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Sample records for culture silene vulgaris

  1. Production of Triterpenoid Sapogenins in Hairy Root Cultures of Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2015-11-01

    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) is widely distributed in North America and contains bioactive oleanane-type saponins. In order to investigate in vitro production of triterpenoid saponins, hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris were established by infecting leaf explants with five strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (LBA9402, R1000, A4, 13333, and 15834). The A. rhizogenes strain LBA9402 had an infection of 100% frequency and induced the most hairy roots per plant. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced changes in triterpenoid saponins in S. vulgaris hairy roots were analyzed. Accumulation of segetalic acid and gypsogenic acid after MeJA treatment was 5-and 2-fold higher, respectively, than that of control root. We suggest that hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris could be an important alternative approach to the production of saponins. PMID:26749827

  2. Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Nevrtalova, Eva; Baloun, Jiri; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Safar, Jan; Milde, David; Hobza, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) were identified as important players in metal metabolism. MT3 gene presents a key metallothionein controlling copper homeostasis in plants. We have selected one cupricolous and one non-cupricolous ecotype to isolate and analyse the MT3 gene in Silene vulgaris. For expression data comparison, we have also included other metal-tolerant ecotypes. Based on a S. vulgaris BAC library screening, we have identified and sequenced a genomic clone containing MT3 gene (SvMT3). We found that SvMT3 gene has been locally duplicated in a tandem arrangement. Expression analysis and complementation studies using yeast mutants showed that both copies of the SvMT3 gene were functional. Moreover, we examined the expression of MT3 gene(s) in selected ecotypes under different copper treatments to show the tissue-specific expression response to copper stress. We demonstrated that higher copper concentrations specifically affected MT3 expression among ecotypes. Our analysis shows that MT3a has similar expression pattern in cupricolous ecotypes while MT3b has common expression features shared by all metallophyte S. vulgaris ecotypes. Our data indicate that down-regulation of MT3b root expression in higher copper concentrations is associated with copper stress. We propose that there might be a specific regulation of SvMT3s transcription depending on the type of heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24748066

  3. Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sebasky, Megan E; Keller, Stephen R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2016-07-01

    Since the last glacial maximum (LGM), many plant and animal taxa have expanded their ranges by migration from glacial refugia. Weeds of cultivation may have followed this trend or spread globally following the expansion of agriculture or ruderal habitats associated with human-mediated disturbance. We tested whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia, or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. We used species distribution modeling to predict spatial patterns of postglacial expansion and contrasted these with the patterns of human agricultural expansion. A population genetic analysis using microsatellite loci was then used to test which scenario was better supported by spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was highest in southern Europe and declined with increasing latitude. Locations of ancestral demes from genetic cluster analysis were consistent with areas of predicted refugia. Species distribution models showed the most suitable habitat in the LGM on the southern coasts of Europe. These results support the typical postglacial northward colonization from southern refugia while refuting the east-to-west agricultural spread as the main mode of expansion for S. vulgaris. We know that S. vulgaris has recently colonized many regions (including North America and other continents) through human-mediated dispersal, but there is no evidence for a direct link between the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and current patterns of genetic diversity of S. vulgaris in Europe. Therefore, the history of range expansion of S. vulgaris likely began with postglacial expansion after the LGM, followed by more recent global dispersal by humans. PMID:27547314

  4. The effects of stress intensity and stress type on inbreeding depression in Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sandner, Tobias Michael; Matthies, Diethart

    2016-06-01

    Inbreeding depression (ID) is generally assumed to increase under stressful conditions, but a number of studies have found the opposite pattern, that is that crossed offspring were more capable of exploiting benign conditions. Alternatively, the phenotypic variation hypothesis predicts that not stress intensity, but enhanced phenotypic variation in an environment leads to increased ID. We subjected inbred and crossed offspring of Silene vulgaris to drought, simulated herbivory, copper contamination, and two levels of nutrient deficiency and shade. In contrast to the predominant expectation, most stress treatments decreased inbreeding depression. With increasing nutrient limitation, ID decreased strongly, whereas under increasing shade ID did not change. These differences may be due to purging in the population of origin where conditions are nutrient-poor and dry, but not shaded. In contrast to the greenhouse experiment, ID was higher in a field site than in a more benign common garden. However, the predictions of the phenotypic variation hypothesis were met in both the greenhouse and the field versus garden experiment. The results suggest that there may be no general relationship between ID and stress intensity, but specific effects of stress type and the novelty and variability of the environment. PMID:27110935

  5. Genomic Diversity in Two Related Plant Species with and without Sex Chromosomes - Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Kubat, Zdenek; Blavet, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Blavet, Nicolas; Hobza, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome size evolution is a complex process influenced by polyploidization, satellite DNA accumulation, and expansion of retroelements. How this process could be affected by different reproductive strategies is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed differences in the number and distribution of major repetitive DNA elements in two closely related species, Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris. Both species are diploid and possess the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but differ in their genome size and mode of reproduction. The dioecious S. latifolia (1C = 2.70 pg DNA) possesses sex chromosomes and its genome is 2.5× larger than that of the gynodioecious S. vulgaris (1C = 1.13 pg DNA), which does not possess sex chromosomes. We discovered that the genome of S. latifolia is larger mainly due to the expansion of Ogre retrotransposons. Surprisingly, the centromeric STAR-C and TR1 tandem repeats were found to be more abundant in S. vulgaris, the species with the smaller genome. We further examined the distribution of major repetitive sequences in related species in the Caryophyllaceae family. The results of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) on mitotic chromosomes with the Retand element indicate that large rearrangements occurred during the evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that the evolution of genome size in the genus Silene is accompanied by the expansion of different repetitive elements with specific patterns in the dioecious species possessing the sex chromosomes. PMID:22393373

  6. Phytochelatins in Cadmium-Sensitive and Cadmium-Tolerant Silene vulgaris (Chain Length Distribution and Sulfide Incorporation).

    PubMed Central

    De Knecht, J. A.; Van Dillen, M.; Koevoets, PLM.; Schat, H.; Verkleij, JAC.; Ernst, WHO.

    1994-01-01

    In response to a range of Cd concentrations, the root tips of Cd-tolerant plants of Silene vulgaris exhibit a lower rate of PC production accompanied by a lower rate of longer chain PC synthesis than those of Cd-sensitive plants. At the same Cd exposure level, stable PC-Cd complexes are more rapidly formed in the roots of Cd-sensitive plants than in those of tolerant plants. At an equal PC concentration in the roots, the PC composition and the amount of sulfide incorporated per unit of PC-thiol is the same in both populations. Although these compounds might play some role in mechanisms that contribute to Cd detoxification, the ability to produce these compounds in greater amounts is not, itself, the mechanism that produces increased Cd tolerance in tolerant S. vulgaris plants. PMID:12232077

  7. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  8. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Baloun, Jiri; Nevrtalova, Eva; Kovacova, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2014-08-15

    Silene vulgaris possesses ecotype-specific tolerance to high levels of copper in the soil. Although this was reported a few decades ago, little is known about this trait on a molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription response to elevated copper concentrations in two S. vulgaris ecotypes originating from copper-contrasting soil types - copper-tolerant Lubietova and copper-sensitive Stranska skala. To reveal if plants are transcriptionally affected, we first analyzed the HMA7 gene, a known key player in copper metabolism. Based on BAC library screening, we identified a BAC clone containing a SvHMA7 sequence with all the structural properties specific for plant copper-transporting ATPases. The functionality of the gene was tested using heterologous complementation in yeast mutants. Analyses of SvHMA7 transcription patterns showed that both ecotypes studied up-regulated SvHMA7 transcription after the copper treatment. Our data are supported by analysis of appropriate reference genes based on RNA-Seq databases. To identify genes specifically involved in copper response in the studied ecotypes, we analyzed transcription profiles of genes coding Cu-transporting proteins and genes involved in the prevention of copper-induced oxidative stress in both ecotypes. Our data show that three genes (APx, POD and COPT5) differ in their transcription pattern between the ecotypes with constitutively increased transcription in Lubietova. Taken together, we have identified transcription differences between metallifferous and non-metalliferous ecotypes of S. vulgaris, and we have suggested candidate genes participating in metal tolerance in this species. PMID:24973591

  9. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  10. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  11. CULTURING AND ECOLOGY STUDIES OF THE ROTIFER, 'POLYARTHRA VULGARIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents research conducted to identify variables which affect the survival and reproduction of the rotifer, Polyarthra vulgaris. The following variables were studied: handling stress, container size, frequency of changing the culture medium, light quantity and quality...

  12. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  13. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  14. Magnesium Uptake by the Green Microalga Chlorella vulgaris in Batch Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor-Ben Ayed, Hela; Taidi, Behnam; Ayadi, Habib; Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation (internal and superficial distribution) of magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) by the green freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was investigated under autotrophic culture in a stirred photobioreactor. The concentrations of the three forms of Mg(2+) (dissolved, extracellular, and intracellular) were determined with atomic absorption spectroscopy during the course of C. vulgaris growth. The proportions of adsorbed (extracellular) and absorbed (intracellular) Mg(2+) were quantified. The concentration of the most important pigment in algal cells, chlorophyll a, increased over time in proportion to the increase in the biomass concentration, indicating a constant chlorophyll/biomass ratio during the linear growth phase. The mean-average rate of Mg(2+) uptake by C. vulgaris grown in a culture medium starting with 16 mg/l of Mg(2+) concentration was measured. A clear relationship between the biomass concentration and the proportion of the Mg(2+) removal from the medium was observed. Of the total Mg(2+) present in the culture medium, 18% was adsorbed on the cell wall and 51% was absorbed by the biomass by the end of the experiment (765 h). Overall, 69% of the initial Mg(2+) were found to be removed from the medium. This study supported the kinetic model based on a reversible first-order reaction for Mg(2+) bioaccumulation in C. vulgaris, which was consistent with the experimental data. PMID:26628253

  15. Hydrogenase activity in aged, nonviable Desulfovibrio vulgaris cultures and its significance in anaerobic biocorrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelus, C.; Carrier, P.; Saignes, P.; Libert, M.F.; Berlier, Y.; Lespinat, P.A.; Fauque, G.; Legall, J.

    1987-07-01

    Batch cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris stored at 32 degrees C for 10 months have been found to retain 50% of the hydrogenase activity of a 1-day culture. The hydrogenase found in old cultures needs reducing conditions for its activation. Viable cell counts are negative after 6 months, showing that the hydrogenase activity does not depend on the presence of viable cells. These observations are of importance in the understanding of anaerobic biocorrosion of metals caused by depolarization phenomena. (Refs. 16).

  16. Chlorella vulgaris culture as a regulator of CO2 in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Hu, Enzhu; Xie, Beizhen; Tong, Ling

    2013-08-01

    It is the primary task for a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) to maintain the stable concentrations of CO2 and O2. However, these concentrations could fluctuate based on various factors, such as the imbalance between respiration/assimilation quotients of the heterotrophic and autotrophic components. They can even be out of balance through catastrophic failure of higher plants in the emergency conditions. In this study, the feasibility of using unicellular Chlorella vulgaris of typically rapid growth as both “compensatory system” and “regulator” to control the balance of CO2 and O2 was analyzed in a closed ecosystem. For this purpose, a small closed ecosystem called integrative experimental system (IES) was established in our laboratory where we have been conducting multi-biological life support system experiments (MLSSE). The IES consists of a closed integrative cultivating system (CICS) and a plate photo-bioreactor. Four volunteers participated in the study for gas exchange by periodical breathing through a tube connected with the CICS. The plate photo-bioreactor was used to cultivate C. vulgaris. Results showed that the culture of C. vulgaris could be used in a situation of catastrophic failure of higher plant under the emergencies. And the productivity could recover itself to the original state in 3 to 5 days to protect the system till the higher plant was renewed. Besides, C. vulgaris could grow well and the productivity could be affected by the light intensity which could help to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 in the IES efficiently. Thus, C. vulgaris could be included in the design of a BLSS as a “compensatory system” in the emergency contingency and a “regulator” during the normal maintenance.

  17. Phenotypic and karyotypic status of Beta vulgaris plants regenerated from direct organogenesis in petiole culture.

    PubMed

    Detrez, C; Sangwan, R S; Sangwan-Norreel, B S

    1989-04-01

    A method for high frequency in vitro regeneration from petiole explants was tested on nine breeding lines of Beta vulgaris L. from the haploid, diploid and tetraploid levels. Regenerants could be obtained without a callus step, from excised petioles derived either from axillary buds sprouted in vitro or from field grown plants, by plating the explants on MS medium supplemented with TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoïc acid) and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine). The multiple shoots obtained were then rooted in vitro and transferred to soil. In some cases, these adventitious shoots were also used as a petiole explant source for further petiole culture cycles, and the phenotypic characteristics and ploidy status of the regenerants were investigated after one or three petiole culture cycles. Conventional shoot apex culture was used as an in vitro control. Phenotypic variations such as differences in morphology and changes in in vitro growth behaviour, were noticed. Chloroplast and chromosome counts indicated that the alterations in morphogenetic pathway could not be explained by the occurrence of gross cytogenetic abnormalities such as aneuploidy or myxoploidy. Our results suggest that the altered morphology is caused by the presence of the exogenous antiauxin (TIBA) during the in vitro phase. Following transfer to the greenhouse, none of these variations persisted and cytogenetic analyses revealed karyotypic stability in all the plants studied, even after three petiole culture cycles. An assessment of the in vitro petiole culture method as a true-to-type multiplication method for Beta vulgaris is made. PMID:24232710

  18. Single-cell analysis reveals gene-expression heterogeneity in syntrophic dual-culture of Desulfovibrio vulgaris with Methanosarcina barkeri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhenhua; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-12-01

    Microbial syntrophic metabolism has been well accepted as the heart of how methanogenic and other anaerobic microbial communities function. In this work, we applied a single-cell RT-qPCR approach to reveal gene-expression heterogeneity in a model syntrophic system of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri, as compared with the D. vulgaris monoculture. Using the optimized primers and single-cell analytical protocol, we quantitatively determine gene-expression levels of 6 selected target genes in each of the 120 single cells of D. vulgaris isolated from its monoculture and dual-culture with M. barkeri. The results demonstrated very significant cell-to-cell gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected D. vulgaris genes in both the monoculture and the syntrophic dual-culture. Interestingly, no obvious increase in gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected genes was observed for the syntrophic dual-culture when compared with its monoculture, although the community structure and cell-cell interactions have become more complicated in the syntrophic dual-culture. In addition, the single-cell RT-qPCR analysis also provided further evidence that the gene cluster (DVU0148-DVU0150) may be involved syntrophic metabolism between D. vulgaris and M. barkeri. Finally, the study validated that single-cell RT-qPCR analysis could be a valuable tool in deciphering gene functions and metabolism in mixed-cultured microbial communities.

  19. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth). PMID:25543540

  20. Culture of a high-chlorophyll-producing and halotolerant Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Deuchi, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    In order to increase the value of freshwater algae as raw ingredients for health foods and feed for seawater-based farmed fish, we sought to breed high-chlorophyll halotolerant Chlorella with the objective of generating strains with both high chlorophyll concentrations (≥ 5%) and halotolerance (up to 1% NaCl). We used the Chlorella vulgaris K strain in our research institute culture collection and induced mutations with UV irradiation and acriflavine which is known to effect mutations of mitochondrial DNA that are associated with chlorophyll production. Screenings were conducted on seawater-based "For Chlorella spp." (FC) agar medium, and dark-green-colored colonies were visually selected by macroscopic inspection. We obtained a high-chlorophyll halotolerant strain (designated C. vulgaris M-207A7) that had a chlorophyll concentration of 6.7% (d.m.), a level at least three-fold higher than that of K strain. This isolate also exhibited a greater survival rate in seawater that of K strain. PMID:24331982

  1. A novel culture medium designed for the simultaneous enhancement of biomass and lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 26.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, Citlally; Chairez, Isaac; Fernández-Linares, Luis

    2016-07-01

    A novel culture medium to enhance the biomass and lipid production simultaneously by Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 26 was designed in three stages of optimization. Initially, a culture medium was inferred applying the response surface method to adjust six factors [NaNO3, NH4HCO3, MgSO4·7H2O, KH2PO4, K2HPO4 and (NH4)2HPO4], which were selected on the basement of BBM (Bold's Basal Medium) and HAMGM (Highly Assimilable Minimal Growth Medium) culture media. Afterwards, the nitrogen source compound was optimized to reduce both, ammonium and nitrate concentrations. As result of the optimization process, the proposed culture medium improved 40% the biomass (0.73gL(-1)) compared with the BBM medium and 85% the lipid concentration (281mgL(-1)), with respect to HAMGM medium. Some culture media components concentrations were reduced up to 50%. Gas chromatography analysis revealed that C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were the major fatty acids produced by C. vulgaris UTEX 26. PMID:27099946

  2. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E.; Camacho-Díaz, B. H.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  3. Optimization of culture media for large-scale lutein production by heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Young; Kwon, Ji-Sue; Kang, Soon Tae; Kim, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yuchul; Han, Jae Gap; Park, Joon Hyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with a purported role in protecting eyes from oxidative stress, particularly the high-energy photons of blue light. Statistical optimization was performed to growth media that supports a higher production of lutein by heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella vulgaris. The effect of media composition of C. vulgaris on lutein was examined using fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the presence of magnesium sulfate, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution significantly affected lutein production. The optimum concentrations for lutein production were found to be 0.34 g/L, 0.06 g/L, and 0.4 mL/L for MgSO4 ·7H2 O, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution, respectively. These values were validated using a 5-L jar fermenter. Lutein concentration was increased by almost 80% (139.64 ± 12.88 mg/L to 252.75 ± 12.92 mg/L) after 4 days. Moreover, the lutein concentration was not reduced as the cultivation was scaled up to 25,000 L (260.55 ± 3.23 mg/L) and 240,000 L (263.13 ± 2.72 mg/L). These observations suggest C. vulgaris as a potential lutein source. PMID:24550199

  4. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.

    2013-10-01

    Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38-10.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions). These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  5. Nitrous oxide (N2O) production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.

    2013-06-01

    Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic C. vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favoring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  6. Comparison of Transcriptional Heterogeneity of Eight Genes between Batch Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilm and Planktonic Culture at a Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhenhua; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm formed on metal surfaces can change the physicochemical properties of metals and cause metal corrosion. To enhance understanding of differential gene expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris under planktonic and biofilm growth modes, a single-cell based RT-qPCR approach was applied to determine gene expression levels of 8 selected target genes in four sets of the 31 individual cells isolated from each growth condition (i.e., biofilm formed on a mild steel (SS) and planktonic cultures, exponential and stationary phases). The results showed obvious gene-expression heterogeneity for the target genes among D. vulgaris single cells of both biofilm and planktonic cultures. In addition, an increased gene-expression heterogeneity in the D. vulgaris biofilm when compared with the planktonic culture was also observed for seven out of eight selected genes at exponential phase, and six out of eight selected genes at stationary phase, respectively, which may be contributing to the increased complexity in terms of structures and morphology in the biofilm. Moreover, the results showed up-regulation of DVU0281 gene encoding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, and down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., DVU0434 and DVU0588), stress responses (i.e., DVU2410) and response regulator (i.e., DVU3062) in the D. vulgaris biofilm cells. Finally, the gene (DVU2571) involved in iron transportation was found down-regulated, and two genes (DVU1340 and DVU1397) involved in ferric uptake repressor and iron storage were up-regulated in D. vulgaris biofilm, suggesting their possible roles in maintaining normal metabolism of the D. vulgaris biofilm under environments of high concentration of iron. This study showed that the single-cell based analysis could be a useful approach in deciphering metabolism of microbial biofilms. PMID:27199927

  7. Comparison of Transcriptional Heterogeneity of Eight Genes between Batch Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilm and Planktonic Culture at a Single-Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhenhua; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm formed on metal surfaces can change the physicochemical properties of metals and cause metal corrosion. To enhance understanding of differential gene expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris under planktonic and biofilm growth modes, a single-cell based RT-qPCR approach was applied to determine gene expression levels of 8 selected target genes in four sets of the 31 individual cells isolated from each growth condition (i.e., biofilm formed on a mild steel (SS) and planktonic cultures, exponential and stationary phases). The results showed obvious gene-expression heterogeneity for the target genes among D. vulgaris single cells of both biofilm and planktonic cultures. In addition, an increased gene-expression heterogeneity in the D. vulgaris biofilm when compared with the planktonic culture was also observed for seven out of eight selected genes at exponential phase, and six out of eight selected genes at stationary phase, respectively, which may be contributing to the increased complexity in terms of structures and morphology in the biofilm. Moreover, the results showed up-regulation of DVU0281 gene encoding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, and down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., DVU0434 and DVU0588), stress responses (i.e., DVU2410) and response regulator (i.e., DVU3062) in the D. vulgaris biofilm cells. Finally, the gene (DVU2571) involved in iron transportation was found down-regulated, and two genes (DVU1340 and DVU1397) involved in ferric uptake repressor and iron storage were up-regulated in D. vulgaris biofilm, suggesting their possible roles in maintaining normal metabolism of the D. vulgaris biofilm under environments of high concentration of iron. This study showed that the single-cell based analysis could be a useful approach in deciphering metabolism of microbial biofilms. PMID:27199927

  8. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Silene armeria.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Twelve triterpenoid saponins, including seven compounds (i.e., armerosides A-G) hitherto unknown, were isolated from whole plants of Silene armeria. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. From a biosynthetic perspective, C-23 oxidation of the sapogenin appears to be a key factor in the glycosylation pathway. PMID:27460531

  9. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Judy D.

    2006-06-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms biofilms under stress and nutrient limitation conditions. Analysis of the transcriptional responses to acid exposure suggested that genes encoding arginine and polyamine biosynthesis were increased in expression. A literature search showed that polyamines had been suggested to stimulate biofilm formation in some bacteria. Therefore, biofilm formation by D. vulgaris was then examined. Two different assay methods were used to estimate the biofilm formation. First, the classical crystal violet stainable material attached to glass test tubes was measured. Second protein attached to the test tube sides and especially precipitated at the bottom was measured.

