017

  18. Sapir's vision of culture and personality.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, L J

    2001-01-01

    For Edward Sapir the concept of culture was a reification of processes that were rooted in individuals' personality and psychology. Sapir suggested that psychiatry's focus on individual biography and pathology gives it unique relevance for social science efforts to understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission and transformation. As a discipline that must integrate culture and biology in theory and practice, psychiatry can provide a corrective to the extremes of biological or cultural reductionism. Although mainstream psychiatry has largely abdicated the role it once had in the social sciences, the interdisciplinary field of cultural psychiatry may meet some of Sapir's hopes. Recent work in cultural psychiatry is centrally concerned with illness narratives that arise from the interaction of personal and collective meaning. Illness narratives may serve individual defensive functions, position individuals in a social world, and help to maintain overarching cultural formations. They also may challenge or subvert existing cultural meanings and create new forms of discourse. The close analysis of how cultural and individual meanings interact that is provided by cultural psychiatry has much to offer the wider field of cultural anthropology. PMID:11383439

  19. Culture in cycles: considering H.T. Odum's 'information cycle'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.

  20. Gregory Bateson's lost world: the anthropology of Haddon and Rivers continued and deflected.

    PubMed

    Wardle, H

    1999-01-01

    Gregory Bateson was one of the last and most distinguished products of the school of anthropology that Haddon and Rivers created in Cambridge after the Torres Strait Expedition. Beginning his career shortly after Rivers' death, Bateson used the interwar years to create a theoretical approach that continued and deflected that of Haddon and Rivers. His major ethnography from this period, Naven, evidenced his complex academic positioning between the legacy of Rivers and the new paradigm emerging around Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown. After the Second World War, Bateson's intellectual project emerged as even closer to Rivers' in both psychological and evolutionary dimensions. PMID:10531562

  1. John Dewey and the savage mind: uniting anthropological, psychological, and pedagogical thought, 1894-1902.

    PubMed

    Fallace, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    In 1902 influential American philosopher John Dewey wrote a short essay on anthropolo-gists'view of the savage mind, arguing that it had had been unfairly dismissed as inchoate and incapable, when in fact the savage had much to teach scholars about the "present mind." The ideas presented in Dewey's essay were not only theoretical; they also served as the basis for his entire curriculum his famous laboratory school at the University of Chicago. Thus, the author argues that Dewey's pedagogical thought informed his anthropological thought, and vice versa. PMID:18831518

  2. Applying forensic anthropological data in homicide investigation to the depravity standard.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Welner, Michael; Okoye, Matthias I; Marotta, Melissa; Plank, Gary; Anderson, Brianna; Mastellon, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Forensic anthropology can provide detailed information regarding the perpetrator's treatment of a homicide victim. This data may inform The Depravity Standard (DS), a forensic science inventory used to assess the severity of a homicide's intent, actions, victimology, and attitudes. Skeletal data enabled the reconstruction of a homicide case involving mutilation and possible torture. Using The Depravity Standard (DS) the skeletal data underwent evaluation in order to provide evidence of depravity. The osteological data alone offered sufficient evidence for a number of criteria of depravity, demonstrating the importance and application of osteology in resolving specific questions about the depravity of a homicide. PMID:23217373

  3. Energy healing and the placebo effect. An anthropological perspective on the placebo effect.

    PubMed

    Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with a classical anthropological issue, the working mechanisms of rituals and the relation between healing rituals and the placebo effect. The point of departure of the paper is MUS (medically unexplained symptoms) patients' experiences of Danish healing rituals. The aim of the paper is to develop an understanding of how bodily experienced images of body and self work to transform the patient during a healing ritual. It is argued that a bodily founded symbolic re-editing of body- and self-image is an essential skill in healing rituals. In conclusion, it is argued that the placebo is nothing but the effectiveness of bodily experienced symbols. PMID:22292568

  4. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. PMID:23388491

  5. Broca and Charcot's research on Jacques Inaudi: the psychological and anthropological study of a mental calculator.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Guida, Alessandro; Levine, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, French scientific institutions became interested in young "mental calculators," arithmetical prodigies able to quickly and accurately perform complex mental calculations. The first scientists to study mental calculators were phrenologists who sought to prove the existence of a calculating organ in the frontal lobe. Paul Broca introduced one such mental calculator, Jacques Inaudi, to the Anthropological Society of Paris in 1880. Broca attributed extraordinary faculty for mental calculation to memory functioning (the psychological hypothesis) rather than physiological difference (the phrenological hypothesis). In 1892, prominent French Academy of Sciences member Jean-Martin Charcot produced a noteworthy study of Inaudi on the organization's behalf. Charcot observed that Inaudi called upon auditory memory rather than visual memory in his mental calculations, unlike most mental calculators who preceded him. Like Broca, Charcot was skeptical of the phrenological hypothesis, though he noted that Inaudi's skull was markedly plagiocephalic. Interestingly, anthropological examination of Inaudi is consistent with the themes of modern cognitive neuroscience. Thus, Charcot seems to have anticipated present research on the localization of mental calculation and memory for numbers. 1. (1)The Academy of Sciences, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV (1638-1715) with the goal of contributing to the advancement and application of the sciences in France, was one of the earliest European scientific institutions. As a prestigious society, it played an active role in defining scientific and technological research policy as well as drafting and publishing official reports. PMID:24697632

  6. Personal equations: reflections on the history of fieldwork, with special reference to sociocultural anthropology.

    PubMed

    Kuklick, Henrika

    2011-03-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, diverse sciences grounded in natural history made a virtue of field research that somehow tested scientists' endurance; disciplinary change derived from the premise that witnesses were made reliable by character-molding trials. The turn to the field was a function of structural transformations in various quarters, including (but hardly limited to) global politics, communications systems, and scientific institutions, and it conduced to biogeographical explanations, taxonomic schemes that admitted of heterogeneity, and affective research styles. Sociocultural anthropology, which took specialized shape at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared many properties with other field sciences, but its method--participant observation-was distinctive. Critical to the method's definition were the efforts of the British experimental psychologist-anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, who relied on notions then widespread in Europe and the United States. The discipline's future mythic hero, Bronislaw Malinowski, embraced Rivers's model. For both men, proper fieldwork meant using the researcher's body as an instrument and entailed understanding both the anthropologist's body and the research subject's body as energy systems; this symmetry facilitated a relativist perspective. Participant observation remains central to sociocultural anthropology, but the discipline's pedagogic habits contributed to loss of memory of its energetic conceptualization. PMID:21667774