  10. Control of CO₂ input conditions during outdoor culture of Chlorella vulgaris in bubble column photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Phooi, Wei Boon Alfred; Lim, Zi Jian; Tong, Yen Wah

    2015-06-01

    A study on the optimization of CO2 usage during outdoor microalgae cultivation in order to further maximize the CO2 to biomass conversion efficiency is presented. A constant supply of CO2 was found to be non-essential for culturing microalgae outdoors in 80 L (8 L×10 sets) bubble columns. Among the different CO2 input conditions that were studied, 2% CO2 with intermittent supply and 2%+4% CO2 alternation did not affect the algal growth as compared to having a constant supply of 2% CO2. However, during both input conditions, the CO2 to biomass conversion efficiency was doubled while the amount of CO2 used was reduced by 50%. The algal biomass obtained was found to have a higher carbohydrate yield but a lower protein yield as compared to previously published studies. The findings from this study could be applied for large-scale microalgae production so as to minimize cultivation and energy costs. PMID:25817035

  11. Expansion of the Pseudo-autosomal Region and Ongoing Recombination Suppression in the Silene latifolia Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ∼25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Grown in Planktonic Culture and Mature Biofilm on a Steel Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Scholten, Johannes C.

    2007-08-01

    The build-up of biofilms of sulphate -reducing bacteria (SRB) on metals surfaces may lead to severe corrosion of iron. To understand the processes at molecular level, in this study, a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between planktonic populations and mature biofilm of model SRB species Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Statistical analysis revealed that 472 genes were differentially expressed (1.5 fold or more with a p value less than 0.025) when comparing biofilm to planktonic cells. Among the differentially expressed genes were several that corresponded to biofilm formation genes identified in many aerobic bacterial biofilms (i.e., Pseudomonas species and Escherichia coli), such as down-regulation of genes encoding flagellin, flagellar motor switch protein and chemotaxis proteins involved in cell motility and induction of genes encoding sugar transferase and glycogen synthase involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In addition, D. vulgaris biofilm-bound cells exhibited decreased transcription of genes involved in protein synthesis, energy metabolism and sulfate reduction, as well as genes involved in general stress responses. These findings were all consistent with early suggestion that the average physiology of biofilm cells were similar to planktonic cells of stationary phases. Most notably, up-regulation of large number of outer membrane proteins was observed in D. vulgaris biofilm. Although their function is still unknown, the higher expression of these genes in D. vulgaris biofilm could implicate important roles formation and maintenance of multi-cellular consortium on metal surface. The study provided insights into the metabolic networks associated with D. vulgaris biofilm formation and maintenance on an iron surface.

  13. Semienclosed Tube Cultures of Bean Plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Enumeration of Rhizobium phaseoli by the Most-Probable-Number Technique.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R S; Maya-Flores, J; Barnes-McConnell, D; Yokoyama, C; Dazzo, F B; Bliss, F A

    1986-10-01

    The semienclosed tube culture technique of Gibson was modified to permit growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots in humid air, enabling enumeration of the homologous (nodule forming) symbiont, Rhizobium phaseoli, by the most-probable-number plant infection method. A bean genotype with improved nodulation characteristics was used as the plant host. This method of enumeration was accurate when tubes were scored 3 weeks after inoculation with several R. phaseoli strains diluted from aqueous suspensions, peat-based inoculants, or soil. A comparison of population sizes obtained by most-probable-number tube cultures and plate counts indicated that 1 to 3 viable cells of R. phaseoli were a sufficient inoculant to induce nodule formation. PMID:16347191

  14. Cytotoxicity of the HpmA hemolysin and urease of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris against cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mobley, H L; Chippendale, G R; Swihart, K G; Welch, R A

    1991-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common agent of nosocomially acquired and catheter-associated bacteriuria, can cause acute pyelonephritis. In ascending infections, bacteria colonize the bladder and ascend the ureters to the proximal tubules of the kidney. We postulate that Proteus species uses the HpmA hemolysin and urease to elicit tissue damage that allows entry of these bacteria into the kidney. To study this interaction, strains of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris and their isogenic hemolysin-negative (hpmA) or isogenic urease-negative (ureC) constructs were overlaid onto cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HRPTEC) isolated from kidneys obtained by immediate autopsy. Cytotoxicity was measured by release of soluble lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Two strains of P. mirabilis inoculated at 10(6) CFU caused a release of 80% of total LDH after 6 h, whereas pyelonephritogenic hemolytic Escherichia coli CFT073 released only 25% at 6 h (P less than 0.012). Ten P. mirabilis isolates and five P. vulgaris isolates were all hemolytic and cytotoxic and produced urease which was induced by urea. The HpmA hemolysin is apparently responsible for the majority of cytotoxicity in vitro since the hemolysin-negative (hpmA) mutants of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris were significantly less cytotoxic than wild-type strains. P. mirabilis WPM111 (hemolysin negative) was used to test the effect of urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis on HRPTEC viability. In the presence of 50 mM urea, WPM111 caused the release of 42% of LDH versus 1% at 6 h in the absence of substrate (P = 0.003). We conclude that the HpmA hemolysin of Proteus species acts as a potent cytotoxin against HRPTEC. In addition, urease apparently contributes to this process when substrate urea is available. PMID:2037363

  15. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P.; Camacho-Díaz, B.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  16. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Matthew W.

    2006-06-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC29579 is a sulfate- reducing bacterium (SRB) that is commonly used as a model for direct and indirect heavy metal reduction, and can also be a causitative agent of metal corrosion. During growth with lactate and sulfate, internal carbohydrate levels increased throughout exponential-phase, and peaked as the cells transitioned to stationary-phase. The carbohydrate to protein ratio (C:P) peaked at 0.05 ug/ug as the cells transitioned to stationary-phase, and then declined to 0.02 ug/ug during extended stationary-phase. In contrast, a strain of D. vulgaris that does not contain the megaplasmid, maintained higher internal carbohydrate levels and the C:P ratio peaked at 0.1 ug/ug (2-fold increase compared to wild-type). Under the tested growth conditions, we observed biofilm formation in wild-type cells, but the plasmid-less strain formed less biofilm (2-fold decrease). We hypothesized that carbohydrate was re-allocated to the external cell proper for biofilm formation. However, biofilm contained relatively little carbohydrate (0.6 to 1.0 ug/ml) and had a similar C:P ratio compared to wild-type early stationary-phase cells. Staining with calcafluor white also indicated the presence of little external carbohydrate in D. vulgaris biofilms. Less biofilm was formed in the presence of protinease K, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, however, the growth of planktonic cells was not affected. In addition, when D. vulgaris biofilm was treated with a protease, less biofilm was observed. Electron micrographs suggested the presence of filaments between the biofilm cells, and filaments appeared to be susceptible to protease treatment. Biofilm filtrates contained soluble protein, and SDS-PAGE analysis suggested different polypeptide profiles between a filtrate, a planktonic, and a biofilm sample.

  17. First Report of Pseudobodo sp, a New Pathogen for a Potential Energy-Producing Algae: Chlorella vulgaris Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bangzhou; Yang, Luxi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Jingyan; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Liu, Jingwen; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4–5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant. PMID:24599263

  18. First report of Pseudobodo sp, a new pathogen for a potential energy-producing algae: Chlorella vulgaris cultures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Bangzhou; Yang, Luxi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Jingyan; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Liu, Jingwen; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4-5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant. PMID:24599263

  19. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  20. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Suwannarat, Warangkana; Niyomdecha, Rujira

    2011-07-01

    A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was performed to enhance lipid production from industrial wastes. These included effluent from seafood processing plant and molasses from sugar cane plant. In the mixed culture, the yeast grew faster and the lipid production was higher than that in the pure cultures. This could be because microalga acted as an oxygen generator for yeast, while yeast provided CO(2) to microalga and both carried out the production of lipids. The optimal conditions for lipid production by the mixed culture were as follows: ratio of yeast to microalga at 1:1; initial pH at 5.0; molasses concentration at 1%; shaking speed at 200 rpm; and light intensity at 5.0 klux under 16:8 hours light and dark cycles. Under these conditions, the highest biomass of 4.63±0.15 g/L and lipid production of 2.88±0.16 g/L were obtained after five days of cultivation. In addition, the plant oil-like fatty acid composition of yeast and microalgal lipids suggested their high potential for use as biodiesel feedstock. PMID:21255692

  1. Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplamic diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

    2013-01-01

    Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

  2. Correlation of different spectral lights with biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of medicinally important Prunella vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Akbar, Fazal; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key elicitors that directly fluctuates plant developmental processes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of Prunella vulgaris were investigated. Among different spectral lights, green light induced the maximum callogenic response (95%). Enhanced fresh biomass accumulation was observed in log phases on day-35, when callus cultures were exposed to yellow and violet lights. Yellow light induced maximum biomass accumulation (3.67g/100ml) from leaf explants as compared to control (1.27g/100ml). In contrast, violet lights enhanced biomass accumulation (3.49g/100ml) from petiole explant. Maximum total phenolics content (TPC; 23.9mg/g-DW) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 1.65mg/g-DW) were observed when cultures were grown under blue lights. In contrast, green and yellow lights enhanced total phenolics production (TPP; 112.52g/100ml) and total flavonoids production (TFP; 9.64g/100ml) as compared to control. The calli grown under green, red and blue lights enhanced DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DFRSA; 91.3%, 93.1% and 93%) than control (56.44%) respectively. The DFRSA was correlated either with TPC and TFC or TPP and TFP. Furthermore, yellow lights enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and protease activities, however, the content of total protein (CTP) was higher in control cultures (186μg BSAE/mg FW) as compared to spectral lights. These results suggest that the exposure of callus cultures to various spectral lights have shown a key role in biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. PMID:26995670

  3. Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Eike; Hlaváčková, Iva; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Methods and Results: Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.06 to 0.68. Analysis of F0 and F1 samples proved that one allele was always inherited maternally. Four multiplex mixes have been developed. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers for this species will be a valuable tool to study detailed small-scale genetic patterns in an arctic/alpine herb and to relate them to demographic parameters. PMID:26421249

  4. Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E.; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  5. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne. PMID:27189872

  6. Acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Ertuğrul H.

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit and it is observed equally in both sexes and nearly all races. It generally begins at puberty, but the healing period is variable. There is no known etiological factor, except genetic tendency. Androgens play a very limited role in some female patients. The effects of cosmetics, foods and drinks are also discussible and too limited. There are four factors in acne pathogenesis: Increase of the sebum excretionKeratinization of infrainfundibulumBacterial colonization of the follicleInflammation It is mainly observed on the face and back, shoulders and chest. Initial lesions are comedons. Papules, pustules and cysts of severe types follow it. The most important factor in treatment is a very good patient-physician communication. Topical or systemic treatment or both can be used depending on the severity of acne. Benzoyl peroxyde, azelaic acid, AHA’s antibiotics, retinoic acid and derivatives are the topical choices. For systemic treatment antibiotics are the most commonly used medicines, but isotretinoine has a very spesific place with the possibility of permanent healing. All kind of treatments need approximately six months for a good result. PMID:26078626

  7. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. PMID:26338117

  8. Introgressive Hybridization between Anciently Diverged Lineages of Silene (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Anna; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Oxelman, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played a major role during the evolution of angiosperms, mediating both gene flow between already distinct species and the formation of new species. Newly formed hybrids between distantly related taxa are often sterile. For this reason, interspecific crosses resulting in fertile hybrids have rarely been described to take place after more than a few million years after divergence. We describe here the traces of a reproductively successful hybrid between two ancestral species of Silene, diverged for about six million years prior to hybridization. No extant hybrids between the two parental lineages are currently known, but introgression of the RNA polymerase gene NRPA2 provides clear evidence of a temporary and fertile hybrid. Parsimony reconciliation between gene trees and the species tree, as well as consideration of clade ages, help exclude gene paralogy and lineage sorting as alternative hypotheses. This may represent one of the most extreme cases of divergence between species prior to introgressive hybridization discovered yet, notably at a homoploid level. Although species boundaries are generally believed to be stable after millions of years of divergence, we believe that this finding may indicate that gene flow between distantly related species is merely largely undetected at present. PMID:23861793

  9. Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

    2011-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

  10. Improvement on light penetrability and microalgae biomass production by periodically pre-harvesting Chlorella vulgaris cells with culture medium recycling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    To improve light penetrability and biomass production in batch cultivation, a cultivation mode that periodically pre-harvesting partial microalgae cells from suspension with culture medium recycling was proposed. By daily pre-harvesting 30% microalgae cells from the suspension, the average light intensity in the photobioreactor (PBR) was enhanced by 27.05-122.06%, resulting in a 46.48% increase in total biomass production than that cultivated in batch cultivation without pre-harvesting under an incident light intensity of 160μmolm(-2)s(-1). Compared with the semi-continuous cultivation with 30% microalgae suspension daily replaced with equivalent volume of fresh medium, nutrients and water input was reduced by 60% in the proposed cultivation mode but with slightly decrease (12.82%) in biomass production. No additional nutrient was replenished when culture medium recycling. Furthermore, higher pre-harvesting ratios (40%, 60%) and lower pre-harvesting frequencies (every 2, 2.5days) were not advantageous for the pre-harvesting cultivation mode. PMID:27289058

  11. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. PMID:27318799

  12. Gibberellins and stem growth as related to photoperiod Silene armeria L

    SciTech Connect

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Stem growth and flowering in the long-day plant Silene armeria L. are induced by exposure to a minimum of 3 to 6 long days (LD). Stem growth continues in subsequent short days (SD), albeit at a reduced rate. The growth retardant tetcyclacis inhibited stem elongation induced by LD, but had no effect on flowering. This indicates that photoperiodic control of stem growth in Silene is mediated by gibberellins (GA). The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of photoperiod on the levels and distribution of endogenous GAs in Silene and to determine the nature of the photoperiodic after-effect on stem growth in this plant. The GAs identified in extracts from Silene by full-scan combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry are members of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway. All of these GAs were present in plants under SD as well as under LD conditions. The GA{sub 53} level was highest in plants in SD, and decreased in plants transferred to LD conditions. By contrast, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} initially increased in plants transferred to LD, and then declined. Likewise, when Silene plants were returned from LD to SD, there was an increase in GA{sub 53}, and a decrease in GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} which ultimately reached levels similar to those found in plants kept in SD. Thus, measurements of GA levels in whole shoots of Silene as well as in individual parts of the plant suggest that the photoperiod modulates GA metabolism mainly through the rate of conversion of GA{sub 53}. As a result of LD induction, GA{sub 1} accumulates at its highest level in shoot tips which, in turn, results in stem elongation. In addition, LD also appear to increase the sensitivity of the tissue to GA, and this effect is presumably responsible for the photoperiodic after-effect on stem elongation in Silene.

  13. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy-gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy-gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy-gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy-gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual

  14. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy–gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy–gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy–gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy–gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious

  15. Laryngeal verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Topdag, Murat; Erdogan, Selvet; Kara, Ahmet; Derin, Serhan

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal verruca vulgaris is a rare disease of the larynx that is easily misdiagnosed as other laryngeal lesions. This article reports three patients with laryngeal verruca vulgaris and discusses the differential diagnosis of laryngeal verrucous lesions to avoid over treatment. PMID:25935911

  16. Antiulcer activity of extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of genera Lychnis and Silene of the Caryophyllaceae family.

    PubMed

    Krylova, S G; Zueva, E P; Zibareva, L N; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G

    2014-12-01

    We studied antiulcer activity of the extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of the Caryophyllaceae family: Lychnis chalcedonica L., Silene viridiflora L.Sp.Pl., and Silene frivaldszkyana Hampe. Experiments on the model of neurogenic and aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis showed unidirectional and pronounced gastroprotective effects of S. viridiflora and L. chalcedonica extracts comparable to the efficacy of famotidine. In these models, a course of intragastric treatment with the extracts reduced ulcerative lesions of all types. PMID:25432278

  17. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Judy D. Wall

    2011-06-09

    Our findings demonstrated that D. vulgaris surface-adhered populations produce extracellular structures, and that that the cells have altered carbon and energy flux compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms did not have greatly increased carbohydrate accumulation. Interestingly genes present on the native plasmid found in D. vulgaris Hildenborough were necessary for wild type biofilm formation. In addition, extracellular appendages dependent on functions or proteins encoded by flaG or fliA also contributed to biofilm formation. Studies with SRB biofilms have indicated that the reduction and precipitation of metals can occur within the biofilm matrix; however, little work has been done to elucidate the physiological state of surface-adhered cells during metal reduction (Cr6+, U6+) and how this process is affected by nutrient feed levels (i.e., the stimulant).

  18. Effects of trifluoromethyl ketones on the motility of Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wolfart, Krisztina; Molnar, Annamaria; Kawase, Masami; Motohashi, Noboru; Molnar, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    In the present study, we showed the inhibition of motility by trifluoromethyl ketone (TF) derivatives (1-8) in Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) cultures. Among them, 1-(2-benzoxazoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone (1) showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on the motility of P. vulgaris than other TF compounds at 10% MIC. Our results suggest the possibility of an inhibitory action of TF compounds on the proton motive forces by affecting the action of biological motor and proton efflux in the membranes, resulting in a reduction of the ratio of running and the increased number of tumbling and non-motile cells. PMID:15340240

  19. Pollinator specialization and pollination syndromes of three related North American Silene.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Richard J; Westbrook, M Jody; Rohde, Alexandra S; Cridland, Julie M; Fenster, Charles B; Dudash, Michele R

    2009-08-01

    Community and biogeographic surveys often conclude that plant-pollinator interactions are highly generalized. Thus, a central implication of the pollination syndrome concept, that floral trait evolution occurs primarily via specialized interactions of plants with their pollinators, has been questioned. However, broad surveys may not distinguish whether flower visitors are actual pollen vectors and hence lack power to assess the relationship between syndrome traits and the pollinators responsible for their evolution. Here we address whether the floral traits of three closely related hermaphroditic Silene spp. native to eastern North America (S. caroliniana, S. virginica, and S. stellata) correspond to predicted specialized pollination based on floral differences among the three species and the congruence of these floral features with recognized pollination syndromes. A nocturnal/diurnal pollinator exclusion experiment demonstrated that all three Silene spp. have diurnal pollinators, and only S. stellata has nocturnal pollinators. Multiyear studies of visitation rates demonstrated that large bees, hummingbirds, and nocturnal moths were the most frequent pollinators of S. caroliniana, S. virginica, and S. stellata, respectively. Estimates of pollen grains deposited and removed per visit generally corroborated the visitation rate results for all three species. However, the relatively infrequent diurnal hawkmoth pollinators of S. caroliniana were equally effective and more efficient than the most frequent large bee visitors. Pollinator importance (visitation X deposition) of each of the animal visitors to each species was estimated and demonstrated that in most years large bees and nocturnal moths were the most important pollinators of S. caroliniana and S. stellata, respectively. By quantifying comprehensive aspects of the pollination process we determined that S. virginica and S. stellata were specialized on hummingbirds and nocturnal moths, respectively, and S

  20. Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).

    PubMed

    Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea. PMID:11455632

  1. Burkholderia phymatum Strains Capable of Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris Are Present in Moroccan Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, C.; Delgado, M. J.; Girard, L.; Ramírez-Trujillo, A.; Caballero-Mellado, J.; Bedmar, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, nodC, and nifH genes of four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Morocco soils were identified as Burkholderia phymatum. All four strains formed N2-fixing nodules on P. vulgaris and Mimosa, Acacia, and Prosopis species and reduced acetylene to ethylene when cultured ex planta. PMID:20472732

  2. The large-X effect in plants: increased species divergence and reduced gene flow on the Silene X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-06-01

    The disproportionately large involvement of the X-chromosome in the isolation of closely related species (the large-X effect) has been reported for many animals, where X-linked genes are mostly hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. The expression of deleterious recessive mutations is thought to drive the frequent involvement of the X-chromosome in hybrid sterility, as well as to reduce interspecific gene flow for X-linked genes. Here, we evaluate the role of the X-chromosome in the speciation of two closely related plant species - the white and red campions (Silene latifolia and S. dioica) - that hybridize widely across Europe. The two species evolved separate sexes and sex chromosomes relatively recently (~10(7)  years), and unlike most animal species, most X-linked genes have intact Y-linked homologs. We demonstrate that the X-linked genes show a very small and insignificant amount of interspecific gene flow, while gene flow involving autosomal loci is significant and sufficient to homogenize the gene pools of the two species. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the large-X effect in Silene and comprise the first report of this effect in plants. Nonhemizygosity of many X-linked genes in Silene males indicates that exposure of recessive mutations to selection may not be essential for the occurrence of the large-X effect. Several possible causes of the large-X effect in Silene are discussed. PMID:26479725

  3. ECO-physiological response of S. vulgaris to CR(VI): Influence of concentration and genotype.

    PubMed

    Pradas Del Real, Ana E; García-Gonzalo, Pilar; Gil-Díaz, M Mar; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Lobo, Carmen; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study the response of Silene vulgaris to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr(VI) in order to evaluate its potential use in the phytomanagement of Cr polluted sites. Cuttings of six homogenous genotypes from Madrid (Spain) have been used as plant material. The eco-physiological response of S. vulgaris to Cr(VI) changed with the genotype. The yield dose-response curve was characterized by stimulation at low doses of Cr(VI). The effects of metal concentration were quantified on root dry weight, water content and chlorophyll content, determined by SPAD index. The response was not homogeneous for all studied genotypes. At high doses of Cr(VI), plants increased micronutrient concentration in dry tissues which suggested that nutrient balance could be implicated in the alleviation of Cr toxicity. This work highlights the importance of studying the eco-physiological response of metallophytes under a range of pollutant concentrations to determine the most favorable traits to be employed in the phytomanagement process. PMID:26375321

  4. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis. Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea. Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  5. 'Junk' DNA and long-term phenotypic evolution in Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Thomas R; Costich, Denise E

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content variation over orders of magnitude across species has been attributed to 'junk' repetitive DNA with limited adaptive significance. By contrast, our previous work on Silene latifolia showed that DNA content is negatively correlated with flower size, a character of clear adaptive relevance. The present paper explores this relationship in a broader phylogenetic context to investigate the long-term evolutionary impacts of DNA content variation. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and phenotype variation was determined for four closely related species of Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae). In addition to a consistent sexual dimorphism in DNA content across all of the species, we found DNA content variation among populations within, as well as among, species. We also found a general trend towards a negative correlation between DNA content and flower and leaf size over all four species, within males and females as well as overall. These results indicate that repetitive DNA may play a role in long-term phenotypic evolution. PMID:15801614