  7. Ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length: possible implications for forensic anthropological analyses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Leslie, William D; Baim, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    In forensic anthropological contexts, very few methods of estimating ancestry from the postcranial skeleton are available. The cranium is widely recognized to show the greatest ancestral variation, and is often regarded by forensic anthropologists as the only reliable bone for estimating ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Several studies have demonstrated ancestral variation in aspects of the femur, but none have shown significant predictive power for discriminating multiple groups, and have therefore not gained wide acceptance by forensic anthropologists. Skeletal health experts (particularly bone densitometrists), however, have long recognized a relationship between proximal femur geometry (especially hip axis length) and osteoporosis-related fracture risk. Moreover, fracture risk has been noted to vary between ancestral groups. Here, we investigate whether measurements that are related to fracture risk might also be used to estimate ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Specifically, we investigate ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length (FNAL) and find significant differences between European, Asian and African groups in both women and men. FNAL was largest in European groups followed by African and then Asian groups. The greatest discriminating power was found between European and Asian groups, but was also significant between European and African groups. These differences may have utility in estimating ancestry in forensic anthropological contexts. PMID:24461774

  8. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material. PMID:16843626

  9. Science and miscegenation in the early twentieth century: Edgard Roquette-Pinto's debates and controversies with US physical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders. PMID:27438731

  10. "Kinship with Strangers: Adoption and Interpretations of Kinship in American Culture" by Judith S. Modell. [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Notes Modell's examination of complexities of adoption from the perspectives of birthparents, adoptive parents, and adoptees, using lenses of kinship theory and symbolism, particularly blood as the central symbol of kinship in western cultures. Argues that as an anthropological study, Modell's work does not explicitly draw implications for…

  11. Ethnographies of pain: culture, context and complexity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly introduces and discusses the value of ethnographic research, particularly research hailing from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology. After an introduction to ethnography in general, key ethnographic studies of pain are described. These show that ethnography provides a set of techniques for data collection and analysis, as well as a way of thinking about pain as socially and culturally embedded. Modern ethnographic writing is far removed from the literature of the past that sometimes described stereotypes rather than process and complexity. Ethnography provides the chance to describe the complexity and nuance of culture, which serves to counter stereotypes. The article concludes with an example from pain research conducted in a clinical setting. Through the use of ethnographic techniques, the research study provided greater insight than other methods alone might have achieved. The article includes references for further reading should readers be interested in developing their engagement with ethnographic method and interpretation. PMID:26516554

  12. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  13. Collective Memory, A Fusion of cognitive Mechanisms and cultural Processes.

    PubMed

    Cicourel, Aaron V

    2015-12-01

    The paper assumes a theoretical-empirical interface exists between top-down (structural concepts) and bottom-up (cognitive mechanisms and socio-cultural interactions) approaches to collective memory. Both deal with collaborative group accounts, material culture such as artefacts and representational re-descriptive technologies. Anthropology has shown how communal life was based on story telling, rituals, artefacts, routine practices constitutive of daily life representational re-descriptions and the reproduction of implicit and explicit emotional normative belief systems embedded in kinship and social network relations. PMID:25078868

  14. Dental aesthetics as an expression of culture and ritual.

    PubMed

    González, E Labajo; Pérez, B Perea; Sánchez, J A Sánchez; Acinas, M Mar Robledo

    2010-01-23

    Intentional mutilation or modifications to human teeth hold anthropological and social significance. Studying them helps to understand past and present human behaviour from a geographic, cultural, religious and aesthetic perspective. Presented herein is the case of the skull of a male aged 20-25 years from Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India) with aesthetic dental mutilation on the two upper central incisors, originating from the Skull Collection of the Museum of Forensic Anthropology, Paleopathology and Criminal Studies of the School of Legal Medicine of Madrid. The mutilation consists of both an alteration of the contour of the crown and the inclusion of decorative elements on the labial surface of both teeth. Performed in this study is a radiographic analysis of the dental modifications as well as a paleopathological study of the mutilated teeth. PMID:20098389

  15. A Review of Language: The Cultural Tool by Daniel L. Everett

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    Language: The Cultural Tool by Daniel Everett covers a broad spectrum of issues concerning the nature of language from the perspective of an anthropological linguist who has had considerable fieldwork experience studying the language and culture of the Pirahã, an indigenous Amazonian tribe in Brazil, as well as a number of other indigenous languages and cultures. This review focuses mainly on the key elements of his approach to language: language as a solution to the communication problem; Everett's conception of language; what makes language possible; how language and culture influence each other.

  16. The Epic Narrative of Intellectual Culture as a Framework for Curricular Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Robert N.

    This paper describes a proposed middle school curriculum designedto coordinate the major subject areas around a single coherent story line, and to tell theepic tale of the development of formal intellectual culture from its distant origins to the present day.Ourstory explores the history of scientific culture from the perspective of foundational disciplines (history,philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology). It examines the growth of scientific culture againstthe backdrop of the world's traditional cultures, and balances the role of the sciences against the role ofthe arts in their respective contributions to the life of the mind.

  17. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields. PMID:24033987

  18. A Problematic Alliance: Colonial Anthropology, Recapitulation Theory, and G. Stanley Hall's Program for the Liberation of America's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of G. Stanley Hall's opus, "Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education" (1904), have highlighted one of the book's most problematic implications: if young people were thought to be the developmental analogues of "primitive" or "savage," then the treatment…

  19. The importance of an anthropological scene of crime investigation in the case of burnt remains in vehicles: 3 case studies.

    PubMed

    Porta, Davide; Poppa, Pasquale; Regazzola, Valeria; Gibelli, Daniele; Schillaci, Daniela Roberta; Amadasi, Alberto; Magli, Francesca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Inspection of a crime scene is a crucial step in forensic medicine, and even the methods taught by forensic anthropology are essential. Whereas a thorough inspection can provide crucial information, an approximate inspection can be useless or even harmful. This study reports 3 cases of burnt bodies found inside vehicles between 2006 and 2009 in the outskirts of Milan (Italy). In all 3 cases, the victim was killed by gunshot, and the body was burnt in the vehicle to destroy signs of skeletal injury and prevent identification. In every case, the assistance of forensic anthropologists was requested, but only after the inspection of the body at autopsy showed that the remains were incomplete, thus making it more difficult to determine the identity, cause, and manner of death. A second scene of crime inspection was therefore performed with strict anthropological and adapted archeological methods by forensic anthropologists to perform a more complete recovery, proving how much material had been left behind. These cases clearly show the importance of a proper recovery and of the application of forensic anthropology methods on badly charred bodies and the importance of recovering every fragment of bone: even the smallest fragment can provide essential information. Thus, a precise coordination, a correct and thorough recovery of bone fragments, and an anthropological approach are crucial for many issues: analysis of the scene of crime, reconstruction of the corpse, and reconstruction of the perimortem events. PMID:23629387

  20. Learning beyond the Classroom: Evaluating the Use of Pinterest in Learning and Teaching in an Introductory Anthropology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Nick; Learmonth, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a case study of using Pinterest as an educational resource in an introductory anthropology course. Its use was evaluated through the data provided by the platform itself and focus groups. This evaluation found that Pinterest was a popular and useful tool for developing curated multimedia resources to support students'…

  1. Water as Life, Death, and Power: Building an Integrated Interdisciplinary Course Combining Perspectives from Anthropology, Biology, and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willermet, Cathy; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power", brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  2. How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology. PMID:19839691

  3. Ancestry Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Geometric Morphometric versus Standard and Nonstandard Interlandmark Distances.

    PubMed

    Katherine Spradley, M; Jantz, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Standard cranial measurements are commonly used for ancestry estimation; however, 3D digitizers have made cranial landmark data collection and geometric morphometric (GM) analyses more popular within forensic anthropology. Yet there has been little focus on which data type works best. The goal of the present research is to test the discrimination ability of standard and nonstandard craniometric measurements and data derived from GM analysis. A total of 31 cranial landmarks were used to generate 465 interlandmark distances, including a subset of 20 commonly used measurements, and to generate principal component scores from procrustes coordinates. All were subjected to discriminant function analysis to ascertain which type of data performed best for ancestry estimation of American Black and White and Hispanic males and females. The nonstandard interlandmark distances generated the highest classification rates for females (90.5%) and males (88.2%). Using nonstandard interlandmark distances over more commonly used measurements leads to better ancestry estimates for our current population structure. PMID:27364267

  4. Sexually transmitted infections: a medical anthropological study from the Tari research unit 1990-1991.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes medical anthropological research conducted while I was based at the Tari Research Unit for six months in 1990-1991. The research aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the social factors surrounding the transmission of sexually transmitted infections, which had escalated following a local gold rush in 1989. Although HIV/AIDS was a very minor health issue in Papua New Guinea at that time, medical staff were aware of the likelihood of the disease becoming prevalent in the highlands in the near future. The research indicated that many people regarded sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a nuisance, rather than a serious health risk. Discussions with chronic sufferers revealed that they were more concerned about the dangers of infertility than the immediate effects of the infections. The paper considers the risk-taking that the people of Tari, the Huli, were prepared to accept and suggests ways in which these risks might be minimized. PMID:14658835

  5. 'Here, I'm not at ease': anthropological perspectives on community resilience.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Roberto E

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies on disaster reconstruction have focused on the concept of community resilience and its importance in the recovery of communities from collective trauma. This article reviews the contributions the anthropological literature and the ethnographic case studies of two post-Hurricane Mitch housing reconstruction sites make to the theorising of community and resilience in post-disaster reconstruction. Specifically, the article demonstrates that communities are not static or neatly bounded entities that remain constant before, during and after a disaster; rather, communities take on shape and qualities depending on the relationships in which they engage with government agencies and aid organisations before and after disasters. Consequently, the article argues that definitions of community resilience and disaster mitigation programmes must take the emergent and relational nature of communities into account in order to address the long-term causes and impacts of disasters. PMID:24601920

  6. [Socio-anthropological perspective of the under nutrition care of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Fontas, Marine; Poulain, Jean-Pierre; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Laville, Martine; Giboreau, Agnès; Bensafi, Moustafa; Mazières, Julien

    2014-03-01

    The diet of the cancer patient is a major focus of prevention and treatment strategy of the recent plans that fight against cancer. It is sometimes reduced to a rapid series of more or less general advice, often interfered by other sources of information, more or less conventional. In this pathological situation where the nutritional status of the patient is paramount, it seems crucial to understand the different modalities of how the food behavior is implemented. This article describes the construction modalities of the cancer eater decisions. The goal of the socio-anthropological analysis proposed in this article is to initiate a reflection on the under nutrition problem by focusing on the approach of the eater diagnosed with cancer. The aim is to help identify ways of action to fight against under nutrition and improve the quality of life of the patient. PMID:24691190

  7. Anthropological Perspectives on Participation in CBPR: Insights From the Water Project, Maras, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Elizabeth; Schow, Diana

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we anthropologically explore one part of the process of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): participation. Participation in CBPR is usually conceptualized as whether, and the degree to which, community members are involved in the research process. Our focus regarding participation is less on quantity and more on quality of the interaction between community members and researchers; within this context, we elaborate the concept of "bridging" as it is understood in CBPR. Using data from our ongoing "Water Project" in the Peruvian Andes, we explore how interaction, as a participative act of the research interview, creates the space for participating and imagining. Out of this interaction come data that are elaborated, contextualized, and, ultimately, from a CBPR perspective, made useful for meaningful engagement and community action. PMID:26613969

  8. [Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].