  6. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  7. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    PubMed

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue. PMID:15353686

  8. Pemphigus vulgaris in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Salzberg, Kelsey W; Gero, Melanie J; Ragsdale, Bruce D

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) during pregnancy. The patient presented with widespread blistering dermatitis and associated burning and pruritus. At 6 weeks' gestation the patient was admitted to the hospital to expedite her diagnosis and initiate treatment. A skin biopsy revealed suprabasal acantholysis, and direct immunofluorescence demonstrated diffuse intercellular IgG in the epidermis and basal intercellular C3, which confirmed the diagnosis of PV. Treatment with corticosteroids was instituted after discussions with the patient about possible adverse effects to the fetus. Pemphigus vulgaris is rare in pregnancy and active PV presents potential threats of fetal spread and transient lesion production, which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the fetus. Our patient had active PV and required treatment throughout her pregnancy. The pregnancy progressed to premature delivery of the neonate without skin lesions or apparent complications. PMID:25372257

  9. A xylosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of a protein-associated xyloglucan in suspension-cultured dwarf-French-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and its interaction with a glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R E; Brett, C T; Hillman, J R

    1988-01-01

    A particulate enzyme preparation made from suspension-cultured dwarf-French-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Canadian Wonder cells was shown to incorporate xylose from UDP-D-[14C]xylose into polysaccharide. The reaction was dependent upon the presence of UDP-D-glucose and was stimulated, and apparently protected, by GDP-D-glucose and GDP-D-mannose, though neither was able to replace UDP-D-glucose as a glycosyl donor. The product of the reaction was identified as xyloglucan by analysis of products of enzyme breakdown and acid hydrolysis. Mr determination after proteinase K digestion indicated that the nascent xyloglucan is closely associated with protein. Preincubation of the enzyme with UDP-D-glucose stimulated incorporation from UDP-D-[14C]xylose, suggesting an 'imprecise' mechanism of biosynthesis, as defined by Waldron & Brett [(1985) in Biochemistry of Plant Cell Walls (Brett, C. T. & Hillman, J. R., eds.) (SEB Semin. Ser. 28), pp. 79-97, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. PMID:2460084

  10. Identification of a novel retrotransposon with sex chromosome-specific distribution in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Tereza; Cegan, Radim; Kubat, Zdenek; Vrana, Jan; Vyskot, Boris; Vogel, Ivan; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species with chromosomal sex determination. Although the evolution of sex chromosomes in S. latifolia has been the subject of numerous studies, a global view of X chromosome structure in this species is still missing. Here, we combine X chromosome microdissection and BAC library screening to isolate new X chromosome-linked sequences. Out of 8 identified BAC clones, only BAC 86M14 showed an X-preferential signal after FISH experiments. Further analysis revealed the existence of the Athila retroelement which is enriched in the X chromosome and nearly absent in the Y chromosome. Based on previous data, the Athila retroelement belongs to the CL3 group of most repetitive sequences in the S. latifolia genome. Structural, transcriptomics and phylogenetic analyses revealed that Athila CL3 represents an old clade in the Athila lineage. We propose a mechanism responsible for Athila CL3 distribution in the S. latifolia genome. PMID:24751661

  11. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  12. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  13. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  14. Removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol by immobilized Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gao, Q T; Wong, Y S; Tam, N F Y

    2011-11-01

    The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by alginate-immobilized cells of Chlorella vulgaris were compared with their respective free cultures. The effects of four cell densities of 10(4) per algal bead were investigated, as were the four algal bead concentrations, with regard to the removal and biodegradation of NP. Although immobilization significantly decreased the growth rate and NP's biodegradation efficiency of C. vulgaris, NP removal over a short period was enhanced. The NP removal mechanism by immobilized cells was similar to that by free cells, including adsorption onto alginate matrix and algal cells, absorption within cells and cellular biodegradation. The optimal cell density and bead concentration for the removal and biodegradation of NP was 50-100×10(4) cells algal bead(-1) and 2-4 beads ml(-1) of wastewater, respectively. These results demonstrated that immobilized C. vulgaris cells under optimal biomass and photoautotrophic conditions are effective in removing NP from contaminated water. PMID:21944284

  15. The X chromosome is necessary for somatic development in the dioecious Silene latifolia: cytogenetic and molecular evidence and sequencing of a haploid genome.

    PubMed

    Soukupova, Magda; Nevrtalova, Eva; Cížková, Jana; Vogel, Ivan; Cegan, Radim; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Silene latifolia (or white campion) possesses a well-established sex determination system with a dominant Y chromosome in males (the mammalian type). The heteromorphic sex chromosomes X and Y in S. latifolia largely stopped recombination; thus, we can expect a gradual genetic degeneration of the Y chromosome. It is well proven that neither diploid nor polyploid S. latifolia sporophytes can survive without at least one X, so the only life stage possessing the Y as the sole sex chromosome is the male gametophyte (pollen tube), while the female gametophyte seems to be X-dependent. Previous studies on anther-derived plants of this species showed that the obtained plants (largely haploid or dihaploid) were phenotypically and cytologically female. In this paper, we provide molecular evidence for the inviability of plants lacking the X chromosome. Using sex-specific PCR primers, we show that all plantlets and plants derived from anther cultures are female. In studying anther-derived diploid females by sequencing of X-linked markers, we demonstrate that these plants are really homozygous dihaploids. A haploid regenerant plant was sequenced (8× genome coverage) using Illumina technology. Genome data are disposable in the EMBL database as a standard for full genome and X chromosome assembly in this model species. Homozygous dihaploids were back-crossed with males to yield a progeny useful for the study of the evolution of the Y chromosome. PMID:24993893

  16. Distribution and population structure of the anther smut Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.

    PubMed

    Bueker, Britta; Eberlein, Chris; Gladieux, Pierre; Schaefer, Angela; Snirc, Alodie; Bennett, Dominic J; Begerow, Dominik; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution. PMID:26671732

  17. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  18. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly. PMID:27240237

  19. Effects of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate exposure on Chlorella vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueqing; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-10-01

    Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) is a rare mineral. In this study, SPP was synthesized from boric acid and borax through low-temperature crystallization, and its effects on the growth of the alga, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were assessed. The newly synthesized SPP was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The changes in C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities upon exposure to SPP for 168h were evaluated. Results showed that SPP treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the first 24-120h of exposure. The harmful effects, however, diminished over time (168h), even at an effective medium concentration of 226.37mg BL(-1) (the concentration of boron applied per liter of culture medium). A similar trend was observed for chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a and b) and indicated that the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was not affected and that high levels of SPP may even promote chlorophyll synthesis. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of C. vulgaris increased during 24-120h exposure to SPP, but these activities gradually decreased as culture time progressed. In other words, the initial detrimental effects of synthetic SPP on C. vulgaris were temporary and reversible. This research provides a scientific basis for applications of SPP in the environment. PMID:27367150

  20. Comparative high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and development of SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Silene is widely used as a model system for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions in plants, but advances in using the genus as a model system are impeded by the lack of available resources for studying its genome. Massively parallel sequencing cDNA has recently developed into an efficient method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model organisms, generating massive amounts of data that enable the study of multiple species in a comparative framework. The sequences generated provide an excellent resource for identifying expressed genes, characterizing functional variation and developing molecular markers, thereby laying the foundations for future studies on gene sequence and gene expression divergence. Here, we report the results of a comparative transcriptome sequencing study of eight individuals representing four Silene and one Dianthus species as outgroup. All sequences and annotations have been deposited in a newly developed and publicly available database called SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database. Results A total of 1,041,122 EST reads were generated in two runs on a Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing platform. EST reads were analyzed separately for all eight individuals sequenced and were assembled into contigs using TGICL. These were annotated with results from BLASTX searches and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized. Unassembled reads were kept as singletons and together with the contigs contributed to the unigenes characterized in each individual. The high quality of unigenes is evidenced by the proportion (49%) that have significant hits in similarity searches with the A. thaliana proteome. The SiESTa database is accessible at http://www.siesta.ethz.ch. Conclusion The sequence collections established in the present study provide an important genomic resource for four Silene and one Dianthus species and will help to further develop Silene as a

  1. Metabolic dynamics of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm grown on a steel surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comparative metabolomics approach combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied first between planktonic cells and biofilms and then between pure cultures and biofilms of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results revealed that the overall metabolic level of the biofilm cells was down-regulated, especially for metabolites related to the central carbon metabolism, compared to the planktonic cells and the pure culture of D. vulgaris. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis of the 58 metabolites identified by GC-MS showed that fatty acid biosynthesis in the biofilm cells was up-regulated, suggesting that fatty acids may be important for the formation, maintenance and function of D. vulgaris biofilm. This study offers a valuable perspective on the metabolic dynamics of the D. vulgaris biofilm. PMID:27299565

  2. Night life on the beach: selfing to avoid pollinator competition between two sympatric Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Buide, Mª Luisa; del Valle, José Carlos; Pissatto, Mônica; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Evolution of autonomous selfing may be advantageous because it allows for reproductive assurance. In co-flowering plants competing for pollinators, the least common and/or attractive could suffer pollen limitations. Silene niceensis and S. ramosissima are taxonomically related species sharing the same habitat, although S. ramosissima is less abundant and has a more restricted distribution. They also have the same a priori nocturnal pollinator syndrome, and show an overlapping flowering phenology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a selfing strategy in S. ramosissima allows it to avoid pollinator competition and/or interspecific pollen transfer with S. niceensis, which would thus enable both species to reach high levels of fruit and seed set. Methods The breeding system, petal colour, flower life span and degree of overlap between male and female phases, floral visitor abundance and visitation rates were analysed in two sympatric populations of S. niceensis and S. ramosissima in southern Spain. Key Results Autonomous selfing in S. ramosissima produced very high fruit and seed set, which was also similar to open-pollinated plants. Silene niceensis showed minimum levels of autonomous selfing, and pollen/ovule ratios were within the range expected for the breeding system. In contrast to S. niceensis, flower life span was much shorter in S. ramosissima, and male and female organs completely overlapped in space and time. Upper surface petals of both species showed differing brightness, chroma and hue. Flowers of S. niceensis were actively visited by moths, hawkmoths and syrphids, whereas those of S. ramosissima were almost never visited. Conclusions The findings show that different breeding strategies exist between the sympatric co-flowering S. niceensis and S. ramosissima, the former specializing in crepuscular–nocturnal pollination and the latter mainly based on autonomous selfing. These two strategies allow both species to share

  3. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and associated bacteria in photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Lakaniemi, Aino‐Maija; Intihar, Veera M.; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Puhakka, Jaakko A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to test three flat plate photobioreactor configurations for growth of Chlorella vulgaris under non‐axenic conditions and to characterize and quantify associated bacterial communities. The photobioreactor cultivations were conducted using tap water‐based media to introduce background bacterial population. Growth of algae was monitored over time with three independent methods. Additionally, the quantity and quality of eukaryotes and bacteria were analysed using culture‐independent molecular tools based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR‐DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Static mixers used in the flat plate photobioreactors did not generally enhance the growth at the low light intensities used. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were 1.0 g l−1 and 2.0 day−1 respectively. Bacterial growth as determined by QPCR was associated with the growth of C. vulgaris. Based on PCR‐DGGE, bacteria in the cultures mainly originated from the tap water. Bacterial community profiles were diverse but reproducible in all flat plate cultures. Most prominent bacteria in the C. vulgaris cultures belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and especially to the genus Sphingomonas. Analysis of the diversity of non‐photosynthetic microorganisms in algal mass cultures can provide useful information on the public health aspects and unravel community interactions. PMID:21936882

  4. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  5. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  6. Determinants of Genetic Structure in a Nonequilibrium Metapopulation of the Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter D.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic differentiation will be influenced by the demographic history of populations, opportunities for migration among neighboring demes and founder effects associated with repeated extinction and recolonization. In natural populations, these factors are expected to interact with each other and their magnitudes will vary depending on the spatial distribution and age structure of local demes. Although each of these effects has been individually identified as important in structuring genetic variance, their relative magnitude is seldom estimated in nature. We conducted a population genetic analysis in a metapopulation of the angiosperm, Silene latifolia, from which we had more than 20 years of data on the spatial distribution, demographic history, and extinction and colonization of demes. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to disentangle which features of the populations contributed to among population variation in allele frequencies, including the magnitude and direction of their effects. We show that population age, long-term size and degree of connectivity all combine to affect the distribution of genetic variance; small, recently-founded, isolated populations contributed most to increase FST in the metapopulation. However, the effects of population size and population age are best understood as being modulated through the effects of connectivity to other extant populations, i.e. FST diminishes as populations age, but at a rate that depends how isolated the population is. These spatial and temporal correlates of population structure give insight into how migration, founder effect and within-deme genetic drift have combined to enhance and restrict genetic divergence in a natural metapopulation. PMID:25198341

  7. Differences in style length confer prezygotic isolation between two dioecious species of Silene in sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Nista, Phil; Brothers, Amanda N; Delph, Lynda F

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental signature of reinforcement is elevated prezygotic reproductive isolation between related species in sympatry relative to allopatry. However, this alone is inadequate evidence for reinforcement, as traits conferring reproductive isolation can occur as a by-product of other forces. We conducted crosses between Silene latifolia and S. diclinis, two closely related dioecious flowering plant species. Crosses with S. latifolia mothers from sympatry exhibited lower seed set than mothers from five allopatric populations when S. diclinis was the father. However, two other allopatric populations also exhibited low seed set. A significant interaction between style length and sire species revealed that seed set declined as style length increased when interspecific, but not intraspecific, fathers where used. Moreover, by varying the distance pollen tubes had to traverse, we found interspecific pollen placement close to the ovary resulted in seed set in both long- and short-styled S. latifolia mothers. Our results reveal that the long styles of S. latifolia in sympatry with S. diclinis contribute to the prevention of hybrid formation. We argue that forces other than reinforcing selection are likely to be responsible for the differences in style length seen in sympatry. PMID:26257882

  8. Glutathione depletion due to copper-induced phytochelatin synthesis causes oxidative stress in Silene cucubalus

    SciTech Connect

    Ric De Vos, C.H.; Vonk, M.J.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H. )

    1992-03-01

    The relation between loss of glutathione due to metal-induced phytochelatin synthesis and oxidative stress was studied in the roots of copper-sensitive and tolerant Silene cucubalus (L.) Wib., resistant to 1 and 40 micromolar Cu, respectively. The amount of nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds other then glutathione was taken as a measure of phytochelatins. At a supply of 20 micromolar Cu, which is toxic for sensitive plants only, phytochelatin synthesis and loss of total glutathione were observed only in sensitive plants within 6 h of exposure. When the plants were exposed to a range of copper concentrations for 3 d, a marked production of phytochelatins in sensitive plants was already observed at 0.5 micromolar Cu, whereas the production in tolerant plants was negligible at 40 micromolar or lower. The highest production in tolerant plants was only 40% of that in sensitive plants. In both varieties, the synthesis of phytochelatins was coupled to a loss of glutathione. Copper at toxic concentrations caused oxidative stress, as was evidenced by both the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and a shift in the glutathione redox couple to a more oxidized state. Depletion of glutathione by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine significantly increased the oxidative damage by copper. At a comparably low glutathione level, cadmium had no effect on either lipid peroxidation or the glutathione redox couple in buthionine sulfoximine-treated plants. These results indicate that copper may specifically cause oxidative stress by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione due to phytochelatin synthesis.

  9. Marginal Likelihood Estimate Comparisons to Obtain Optimal Species Delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii. PMID:25216034

  10. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Tense Bullae

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Emilie T; Lin, Shinko K; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a history of type II diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia presenting with pain, swelling, and crusting of the lips. One year after onset of mucosal lesions, she developed an abdominal eruption with several tense vesicles and bullae on an erythematous base. The hematoxylin and eosin stain sample was consistent with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. The tense bullae of our patient highlight a rare phenotype of pemphigus vulgaris, which fits the mucocutaneous type because of involvement of the oral mucosa, with the exception of the findings of tense bullae. PMID:25663209

  11. FAST-FISH with laser beam microdissected DOP-PCR probe distinguishes the sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Hobza, Roman; Lengerova, Martina; Cernohorska, Halina; Rubes, Jiri; Vyskot, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We present an improved FISH strategy for differentiating the sex chromosomes of the dioecious model plant, Silene latifolia. Fixed mitotic protoplasts were dropped on a polyethylene naphthalate membrane, the X or Y chromosomes were isolated using nitrogen laser beam microdissection, catapulted by laser pressure, and amplified by DOP-PCR. A modified FAST-FISH protocol based on a short hybridization time combined with a low concentration of probe was used. The success of this approach is demonstrated by the differential labeling of the X and Y chromosomes and it could represent a quick method for comparing organization of plant genomes. PMID:15125638

  12. Open trial of topical tacalcitol [1 alpha 24(OH)2D3] and solar irradiation for vitiligo vulgaris: upregulation of c-Kit mRNA by cultured melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ichiro; Ashida, Miwa; Maeda, Aki; Eishi, Kumiko; Murota, Hiroyuki; Bae, Sang Jae

    2003-01-01

    Vitiligo vulgaris is a common skin disease, however some cases show poor clinical responses to topical steroid ointment or PUVA therapy. Such regimens are generally avoided in the treatment of facial lesions or in pediatric cases because of the undesirable side effects. To confirm the excellent response to combination therapy with topical vitamin D3 ointment and solar irradiation for vitiligo achieved in the initial patients, we conducted an open trial on other patients, most of whom had poor clinical responses to the prior therapies. Fifteen patients (9 men and 6 women) with vitiligo vulgaris were enrolled in this study. Each patient was instructed to sunbathe for 30 minutes within 1 hour after topical application of the tacalcitol [1 alpha 24(OH)(2)D(3)] ointment or cream to the skin lesions every day. Six of 15 patients showed a fair and excellent clinical response to the combination therapy (more than 30% clearance of the vitiligo). The clinical effect was more apparent in patients with a history of less than 5 years of vitiligo (4 of 6 cases) in contrast to those with a history of more than 5 years (2 of 9 cases). In vitro experiments revealed that tacalcitol upregulated the expression of c-Kit mRNA by melanocytes irradiated with linear polarized infrared, UVA or short period solar irradiation. These results suggest that combination therapy with topical vitamin D(3) ointment and solar irradiation can be used as an alternate therapy for vitiligo vulgaris. PMID:12948918

  13. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  14. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Badari Nath, A R S; Sivaramakrishna, A; Marimuthu, K M; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures. PMID:25004904

  15. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M. L.; del Valle, José C.; Whittall, Justen B.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  16. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  17. Next Generation Sequencing-Based Analysis of Repetitive DNA in the Model Dioceous Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Macas, Jiří; Kejnovský, Eduard; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Koblížková, Andrea; Vyskot, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia is a dioceous plant with well distinguished X and Y chromosomes that is used as a model to study sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, efficient utilization of this species has been hampered by the lack of large-scale sequencing resources and detailed analysis of its genome composition, especially with respect to repetitive DNA, which makes up the majority of the genome. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed low-pass 454 sequencing followed by similarity-based clustering of 454 reads in order to identify and characterize sequences of all major groups of S. latifolia repeats. Illumina sequencing data from male and female genomes were also generated and employed to quantify the genomic proportions of individual repeat families. The majority of identified repeats belonged to LTR-retrotransposons, constituting about 50% of genomic DNA, with Ty3/gypsy elements being more frequent than Ty1/copia. While there were differences between the male and female genome in the abundance of several repeat families, their overall repeat composition was highly similar. Specific localization patterns on sex chromosomes were found for several satellite repeats using in situ hybridization with probes based on k-mer frequency analysis of Illumina sequencing data. Conclusions/Significance This study provides comprehensive information about the sequence composition and abundance of repeats representing over 60% of the S. latifolia genome. The results revealed generally low divergence in repeat composition between the sex chromosomes, which is consistent with their relatively recent origin. In addition, the study generated various data resources that are available for future exploration of the S. latifolia genome. PMID:22096552

  18. Species delimitation without prior knowledge: DISSECT reveals extensive cryptic speciation in the Silene aegyptiaca complex (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Toprak, Zeynep; Pfeil, Bernard E; Jones, Graham; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selçuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2016-09-01

    Species delimitation is a major focus of biosystematics. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved with the development of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model, where species constitute the branches of the species tree or network. However, researchers are faced with the limitation that the MSC method of choice often requires a priori assignment of individuals to species. This not only introduces subjectivitiy into the analyses, but may also lead to meaningless species tree hypotheses, if the allele-to-species assignments are inaccurate. DISSECT is a recently introduced method that does not require a priori allele-to-species assignments, but instead examines the posterior probabilities of groupings (clusterings) of individuals under study. Using the DISSECT approach, we analysed genetic data from 75 individual plants belonging to the Silene aegyptiaca species complex that has previously been divided into 3-5 species. Marginal likelihood estimates from (*)BEAST analyses, run with predefined species classifications, strongly favour those compatible with the DISSECT result over those from morphology- and geography-based taxonomy. We found at least nine species, including several cryptic ones, for which no clear geographical or morphological patterns are correlated. However, the limited data and the possibility of unmodelled processes mean there is still much uncertainty about the true number of MSC species, and for taxonomic purposes, other criteria might be relevant. Nevertheless, we argue that the approach signifies an important step towards objective and testable species delimitations in any organismal group. In particular, it makes it possible to avoid biologically irrelevant species classifications. PMID:27233442

  19. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material. PMID:10995306

  20. Cell-wall polysaccharide composition and glycanase activity of Silene vulgaris callus transformed with rolB and rolC genes.

    PubMed

    Günter, Elena A; Shkryl, Yury N; Popeyko, Oxana V; Veremeichik, Galina N; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes on the composition of cell-wall polysaccharides and glycanase activity in the campion callus. The expression of the rolC gene reduces the yield of campion pectin, while the expression of the rolB or rolC gene inhibits the volumetric production of both pectin and intracellular arabinogalactan. The rol genes are involved in regulating the activity of glycanases and esterases, thereby contributing to the modification of polysaccharide structures, their molecular weight (Mw) and the degree of pectin methyl esterification (DE). The increase in pectin arabinose residue appears to be connected to a decrease in intracellular and extracellular α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity in transgenic campion calluses. In transgenic calluses expressing the rolB and rolC genes, the increase in pectin galactose residue is likely due to a decrease in β-galactosidase activity. The decrease in the Mw of pectin and its d-galacturonic acid content appears to be connected to an increase in extracellular polygalacturonase activity. Finally, the increase in pectinesterase activity causes a decrease in the DE of pectin. Thus, the expression of rolB and rolC genes in campion callus has a considerable effect on pectin's sugar composition, DE and Mw, while it appears to have an insignificant influence on intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans. PMID:25542107

  1. Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Hui-Ling; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Lavoie, Michel; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-12-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints. PMID:23966280

  2. Pemphigus vulgaris with solitary toxic thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Alfishawy, Mostafa; Anwar, Karim; Elbendary, Amira; Daoud, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together? PMID:25309761

  3. Macroglossia. An unusual presentation of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Milgraum, S S; Kanzler, M H; Waldinger, T P; Wong, R C

    1985-10-01

    A 19-year-old woman presented with macroglossia of five months' duration and without bullae or erosions. A biopsy revealed a picture consistent with pemphigus vulgaris. The patient subsequently developed typical oral erosions. Her tongue enlargement and oral ulcerations improved dramatically with topical and systemic steroid therapy. Pemphigus vulgaris should be considered in the differential diagnosis of macroglossia. PMID:4037830

  4. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  5. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  6. Reference dosimetry measurements for the international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry SILENE 9-21 June 2002.

    PubMed

    Asselineau, B; Trompier, F; Texier, C; Itié, C; Médioni, R; Tikunov, D; Muller, H; Pelcot, G

    2004-01-01

    An international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using the ROSPEC spectrometer associated with a NE-213 scintillator, ionisation chambers, GM counters, diodes and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). For this intercomparison, a large area was required to irradiate the dosemeters both in free air and on phantoms. Therefore, measurements of the uniformity of the field were performed with activation detectors and TLDs for neutron and gammas, respectively. This paper describes the procedures used and the results obtained. PMID:15353691

  7. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  9. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using industrial dairy waste as organic carbon source.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana P; Fernandes, Bruno; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José; Dragone, Giuliano

    2012-08-01

    Growth parameters and biochemical composition of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivated under different mixotrophic conditions were determined and compared to those obtained from a photoautotrophic control culture. Mixotrophic microalgae showed higher specific growth rate, final biomass concentration and productivities of lipids, starch and proteins than microalgae cultivated under photoautotrophic conditions. Moreover, supplementation of the inorganic culture medium with hydrolyzed cheese whey powder solution led to a significant improvement in microalgal biomass production and carbohydrate utilization when compared with the culture enriched with a mixture of pure glucose and galactose, due to the presence of growth promoting nutrients in cheese whey. Mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris using the main dairy industry by-product could be considered a feasible alternative to reduce the costs of microalgal biomass production, since it does not require the addition of expensive carbohydrates to the culture medium. PMID:22705507

  10. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-07-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens. PMID:6804070

  11. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens. Images Fig. 1 a and b. Fig. 2 a and b. Fig. 3 a and b. Fig. 4 a and b. Fig. 5 a and b. Fig. 6 a and b. Fig. 7 a and b. Fig. 8 a and b. PMID:6804070

  12. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  13. Growth and cell structure of Proteus vulgaris when cultivated in weightlessness in the Cytos apparatus.

    PubMed

    Kordyum, V A; Mashinsky, A L; Man'ko, V G; Babski, V G; Sytnik, K M; Kordyum, E L; Bochagova, O P; Nefedov, Y L; Kozharinov, V I; Grechko, G M

    1980-01-01

    Growth data and electron-microscopic analyses are presented for Proteus vulgaris cultures which were grown during space flight in polyethylene packets in a semisolid medium with Tryptose for 96 h. In the suboptimal culture conditions the growth and morphological characteristics of the flight and ground control variants were nearly identical, but we were able to detect a number of differences between the cellular ultrastructure of these variants. These differences testify to changes in the bacterial cell metabolism during space flight. PMID:11971287

  14. Invading slugs (Arion vulgaris) can be vectors for Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gismervik, K; Aspholm, M; Rørvik, LM; Bruheim, T; Andersen, A; Skaar, I

    2015-01-01

    Aims Listeriosis is a frequent silage-associated disease in ruminants. The slugs Arion vulgaris are invaders in gardens, vegetable crops and meadows for silage production. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to clarify whether slugs could host Listeria monocytogenes and thereby constitute a threat to animal feed safety. Methods and Results Selective culture of L. monocytogenes from 79 pooled slug samples (710 slugs) resulted in 43% positive, 16% with mean L. monocytogenes values of 405 CFU g−1 slug tissues. Of 62 individual slugs cultured, 11% also tested positive from surface/mucus. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of 36 isolates from different slug pools identified 20 sequence types belonging to L. monocytogenes lineages I and II. Slugs fed ≅4·0 × 105 CFUL. monocytogenes, excreted viable L. monocytogenes in faeces for up to 22 days. Excretion of L. monocytogenes decreased with time, although there were indications of a short enrichment period during the first 24 h. Conclusions Arion vulgaris may act as a vector for L. monocytogenes. Significance and Impact of the Study Highly slug-contaminated grass silage may pose a potential threat to animal feed safety. PMID:25580873

  15. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  16. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  17. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  18. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Iriondo, José María; García-Fernández, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae) is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a) clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b) evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c) assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA) evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif) and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula). This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations. PMID:26312184

  19. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Lee, Yi-kang; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Authier, Nicolas; Piot, Jerome; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  20. Genetic diversity and heavy metal tolerance in populations of Silene paradoxa L. (Caryophyllaceae): a random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, A; Gonnelli, C; Galardi, F; Gabbrielli, R; Bazzicalupo, M

    2000-09-01

    Metal-contaminated sites can occur naturally in serpentine outcrops or as consequence of anthropogenic activities, such as mining deposits, aerial fallout from smelters and industrial processes. Serpentine outcrops are characterized by high levels of nickel, cobalt and chromium and present a typical vegetation which includes endemisms and plants which also live in uncontaminated soils. These latter metal-tolerant populations provide the opportunity to investigate the first steps in the differentiation of plant populations under severe selection pressure and to select plants to be used in the phytoremediation of industrially contaminated soils. In this report eight populations of Silene paradoxa L. (Caryophyllaceae) growing in copper mine deposits, in serpentine outcrops or in noncontaminated soil in central Italy, were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to investigate the pattern of genetic variation. The genetic diversity observed in populations at copper mine deposits was found to be at least as high as that of the neighbouring serpentine populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of the RAPD markers gave high statistical significance to the groupings of populations according: (i) with their geographical location; and (ii) with the metals present in the soil of origin (copper vs. nickel), indicating that RAPD markers detected a polymorphism related to the soil contamination by copper. Finally, two RAPD bands exclusive to copper-tolerant populations were identified. PMID:10972771

  1. Evolutionary Strata on the X Chromosomes of the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia: Evidence From New Sex-Linked Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X–Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum divergence (and thus the age of this plant's sex chromosome system) has remained uncertain. More genes are therefore needed. Here, by segregation analysis of intron size variants (ISVS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identify three new Y-linked genes, one being duplicated on the Y chromosome, and test for evolutionary strata. All the new genes have homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. Synonymous divergence estimated between the X and Y homolog pairs is within the range of those already reported. Genetic mapping of the new X-linked loci shows that the map is the same in all three families that have been studied so far and that X–Y divergence increases with genetic distance from the pseudoautosomal region. We can now conclude that the divergence value is saturated, confirming the cessation of X–Y recombination in the evolution of the sex chromosomes at ∼10–20 MYA. PMID:17287532

  2. Individual spatial aggregation correlates with between-population variation in fine-scale genetic structure of Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Lara-Romero, C; García-Fernández, A; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Roumet, M; Morente-López, J; López-Gil, A; Iriondo, J M

    2016-05-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) can vary among populations within species depending on multiple demographic and environmental factors. Theoretical models predict that FSGS should decrease in high-density populations and increase in populations where individuals are spatially aggregated. However, few empirical studies have compared FSGS between populations with different degrees of individual spatial aggregation and microhabitat heterogeneity. In this work, we studied the relationship between spatial and genetic structure in five populations of alpine specialist Silene ciliata Poiret (Caryophyllaceae). We mapped all individuals in each population and genotyped 96 of them using 10 microsatellite markers. We found significant FSGS consistent with an isolation-by-distance process in three of the five populations. The intensity of FSGS was positively associated with individual spatial aggregation. However, no association was found between FSGS and global population density or microhabitat heterogeneity. Overall, our results support theoretical studies indicating that stronger spatial aggregation tends to increase the magnitude of FSGS. They also highlight the relevance of characterizing local plant distribution and microhabitat to better understand the mechanisms that generate intraspecific variation in FSGS across landscapes. PMID:26604191

  3. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. Results: The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P < 0.001). The ASI mean change was 24.8 in the sunflower group compared to 4.9 in the control group (P < 0.001). The global acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing the primary outcome in taking the sunflower seed intervention was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4 - 4.2). The observed risk difference was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.29 - 0.75). Conclusions: Sunflower seed intake appears to aggravate acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the

  4. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  5. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  6. The electron transfer system of synthrophically grown desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Ringbauer, Joseph; HE, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  7. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  8. Harvesting freshwater Chlorella vulgaris with flocculant derived from spent brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Gita; Kastanek, Petr; Branyik, Tomas

    2015-02-01

    One of the key bottlenecks of the economically viable production of low added value microalgal products (food supplements, feed, biofuels) is the harvesting of cells from diluted culture medium. The main goals of this work were to prepare a novel flocculation agent based on spent brewer's yeast, a brewery by-product, and to test its harvesting efficiency on freshwater Chlorella vulgaris in different environments. The yeast was first autolyzed/hydrolyzed and subsequently chemically modified with 2-chloro-N,N-diethylethylamine hydrochloride (DEAE). Second, optimal dosage of modified spent yeast (MSY) flocculant for harvesting C. vulgaris was determined in culture media of various compositions. It was found that the absence of phosphorus ions decreased (0.4 mg MSY/g biomass), while the presence of algogenic organic matter (AOM) increased (51 mg MSY/g biomass) the required dosage of flocculant as compared to complete mineral medium with phosphorus and without AOM (12 mg MSY/g biomass). PMID:25479390

  9. Quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five-ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of five ions, NO3-, PO43-, K+, Na+ and Cl- on growth rates and cell densities were quantified for Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophycea) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophycea) in batch cultures. A five dimensional experimental design, the five component mixture design projected across a total i...

  10. Hexavalent chromium reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough causes transitory inhibition of sulfate reduction and cellgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Klonowska, A.; Clark, M.E.; Thieman, S.B.; Giles, B.J.; Wall,J.D.; Fields, M.W.

    2008-01-07

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a well-studiedsulfate reducer that can reduce heavy metals and radionuclides [e.g.,Cr(VI) and U(VI)]. Cultures grown in a defined medium had a lag period ofapproximately 30 h when exposed to 0.05 mM Cr(VI). Substrate analysesrevealed that although Cr(VI) was reduced within the first 5 h, growthwas not observed for an additional 20 h. The growth lag could beexplained by a decline in cell viability; however, during this time smallamounts of lactate were still utilized without sulfate reduction oracetate formation. Approximately 40 h after Cr exposure (0.05 mM),sulfate reduction occurred concurrently with the accumulation of acetate.Similar amounts of hydrogen were produced by Cr-exposed cells compared tocontrol cells, and lactate was not converted to glycogen duringnon-growth conditions. D. vulgaris cells treated with a reducing agentand then exposed to Cr(VI) still experienced a growth lag, but theaddition of ascorbate at the time of Cr(VI) addition prevented the lagperiod. In addition, cells grown on pyruvate displayed more tolerance toCr(VI) compared to lactate-grown cells. These results indicated that D.vulgaris utilized lactate during Cr(VI) exposure without the reduction ofsulfate or production of acetate, and that ascorbate and pyruvate couldprotect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(VI)/Cr(III) toxicity.

  11. Mechanistically harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris and Rhodotorula glutinis via modified montmorillonoid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the flocculation process of Chlorella vulgaris and Rhodotorula glutinis induced by inorganic salts modified montmorillonoid was conducted. The maximum flocculation efficiency (FE) of 98.50% for C. vulgaris and 11.83% for R. glutinis were obtained with 4g/L and 5g/L flocculant within the dosage scope of 1-5g/L. The difference of FE was then thermodynamically explained by the extended DLVO theory and the FE of R. glutinis was mechanically enhanced to 90.66% with 0.06g/L cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) at an optimum pH of 9. After that, aimed to utilize the remainder flocculant capacity, C. vulgaris culture was added to the aggregation of R. glutinis. Fortunately, the coagulation of R. glutinis and C. Vulgaris was achieved with 0.05g/L CPAM and 5g/L flocculant at pH 9 and the FE reached 90.15% and 91.24%, respectively. PMID:27420162

  12. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  13. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  14. The massive mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora is evolving by gain or loss of entire chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Cuthbert, Jocelyn M.; Taylor, Douglas R.; Sloan, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Across eukaryotes, mitochondria exhibit staggering diversity in genomic architecture, including the repeated evolution of multichromosomal structures. Unlike in the nucleus, where mitosis and meiosis ensure faithful transmission of chromosomes, the mechanisms of inheritance in fragmented mitochondrial genomes remain mysterious. Multichromosomal mitochondrial genomes have recently been found in multiple species of flowering plants, including Silene noctiflora, which harbors an unusually large and complex mitochondrial genome with more than 50 circular-mapping chromosomes totaling ∼7 Mb in size. To determine the extent to which such genomes are stably maintained, we analyzed intraspecific variation in the mitochondrial genome of S. noctiflora. Complete genomes from two populations revealed a high degree of similarity in the sequence, structure, and relative abundance of mitochondrial chromosomes. For example, there are no inversions between the genomes, and there are only nine SNPs in 25 kb of protein-coding sequence. Remarkably, however, these genomes differ in the presence or absence of 19 entire chromosomes, all of which lack any identifiable genes or contain only duplicate gene copies. Thus, these mitochondrial genomes retain a full gene complement but carry a highly variable set of chromosomes that are filled with presumably dispensable sequence. In S. noctiflora, conventional mechanisms of mitochondrial sequence divergence are being outstripped by an apparently nonadaptive process of whole-chromosome gain/loss, highlighting the inherent challenge in maintaining a fragmented genome. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the question of why mitochondria, more so than plastids and bacterial endosymbionts, are prone to the repeated evolution of multichromosomal genomes. PMID:25944937

  15. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26448481

  16. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26448481

  17. Rapid De Novo Evolution of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Silene latifolia, a Plant with Young Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes. PMID:22529744

  18. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact. PMID:26647652

  19. Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

  20. Expression of heavy metal tolerance in pollen and implications for gametophytic selection. [The plants used were clones of Silene dioica and Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in both sporophytic and microgametophytic phases of the angiosperm life cycle. Thus, selection in one phase could modify gene frequency in both phases. An attempt was made to investigate microgametophytic selection in response to toxic concentrations of heavy metals and the effect of this selection upon the resultant sporophyte generation. The plants used were clones of a zinc-tolerant Silene dioica, closely related nontolerant S. alba, and copper tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Mimulus guttatus. First, the expression of metal tolerance in pollen was established by in vitro pollen germination and tube growth, and was found to be associated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Second, to test the extent to which the parallel expression of metal tolerance was determined by the gametophytic genotype, tolerant but segregating clones were grown with and without added metals. Finally, selection was applied during pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization. In Silene, neither the tolerance of the pollen nor the metal content of the styles affected pollen tube growth rate. In Mimulus, pollen from the nontolerant source grew faster, but the metal content of the floral tissue had no significant effect on pollen tube growth rate, and only slightly reduced the fertilization ability of pollen from the nontolerant clone.

  1. Effect of Vitamin D on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris and Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos, Susana; Krieg, Nadine; Norgauer, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis, a chronic skin disease with or without joint inflammation, has increased circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels. Vitamin D is involved in calcium homeostasis, bone formation, osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, as well as regulation of immune response. We aimed to study osteoclast differentiation and cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis, in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. Methods Serum levels of bone turnover markers were measured by ELISA in patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis, and healthy controls. PBMCs were isolated and cultured with or without RANKL/M-CSF and 1,25(OH)2D3. Osteoclast differentiation and cytokine secretion were assessed. Results Psoriatic arthritis patients had lower osteocalcin, as well as higher C-telopeptide of type I collagen and cathepsin K serum levels compared with psoriasis vulgaris patients and controls. RANKL/M-CSF-stimulated PBMCs from psoriatic arthritis patients produced higher proinflammatory cytokine levels and had a differential secretion profile in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, compared with psoriasis vulgaris and control PBMCs. Conclusions Our data confirmed altered bone turnover in psoriatic arthritis patients, and demonstrated increased osteoclastogenic potential and proinflammatory cytokine secretion capacity of these PBMCs compared with psoriasis vulgaris and controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 abrogated these effects. PMID:27050092

  2. Adjusting irradiance to enhance growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Nie, Changliang; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming

    2016-09-01

    Light is one of the most important factors affecting microalgae growth and biochemical composition. The influence of illumination on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) was investigated. Six progressive illumination intensities (0, 30, 90, 150, 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1)), were used for C. vulgaris cultivation at 25°C. Under 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1), the corresponding specific light intensity of 750×10(-6)μmol·m(-2)s(-1) per cell, algae obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.46g·L(-1)) on the 7th day, which was 3.5 times of that under 0μmol·m(-2)s(-1), and the greatest average specific growth rate (0.79 d(-1)) in the first 7days. The results showed the importance role of light in mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris. High light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1) would inhibit microalgae growth to a certain degree. The algal lipid content was the greatest (30.5%) at 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1) light intensity, which was 2.42 times as high as that cultured in dark. The protein content of C. vulgaris decreased at high light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1). The effect of irradiance on carbohydrate content was inversely correlated with that on protein. The available light at an appropriate intensity, not higher than 200μmol·m(-2)s(-1), was feasible for economical cultivation of C. vulgaris in MSGW. PMID:27484967

  3. In vitro development of Strongylus edentatus to the fourth larval stage with notes on Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus equinus.

    PubMed

    Farrar, R G; Klei, T R

    1985-08-01

    Strongylus edentatus was successfully cultured in vitro to the fourth larval stage (L4). Some growth continued for periods of 40-50 days at which time reductions in viability were observed in some of the culture systems tested. Various combinations of media, sera, buffers and organ explant cultures were tested. All cultures were incubated at 37 C in an atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. Larvae underwent growth and differentiation to the L4 in all medium-serum combinations with and without organ explant cultures. Development and growth did occur but viability was reduced to insignificant levels in media without serum or cells. Optimal growth, differentiation, and longevity were observed in bicarbonate buffered RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cecum explant cultures. Observations indicated that Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus equinus also developed to the L4 stage using similar techniques. However, viability of S. vulgaris L4 was markedly limited. Specific morphological changes marked phases of development of S. edentatus, categorized as early, middle and late third stage, third molt and early fourth stage. Strongylus equinus appeared to follow the same developmental pattern in vitro as S. edentatus. Distinct differences in morphological features during differentiation were observed between S. edentatus and S. vulgaris. PMID:4032151

  4. Simultaneous nutrient removal and lipid production from pretreated piggery wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Sapireddy, Veer Raghavulu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Wontae; Timmes, Thomas C; Inamuddin; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of using a microalga Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04 was investigated for removal of nutrients from piggery wastewater effluent. The consequent lipid production by the microalga was also identified and quantitatively determined. The wastewater effluent was diluted to different concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 % of the original using either synthetic media or distilled water. The dilution effect on both lipid production and nutrient removal was evaluated, and growth rate of C. vulgaris was also monitored. Dilution of the wastewater effluent improved microalgal growth, lipid productivity, and nutrient removal. The growth rate of C. vulgaris was increased with decreased concentration of piggery wastewater in the culture media regardless of the diluent type. Lipid production was relatively higher when using synthetic media than using distilled water for dilution of wastewater. The composition of fatty acids accumulated in microalgal biomass was dependent upon both dilution ratio and diluent type. The microalga grown on a 20 % concentration of wastewater effluent diluted with distilled water was more promising for generating high-efficient biodiesel compared to the other culture conditions. The highest removal of inorganic nutrients was also achieved at the same dilution condition. Our results revealed the optimal pretreatment condition for the biodegradation of piggery wastewater with microalgae for subsequent production of high-efficient biodiesel. PMID:22569638

  5. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  6. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea).