    PubMed

    Thoma, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school. PMID:23138331

  9. Understanding and Addressing AIDS-Related Stigma: From Anthropological Theory to Clinical Practice in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored. PMID:15623859

  10. Twenty-seven years of forensic anthropology casework in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2003-05-01

    A review of anthropological consult cases for the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator was conducted for the years 1974 through 2000. A total of 596 cases are summarized and information is presented on the sex and age of the individuals, season of recovery, depositional environment, body covering, time since death, perimortem trauma, postmortem animal activity, and skeletal element recovery. Results reveal a higher percentage of male victims (76%). No variation is seen in the seasonal distribution of cases. In cases with known time since death, 35% were recovered within one week while 30% had a postmortem interval exceeding one year. Depositional environments include surface (45%), burial (13%), and airplane crashes (9.5%). In 42% of the cases, no evidence of perimortem trauma was observed. Postmortem animal activity was noted in 46% of cases. Data presented in this study may prove useful in supporting expert witness testimony and generating future research models. PMID:12762521

  11. The emotional, political, and analytical labor of engaged anthropology amidst violent political conflict.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosa Cordillera

    2015-01-01

    Given the harsh realities that people live through in southern Philippines, where there is rife human rights violations and violent political conflict, it becomes difficult and arguably unethical for anthropologists to assume a position of neutrality. Following calls for engaged anthropology, I contend that engagement entails simultaneously an emotional, political, and analytical labor and troubles the separation of the self and other. I suggest that a way to labor through these challenges of researching suffering, and the reciprocal obligations this implicates, is to utilize feminist reflexivity and epistemic reflexivity. These necessitate an objectification of the self and one's intellectual field to achieve an epistemological break that would lead to an understanding of the other and their realities. PMID:25203771

  12. An anthropological method for measuring exposure to leprosy in a leprosyendemic population at Karimui, New Guinea*

    PubMed Central

    Hausfeld, R. G.

    1970-01-01

    An epidemiologically useful method of calculating exposure to leprosy is described. The method is based on the application of anthropological principles, and was used successfully in the Karimui Leprosy Research Project in New Guinea. The method could also be adapted for use in other epidemiological studies. The importance of patterned social relationships, and therefore contacts not only within but also outside the household of residence, is stressed. The patterned relationships are presented as a set of structural distance scales which allow a score to be awarded for contacts at various levels of intensity, taking into account age, sex, marital status, etc. An individual numbering system is used so that relationships can be coded for computer analysis. In view of the large number of comparisons to be made, in even small communities, the use of a computer is essential for the application of this method. PMID:5314018

  13. [On doctor-patient communication from an anthropological and social point of view].

    PubMed

    Dörr, Anneliese

    2004-11-01

    This paper attempts to perform a historical anthropological analysis of the factors that currently either favor or obstruct the doctor-patient relationship. For this purpose, the main works of reference are the sociologist Gilles Lipovetsky and the Spanish author Pedro Laín Entralgo. The former, identified with the concept of Postmodernity and individual Hedonism, is crucial in understanding what are the main determinants in the most recent developments affecting the doctor-patient relationship. Since the technological revolution, advances in science have surpassed all imagination, information technology has worked its way into all types of relationship, and thus medical practice has been particularly affected. On the other hand, the work of Laín Entralgo enables us to perform a review of the history of the doctor-patient relationship in the Western world, which affords a more accurate view of the origins and evolution of the current situation. PMID:15693208

  14. SOCIAL, HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Mason, Paul H; Roy, Anupom; Spillane, Jayden; Singh, Puneet

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) researchers and clinicians, by virtue of the social disease they study, are drawn into an engagement with ways of understanding illness that extend beyond the strictly biomedical model. Primers on social science concepts directly relevant to TB, however, are lacking. The particularities of TB disease mean that certain social science concepts are more relevant than others. Concepts such as structural violence can seem complicated and off-putting. Other concepts, such as gender, can seem so familiar that they are left relatively unexplored. An intimate familiarity with the social dimensions of disease is valuable, particularly for infectious diseases, because the social model is an important complement to the biomedical model. This review article offers an important introduction to a selection of concepts directly relevant to TB from health sociology, medical anthropology and social cognitive theory. The article has pedagogical utility and also serves as a useful refresher for those researchers already engaged in this genre of work. The conceptual tools of health sociology, medical anthropology and social cognitive theory offer insightful ways to examine the social, historical and cultural dimensions of public health. By recognizing cultural experience as a central force shaping human interactions with the world, TB researchers and clinicians develop a more nuanced consideration of how health, illness and medical treatment are understood, interpreted and confronted. PMID:25997539

  15. Anthropology and Geosciences: Training and Collaboration Advancing Interdisciplinary Research of Human-environment Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondizio, E.; Moran, E.

    2005-05-01

    Over the past thirteen years the Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change (ACT) at Indiana University has pioneered the use of anthropological and environmental research approaches to address issues of land use change, and population-environment interaction, particularly in the Amazon. Our research and training objectives focus on how particular local populations manage resources and how those activities may be studied by integrating time-tested ethnographic methods, survey instruments, ecological field studies, and the spatial and temporal perspectives of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems. The globalization of the environment crisis bears the risk of the research and training at universities being purely global or large scale in nature. This would fail to take into account the highly variable local causes of human activities or to discover sustainable solutions to the use, conservation, and restoration of human ecosystems. Our approach combines institutional and international collaboration, formal and hands-on laboratory and field activities developed within an interdisciplinary environment, but based on the strength of disciplinary programs. Over the past years, we have particularly emphasized collaboration between American and Brazilian scholars and students and intense work with local farmers and communities both during data collection and field research, as well as in returning data and results using different formats. In this paper, we address our experience, the challenges and advantages of theoretical and methodological development for students approaching interdisciplinary problems, innovations in linking levels of analysis, and new opportunities for international and collaborative training and research on human-environment interaction.