    PubMed

    Del Valle, José C; Buide, Ma L; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  7. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenrui; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Jing; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Yongkui

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C. vulgaris grew better in C. esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH(1)) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23548401

  8. Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Cai, Pei-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae. PMID:23517904

  9. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gille, Andrea; Trautmann, Andreas; Posten, Clemens; Briviba, Karlis

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae can contribute to a balanced diet because of their composition. Beside numerous essential nutrients, carotenoids are in the focus for food applications. The bioavailability of carotenoids from photoautotrophic-cultivated Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was compared. An in vitro digestion model was used to investigate carotenoid bioaccessibility. Furthermore, the effect of sonication on bioaccessibility was assessed. Lutein was the main carotenoid in both species. C. reinhardtii showed higher amounts of lutein and β-carotene than C. vulgaris. In contrast to C. reinhardtii, no β-carotene and only 7% of lutein were bioaccessible in nonsonicated C. vulgaris. Sonication increased the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from C. vulgaris to a level comparable with C. reinhardtii (β-carotene: ≥ 10%; lutein: ≥ 15%). Thus, C. reinhardtii represents a good carotenoid source for potential use in foods without processing, while the application of processing methods, like sonication, is necessary for C. vulgaris. PMID:27146695

  10. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

  11. Coagulation-membrane filtration of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Liao, Guan-Yu; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    Filtration-based separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was investigated using a surface-modified hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) attained maximum turbidity removal at 200 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3). The membrane filtration flux at 1 bar increased as the PACl dose increased, regardless of overdosing in the coagulation stage. The filtered cake at the end of filtration tests peaked in solid content at 10 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3), reaching 34% w/w, roughly two times that of the original suspension. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests demonstrate that the cake with minimum water-solid binding strength produced the driest filter cake. Coagulation using 10 mg L(-1) PACl as Al(2)O(3), followed by PTFE membrane filtration at 1 bar, is an effective process for harvesting C. vulgaris from algal froth. PMID:22261659

  12. Management of pemphigus vulgaris: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriou, Stamatis; Efthymiou, Ourania; Stefanaki, Christina; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    The main objective in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris is to control the disease, prevent relapses, and avoid adverse events associated with the prolonged use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Systemic corticosteroids remain the gold standard treatment for pemphigus vulgaris. Azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil are the first line of steroid-sparing treatment. Rituximab is extremely effective in recalcitrant pemphigus, when other treatments fail to control the disease. The European Dermatology Forum recommends tapering prednisolone by 25% every 2 weeks after the consolidation phase, and a 5 mg reduction every 4 weeks when the dose is reduced to <20 mg. If the patient relapses, options include increasing steroids back to the previous dose, adding an immunosuppressant if using steroid monotherapy, or replacing a first-line immunosuppressant by another if already on combination therapy. PMID:26543381

  13. Evolution of the syntrophic interaction between Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri: involvement of an ancient horizontal gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2007-01-05

    The sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the methanogenic archaea Methanosarcina barkeri can grow syntrophically on lactate. In this study, three functionally unknown genes of D. vulgaris, DVU2103, DVU2104 and DVU2108, were found to be up-regulated 2-4 fold following the lifestyle shift from syntroph to sulfatereducer; moreover, none of these genes were regulated when D. vulgaris was grown alone in various pure culture conditions. These results suggest that these genes may play roles related to the lifestyle change of D. vulgaris from syntroph to sulfate reducer. This hypothesis is further supported by phylogenomic analyses showing that homologies of these genes were only narrowly present in several groups of bacteria, most of which are restricted to a syntrophic life-style, such as Pelobacter carbinolicus, Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans, Syntrophomonas wolfei and Syntrophus aciditrophicus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genes tended to be clustered with archaeal genera, and they were rooted on archaeal species in the phylogenetic trees, suggesting that they originated from an archaeal methanogen and were horizontally transferred to a common ancestor of delta- Proteobacteria, Clostridia and Thermotogae. While lost in most species during evolution, these genes appear to have been retained in bacteria capable of syntrophic relationships, probably due to their providing a selective advantage. In addition, no significant bias in codon and amino acid usages was detected between these genes and the rest of the D. vulgaris genome, suggesting these gene transfers may have occurred early in the evolutionary history so that sufficient time has elapsed to allow an adaptation to the codon and amino acid usages of D. vulgaris. This report provides novel insights into the origin and evolution of bacterial genes involved in the syntrophic lifestyle.

  14. Biogenic hydrogen and methane production from Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta biomass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. In this study, utilization of Chlorella vulgaris (a fresh water microalga) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (a marine microalga) biomass was tested as a feedstock for anaerobic H2 and CH4 production. Results Anaerobic serum bottle assays were conducted at 37°C with enrichment cultures derived from municipal anaerobic digester sludge. Low levels of H2 were produced by anaerobic enrichment cultures, but H2 was subsequently consumed even in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogens. Without inoculation, algal biomass still produced H2 due to the activities of satellite bacteria associated with algal cultures. CH4 was produced from both types of biomass with anaerobic enrichments. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling indicated the presence of H2-producing and H2-consuming bacteria in the anaerobic enrichment cultures and the presence of H2-producing bacteria among the satellite bacteria in both sources of algal biomass. Conclusions H2 production by the satellite bacteria was comparable from D. tertiolecta (12.6 ml H2/g volatile solids (VS)) and from C. vulgaris (10.8 ml H2/g VS), whereas CH4 production was significantly higher from C. vulgaris (286 ml/g VS) than from D. tertiolecta (24 ml/g VS). The high salinity of the D. tertiolecta slurry, prohibitive to methanogens, was the probable reason for lower CH4 production. PMID:21943287

  15. Cryopreservation of Thymus cariensis and T. vulgaris shoot tips: comparison of three vitrification-based methods.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, E A; Kaya, E

    2012-01-01

    Thymus is an important genus of the Lamiaceae family, comprising more than 400 perennial aromatic thyme species, which are used extensively for medicinal and culinary purposes. The present study focused on the development of cryopreservation procedures for Thymus vulgaris and T. cariensis, the latter being an endemic and endangered species of Turkey. For cryopreservation of T. vulgaris shoot tips, PVS2-based one-step freezing methods, i.e., PVS2 vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification, were compared. Cold hardening and sucrose preculture were also optimized before the cryopreservation trials. For T. cariensis, a droplet-vitrification method was applied to cold-hardened shoot tips, and after sucrose preculture. In all the methods tested, PVS2 was applied for up to 120 min. The best T. vulgaris cryopreservation was achieved with a droplet-vitrification method, that involved 2-weeks cold hardening of shoot cultures, 48 h preculture of shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets. After direct immersion in LN, thawing and plating, 80% of shoot-tips recovered. Post-thaw recovery was significantly lower when the same procedure was applied to T. cariensis shoot tips; however also here 90 min PVS2 treatment produced the highest survival (25 percent) and recovery (25 percent) levels. PMID:23224369

  16. The effect of nitrogen limitation on lipid productivity and cell composition in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Melinda J; van Hille, Robert P; Harrison, Susan T L

    2014-03-01

    Chlorella vulgaris accumulates lipid under nitrogen limitation, but at the expense of biomass productivity. Due to this tradeoff, improved lipid productivity may be compromised, despite higher lipid content. To determine the optimal degree of nitrogen limitation for lipid productivity, batch cultures of C. vulgaris were grown at different nitrate concentrations. The growth rate, lipid content, lipid productivity and biochemical and elemental composition of the cultures were monitored for 20 days. A starting nitrate concentration of 170 mg L(-1) provided the optimal tradeoff between biomass and lipid production under the experimental conditions. Volumetric lipid yield (in milligram lipid per liter algal culture) was more than double that under nitrogen-replete conditions. Interpolation of the data indicated that the highest volumetric lipid concentration and lipid productivity would occur at nitrate concentrations of 305 and 241 mg L(-1), respectively. There was a strong correlation between the nitrogen content of the cells and the pigment, protein and lipid content, as well as biomass and lipid productivity. Knowledge of the relationships between cell nitrogen content, growth, and cell composition assists in the prediction of the nitrogen regime required for optimal productivity in batch or continuous culture. In addition to enhancing lipid productivity, nitrogen limitation improves the lipid profile for biodiesel production and reduces the requirement for nitrogen fertilizers, resulting in cost and energy savings and a reduction in the environmental burden of the process. PMID:24413971

  17. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-bacterial properties, which may lead to increased commercial demand. To date...

  18. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunella vulgaris has been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Various members of the mint family, including Prunella, have been reported to have antiviral activity. To characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, we tested water and ethanol extracts for their...

  19. Global transcriptomics analysis of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris change from syntrophic growth with Methanosarcina barkeri to sulfidogenic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Brockman, Fred J.; Zhang, Weiwen

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Desulfovibrio vulgaris is a metabolically flexible microorganism. It can use sulfate as electron acceptor to catabolize a variety of substrates, or in the absence of sulfate can utilize organic acids and alcohols by forming a syntrophic association with hydrogen scavenging partner to relieve inhibition by hydrogen. These alternativemetabolic types increase the chance of survival for D. vulgaris in environments where one of the potential external electron acceptors becomes depleted. In this work, whole-genome D. vulgaris microarrays were used to determine relative transcript levels as D. vulgaris shifted its metabolism from syntroph in a lactate-oxidizing dual-culture with Methanosarcina barkeri to a sulfidogenic metabolism. Syntrophic dual-cultures were grown in two independent chemostats and perturbation was introduced after six volume changes with the addition of sulfate. The results showed that 132 genes were differentially expressed in D. vulgaris 2 hours after addition of sulfate. Functional analyses suggested that genes involved in cell envelope and energy metabolism were the most regulated when comparing syntrophic and sulfidogenic metabolism. Up-regulation was observed for genes encoding ATPase and the membrane-integrated energy conserving hydrogenase (Ech) when cells shifted to a sulfidogenic metabolism. A five-gene cluster encoding several lipo- and membrane-bound proteins was down-regulated when cells were shifted to a sulfidogenic metabolism. Interestingly, this gene cluster has orthologs found only in another syntrophic bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and four recently sequenced Desulfovibrio strains. This study also identified several novel c-type cytochrome encoding genes which may be involved in the sulfidogenic metabolism.

  20. Production of acylated homoserine lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-10-01

    A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter cultures was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production (5.675 µg l(-1)) at 24 h growth. The strain exhibited swarming, but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production and reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated protein during swarming, was considered as a possible target for these inhibitors, and docking of the two most active and two least active inhibitors to this protein suggested preferential binding of the former set of compounds. Apart from adding new evidence to AHL production in Proteus vulgaris, active inhibitors shortlisted from this study could help in identifying lead compounds to act against this opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25012967

  1. Addressing Free Radical Oxidation in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Criscito, Maressa C.; Schlesinger, Todd E.; Verdicchio, Robert; Szoke, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Here, using the traditional abnormalities cited for acne, the authors address the role of free radical oxidation throughout the pathogenesis by detailing the chemistry that may contribute to clinical changes. To probe the effects of free radical oxidation and test an antioxidant, they conducted a preliminary study of topically applied vitamin E. Methods: Seventeen patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated over an eight-week period in two private dermatology practices in this open-label study. All patients enrolled were on the same baseline regimen of salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. This regimen was then supplemented with topical vitamin E in sunflower seed oil. Results: At the end of the eight-week period, all patients demonstrated clinical improvement, as indicated by a reduction in the number of lesions and global mean difference. A statistically significant reduction was noted as early as Week 2. Enrolled patients also expressed a positive experience due to good tolerability and easy application. Conclusion: Although the exact pathogenesis of acne vulgaris remains unknown, the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. This paper is designed to stimulate academic discussion regarding a new way of thinking about the disease state of acne. PMID:26962389

  2. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. Aim To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Material and methods Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. Results All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001, 14.01 ±11.94 vs. 9.12 ±3.53). Additionally, there was a highly significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of HOMA values (p < 0.001, 2.87 ±2.56 vs. 1.63 ±0.65). Conclusions These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne. PMID:26366152

  3. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  4. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update.

    PubMed

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  5. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity. PMID:25778665

  6. Characterization of NaCl tolerance in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough through experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Zhili; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Baumohl, Jason K; Benke, Peter; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Xie, Ming; Song, Rong; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Wall, Judy D; Stahl, David A; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough strains with significantly increased tolerance to NaCl were obtained via experimental evolution. A NaCl-evolved strain, ES9-11, isolated from a population cultured for 1200 generations in medium amended with 100 mM NaCl, showed better tolerance to NaCl than a control strain, EC3-10, cultured for 1200 generations in parallel but without NaCl amendment in medium. To understand the NaCl adaptation mechanism in ES9-11, we analyzed the transcriptional, metabolite and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of strain ES9-11 with 0, 100- or 250 mM-added NaCl in medium compared with the ancestral strain and EC3-10 as controls. In all the culture conditions, increased expressions of genes involved in amino-acid synthesis and transport, energy production, cation efflux and decreased expression of flagellar assembly genes were detected in ES9-11. Consistently, increased abundances of organic solutes and decreased cell motility were observed in ES9-11. Glutamate appears to be the most important osmoprotectant in D. vulgaris under NaCl stress, whereas, other organic solutes such as glutamine, glycine and glycine betaine might contribute to NaCl tolerance under low NaCl concentration only. Unsaturation indices of PLFA significantly increased in ES9-11. Branched unsaturated PLFAs i17:1 ω9c, a17:1 ω9c and branched saturated i15:0 might have important roles in maintaining proper membrane fluidity under NaCl stress. Taken together, these data suggest that the accumulation of osmolytes, increased membrane fluidity, decreased cell motility and possibly an increased exclusion of Na+ contribute to increased NaCl tolerance in NaCl-evolved D. vulgaris. PMID:23575373

  7. [Yeast cell wall-dissolving enzymes of the thermotolerant actinomycete Thermoactinomyces vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Loginova, L G; Iakovleva, M B; Golovina, I G; Bogdanova, T I

    1976-01-01

    The thermotolerant culture of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris PA II-4A was cultivated in the Biotec fermenter to obtain the enzyme preparation with a high proteolytic and lytic activity. Resistance of the cells of Candida utilis and Saccharomyces fragilis (mesophilic and thermotolerant strains) to the lytic action of the enzyme preparation was different. Preliminary treatment of the yeast cells by L-cysteine increased their susceptibility to the lytic action of the preparation. The degree of lysis of the cells depended also on their age: the cells growing during 10-12 hours were lysed easier than the cells cultivated during 24 hours. PMID:6860

  8. Construction and Evaluation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Whole-Genome Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Z. He; Q. He; L. Wu; M.E. Clark; J.D. Wall; Jizhong Zhou; Matthew W. Fields

    2004-03-17

    ,4-cyclodiphosphate (MECDP) synthase. Spermidines are polyamines that are typically abundant in rapidly dividing cells and are essential growth factors in eukaryotic organisms. Polyamines are thought to stabilize DNA by the association of the amino groups with the phosphate residues of DNA and can also enhance tRNA and ribosome stability. The MECDP synthase enzyme is essential in Escherichia coli and participates in the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, a critical pathway present in some bacteria and apicomplexans but distinct from that used by mammals. Several of the highly up-regulated ORFs were annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, an ORF that was predicted to contain a flocculin repeat domain was almost 9-fold up-regulated in stationary phase cells compared to logarithmically growing cells. The flocculin domain is commonly observed in fungi, and is thought to play a role during flocculation (non-sexual aggregation of single-cell microorganisms). These preliminary results have identified possible responses of D. vulgaris cells to stationary phase growth and suggest that polyamine production as well as cell aggregation and/or extracellular polymer production are responses of D. vulgaris during stationary phase. The initial microarray results indicate that the recently produced oligonucleotide microarrays are functional. We are currently optimizing growth conditions in order to culture D. vulgaris cells in the presence of uranium(VI) and to monitor whole-genome expression levels.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Arican, Ozer; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Sasmaz, Sezai

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared with control group, the relation between the severity and distribution of acne, and the correlation of each enzyme level were researched. CAT and G6PD levels in patients were found to be statistically decreased, and SOD and MDA levels were found to be statistically increased (P < .001). However, any statistical difference and correlation could not be found between the severity and distribution of lesions and the mean levels of enzymes. In addition, we found that each enzyme is correlated with one another. Our findings show that oxidative stress exists in the acne patients. It will be useful to apply at least one antioxidant featured drug along with the combined acne treatment. PMID:16489259

  10. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  11. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular ammonium and activities of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were measured when the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild type strains of Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-attenuated mutants. After 48 h of immobilization, both wild types induced higher levels of intracellular ammonium in the microalgae than their respective mutants; the more IAA produced, the higher the intracellular ammonium accumulated. Accumulation of intracellular ammonium in the cells of C. vulgaris followed application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and its IAA-attenuated mutants, which had a similar pattern for the first 24 h. This effect was transient and disappeared after 48 h of incubation. Immobilization of C. vulgaris with any bacteria strain induced higher GS activity. The bacterial strains also had GS activity, comparable to the activity detected in C. vulgaris, but weaker than when immobilized with the bacteria. When net activity was calculated, the wild type always induced higher GS activity than IAA-attenuated mutants. GDH activity in most microalgae/bacteria interactions resembled GS activity. When complementing IAA-attenuated mutants with exogenous IAA, GS activity in co-immobilized cultures matched those of the wild type A. brasilense immobilized with the microalga. Similarity occurred when the net GS activity was measured, and was higher with greater quantities of exogenous IAA. It is proposed that IAA produced by A. brasilense is involved in ammonium uptake and later assimilation by C. vulgaris. PMID:25554489

  12. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Min Sub; Wang, David T.; Zane, Grant M.; Wall, Judy D.; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling between carbon and sulfur metabolisms to the overall magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect, this study compared sulfur isotope fractionations by mutants of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. We tested mutant strains lacking one or two periplasmic (Hyd, Hyn-1, Hyn-2, and Hys) or cytoplasmic hydrogenases (Ech and CooL), and a mutant lacking type I tetraheme cytochrome (TpI-c3). In batch culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and its hydrogenase mutants had comparable growth kinetics and produced the same sulfur isotope effects. This is consistent with the reported redundancy of hydrogenases in D. vulgaris. However, the TpI-c3 mutant (ΔcycA) exhibited slower growth and sulfate reduction rates in batch culture, and produced more H2 and an approximately 50% larger sulfur isotope effect, compared to the wild type. The magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation in the CycA deletion strain, thus, increased due to the disrupted coupling of the carbon oxidation and sulfate reduction pathways. In continuous culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and the CycA mutant produced similar sulfur isotope effects, underscoring the influence of environmental conditions on the relative contribution of hydrogen cycling to the electron transport. The large sulfur isotope effects associated with the non-ideal stoichiometry of sulfate reduction in this study imply that simultaneous fermentation and sulfate reduction may be responsible for some of the large naturally-occurring sulfur isotope effects. Overall, mutant strains provide a powerful tool to test the effect of specific redox proteins and pathways on sulfur isotope fractionation. PMID:23805134

  13. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia) guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene), lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1) &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2) encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM) and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM) resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1) and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2), were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia. PMID:22937972

  14. Aqueous extract of dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris L. in acne vulgaris, a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Rohollah F

    2012-12-01

    Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry) is a very well-known herb in traditional medicine. Apart from its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the antilipogenic effect of barberry on the sebaceous glands in animals may further suggest it could be employed as an anti-acne agent. This study examined the effect of oral aqueous extract of barberry on acne vulgaris. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were randomly given oral gelatin capsules containing either aqueous extract of dried barberry (600 mg daily for 4 weeks, n = 25) or placebo (n = 24). Counts of facial noninflamed, inflamed, and total acne lesions, as well as the Michaelson's acne severity score were documented at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Both groups were comparable in terms of the patients' characteristics and baseline variables. After 4 weeks, the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions as well as mean Michaelson's acne severity score declined significantly by 43.25 ± 10.88% (median: 42.11%), 44.53 ± 11.78% (median: 45.45%), 44.64 ± 8.46% (median: 46.15%), and 44.38 ± 8.25% (median: 44.07%), respectively, among the extract receivers (p <.001 for all the changes). Similar changes were not significant in the placebo group. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to barberry. In conclusion, oral aqueous extract of dried barberry is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in teenagers with moderate to severe acne vulgaris. PMID:23038982

  15. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases. PMID:26264195

  16. Proteomic profiling of Beta vulgaris leaves during rhizomania compatible interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania severely impacts sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most sugarbeet growing regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with Beet Necr...

  17. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously. PMID:24060723

  18. Pemphigus vulgaris: a multidisciplinary approach to management.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Christopher; Stevens, Lucy; McArdle, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare but potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease affecting the mucosa and the skin. The disease is caused by circulating antibodies to desmosomes (important adhesion proteins linking cells together). Disruption of these intercellular connections results in a loss of cohesion between cells (acantholysis). The clinical result of this process is the development of multiple blisters that easily rupture, leaving behind painful sloughing eroded areas of mucosa and/or skin. We report a case of severe PV in a 56-year-old man presenting with widespread, painful, eroded mucocutaneous lesions. The severity of the disease demanded a range of medical and surgical specialties to successfully manage the problem. This paper highlights the importance of an early multidisciplinary team approach to improve the outcome of patients suffering with this disease. PMID:24343801

  19. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  20. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction. PMID:25449183

  1. Use of tazarotene foam for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriou, Stamatis; Kritsotaki, Eleftheria; Katoulis, Alexandros; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit. It often requires long-term treatment, resulting in increased demand for topical medications that are popular with patients in order to achieve long-term compliance. Tazarotene foam 0.1% is a novel formulation of tazarotene. We review efficacy and tolerability studies of the new formulation, and suggest a possible place for the product in the management of acne vulgaris. PMID:24920932

  2. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  3. When is it worth being a self-compatible hermaphrodite? Context-dependent effects of self-pollination on female advantage in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, Emna; Touzet, Pascal; Billard, Emmanuelle; Dufay, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    In gynodioecious plant species with nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, females and hermaphrodites plants can coexist whenever female have higher seed fitness than hermaphrodites. Although the effect of self fertilization on seed fitness in hermaphrodites has been considered theoretically, this effect is far from intuitive, because it can either increase the relative seed fitness of the females (if it leads hermaphrodites to produce inbred, low quality offspring) or decrease it (if it provides reproductive assurance to hermaphrodites). Hence, empirical investigation is needed to document whether relative seed fitness varies with whether pollen is or is not limiting to seed production. In the current study, we measured fruit set and seed production in both females and hermaphrodites and the selfing rate in hermaphrodites in two experimental patches that differed in sex ratios in the gynodioecious plant Silene nutans. We found an impact of plant gender, patch, and their interaction, with females suffering from stronger pollen limitation when locally frequent. In the most pollen-limited situation, the selfing rate of hermaphrodites increased and provided hermaphrodites with a type of reproductive assurance that is not available to females. By integrating both the beneficial (reproductive assurance) and costly effects (through inbreeding depression) of self-pollination, we showed that whether females did or did not exhibit higher seed fitness depended on the degree of pollen limitation on seed production. PMID:26140201

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2005-12-01

    The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

  5. Model based optimization of feeding regimens in aquaculture: application to the improvement of Octopus vulgaris viability in captivity.

    PubMed

    Hormiga, José A; Almansa, Eduardo; Sykes, António V; Torres, Néstor V

    2010-09-01

    The culture of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), one important candidate to the aquaculture diversification, faces significant difficulties, mainly related with an inadequate first development stages diet. A mathematical model integrating disperse information on the nutrient composition throughout the species ontogenic development as well as on the effects of broodstock feeding and diet composition data of O. vulgaris, allowed us to predict the time evolution of paralarvae nutritional composition in terms of protein and lipid fractions and to design an optimal diet composition with the objective to ensure the maximal survival. The optimization routine showed that a diet based on the spider crab (Maja squinado) zoea composition is the most suitable for reaching the best survival rates. Results are verified by comparison with available experimental data. The obtained results and the prospective developments are a good example of how the systemic, quantitative model based approach can be used to analyse and contribute to the understanding of complex biological systems. PMID:20005909

  6. Use of orange peel extract for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris: increased production of biomass and FAMEs.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Moon, Myounghoon; Kwak, Min-Su; Jeon, Seungjib; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-11-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae is necessary to achieve economically feasible production of microalgal biodiesel, but the high cost of nutrients is a major limitation. In this study, orange peel extract (OPE) was used as an inorganic and organic nutrient source for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris OW-01. Chemical composition analysis of the OPE indicated that it contains sufficient nutrients for mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris OW-01. Analysis of biomass and FAME production showed that microalgae grown in OPE medium produced 3.4-times more biomass and 4.5-times more fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) than cells cultured in glucose-supplemented BG 11 medium (BG-G). These results suggest that growth of microalgae in an OPE-supplemented medium increases lipid production and that OPE has potential for use in the mass cultivation of microalgae. PMID:25218207

  7. Chlorella vulgaris: A Multifunctional Dietary Supplement with Diverse Medicinal Properties.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Darvishi, Behrad; Jowzi, Narges; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects., omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:26561078

  8. Evaluation of Baermann apparatus sedimentation time on recovery of Strongylus vulgaris and S. edentatus third stage larvae from equine coprocultures.

    PubMed

    Bellaw, Jennifer L; Nielsen, Martin K

    2015-06-30

    Traditional methods of diagnosing equine Strongylinae infections require culturing feces, sedimenting the culture media in Baermann apparatuses, collecting the sediment, and morphologically identifying recovered third stage larvae. However, this method is plagued by low negative predictive values. This study evaluated sedimentation time within the Baermann apparatus by comparing larval recovery from the traditionally collected sediment, "sediment 1", and from the usually discarded remaining fluid contents, "sediment 2", of the Baermann apparatus after 12, 24, and 48 h. A grand total of 147,482 larvae were recovered and examined. Sedimentation time did not significantly influence total larval recovery. At all three durations, significantly more Cyathostominae and Strongylus vulgaris larvae were covered from sediment 1 than from sediment 2. However, less than 60% of all recovered Strongylus edentatus were recovered from sediment 1. As 95% of S. vulgaris larvae were always recovered from sediment 1, the need for collection and examination of the remaining fluid contents of the Baermann apparatus is obviated when performing coprocultures for diagnosis of S. vulgaris infections, and sedimentation for 12h is adequate. Approximately 70% of Cyathostominae were recovered in sediment 1 at all durations, suggesting that 12h of sedimentation is adequate, although there is a need for future research to evaluate the risk of selection bias at differing sedimentation times among individual cyathostomin species. In contrast to S. vulgaris, collecting and examining the entire contents of the Baermann apparatus may be necessary when an increased diagnostic sensitivity and negative predictive value is desired in diagnosing S. edentatus infections as only 38-61% of larvae were recovered from sediment 1 portion of the Baermann apparatus. This information will allow researchers and practitioners to make more informed decisions in choosing appropriate larval recovery techniques, balancing

  9. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  10. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Importance Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds) remains lacking. Objective To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design Database summary study. Setting Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence. PMID:26955297

  11. Pemphigus vulgaris: a case-based update.

    PubMed

    Ben Lagha, Nadia; Poulesquen, Vincent; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Alantar, Alp; Maman, Louis

    2005-10-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disease accounting for 80% of all cases of pemphigus. Before the advent of corticosteroid therapy, pemphigus was fatal, with a mortality rate of up to 75% in the first year. It is still a serious disorder, but the 5% to 10% mortality rate is now primarily due to the side effects of therapy. In 75% to 80% of cases, PV lesions first appear in the oral cavity. Dentists are therefore in a unique position to recognize the oral manifestations of the disease, allowing early diagnosis and initiation of treatment. The diagnosis is based on pathological examination and immunofluorescence testing. Systemic corticosteriods and steroid-sparing agents are the mainstays of treatment; topical corticosteroids may also be used to accelerate healing of persistent oral lesions. This article describes a 71-year-old woman with multiple chronic ulcers in the oral cavity, in whom PV was diagnosed 4 months after the symptoms first appeared. The article also reviews the current literature on diagnosis and treatment of the condition. PMID:16271165

  12. Immunohistochemical study of desmosomes in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Knaggs, H E; Hughes, B R; Morris, C; Wood, E J; Holland, D B; Cunliffe, W J

    1994-06-01

    Desmosomes contribute towards adhesion between adjacent keratinocytes. In acne vulgaris, increased intercellular adhesion is thought to contribute to the retention of keratinocytes within the follicular lumen during comedogenesis. Therefore, the distribution of different desmosomal components was investigated in normal and acne subjects. Biopsies were cryostat-sectioned (6 microns), and stained with antibodies to different desmosomal components: desmoplakin 1/2, desmoglein 1, desmocollin 3a/3b, and a late desmosomal antigen, G36-19. Desmoplakin 1/2, desmoglein 1 and desmocollin 3a/3b shared a similar distribution in follicles from control skin, from acne-affected skin, and in non-inflamed lesions. All three proteins were expressed around the periphery of keratinocytes of all the intrafollicular epidermis, except the basal lamina and the upper stratum corneum. In inflamed lesions, the expression of desmoglein 1 and desmocollin 3a/3b was diminished; in 12.5%, staining for these two proteins was completely abolished, and in 81.25% of the lesions investigated the staining was patchy. The antibody G36-19 bound to an antigen in the upper granular layer in the infundibular epidermis. No differences were noted in the staining pattern of the follicular epithelia of controls, non-inflamed, and inflamed lesions. This study, using monoclonal antibodies, did not identify any changes in the desmosomal components which might explain the increased adhesion between follicular keratinocytes during comedogenesis. PMID:8011498

  13. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  14. Acne vulgaris in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schnopp, C; Mempel, M

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common inflammatory skin disease originating from the pilosebaceous unit. Peak incidence is at puberty, but acne can affect all age groups. Prepubertal acne is rare, but important to recognize as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures differ from pubertal acne. Acne neonatorum is a mild, self-limiting disease, whereas acne infantum commonly presents with moderate to severe lesions and high risk of scarring thus requiring early intervention. Mid-childhood or prepubertal acne raises the suspicion of hyperandrogenemia, further investigations are indicated to rule out underlying disease. The same applies to any patient with very severe acne, acne not responding to therapy or unusual clinical presentation. Etiopathogenesis of acne is not yet fully understood. Familiy history is the most important risk factor to develop severe acne and scarring. The relevance of life style factors such as smoking or diet is controversial. Lately high carbohydrate diet and dairy products have been implicated as aggravating factors. Mild acne normally responds to topical monotherapy, in moderate disease combination of two synergistically acting substances (e.g. benzoyl peroxid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus retinoid, retinoid plus antibiotic, benzoyl peroxid plus azelaic acid) will improve clinical response. Retinoids and/or benzoylperoxid have been shown to be effective in maintenance therapy. In patients with severe disease or high risk of scarring systemic therapy with antibiotics, oral contraceptives with antiandrogenic properties and in particularly isotretinoin as most effective acne treatment should be considered early to avoid physical and emotional scars. PMID:21909065

  15. Metabolism of urea by Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hodson, R C; Thompson, J F

    1969-05-01

    Urea metabolism was studied with nitrogen-starved cells of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck var. viridis (Chodat), a green alga which apparently lacks urease. Incorporation of radioactivity from urea-(14)C into the alcohol-soluble fraction was virtually eliminated in cell suspensions flushed with 10% CO(2) in air. This same result was obtained when expected acceptors of urea carbon were replenished by adding ornithine and glucose with the urea. Several carbamyl compounds, which might be early products of urea metabolism and a source of the (14)CO(2), were not appreciably labeled. If cells were treated with cyanide at a concentration which inhibited ammonia uptake completely and urea uptake only slightly, more than half of the urea nitrogen taken up was found in the medium as ammonia. Cells under nitrogen gas in the dark were unable to take up urea or ammonia, but the normal rate of uptake was resumed in light. Since 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea did not selectively inhibit this uptake, an active respiration supported by light-dependent oxygen evolution in these cells was ruled out. A tentative scheme for urea metabolism is proposed to consist of an initial energy-dependent splitting of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. This reaction in Chlorella is thought to differ from a typical urease-catalyzed reaction by the apparent requirement of a high energy compound, possibly adenosine triphosphate. PMID:5783973

  16. Novel therapies for pemphigus vulgaris: an overview.

    PubMed

    Perez, Oliver A; Patton, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Pemphigus comprises a group of autoimmune, mucocutaneous blistering disorders. Its principal cause may be a group of antibodies directed against proteins present on the surface of keratinocytes that provide mechanical structure to the epidermis. In the case of pemphigus vulgaris, the characteristic blistering noted just above the basal layer may be triggered by autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). The process by which the binding of these antibodies leads to acantholysis, apoptosis and eventual loss of epidermal function is not completely understood. Current therapies are primarily directed against the formation of these antibodies by suppression of the immune system, and are associated with significant adverse events. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of pemphigus increases, newer therapies have been proposed and evaluated. These novel therapies include intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, immunoadsorption, extracorporeal photochemotherapy, biological agents, as well as experimental therapies such as cholinergic receptor agonists, Dsg3 peptides and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor. Current limitations to the widespread use of these therapies include cost, a lack of consistent data regarding their benefit, limited availability, and the experimental nature of some of the treatments. This review highlights the latest case reports and studies that employ established as well as new therapeutics in a novel way to treat this rare, but serious, disorder. PMID:19761276

  17. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris. PMID:25797155

  18. Mechanism of fatty acid desaturation in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Behrouzian, B; Fauconnot, L; Daligault, F; Nugier-Chauvin, C; Patin, H; Buist, P H

    2001-06-01

    The hypothesis that the Delta9 desaturase of Chlorella vulgaris might operate by a synchronous mechanism has been tested using a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) approach. Thus the intermolecular primary deuterium KIE on the individual C-H bond cleavage steps involved in Delta9 desaturation have been determined by incubating growing cultures of C. vulgaris (strain 211/8K) with mixtures of the appropriate regiospecifically deuterated fatty acid analogues. Our analysis shows that the introduction of a double bond between C-9 and C-10 occurs in two discrete steps as the cleavage of the C9-H bond is very sensitive to isotopic substitution (kH/kD = 6.6 +/- 0.3) whereas a negligible isotope effect (kH/kD = 1.05 +/- 0.05) was observed for the C10-H bond-breaking step. Similar results were obtained for linoleic acid biosynthesis (Delta12 desaturation). These data clearly rule out a synchronous mechanism for these reactions. PMID:11422385

  19. Biotoxicity of nickel oxide nanoparticles and bio-remediation by microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ning; Shao, Kuishuang; Feng, Wei; Lin, Zhengzhi; Liang, Changhua; Sun, Yeqing

    2011-04-01

    Adverse effects of manufactured nickel oxide nanoparticles on the microalgae Chlorellavulgaris were determined by algal growth-inhibition test and morphological observation via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the NiO nanoparticles had severe impacts on the algae, with 72 h EC(50) values of 32.28 mg NiOL(-1). Under the stress of NiO nanoparticles, C. vulgaris cells showed plasmolysis, cytomembrane breakage and thylakoids disorder. NiO nanoparticles aggregated and deposited in algal culture media. The presence of algal cells accelerated aggregation of nanoparticles. Moreover, about 0.14% ionic Ni was released when NiO NPs were added into seawater. The attachment of aggregates to algal cell surface and the presence of released ionic Ni were likely responsible for the toxic effects. Interestingly, some NiO nanoparticles were reduced to zero valence nickel as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The maximum ratios of nickel reduction was achieved at 72 h of exposure, in accordance with the time-course of changes in soluble protein content of treated C. vulgaris, implying that some proteins of algae are involved in the process. Our results indicate that the toxicity and bioavailability of NiO nanoparticles to marine algae are reduced by aggregation and reduction of NiO. Thus, marine algae have the potential for usage in nano-pollution bio-remediation in aquatic system. PMID:21216429

  20. Plant population size and isolation affect herbivory of Silene latifolia by the specialist herbivore Hadena bicruris and parasitism of the herbivore by parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Jelmer A; Turin, Hans; van Damme, Jos M M; Biere, Arjen

    2005-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation can affect levels of herbivory in plant populations if plants and herbivores are differentially affected by fragmentation. Moreover, if herbivores are top-down controlled by predators or parasitoids, herbivory may also be affected by differential effects of fragmentation on herbivores and their natural enemies. We used natural Silene latifolia populations to examine the effects of plant population size and isolation on the level of herbivory by the seed predating noctuid Hadena bicruris and the rate of parasitism of the herbivore by its parasitoids. In addition, we examined oviposition rate, herbivory and parasitism in differently sized experimental populations. In natural populations, the level of herbivory increased and the rate of parasitism decreased with decreasing plant population size and increasing degree of isolation. The number of parasitoid species also declined with decreasing plant population size. In the experimental populations, the level of herbivory was also higher in smaller populations, in accordance with higher oviposition rates, but was not accompanied by lower rates of parasitism. Similarly, oviposition rate and herbivory, but not parasitism rate, increased near the edges of populations. These results suggests that in this system with the well dispersing herbivore H. bicruris, habitat fragmentation increases herbivory of the plant through a behavioural response of the moth that leads to higher oviposition rates in fragmented populations with a reduced population size, increased isolation and higher edge-to-interior ratio. Although the rate of parasitism and the number of parasitoid species declined with decreasing population size in the natural populations, we argue that in this system it is unlikely that this decline made a major contribution to increased herbivory. PMID:15891816

  1. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  2. Optimisation of Potassium Chloride Nutrition for Proper Growth, Physiological Development and Bioactive Component Production in Prunella vulgaris L

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhang; Yu, Manman; Zhu, Zaibiao; Zhang, Lixia; Guo, Qiaosheng

    2013-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris L. is an important medicinal plant with a variety of pharmacological activities, but limited information is available about its response to potassium chloride (KCl) supplementation. P. vulgaris seedlings were cultured in media with four different KCl levels (0, 1.00, 6.00 and 40.00 mM). Characteristics relating to the growth, foliar potassium, water and chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, transpiration, nitrogen metabolism, bioactive constituent concentrations and yield were determined after three months. The appropriate KCl concentration was 6.00 mM to result in the highest values for dry weight, shoot height, spica and root weight, spica length and number in P. vulgaris. The optimum KCl concentration resulted in a maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn) that could be associated with the highest chlorophyll content and fully open stomata conductance. A supply of surplus KCl resulted in a higher concentration of foliar potassium and negatively correlated with the biomass. Plants that were treated with the appropriate KCl level showed a greater capacity for nitrate assimilation. The Pn was significantly and positively correlated with nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities and was positively correlated with leaf-soluble protein and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Both KCl starvation (0 mM) and high KCl (40.00 mM) led to water loss through a high transpiration rate and low water absorption, respectively, and resulted in increased concentrations of ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA) and flavonoids, with the exception of rosmarinic acid (RA). Moreover, the optimum concentration of KCl significantly increased the yields of RA, UA, OA and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that significantly higher plant biomass; chlorophyll content; Pn; stronger nitrogen anabolism; lower RA, UA, OA and flavonoid accumulation; and greater RA, UA, OA and flavonoid yields in P. vulgaris could be expected in the presence of the appropriate KCl

  3. Contribution of mobile genetic elements to Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; Stolyar, Sergey; Chivian, Dylan; Pinel, Nicolas; Gabster, Jeffrey; Dehal, Paramvir; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    The genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain DePue, a sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium isolated from heavy metal-impacted lake sediment, was completely sequenced and compared with the type strain D. vulgaris Hildenborough. The two genomes share a high degree of relatedness and synteny, but harbour distinct prophage and signatures of past phage encounters. In addition to a highly variable phage contribution, the genome of strain DePue contains a cluster of open-reading frames not found in strain Hildenborough coding for the production and export of a capsule exopolysaccharide, possibly of relevance to heavy metal resistance. Comparative whole-genome microarray analysis on four additional D. vulgaris strains established greater interstrain variation within regions associated with phage insertion and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  4. Timely recognition of pemphigus vulgaris by dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz

    2013-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a potentially fatal mucocutaneous, vesiculobullous disorder of autoimmune etiology. Regrettably, affected patients frequently experience considerable discomfort and diagnostic delay for months in spite of multiple clinician contacts. The high likelihood of disease manifestations in the oral cavity and serious nature of potential oral and systemic complications mandates dental professionals to recognize early oral signs and symptoms of pemphigus vulgaris and contribute to timely diagnosis and medical intervention to prevent disease progression. This case report presents a young man with pemphigus vulgaris whose oral disease caused him significant suffering and spread to the skin before he was finally diagnosed 3 months after the onset. The signs and symptoms of the disease are reviewed and the potential role of dental providers in timely recognition and management is emphasized. PMID:23616980

  5. Acne vulgaris: nutritional factors may be influencing psychological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin; Logan, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Patients with acne are more likely to experience anger and are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation. Certain nutrients which have been implicated as influencing the pathophysiology of acne have also been identified as important mediators of human cognition, behavior and emotions. Zinc, folic acid, selenium, chromium and omega-3 fatty acids are all examples of nutrients which have been shown to influence depression, anger and/or anxiety. These same nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress and an altered intestinal microflora have been implicated in acne vulgaris. It is our contention that certain nutritional factors, a weakened antioxidant defense system and altered intestinal microflora may interplay to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris. PMID:17448607

  6. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Mikaïl, C; Abou, L; Portugal, H

    2004-12-01

    The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses. PMID:15742351

  7. Recovery of temperate Desulfovibrio vulgaris bacteriophage on anovel host strain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; Stolyar, S.S.; Pinel, N.; Yen, H.C.; He, Z.; Zhou,J.; Wall, J.D.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-04-02

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain DePue) closelyrelated to Desulfovibrio vulgaris ssp. vulgaris strain Hildenborough wasisolated from the sediment of a heavy-metal impacted lake usingestablished techniques. Although few physiological differences betweenstrains DePue and Hildenborough were observed, pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a significant genome reduction in strainDePue. Comparative whole-genome microarray and PCR analyses demonstratedthat the absence of genes annotated in the Hildenborough genome as phageor phage-related contributed to the significant genome reduction instrain DePue. Two morphotypically distinct temperate bacteriophage fromstrain Hildenborough were recovered using strain DePue as a host forplaque isolation.

  8. Radiation-induced pemphigus vulgaris of the breast.

    PubMed

    Vigna-Taglianti, R; Russi, E G; Denaro, N; Numico, G; Brizio, R

    2011-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune mucocutaneous bullous disease. Patients with a history of pemphigus vulgaris - who need radiotherapy - may show a long lasting bullous cutaneous manifestation, typical of pemphigus, within radiation fields. The literature describes fewer than 20 radio-induced cases. While systematic corticosteroid therapy has proven to be useful, topical treatment used in association with corticosteroid therapy is rarely described. To our knowledge the use of modern dressing products has never been described. We report our experience in a case in which modern dressing products were usefully associated to systemic therapy. PMID:21511511

  9. The Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Saïd, Jessica; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Léger, Christophe; Fourmond, Vincent; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Ni-containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases (CODHs) catalyze the reversible conversion between CO and CO₂and are involved in energy conservation and carbon fixation. These homodimeric enzymes house two NiFeS active sites (C-clusters) and three accessory [4Fe-4S] clusters. The Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) genome contains a two-gene CODH operon coding for a CODH (cooS) and a maturation protein (cooC) involved in nickel insertion in the active site. According to the literature, the question of the precise function of CooC as a chaperone folding the C-cluster in a form which accommodates free nickel or as a mere nickel donor is not resolved. Here, we report the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of two recombinant forms of the CODH, produced in the absence and in the presence of CooC, designated CooS and CooS(C), respectively. CooS contains no nickel and cannot be activated, supporting the idea that the role of CooC is to fold the C-cluster so that it can bind nickel. As expected, CooS(C) is Ni-loaded, reversibly converts CO and CO₂, displays the typical Cred1 and Cred2 EPR signatures of the C-cluster and activates in the presence of methyl viologen and CO in an autocatalytic process. However, Ni-loaded CooS(C) reaches maximum activity only upon reductive treatment in the presence of exogenous nickel, a phenomenon that had not been observed before. Surprisingly, the enzyme displays the Cred1 and Cred2 signatures whether it has been activated or not, showing that this activation process of the Ni-loaded Dv CODH is not associated with structural changes at the active site. PMID:26255854

  10. The hmc operon of Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a potential transmembrane redox protein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M; Pollock, W B; Reij, M W; Keon, R G; Fu, R; Voordouw, G

    1993-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the hmc operon from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough indicated the presence of eight open reading frames, encoding proteins Orf1 to Orf6, Rrf1, and Rrf2. Orf1 is the periplasmic, high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) containing 16 c-type hemes and described before (W. B. R. Pollock, M. Loutfi, M. Bruschi, B. J. Rapp-Giles, J. D. Wall, and G. Voordouw, J. Bacteriol. 173:220-228, 1991). Orf2 is a transmembrane redox protein with four iron-sulfur clusters, as indicated by its similarity to DmsB from Escherichia coli. Orf3, Orf4, and Orf5 are all highly hydrophobic, integral membrane proteins with similarities to subunits of NADH dehydrogenase or cytochrome c reductase. Orf6 is a cytoplasmic redox protein containing two iron-sulfur clusters, as indicated by its similarity to the ferredoxin domain of [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio species. Rrf1 belongs to the family of response regulator proteins, while the function of Rrf2 cannot be derived from the gene sequence. The expression of individual genes in E. coli with the T7 system confirmed the open reading frames for Orf2, Orf6, and Rrf1. Deletion of 0.4 kb upstream from orf1 abolished the expression of Hmc in D. desulfuricans G200, indicating this region to contain the hmc operon promoter. The expression of two truncated hmc genes in D. desulfuricans G200 resulted in stable periplasmic c-type cytochromes, confirming the domain structure of Hmc. We propose that Hmc and Orf2 to Orf6 form a transmembrane protein complex that allows electron flow from the periplasmic hydrogenases to the cytoplasmic enzymes that catalyze the reduction of sulfate. The domain structure of Hmc may be required to allow interaction with multiple hydrogenases. Images PMID:8335628

  11. Malabsorption syndrome observed in the common octopus Octopus vulgaris infected with Aggregata octopiana (Protista: Apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Gestal, C; Páez de la Cadena, M; Pascual, S

    2002-08-15

    Octopus vulgaris infected with Aggregata octopiana were collected from an open-water culture system in the Ría of Aldán (NW Spain). Digestive tract infection values were determined with the use of a Neubauer chamber by counting the number of A. octopiana sporocysts. After determining enzyme activity values by the colorimetric Api-Zym system Biomerieux, one representative enzyme of glycosidases, peptid hydrolases and phosphoric hydrolases showing high activity was spectrophotometrically analysed. The enzymes were maltase and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) involved in the absorption process, and acid phosphatase, a lysosomic enzyme, respectively. Enzymatic activity of maltase and LAP decreased significantly, with increased sporocyst counts. However, acid phosphatase activity increased with severity of infection, indicating the presence of degradative enzymes from phagocytic cells in the infected area. A detrimental effect on gastrointestinal function may result from a decrease or malfunction of absorption enzymes. The results suggest a malabsorption syndrome resulting from parasitic infection. PMID:12240971

  12. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test. PMID:26868257

  13. Extrudability of four common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  14. Variation in Breeding Systems in Hypericum Perforatum and Prunella Vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effective conservation of new crop germplasm and its efficient use in new-crop development both rely on a clear understanding of the crop's reproductive biology. Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Prunella vulgaris (Common selfheal) are two medicinal plant species with potential for crop...