  16. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    CARVALHO, Suzana Papile Maciel; BRITO, Liz Magalhães; de PAIVA, Luiz Airton Saavedra; BICUDO, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; de OLIVEIRA, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. Objective This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. Material and Methods The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Results The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. Conclusion It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological

  17. Event Analysis as a Methodology for Urban Anthropology; Volume 2, Part 2. Anthropological Study of Disability from Educational Problems of Puerto Rican Youths. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Jacquetta H.

    Cultural event analysis assists traditional social science methodologies--ethnographies and survey instruments--in the study of urban life. Testing a hypothesis--that educational problems arise and persist for Puerto Rican youth because of contrast, contrariety, and noncomplementarity between the cultural forms and patterns of their home life and…

  18. Ethnological Field Training in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico. Papers from the Ixmiquilpan Field Schools in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Michael, Ed.; Bernard, H. Russell, Ed.

    Thirteen papers by graduate students who participated in a 1971 summer field program in Hidalgo, Mexico, are presented. Twelve of the papers are presented in the English language and one is presented in Spanish. Research for seven of the papers was undertaken in established Otomi Indian villages or hamlets. Research for the remaining six papers…

  19. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. One lot of stone, bone, and... 35UM1. The site is considered to be a prehistoric and historic age Umatilla village that includes a... determined that this lot of stone, bone, and glass beads is very likely to have been removed from an...

  20. A Methodological Response from the Field to Douglas Foley: Critical Bifocality and Class Cultural Productions in Anthropology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois; Fine, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we are explicitly in conversation with Doug Foley's recently published paper in "AEQ." Given our shared commitment to the linkages between intersectionality and broader social and economic arrangements, two noted ethnographers argue that the paradigmatic shift highlighted by Foley demands detailed attention to what…

  1. The Anthropology of the People of Puerto Rico. Studies of Puerto Rican Society and Culture, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Ronald J., Ed.

    This monograph contains seven papers presented at a 1977 symposium held to reevaluate the 1947 research work, "The People of Puerto Rico." (1) Sidney Mintz discusses the role of Puerto Rico in modern social science. (2) Eric Wolf, one of the authors of the 1947 work, comments retrospectively on some of the conceptual and methodological strengths…

  2. IYA2009USA: Cultural Astronomy and Storytelling Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita; IYA2009

    2009-01-01

    Cultural astronomy focuses on human's relationship with the sky using the disciplinary tools of anthropology, archeology, folklore, history, and folklore - not all at the same time. The USA is one of the few nations that include cultural astronomy and storytelling under its International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) activities. The working group focuses on indigenous sky knowledge; celestial stories, activities to explore the links between astronomy and culture; and on astronomers: their achievements and their academic culture. This presentation is an overview of the IYA2009USA Cultural Astronomy and Storytelling working group. Included will be our website, our goals, our projects, our outreach and dissemination strategies, and how we uniquely contribute to IYA2009.

  3. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  4. Two Paradigmatic Waves of Public Discourse on Nuclear Waste in the United States, 1945-2009: Understanding a Magnitudinal and Longitudinal Phenomenon in Anthropological Terms

    PubMed Central

    Pajo, Judi

    2016-01-01

    This project set out to illuminate the discursive existence of nuclear waste in American culture. Given the significant temporal dimension of the phenomenon as well as the challenging size of the United States setting, the project adapted key methodological elements of the sociocultural anthropology tradition and produced proxies for ethnographic fieldnotes and key informant interviews through sampling the digital archives of the New York Times over a 64-year period that starts with the first recorded occurrence of the notion of nuclear waste and ends with the conclusion of the presidency of George W. Bush. Two paradigmatic waves of American public discourse on nuclear waste come to light when subjecting this empirical data to quantitative inventorying and interpretive analysis: between 1945 and 1969 nuclear waste was generally framed in light of the beneficial utilizations of nuclear reactions and with optimistic expectations for a scientific/technological solution; by contrast, between 1969 and 2009 nuclear waste was conceptualized as inherited harm that could not be undone and contestation that required political/legal management. Besides this key finding and the empirical timing of the two paradigms, the study’s value lies also with its detailed empirical documentation of nuclear waste in its sociocultural existence. PMID:27310719

  5. Two Paradigmatic Waves of Public Discourse on Nuclear Waste in the United States, 1945-2009: Understanding a Magnitudinal and Longitudinal Phenomenon in Anthropological Terms.

    PubMed

    Pajo, Judi

    2016-01-01

    This project set out to illuminate the discursive existence of nuclear waste in American culture. Given the significant temporal dimension of the phenomenon as well as the challenging size of the United States setting, the project adapted key methodological elements of the sociocultural anthropology tradition and produced proxies for ethnographic fieldnotes and key informant interviews through sampling the digital archives of the New York Times over a 64-year period that starts with the first recorded occurrence of the notion of nuclear waste and ends with the conclusion of the presidency of George W. Bush. Two paradigmatic waves of American public discourse on nuclear waste come to light when subjecting this empirical data to quantitative inventorying and interpretive analysis: between 1945 and 1969 nuclear waste was generally framed in light of the beneficial utilizations of nuclear reactions and with optimistic expectations for a scientific/technological solution; by contrast, between 1969 and 2009 nuclear waste was conceptualized as inherited harm that could not be undone and contestation that required political/legal management. Besides this key finding and the empirical timing of the two paradigms, the study's value lies also with its detailed empirical documentation of nuclear waste in its sociocultural existence. PMID:27310719

  6. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological

  7. Culturally responsive health promotion in puerto rican communities: a structuralist approach.

    PubMed

    Idalí Torres, María; Marquez, David X; Carbone, Elena T; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Foster, Jennifer W