  15. σ54-dependent regulome in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rajeev, Lara; Chen, Amy; Luning, Eric G.; Dubchak, Inna; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Novichkov, Pavel S.

    2015-11-10

    The σ54 subunit controls a unique class of promoters in bacteria. Such promoters, without exception, require enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) for transcription initiation. Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model bacterium for sulfate reduction studies, has a high number of EBPs, more than most sequenced bacteria. Finally, the cellular processes regulated by many of these EBPs remain unknown.

  16. Gallium-67-citrate uptake in a case of acne vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation.

  17. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  18. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  19. One case of pemphigus vulgaris observed in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T; Furusawa, S; Iguti, Y; Kuno, T; Nishiyama, K; Yamamoto, K; Nitta, M; Hayashi, Y

    1996-01-01

    We report on a case of pemphigus vulgaris with lesions in the oral cavity as well as an outline of differential diagnosis and treatment. Changes in the pemphigus antibodies in blood assisted in judging the therapeutic effects along with the therapeutic course. PMID:8790766

  20. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. PMID:25280600

  1. ICG laser therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2004-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating

  2. Development of a Model, Metal-reducing Microbial Community for a System Biology Level Assessment of Desulfovibrio vulgaris as part of a Community

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne; Schadt, Christopher; Miller, Lance; Phelps, Tommy; Brown, S. D.; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Drake, Megin; Yang, Z.K.; Podar, Mircea

    2010-05-17

    One of the largest experimental gaps is between the simplicity of pure cultures and the complexity of open environmental systems, particularly in metal-contaminated areas. These microbial communities form ecosystem foundations, drive biogeochemical processes, and are relevant for biotechnology and bioremediation. A model, metal-reducing microbial community was constructed as either syntrophic or competitive to study microbial cell to cell interactions, cell signaling and competition for resources. The microbial community was comprised of the metal-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Additionally, Methanococcus maripaludis S2 was added to study complete carbon reduction and maintain a low hydrogen partial pressure for syntrophism to occur. Further, considerable work has been published on D. vulgaris and the D. vulgaris/ Mc. maripaludis co-culture both with and without stress. We are extending this work by conducting the same stress conditions on the model community. Additionally, this comprehensive investigation includes physiological and metabolic analyses as well as specially designed mRNA microarrays with the genes for all three organisms on one slide so as to follow gene expression changes in the various cultivation conditions as well as being comparable to the co- and individual cultures. Further, state-of -the-art comprehensive AMT tag proteomics allows for these comparisons at the protein level for a systems biology assessment of a model, metal-reducing microbial community. Preliminary data revealed that lactate oxidation by D. vulgaris was sufficient to support both G. sulfurreducens and M. maripaludis via the excretion of H2 and acetate. Fumarate was utilized by G. sulfurreducens and reduced to succinate since neither of the other two organisms can reduce fumarate. Methane was quantified, suggesting acetate and H2 concentrations were sufficient for M. maripaludis. Steady state community cultivation will allow for

  3. Identification of Small RNAs in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Andrew; Joachimiak, Marcin; Deutschbauer, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Bender, Kelly

    2010-05-17

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of facilitating the removal of toxic metals such as uranium from contaminated sites via reduction. As such, it is essential to understand the intricate regulatory cascades involved in how D. vulgaris and its relatives respond to stressors in such sites. One approach is the identification and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs); molecules ranging in size from 20-200 nucleotides that predominantly affect gene regulation by binding to complementary mRNA in an anti-sense fashion and therefore provide an immediate regulatory response. To identify sRNAs in D. vulgaris, a bacterium that does not possess an annotated hfq gene, RNA was pooled from stationary and exponential phases, nitrate exposure, and biofilm conditions. The subsequent RNA was size fractionated, modified, and converted to cDNA for high throughput transcriptomic deep sequencing. A computational approach to identify sRNAs via the alignment of seven separate Desulfovibrio genomes was also performed. From the deep sequencing analysis, 2,296 reads between 20 and 250 nt were identified with expression above genome background. Analysis of those reads limited the number of candidates to ~;;87 intergenic, while ~;;140 appeared to be antisense to annotated open reading frames (ORFs). Further BLAST analysis of the intergenic candidates and other Desulfovibrio genomes indicated that eight candidates were likely portions of ORFs not previously annotated in the D. vulgaris genome. Comparison of the intergenic and antisense data sets to the bioinformatical predicted candidates, resulted in ~;;54 common candidates. Current approaches using Northern analysis and qRT-PCR are being used toverify expression of the candidates and to further develop the role these sRNAs play in D. vulgaris regulation.

  4. Synergistic effects of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for enhancement of biomass and lipid yields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Ji, Hairui; Gong, Guiping; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    The optimal mixed culture model of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was confirmed to enhance lipid production. A double system bubble column photo-bioreactor was designed and used for demonstrating the relationship of yeast and alga in mixed culture. The results showed that using the log-phase cultures of yeast and alga as seeds for mixed culture, the improvements of biomass and lipid yields reached 17.3% and 70.9%, respectively, compared with those of monocultures. Growth curves of two species were confirmed in the double system bubble column photo-bioreactor, and the second growth of yeast was observed during 36-48 h of mixed culture. Synergistic effects of two species for cell growth and lipid accumulation were demonstrated on O2/CO2 balance, substance exchange, dissolved oxygen and pH adjustment in mixed culture. This study provided a theoretical basis and culture model for producing lipids by mixed culture in place of monoculture. PMID:24841576

  5. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Johnson, David R.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; West, Kimberlee A; Zinder, Stephen H.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0 0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1 0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8 0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0 0.5107 cells per lmol Cl released, compared with 6.8 0.9107 cells per lmol Cl released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3 1.8107 cells per lmol Cl released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a wholegenome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  6. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Shah, Manesh B.; Johnson, David R.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; West, Kimberlee A.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0 0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1 0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8 0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0 0.5107 cells per lmol Cl released, compared with 6.8 0.9107 cells per lmol Cl released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3 1.8107 cells per lmol Cl released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a wholegenome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  7. Intensity of blue LED light: a potential stimulus for biomass and lipid content in fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Atta, Madiha; Idris, Ani; Bukhari, Ataullah; Wahidin, Suzana

    2013-11-01

    Light quality and the intensity are key factors which render microalgae as a potential source of biodiesel. In this study the effects of various intensities of blue light and its photoperiods on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by using LED (Light Emitting Diode) in batch culture. C. vulgaris was grown for 13 days at three different light intensities (100, 200 and 300 μmol m(-2)s(-1)). Effect of three different light and dark regimes (12:12, 16:08 and 24:00 h Light:Dark) were investigated for each light intensity at 25°C culture temperature. Maximum lipid content (23.5%) was obtained due to high efficiency and deep penetration of 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of blue light (12:12 L:D) with improved specific growth (1.26 d(-1)) within reduced cultivation time of 8 days. White light could produce 20.9% lipid content in 10 days at 16:08 h L:D. PMID:24063820

  8. Effects of Chromium(VI) and Chromium(III) on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Cells

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Clark; A. Klonowska; S.B. Thieman; B. Giles; J.D. Wall; and M.W. Fields

    2007-04-19

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC 29579 is a well studied sulfate reducer that has known capabilities of reducing heavy metals and radionuclides, like chromium and uranium. Cultures grown in a defined medium (i.e. LS4D) had a lag period of approximately 40 h when exposed to 50 μMof Cr(VI). Substrate analysis revealed that although chromium is reduced within the first 5 h, growth does not resume for another 35 h. During this time, small amounts of lactate are still utilized but the reduction of sulfate does not occur. Sulfate reduction occurs concurrently with the accumulation of acetate approximately 40 h after inoculation, when growth resumes. Similar amounts of hydrogen are produced during this time compared to hydrogen production by cells not exposed to Cr(VI); therefore an accumulation of hydrogen cannot account for the utilization of lactate. There is a significant decrease in the carbohydrate to protein ratio at approximately 25 h, and this result indicated that lactate is not converted to glycogen. Most probable number analysis indicated that cell viability decreased steadily after inoculation and reached approximately 6 x 104 cells/ml 20 h post-chromium exposure. Regeneration of reducing conditions during chromium exposure does not induce growth and in fact may make the growth conditions even more unfavorable. This result suggested that an increase in Eh was not solely responsible for the decline in viability. Cell pellets collected 10 h after chromium-exposure were unable to resume growth when suspended into fresh medium. Supernatants from these pellets were able to support cell growth upon re- inoculation. D. vulgaris cells treated with a non-dose dependent addition of ascorbate at the same time of Cr(VI) addition did not enter a lag period. Ascorbate added 3 h post-Cr(VI) exposure did not prevent the growth lag. These results indicated that Desulfovibrio utilized lactate to reduce Cr(VI) without the reduction of sulfate, that the decline in cell viability and

  9. The optimal hyperspectral quantitative models for chlorophyll-a of chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju

    2009-09-01

    Chlorophyll-a of Chlorella vulgaris had been related with spectrum. Based on hyperspectral measurement for Chlorella vulgaris, the hyperspectral characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris and their optimal hyperspectral quantitative models of chlorophyll-a (Chla) estimation were researched in situ experiment. The results showed that the optimal hyperspectral quantitative model of Chlorella vulgaris was Chla=180.5+1125787(R700)'+2.4 *109[(R700)']2 (P0<.01), and the suitability order of corresponding methods was spectral ratiovulgaris, two reflectance crests were around 540 nm and 700 nm and their locations moved right while Chl-a concentration increased. The reflectance of Chlorella vulgaris decreases with Cha concentration increase in 540 nm, but on the contrary in 700nm.

  10. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  11. Association between large strongyle genera in larval cultures--using rare-event poisson regression.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Vidyashankar, A N; Nielsen, M K

    2013-09-01

    Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatment has caused equine large strongyles to become quite rare, while the cyathostomins have developed resistance to several drug classes. The larval culture has been associated with low to moderate negative predictive values for detecting Strongylus vulgaris infection. It is unknown whether detection of other large strongyle species can be statistically associated with presence of S. vulgaris. This remains a statistical challenge because of the rare occurrence of large strongyle species. This study used a modified Poisson regression to analyse a dataset for associations between S. vulgaris infection and simultaneous occurrence of Strongylus edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. In 663 horses on 42 Danish farms, the individual prevalences of S. vulgaris, S. edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. were 12%, 3% and 12%, respectively. Both S. edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. were significantly associated with S. vulgaris infection with relative risks above 1. Further, S. edentatus was associated with use of selective therapy on the farms, as well as negatively associated with anthelmintic treatment carried out within 6 months prior to the study. The findings illustrate that occurrence of S. vulgaris in larval cultures can be interpreted as indicative of other large strongyles being likely to be present. PMID:23731556

  12. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively. PMID:27052208

  13. Alexithymia and Acne Vulgaris: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Baykir, Murat; Ateş, Gülfem; Ekşioğlu, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess relationship between alexithymia and acne vulgaris in young people. Methods A hundred and eleven subjects between 15 and 25 years of age referred to out-patient clinic of dermatology with acne and 78 subjects applied to family physician for complaints other than acne were included in patient and control groups of the study, respectively. A questionnaire to determine demographic characteristics, an acne classification to determine severity of acne and Toronto Alexithymic Scale (TAS) to assess alexithymia were used. Results The mean scores of TAS were 52.7±10.8 and 51.7±10.7 in patient and control groups, respectively. Alexitymia was determined in 23.4% of the subjects in acne group and in 24.4% of control group. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of alexithymia, intermediate alexitymia and three-factors of TAS. Conclusion Alexithymia does not appear to be related to acne vulgaris. PMID:22216042

  14. Characterization of Iron Uptake from Ferrioxamine B by Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Allnutt, F. C. Thomas; Bonner, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    Iron uptake from two Fe3+-hydroxamate siderophores, ferrioxamine B and Fe3+-rhodotorulate, by iron-stressed Chlorella vulgaris (ATCC strain 11468) was evaluated with some comparison to iron uptake from synthetic and organic acid ferric chelates. Iron-stress induced iron uptake from ferrioxamine B. Dissipation of the electrochemical gradient, via uncouplers, inhibited iron uptake. Respiratory inhibitors gave variable results, an indication that a direct link to respiration was not apparent. Vanadate inhibition of iron uptake indicated that an ATPase or phosphate intermediate could be involved in the uptake mechanism. Divalent cations manifested variable effects dependent on the cation and chelator used. These data confirm that C. vulgaris has an inducible iron-uptake system for Fe3+-hydroxamic acid siderophores which may involve a different mechanism than that observed for other chelates. PMID:16665771

  15. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815

  16. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25870697

  17. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815

  18. Mucosal-dominant pemphigus vulgaris in a captopril-taking woman with angioedema.

    PubMed

    Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Dmochowski, Marian; Pietkiewicz, Pawel; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 39-year-old woman with an apparent captopril-induced, contact mucosal-dominant pemphigus vulgaris and angioedema, who took captopril during a bout of arterial hypertension. This exposure suggests that captopril and pathophysiology of angioedema stimulated the development of pemphigus vulgaris, which was diagnosed using the novel, indirect immunofluorescence BIOCHIP mosaic, with the modification to detect serum IgG4 autoantibodies. We discuss the patient, who experienced a chain of events leading to the active stage of pemphigus vulgaris, and review concepts of pemphigus vulgaris inducible by drugs and pathological immunity. PMID:26560224

  19. Mucosal-dominant pemphigus vulgaris in a captopril-taking woman with angioedema*

    PubMed Central

    Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Dmochowski, Marian; Pietkiewicz, Pawel; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 39-year-old woman with an apparent captopril-induced, contact mucosal-dominant pemphigus vulgaris and angioedema, who took captopril during a bout of arterial hypertension. This exposure suggests that captopril and pathophysiology of angioedema stimulated the development of pemphigus vulgaris, which was diagnosed using the novel, indirect immunofluorescence BIOCHIP mosaic, with the modification to detect serum IgG4 autoantibodies. We discuss the patient, who experienced a chain of events leading to the active stage of pemphigus vulgaris, and review concepts of pemphigus vulgaris inducible by drugs and pathological immunity. PMID:26560224

  20. Verruca vulgaris of the tongue: a case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ural, Ahmet; Arslan, Selçuk; Ersöz, Şafak; Değer, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Verruca vulgaris (common warts) is a benign lesion of skin and mucous membranes caused by human papillomovirus (HPV). The lesions are typically self-limited but may vary in size and number. The occurrence on the tongue is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only one verruca vulgaris existing in the tongue had been reported in the literature. Case presentation: A rare case of verruca vulgaris of the tongue occurring in a 36-year-old Caucasian male is presented with a discussion on ethiopathogenesis and the treatment methods. Verruca vulgaris must be remembered in the differential diagnosis of tongue lesions and surgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcomes. PMID:25172971

  1. Functional genomic study of the environmentally important Desulfovibrio /Methanococcus syntrophic co-culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2008-12-01

    The use of microbe-oriented bioremediation for ameliorating extensive environmental pollution has fostered fundamental and applied studies of environmentally relevant microorganisms such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter metallireducens.. Concurrently, there has been an increasing appreciation that the physiology of these organisms in pure culture is not necessarily representative of its activities in the environment. To enable a better understanding of microbial physiology under more environmentally relevant conditions, the syntrophic growth between the sulfate reducing bacterium, D. vulgaris and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis serves as an ideal system for laboratory studies. Cell wide analyses using transcript, proteomics and metabolite analysis have been widely used to understand cellular activity at a molecular level. Using D. vulgaris and M. maripaludis arrays, and the iTRAQ proteomics method, we studied the physiology of the D. vulgaris / M. maripaludis syntrophic co- cultures. The results from this study allowed us to identify differences in cellular response in mono-culture vs. co-culture growth for both D. vulgaris and M. maripaludis.

  2. The Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Octopus vulgaris Suckers

    PubMed Central

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  3. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  4. A Benzoyl Peroxide-Sulfur Cream for Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Pace, William E.

    1965-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide, a powerful, non-toxic, oxidizing agent, combined with sulfur in an oil-in-water emulsion base, was used to treat 286 patients with acne vulgaris. This esthetically acceptable, easily compounded, inexpensive medication consistently induced prompt suppression of acne lesions of all types and eliminated the need for x-ray, ultraviolet light and routine systemic antibiotic therapy. Contact allergic sensitivity, which developed in 2.5% of patients, was the only adverse reaction encountered. PMID:14328040

  5. Ammonium reduces chromium toxicity in the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingqing; Sun, Zhengqi; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Bai, Xiaocui; Qian, Haifeng

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of ammonium (NH4 (+)) on Cr toxicity to the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris. We followed an array of cellular functions and biomolecules in C. vulgaris cells exposed to 50 or 100 μM Cr at three different initial NH4 (+) concentrations (0.5, 3, and 10 mM). The results showed that Cr strongly inhibited cell yield of C. vulgaris, but 10 mM NH4 (+) could decrease by more than two-fold Cr toxicity on cell yield compared to exposure to 0.5 mM NH4 (+). Cr toxicity on gene transcripts and cellular substructure was also much lower at high than at low NH4 (+). Our results suggest that this protecting effect of NH4 (+) on intracellular Cr toxicity could be due to several factors, such as enhance uptake of phosphorus, increase in C and N assimilation efficiency, and increase transcription of photosynthesis-related genes. PMID:25421561

  6. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars. PMID:26899601

  7. Detection of apoptosis in pemphigus vulgaris by TUNEL technique*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Vega-Memíje, Maria Elisa; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Aguilar-Urbano, Marco António

    2016-01-01

    Background Pemphigus is part of a group of blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. Based on its autoimmune origin, autoantibodies develop in pemphigus that are directed toward cell surface components of keratinocytes. However, some data cannot be explained, such as the lack of a relationship between autoantibody levels and the severity of clinical manifestations, treatment resistance, the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and the potential occurrence of apoptosis as determinants of vesicle formation. Objective To examine the presence of apoptosis in pemphigus vulgaris by TUNEL technique. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we selected 15 paraffin-embedded tissues from subjects who were diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The samples were subjected to TUNEL assay and examined under an Olympus BX61 fluorescence microscope. Positivity was categorized dichotomously, and the statistical analysis was performed using the X2 test. Results Positivity was observed in basal layer cells in 14 (93.3%) cases. In 13 (86.7%) of the positive cases, we noted espinosum and granular layers that formed the blister roof, and in 12 cases (80%), positive acantholytic cells were observed. Conclusions TUNEL positivity was observed in pemphigus vulgaris, implicating apoptosis in the pathophysiology of this condition, which can help guide the development of apoptotic blockers as therapeutics. PMID:27438195

  8. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  9. Photon up-conversion increases biomass yield in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kavya R; Jose, Steffi; Suraishkumar, Gadi K

    2014-12-01

    Photon up-conversion, a process whereby lower energy radiations are converted to higher energy levels via the use of appropriate phosphor systems, was employed as a novel strategy for improving microalgal growth and lipid productivity. Photon up-conversion enables the utilization of regions of the solar spectrum, beyond the typical photosynthetically active radiation, that are usually wasted or are damaging to the algae. The effects of up-conversion of red light by two distinct sets of up-conversion phosphors were studied in the model microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Up-conversion by set 1 phosphors led to a 2.85 fold increase in biomass concentration and a 3.2 fold increase in specific growth rate of the microalgae. While up-conversion by set 2 phosphors resulted in a 30% increase in biomass and 12% increase in specific intracellular neutral lipid, while the specific growth rates were comparable to that of the control. Furthermore, up-conversion resulted in higher levels of specific intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. vulgaris. Up-conversion of red light (654 nm) was shown to improve biomass yields in C. vulgaris. In principle, up-conversion can be used to increase the utilization range of the electromagnetic spectrum for improved cultivation of photosynthetic systems such as plants, algae, and microalgae. PMID:25155721

  10. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively. PMID:24013860

  11. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers in Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MWCNT and CNF are interesting NPs that possess great potential for applications in various fields such as water treatment, reinforcement materials and medical devices. However, the rapid dissemination of NPs can impact the environment and in the human health. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the MWCNT and cotton CNF toxicological effects on freshwater green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Results Exposure to MWCNT and cotton CNF led to reductions on algal growth and cell viability. NP exposure induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a decreased of intracellular ATP levels. Addition of NPs further induced ultrastructural cell damage. MWCNTs penetrate the cell membrane and individual MWCNTs are seen in the cytoplasm while no evidence of cotton CNFs was found inside the cells. Cellular uptake of MWCNT was observed in algae cells cultured in BB medium, but cells cultured in Seine river water did not internalize MWCNTs. Conclusions Under the conditions tested, such results confirmed that exposure to MWCNTs and to cotton CNFs affects cell viability and algal growth. PMID:24750641

  12. Isolation and algicidal characterization of Bowmanella denitrificans S088 against Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun; Zhao, Zhe