    2008-04-01

    This literature review discusses the value of the structuralist approach as an integrated theoretical and methodological framework for participatory cultural assessments designed to capture the cultural dynamics of those affected by health disparities. Drawing from principles of the Lévi-Straussian strand of structural anthropology found in contemporary cultural studies, and using the Puerto Rican cultural experience as an example, the authors present the distinction between deep and surface structures of cultural knowledge and meaning and highlight information-processing and behavioral systems influenced by the complexity of cognitive and social representations of cultural structures. To understand and address the deeply rooted web of ideology, norms, and practices that influence health decision making and behavioral responses, the authors show the need for ethnographic narrative inquiry beyond surface manifestations of culture. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of the structuralist approach for culturally responsive health education and other health promotion interventions. PMID:18340090

  8. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  9. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  10. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  11. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  12. A framework to approach problems of forensic anthropology using complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, Inés; Dorso, Claudio O.; Gallo, Pablo; Somigliana, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a method to analyze and interpret emerging structures in a set of data which lacks some information. It has been conceived to be applied to the problem of getting information about people who disappeared in the Argentine state of Tucumán from 1974 to 1981. Even if the military dictatorship formally started in Argentina had begun in 1976 and lasted until 1983, the disappearance and assassination of people began some months earlier. During this period several circuits of Illegal Detention Centres (IDC) were set up in different locations all over the country. In these secret centres, disappeared people were illegally kept without any sort of constitutional guarantees, and later assassinated. Even today, the final destination of most of the disappeared people’s remains is still unknown. The fundamental hypothesis in this work is that a group of people with the same political affiliation whose disappearances were closely related in time and space shared the same place of captivity (the same IDC or circuit of IDCs). This hypothesis makes sense when applied to the systematic method of repression and disappearances which was actually launched in Tucumán, Argentina (2007) [11]. In this work, the missing individuals are identified as nodes on a network and connections are established among them based on the individuals’ attributes while they were alive, by using rules to link them. In order to determine which rules are the most effective in defining the network, we use other kind of knowledge available in this problem: previous results from the anthropological point of view (based on other sources of information, both oral and written, historical and anthropological data, etc.); and information about the place (one or more IDCs) where some people were kept during their captivity. For these best rules, a prediction about these people’s possible destination is assigned (one or more IDCs where they could have been kept), and the success of the

  13. Music, empathy and cultural understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna

    2015-12-01

    In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy.

  14. Music, empathy and cultural understanding.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna

    2015-12-01

    In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy. PMID:26419700

  15. Cross-cultural healing in east African ethnography.

    PubMed

    Rekdal, O B

    1999-12-01

    Examples of cross-cultural therapeutic relations have been mentioned frequently in ethnographic accounts from East Africa but have rarely been the object of in-depth description and analysis. Colonialist ideology, structural-functionalist anthropology, and a number of more recent medical anthropological contributions have been biased in ways that have drawn attention away from what is a prominent feature of African traditional medicine: the search for healing in the culturally distant. A focus on the dynamics and ideology of cross-cultural healing may be crucial for an understanding of processes generated by the encounter between biomedicine and African traditional medical systems. As is exemplified by the Iraqw of Tanzania, widespread acceptance and extensive use of biomedical health services may not necessarily mean that people abandon traditional beliefs and practices. Quite the contrary, the attribution of power to the culturally distant implies an openness to the unfamiliar, the alien, and the unknown, which may have facilitated the introduction and acceptance of biomedical health services. PMID:10626276

  16. [Violence and impunity in check: problems and perspectives under the optics of the forensic anthropology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lessa, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Forensic anthropology is playing an increasingly important role facing violence and impunity in many countries. A research performed at police stations of Civil Police and Forensic Institutes of six Brazilian capitals demonstrated that the practice of recover and positive identification of human remains has been neglected in different levels. The main problem is the lack of specific training of the professionals that accomplish the expertise in field and laboratory, but also the fact that no anthropological database of disappeared people is available. As a result of this situation, an expressive number of human remains leave the forensic institutes without positive identification, and criminal inquiries of homicides stay without resolution, contributing to the aggravation of the violence and impunity scenery that devastates the country. PMID:19851598

  17. Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind? An anthropological-ethical framework for understanding and dealing with sexuality in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Anckaert, Luc; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary bioethics pays considerable attention to the ethical aspects of dementia care. However, ethical issues of sexuality especially as experienced by institutionalized persons with dementia are often overlooked. The relevant existing ethics literature generally applies an implicit philosophical anthropology that favors the principle of respect for autonomy and the concomitant notion of informed consent. In this article we will illustrate how this way of handling the issue fails in its duty to people with dementia. Our thesis is that a more inclusive philosophical anthropology is needed that also heeds the fate of this growing population. Drawing on the tradition of phenomenology, we will chalk out an anthropological framework that rests on four fundamental characteristics of human existence: the decentered self, human embodiment, being-in-the-world and being-with-others. Our aim in this article is thus to tentatively put forward a broader perspective for looking at aged sexuality in institutionalized people with dementia. Hopefully the developed framework will mark the beginning of a new and refreshed ethical reflection on the topic at hand. PMID:24449289

  18. The role of evidence in alternative medicine: contrasting biomedical and anthropological approaches.

    PubMed

    Barry, Christine Ann

    2006-06-01

    The growth of alternative medicine and its insurgence into the realms of the biomedical system raises a number of questions about the nature of evidence. Calls for 'gold standard' randomised controlled trial evidence, by both biomedical and political establishments, to legitimise the integration of alternative medicine into healthcare systems, can be interpreted as deeply political. In this paper, the supposed objectivity of scientific, biomedical forms of evidence is questioned through an illumination of the multiple rhetorics embedded in the evidence-based medicine phenomenon, both within biomedicine itself and in calls for its use to evaluate alternative therapeutic systems. Anthropological notions of evidence are constructed very differently from those of biomedical science, and offer a closer resonance with the philosophy of alternative medicine. Examples are given of the kinds of evidence produced by anthropologists researching alternative medicine. Ethnographic evidence of 'what works' in alternative medicine includes concepts such as transcendent, transformational experiences; changing lived-body experience; and the gaining of meaning. It is proposed that the promotion of differently constructed modes of evidence can be used to legitimise alternative medicine by widening the definition of what works in therapy, and offering a critique of what people feel is lacking from much of orthodox medical care. PMID:16376470

  19. [Analysis of hemodialysis and graft representations in patients with chronic renal failure: an anthropological approach].

    PubMed

    Desseix, Aurélie; Merville, Pierre; Couzi, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Hemodialysis and kidney transplant are two treatments for renal failure, which lead to numerous changes in the patients' way of life. We have questioned ourselves on the different ways they could deal with those changes by studying the representations and the ritualisation that surrounds the sick. From 2005 to 2007, qualitative interviews, based on the method of life stories, were conducted with 35 patients with chronic renal failure in three Aquitaine's centres. The results show three main groups of representation both in pre-transplant and in post-transplant. Specific behaviours are tied to each group of representation that are beneficial or deleterious with respect to treatment or the patient's social life. We will show that, on the one hand, the patients who see the hemodialysis treatment as a traditional rite of passage cope with the situation more easily and on the other hand, we will stress that this representation is closely linked to how the patients will later accept the kidney transplant. So, we have been able to link the representations of hemodialysis patients and transplant experience. Then these results have a practical consequence for the caregivers who can use the tools of anthropology (the interview guide, analysis grid) through a program of therapeutic education, to precociously take care of patients who are likely to come up against issues after their kidney transplant. PMID:20299298

  20. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    PubMed

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted. PMID:24884999

  1. The necropolis of Bolgare (Lombardy, Italy): Anthropological and paleopathological features of a Lombard population.

    PubMed

    Sguazza, E; Mazzucchi, A; Fortunati, M; Cattaneo, C

    2015-04-01

    The mediaeval necropolis of Bolgare - St. Chierico is an important site in northern Italy, located in the Bergamo Province (about 40 km East of Milan). In order to reconstruct aspects of the demographic and health status of this Lombard population, macroscopic (morphological, metric and radiographic) and microscopic analyses were performed on over 400 skeletons for the assessments of sex (cranial and pelvic morphology, metrics), age (subadults: dental and bone development; adults: mainly pubic symphysis, auricular surface of the ilium, 4th rib) and stature, for the determination of ancestry and the identification of pathologies. Results proved the sample to be heterogeneous with males, females, adults and subadults. The sample seemed to be composed of several groups, including individuals with northern or eastern (Uralic) European features and, on the other hand, individuals with central European or Mediterranean characteristics. The first may be indicative of migrations of Lombards (suggested by tall stature estimates); the second could be considered autochthonous, bearing features more typical of northern Italian populations. Among palaeopathological finds, the study showed the presence of tuberculosis, gout, DISH and degenerative pathologies particularly on the pelvis and spinal column. The population of Bolgare constitutes one of the main sources of anthropological data on Lombards in Italy. PMID:25703806

  2. How to See a Diagram: A Visual Anthropology of Chemical Affinity.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In 1766, Thomas Cochrane entered the Edinburgh classroom of Joseph Black (1728-99) to learn chemistry for the first time. Cochrane was studying medicine, and, like so many of Black's students, he dutifully recorded several diagrams in his notebooks. These visualizations were not complex. They were, in fact, simple. One of them, reproduced in this essay, was a single "X" a chiasm. Black used it to illustrate ratios of chemical attraction. This diagram is particularly important for the history of chemistry because it is often held to be the first chemical formula, and, as such, historians have endeavored to explain why it was unique and how Black invented it. In this essay, I wish to turn the foregoing premise on its head by arguing that Black's chiasm was neither visually unique nor invented by him. I do this by approaching a number of his diagrams via a visual anthropology that allows me to examine how students learned to attach meaning to patterns that were already familiar to them. In the end, we will see that Black's diagrams were successful because their visual simplicity and familiarity made them ideally suited to represent the chemical theories that he so skillfully attached to them. PMID:26103754

  3. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  4. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  5. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  6. 76 FR 73670 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any present-day Indian tribe. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the......

  7. Contribution of Forensic Anthropology to Identification Process in Croatia: Examples of Victims Recovered in Wells

    PubMed Central

    Šlaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovečki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Aim To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. Methods From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Results Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n = 37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Conclusion Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells. PMID:17696305

  8. Geochemistry Meets Anthropology: the use of Sr Isotopes as Tracers for Ancient Human Migration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, G.; Schaaf, P.; Hernandez, T.; Horn, P.; Manzanilla, L.

    2005-12-01

    Sr isotopes have increasingly become an important tool in archeology and anthropology in determining provenance of humans. By comparing isotopic signatures of human teeth and bone with the soil environment, Sr isotope ratios have been used as tracers identifying living areas. Sr isotope ratios in tooth enamel reflect the source of diet during youth, whereas ratios in dentine and bones come from the food growing in local geologies around the time of death. However, since analytical procedures vary from lab to lab we present here our new technique and how it affects results. We studied 11 teeth and 12 bone samples from the archeological site of Teotihuacan, central Mexico, as well as soil and water from the locality. Mechanical sample preparation of all teeth involved isolation of the enamel layer with the aid of an orthodontical micro-tool. For some enamel samples up to three fractions (two leachates and residue) were obtained for measurement. Thoroughly cleaned bone material underwent no leaching. As an example, 87Sr/86Sr results from a sample with ratios of 0.70477 for bone (which is identical to highland soil), 0.70530 for first leachate, 0.70590 for second leachate, and 0.70668 (mean accuracy +/- 0.00004) for enamel, clearly show enamel contamination by mobile Sr probably from soil. We thus find that repeated cleaning and particularly repeated leaching procedures, including isotopic measurement of the leachates, are critical to differentiate primary from secondary Sr isotope ratios as product of interaction of soil, sediments and water from the substrate where burials took place.

  9. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  10. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  11. Culture Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Bridget Fitzgerald

    1998-01-01

    One way to break down barriers and promote understanding among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and mainstream students is to establish culture clubs. Culture clubs involve frequent exchange of information about social, academic, and cultural topics in extracurricular settings. They are a critical component of ESL programs. The article explains…

  12. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  13. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  14. Unforeseen Americas: the making of New World societies in anthropological perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, E R

    1996-01-01

    The European discovery and settlement of the Americas revealed unforeseen dimensions and gave rise to unpremeditated ways of coping with the resulting problems. This paper traces out the enduring social and cultural implications of this foundational encounter. PMID:11607641

  15. Traditional anthropology and geographical information systems in the collaborative study of Cassava in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanoff, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.

  16. The Clinical Ethnographic Interview: A user-friendly guide to the cultural formulation of distress and help seeking

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

    2013-01-01

    Transcultural nursing, psychiatry, and medical anthropology have theorized that practitioners and researchers need more flexible instruments to gather culturally relevant illness experience, meaning, and help seeking. The state of the science is sufficiently developed to allow standardized yet ethnographically sound protocols for assessment. However, vigorous calls for culturally adapted assessment models have yielded little real change in routine practice. This paper describes the conversion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, Appendix I Outline for Cultural Formulation into a user-friendly Clinical Ethnographic Interview (CEI), and provides clinical examples of its use in a sample of highly distressed Japanese women. PMID:22194348

  17. How do societies and "corporate" groups delimit themselves? A puzzle common to social and medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Zempléni, A

    1990-06-01

    Classic anthropological theories define the first but neglect the second condition of social life. When they assume that the universal effect of the incest taboo is the opening of the consanguinial groups to the others, to exchange, they do not explain the closure of their sphere of reciprocity, i.e., the delimitation of the society. Hence the question: How, by which means, are stateless societies delimited or do they delimit themselves? Among the Senoufo of Ivory Coast (Nafara), one of the main acts of male initiation ceremonies--to the Poro, which is the very basis of the Senoufo's ethnic identity--is a ritual intercourse between the neophytes and their symbolic mother who has just given birth to them. This rite materializes the initiatic axiom: Senoufo men reproduce themselves by incest. In this case, the prescription of ritual incest is a means by which the society "closes" the field of reciprocity "opened" by the prohibition of actual incest. The return of the forbidden--at the heart of the institution which reproduces its identity--is the basic principle of the ritual delimitation of this society. Despite appearances, the delimitation of the so-called "corporate groups"--for example, an African lineage--is neither more "natural" nor more jural than that of the society which contains them. The limits of these groups are traced and retraced notably in the course of traditional "therapies" and by means of etiological entities which share several common, distinctive properties. (1) They cannot operate outside of the group delimited by them. (2) They are polyvalent and their effects are permutable from one group-member to another. (3) They act periodically: they have to dismantle the group periodically from the inside in order to be able to delimit it constantly from the outside. This phenomenon of spatio-temporal inversion (inside-outside; periodic-continuous), observable in any process of ritual delimitation, deserves our attention insofar as its closer analysis

  18. Radiographic assessment of facial soft tissue thickness in South Indian population--An anthropologic study.

    PubMed

    Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Mallapur, M D

    2016-04-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique used in forensic anthropology to identify an unknown person. Various methods used for facial reconstruction are drawings, sculpture and computer aided image building which is mainly based on facial soft tissue thickness measurement. Several methods have been established for measuring facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) with each one having certain limitations. There is limited data available on FSTT among South Indian population. Hence the present study was ventured to determine the FSTT among South Indian adults and also to find FSTT difference between male and female. 308 subjects of South Indian origin (18-27 years) having full set of permanent dentition who require orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Subjects were assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI) and diagnostic digital x-ray of lateral cephalogram (LC), Lateral oblique (LO) view and posterior-anterior (PA) view was obtained. The digital image was transferred to Adobe Photoshop CS4 software and 23 different soft tissue points were measured. Mean FSTT was more in males compared to females except for three landmarks. Statistically significant difference was observed in 20 landmarks when height and weight was compared in males, whereas in females only 12 landmarks showed significant difference. BMI showed good correlation with FSTT in both males and females, which was confirmed by linear regression. The best regressor in terms of estimating FSTT in association with age/sex/BMI were nasion, sub nasale, labial superioris, labrale inferius, gnathion, inferior border of zygomatic, right and left gonion. Stepwise discriminant analysis using all variables showed 94.8% of overall accuracy in sex determination. The observation of present study suggests that LO and PA view along with LC gives information regarding mean FSTT among South Indian population. Even though BMI plays a dominant role in determining FSTT, but age, sex, height and weight should also be considered

  19. Masters of their conditions: at the crossroads of health, culture and performance.

    PubMed

    Arpin, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    Achieving one's cultural or clinical identity is a matter of performance. The performing body is made through a series of apprenticeships that lead to mastery and then transmission. Performance, like culture and medicine, has its systems of learning, i.e. in the professions of the performing arts. This article examines the methodology of theater anthropology and other aspects of performance studies. Applications to intercultural work are described that make it possible for patient and healer to collaborate to master the condition. PMID:14649848

  20. "Life is a verb": inflections of artificial life in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    This review essay surveys recent literature in the history of science, literary theory, anthropology, and art criticism dedicated to exploring how the artificial life enterprise has been inflected by--and might also reshape--existing social, historical, cognitive, and cultural frames of thought and action. The piece works through various possible interpretations of Kevin Kelly's phrase "life is a verb," in order to track recent shifts in cultural studies of artificial life from an aesthetic of critique to an aesthetic of conversation, discerning in the process different styles of translating between the concerns of the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and sciences of the artificial. PMID:17355191