    2014-02-01

    One strain of algicidal bacterium, named as S088, was isolated from the intestine of healthy sea cucumbers (Stichopus horrens) in the South China Sea. Based on the analysis of its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence, S088 was identified as Bowmanella denitrificans. Importantly, the algicidal activity of S088 on Chlorella vulgaris was characterized in this study. The initial densities of bacterial and algal cell showed strong influence on the removal rates of chlorophyll a. When the strain S088 was cultured under a complete darkness condition at 30 °C, its algicidal activity reached the highest level. Furthermore, it was found that the filtered supernatant from bacterial cultures had full algicidal activity, suggesting that the secreted compounds from S088 are involved in the observed algicidal action of S088. Moreover, the algicidal compounds were heat tolerant and had no cytotoxicity against fish cells, indicating that S088 would have a promising application as a safe probiotics for S. horrens. Finally, this is the first report about the algicidal activities in B. denitrificans. PMID:24030170

  13. Rapid and in vivo quantification of cellular lipids in Chlorella vulgaris using near-infrared Raman spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Hua; Chang, Jo-Shu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2013-02-19

    A rapid and noninvasive quantification method for cellular lipids in Chlorella vulgaris is demonstrated in this study. This method applied near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to monitor the change of signal intensities at 1440 cm(-1) and 2845-3107 cm(-1) along the nitrogen depletion period, and calibration curves relating signal intensity and cellular lipid abundance were established. The calibration curves show that signal intensity at 2845-3107 cm(-1) and cellular lipid abundance were highly correlated. When the calibration curve was applied on the lipid quantification of two unknown samples, the differences between lipid abundances estimated by the calibration curve and measured by gas chromatography were less than 2 wt %. Carotenoids produced a strong and broad peak near 1440 cm(-1), and it weakened the correlation between signal intensity and lipid abundance. The consistency of detection and effects of cellular contents and water on the Raman spectrogram of Chlorella vulgaris were also addressed. The sample pretreatment only involved centrifugation, and the time required for lipid quantification was shortened to less than 1.5 h. The rapid detection has great potential in high-throughput screening of microalgae and also provides valuable information for monitoring the quality of microalgae culture and determining parameters for the mass production of biodiesel from microalgae. PMID:23331037

  14. Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

  15. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy. PMID:26203886

  16. Neuroprotective potential of Beta vulgaris L. in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Zambre, Shankar S.; Kapure, Amit B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the neuroprotective role of Beta vulgaris in Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: PD was induced by administration of reserpine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p for 5 consecutive days), haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in experimental animals. The symptoms of PD such as tremors, akinesia, rigidity, catalepsy, and vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) were evaluated. Foot shock-induced aggression (FSIA) model was used to confirm anti-parkinsonian activity. The methanolic extract of Beta vulgaris (MEBV) was administered at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. The combination of L-dopa and carbidopa was used as a standard drug. Behavioral studies such as locomotor activity and grip strength were determined, and oxidative stress was evaluated in FSIA model in rat brain. Results: Pretreatment with MEBV (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the intensity of muscular rigidity, duration of catalepsy, akinesia, the number of tremors, VCMs, and increase fighting behavior. The locomotor activity and grip strength were significantly increased by MEBV. In FSIA, the biochemical analysis of brain revealed the increased level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). MEBV significantly reduced LPO level and restored the defensive antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT in rat brain. Conclusions: The results indicated the protective role of B. vulgaris against PD. The mechanism of protection may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. PMID:26288473

  17. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently. PMID:23410632

  18. Evidence-based treatments in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Frew, John W; Martin, Linda K; Murrell, Dédée F

    2011-10-01

    Treatment modalities in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are many and varied, although level 1 evidence supporting their use is limited. To date, only 2 systematic reviews exist to support the use of different treatment modalities to control this group of conditions. Overall, within the literature, the quality of trials comparing treatment modalities is poor. Cohort sizes are small, methodologies are varied, and standardized outcome measurements are lacking. The authors aim to present a comprehensive view of the level 1 evidence that exists for common treatment modalities used in PV and PF. PMID:21925004

  19. The role of hormones in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; MARINA, MIHAELA ELENA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, common skin disease, which affects the patient’s quality of life to the highest degree. Several exogenous factors and endogenous hormonal changes may act as triggers for psoriasis. The skin possesses a true endocrine system, which is very important in multiple systemic diseases. A number of conditions are associated with psoriasis, and its severity can also be influenced by hormones. Even though the sex hormones and prolactin have a major role in psoriasis pathogenicity, there are a lot of other hormones which can influence the psoriasis clinical manifestations: glucocorticoids, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and insulin. PMID:27004020

  20. The role of hormones in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Roman, Iulia Ioana; Constantin, Anne-Marie; Marina, Mihaela Elena; Orasan, Remus Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, common skin disease, which affects the patient's quality of life to the highest degree. Several exogenous factors and endogenous hormonal changes may act as triggers for psoriasis. The skin possesses a true endocrine system, which is very important in multiple systemic diseases. A number of conditions are associated with psoriasis, and its severity can also be influenced by hormones. Even though the sex hormones and prolactin have a major role in psoriasis pathogenicity, there are a lot of other hormones which can influence the psoriasis clinical manifestations: glucocorticoids, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and insulin. PMID:27004020

  1. Effects on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and levels of extracellular proteins in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris exposed to crude cyanobacterial extracts and pure microcystin and cylindrospermopsin.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alexandre; Araújo, Pedro; Pinheiro, Carlos; Azevedo, Joana; Osório, Hugo; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2013-08-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been pointed as important players in the control of phytoplankton diversity and species abundance, causing ecological unbalances and contamination of the environment. In vitro experiments have been undertaken to address the impact of toxic cyanobacteria in green algae. In this regard the aim of this work was to compare the toxicity of two cyanobacteria species, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa, to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris by assessing culture growth when exposed for three and seven days to (I) cyanobacterial cell extracts and (II) pure toxins microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). The biochemical response of the green alga to pure toxins was also characterized, through the activity of the antioxidant markers glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the expressed extracellular proteins in seven-day exposed cultures. A. ovalisporum crude extracts were toxic to C. vulgaris. Pure toxins up to 179.0 µg/L, on the other hand, stimulated the green alga growth. Growth results suggest that the toxicity of A. ovalisporum extracts is likely due to a synergistic action of CYN and other metabolites produced by the cyanobacterium. Regarding the green alga antioxidant defense mechanism, CYN at 18.4 and 179.0 µg/L increased the activity of GPx and GST while MC-LR inhibited the enzymes' activity at a concentration of 179.0 µg/L demonstrating a contrasting mode of action. Moreover the identification of F-ATPase subunit, adenylate cyclase, sulfate ABC transporter, putative porin, aspartate aminotransferase, methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and chlorophyll a binding proteins in the culture medium of C. vulgaris indicates that biochemical processes involved in the transport of metabolites, photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism are affected by cyanobacterial toxins and may contribute to the regulation of green alga growth. PMID:23726538

  2. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of heather (Calluna vulgaris) and evaluation of anti-hepatitis C virus activity of the extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica Rodriguez; Vázquez, Erika; Sheldon, Julie; Steinmann, Eike; Riebesehl, Nina; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-02-16

    Previous studies using lipid extracts of heather (Calluna vulgaris) leaves showed the presence of high concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid. These two compounds have been reported to present antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction of heather was studied with the aim of assessing a potential anti-HCV activity of the extracts owing to their triterpenic acid content. Supercritical extraction assays were carried out exploring the pressure range of 20-50 MPa, temperatures of 40-70°C and 0-15% of ethanol cosolvent. The content of oleanolic and ursolic acid in the extracts were determined, and different samples were screened for cellular cytotoxicity and virus inhibition using a HCV cell culture infection system. Antiviral activity was observed in most extracts. In general, superior anti-HCV activity was observed for higher contents of oleanolic and ursolic acids in the extracts. PMID:25550074

  4. Properties of aromatic residues in ferricytochrome c3 of desulforvibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F studied by 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Su; Enoki, Minoru; Ohbu, Ayako; Fan, Kejung; Niki, Katsumi; Akutsu, Hideo; Kyogoku, Yoshimasa

    1991-01-01

    Conditions for the specific labelling of the tetrahaeme protein cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F during culture of this sulphate-reducing bacterium in a minimal medium were established. Phenylalanine and tyrosine residues were specifically deuterated at more than 85% efficiency. Cytochrome c3 has nine histidine, three tyrosine and two phenylalamine residues. Eight histidine imidazoles are ligated to four haeme groups. Using the deuterated cytochrome c3, aromatic proton signals of phenylalanine and tyrosine residues in the fully oxidized state were identified. However, the signals of one phenylalanine residue were missing and this was tentatively assigned to Phe20. The aromatic proton signals of His67 were also assigned p2H titration. Its pk1 was much higher than that for the free histidine residue. No tyrosine residue was ionized up to p2H 12.

  5. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  6. Body image disturbance in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K; Crerand, Canice E; Margolis, David J; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  7. TNFα gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Kornélia; Tax, Gábor; Teodorescu-Brinzeu, Dragos; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in acne pathogenesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are key factors in these events. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a central molecule coded by a gene that shows high level of genetic polymorphisms especially in its promoter region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNFα gene have been shown to be associated with an increased risk to develop chronic inflammatory diseases. In order to find out if known TNFα regulatory SNPs (-1031T>C, -857C>T, -863C>A, -308G>A, -238G>A) have a role in the development of the inflammatory reactions in acne vulgaris, we analyzed our genomic collection in a retrospective case-control study using the PCR-RFLP method, and we compared the resulting genotype and allele frequencies. There were no significant differences in the observed genotype or allele frequencies between the control and acne group in case of the -1031, -863, -238 SNPs; however, the TNFα -857 minor T allele was found to act as a protective factor in our study population in acne, and a higher occurrence of the minor -308 A allele in female acne patients was also noted. Genetic variants of the TNFα gene may affect the risk of acne vulgaris. Our results can help to elucidate the molecular events leading to acne development. PMID:20386917

  8. Toxicological Responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Dichloromethane and Dichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shijin; Zhang, Huaxing; Yu, Xiang; Qiu, Lequan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity effects of dichloromethane and dichloroethane on Chlorella vulgaris at the physiological and molecular level. Data showed that the cell number, chlorophyll a, and total protein content gradually decreased with increasing dichloromethane and dichloroethane concentrations over a 96-h exposure. Lower doses of two organic solvents had stimulatory effects on catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Malondialdehyde showed a concentration-dependent increase in response to dichloromethane and dichloroethane exposure. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to different concentrations of dichloromethane and dichloroethane exposure. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay demonstrated that dichloromethane and dichloroethane reduced the transcript abundance of psaB, whereas that of psbC changed depending on the toxicant after 24 h of exposure. Dichloromethane and dichloroethane affected the activity of antioxidant enzymes, disrupted the chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduced transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris, leading to metabolic disruption and cell death. PMID:24550665

  9. Verruca vulgaris of tympanic membrane treated with topical immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Verruca vulgaris is a common skin disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but it rarely involves the tympanic membrane. The current treatments for verruca are usually destructive and irreversible, should not be performed universally; the most relevant therapy will be variable subject to disease location, severity, and the patient's immune status. In this report, we demonstrated a case with verruca vulgaris of tympanic membrane, who had topical immunomodulatory agent treatment successfully with well-preserved hearing, and who has no any recurrence up to now for 3 years. In clinical, to cure verruca on the vulnerable tympanic membrane without hearing sequela is a dilemma, and there is no any treatment guideline due to its rarity. Topical immunomodulatory agent with high selectivity, showed great competence on this occasion and verified its practicability in treating verruca on unapproachable area, or where bearing vital functions; the convenient out-patient-based application also ensures good compliance. However, it does need longer duration and higher costs than the other routine treatment modalities. PMID:24321751

  10. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. PMID:27283686

  11. Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). Inflammatory lesions responded better than non-inflammatory lesions (P < 0.05). Adverse effects such as pinpoint bleeding, pain and erythema were noted, but were transient and not severe enough to stop treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:24807263

  12. TNF -308 G/A Polymorphism and Risk of Acne Vulgaris: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Kang; Wu, Wen-Juan; Qi, Jue; He, Li; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The -308 G/A polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene has been implicated in the risk of acne vulgaris, but the results are inconclusive. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the overall association between the -308 G/A polymorphism and acne vulgaris risk. Methods We searched in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for studies evaluating the association between the -308 G/A gene polymorphism and acne vulgaris risk. Data were extracted and statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software. Results A total of five publications involving 1553 subjects (728 acne vulgaris cases and 825 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. Combined analysis revealed a significant association between this polymorphism and acne vulgaris risk under recessive model (OR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.37–5.44, p = 0.004 for AA vs. AG + GG). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that the acne vulgaris risk associated with the -308 G/A gene polymorphism was significantly elevated among Caucasians under recessive model (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.13–4.86, p = 0.023). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that the -308 G/A polymorphism in the TNF gene contributes to acne vulgaris risk, especially in Caucasian populations. Further studies among different ethnicity populations are needed to validate these findings. PMID:24498378

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris Extracts on in Vitro Growth of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Behnia, Maryam; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javad Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25℃ for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica. PMID:18830054

  14. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production. PMID:26897534

  15. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  16. Electron mediators accelerate the microbiologically influenced corrosion of 304 stainless steel by the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiyu; Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Yang, Ke; Gu, Tingyue

    2015-02-01

    In the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) caused by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron oxidation happens outside sessile cells while the utilization of the electrons released by the oxidation process for sulfate reduction occurs in the SRB cytoplasm. Thus, cross-cell wall electron transfer is needed. It can only be achieved by electrogenic biofilms. This work hypothesized that the electron transfer is a bottleneck in MIC by SRB. To prove this, MIC tests were carried out using 304 stainless steel coupons covered with the Desulfovibrio vulgaris (ATCC 7757) biofilm in the ATCC 1249 medium. It was found that both riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), two common electron mediators that enhance electron transfer, accelerated pitting corrosion and weight loss on the coupons when 10ppm (w/w) of either of them was added to the culture medium in 7-day anaerobic lab tests. This finding has important implications in MIC forensics and biofilm synergy in MIC that causes billions of dollars of damages to the US industry each year. PMID:25023048

  17. Brain Abscess following Rituximab Infusion in a Patient with Pemphigus Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Talal M.; Muammer, Shahad A.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 52 Final Diagnosis: Brain abscess Symptoms: Fever • headache • weakness, left sided Medication: Prednisolone • Azathioprine • Rituximab Clinical Procedure: Stereotactic brain biopsy and LP Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for developing meningitis or, rarely, brain abscess with opportunistic organisms like Listeria monocytogenes. Case Report: A 52 year-old Saudi Arabian woman who was diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes and had been on prednisolone and azathioprine for about 4 years. She presented with headache, low-grade fever, and left-sided weakness 2 weeks after receiving the second dose of rituximab infusion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhanced space-occupying lesion with multiple small cyst-like structures and vasogenic edema in the right temporoparietal area. Her blood culture was positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and a brain biopsy showed necrotic tissues with pus and inflammatory cells. She recovered after a 6-week course of antibiotics with ampicillin and gentamycin. Conclusions: Brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes is a risk that should be considered when adding rituximab to the regimen of a patient who is already Immunocompromised. PMID:25659437

  18. Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Altered Desmosomal Protein Organization in Tissue from Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Stahley, Sara N; Warren, Maxine F; Feldman, Ron J; Swerlick, Robert A; Mattheyses, Alexa L; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease in which autoantibodies (IgG) are directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3. To better understand how PV IgG alters desmosome morphology and function in vivo, biopsies from patients with PV were analyzed by structured illumination microscopy, a form of superresolution fluorescence microscopy. In patient tissue, desmosomal proteins were aberrantly clustered and patient IgG colocalized with markers for lipid rafts and endosomes. Additionally, steady-state levels of desmoglein 3 were decreased and desmosomes were reduced in size in patient tissue. Desmosomes at blister sites were occasionally split, with PV IgG decorating the extracellular faces of split desmosomes. Desmosome splitting was recapitulated in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes both to PV IgG and to mechanical stress, demonstrating that splitting at the blister interface in patient tissue is due to compromised desmosomal adhesive function. These findings indicate that desmoglein 3 clustering and endocytosis are associated with reduced desmosome size and adhesion defects in tissue of patients with PV. Further, this study reveals that superresolution optical imaging is a powerful approach for studying epidermal adhesion structures in normal and diseased skin. PMID:26763424

  19. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis: from anecdote to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Bowe, W; Patel, N B; Logan, A C

    2014-06-01

    Acne vulgaris has long been postulated to feature a gastrointestinal mechanism, dating back 80 years to dermatologists John H. Stokes and Donald M. Pillsbury. They hypothesised that emotional states (e.g. depression and anxiety) could alter normal intestinal microbiota, increase intestinal permeability, and contribute to systemic inflammation. They were also among the first to propose the use of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures. In recent years, aspects of this gut-brain-skin theory have been further validated via modern scientific investigations. It is evident that gut microbes and oral probiotics could be linked to the skin, and particularly acne severity, by their ability to influence systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, glycaemic control, tissue lipid content, and even mood. This intricate relationship between gut microbiota and the skin may also be influenced by diet, a current area of intense scrutiny by those who study acne. Here we provide a historical background to the gut-brain-skin theory in acne, followed by a summary of contemporary investigations and clinical implications. PMID:23886975

  20. Proteus vulgaris urinary tract infections in rats; treatment with nitrofuran derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hossack, D. J. N.

    1962-01-01

    Ascending urinary tract infections with stone formation have been produced experimentally in rats, using a modification of the method of Vermuelen & Goetz (1954a, b). A zinc disc infected with a culture of Proteus vulgaris was inserted into the bladder by suprapubic cystotomy under ether anaesthesia. The pH of the urine rises from 6.9 to 8 or 9 and calculi develop in the bladder within a few days of infection. The bladder and ureters become swollen, distended and inflamed, and renal abscesses develop. Death from renal failure generally occurs within 10 days of infection. Oral treatment with nitrofurantoin was commenced three days after infection and continued for one month. This arrested the initial rise in urine alkalinity and stone formation, and few, if any, macroscopic lesions were found at post-mortem examination. Of nine nitrofuran derivatives examined for activity against this infection several showed slight activity, but only one, N-(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-γ-butyric acid, was as active as nitrofurantoin when given at four times the dose, but it was also one-third as toxic. It is concluded that this technique is suitable for the examination of potential urinary antiseptics. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:13964160

  1. Growth, lipid extraction and thermal degradation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Soštarič, Maja; Klinar, Dušan; Bricelj, Mihael; Golob, Janvit; Berovič, Marin; Likozar, Blaž

    2012-02-15

    The microalga Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in a combined medium obtained by mixing standard Jaworski medium with a solution from the modified Solvay process that contained only NaHCO(3) and NH(4)Cl. Cell number, pH and nitrogen content were monitored throughout growth. Lipids were extracted from lyophilised biomass using CHCl(3)-MeOH. A combination of grinding, microwave treatment and sonication proved to give the best lipid extract yield. Freeze-dried algal biomass was also utilised for thermal degradation studies. The degradation exhibited three distinct regions - primary cell structure breakage paralleled by evaporation of water, followed by two predominant exothermic degradation processes. The latter were modelled using nth order apparent kinetics. The activation energies of the degradation processes were determined to be 120-126kJ/mol and 122-132kJ/mol, respectively. The degradation model may be readily applied to an assortment of thermal algal processes, especially those relating to renewable energy. PMID:22178401

  2. Super-resolution microscopy reveals altered desmosomal protein organization in pemphigus vulgaris patient tissue

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Warren, Maxine F.; Feldman, Ron J.; Swerlick, Robert A.; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease in which autoantibodies (IgG) are directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). In order to better understand how PV IgG alters desmosome morphology and function in vivo, PV patient biopsies were analyzed by structured illumination microscopy (SIM), a form of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. In patient tissue, desmosomal proteins were aberrantly clustered and localized to PV IgG-containing endocytic linear arrays. Patient IgG also colocalized with markers for lipid rafts and endosomes. Additionally, steady-state levels of Dsg3 were decreased and desmosomes were reduced in size in patient tissue. Desmosomes at blister sites were occasionally split, with PV IgG decorating the extracellular faces of split desmosomes. Desmosome splitting was recapitulated in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes both to PV IgG and to mechanical stress, demonstrating that splitting at the blister interface in patient tissue is due to compromised desmosomal adhesive function. These findings indicate that Dsg3 clustering and endocytosis are associated with reduced desmosome size and adhesion defects in PV patient tissue. Further, this study reveals that super-resolution optical imaging is powerful approach for studying epidermal adhesion structures in normal and diseased skin. PMID:26763424

  3. [Growth inhibition and mechanism of cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride on Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Ge, Fei; Tao, Neng-Guo; Zhu, Run-Liang; Wang, Na

    2009-06-15

    Growth inhibition of cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC), a cationic surfactants, on Chlorella vulgaris was investigated at batch culture in laboratory. Furthermore, the corresponding mechanisms were studied by the determination of absorption capacity, Zeta potential, activity of acid phosphatase and ultrastructure of algae. Results show that the growth inhibition by CATC is enhanced with its concentration increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L, and 96 h-EC50 of CTAC is 0.18 mg/L. In the presence of 0.3 mg/L CTAC in 8 d, the inhibition efficiency of biomass reaches 70.7%. Meanwhile, the absorption of nitrogen and iron is inhibited 83.9% and 86.2% respectively with Zeta potential of algae cell increasing from -12.5 mV to -6.7 mV. Furthermore, the relative activity of acid phosphatase declines to 23.1% at the same time. Plasmolysis, distortion of pyrenoid and swelling of lysosome is observed in the cell. Above phenomena indicates that CTAC increases the Zeta potential of algae cell and thus inhibites the absorption of nitrogen and iron. In addition, CTAC may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and change the ultrastructure of algae cell. PMID:19662866

  4. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs. PMID:24388524

  5. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  6. SvSXP: a Strongylus vulgaris antigen with potential for prepatent diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Strongylus vulgaris, the most pathogenic of the large strongyles, is known for its extensive migration in the mesenteric arterial system. The lifecycle of S. vulgaris is characterised by a long prepatent period where the migrating larvae are virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among cyathostomins has led to recommendations of reduced treatment intensity by targeting horses that exceed a predetermined strongyle faecal egg count threshold. One study suggests an apparent increase in prevalence of S. vulgaris on farms where reduced anthelmintic treatment intensity has been implemented. These issues highlight the need for an accurate and reliable assay for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Methods Immunoscreening of a larval S. vulgaris cDNA library using hyperimmune serum raised against S. vulgaris excretory/secretory antigens was performed to identify potential diagnostic antigens. Immunoreactive clones were sequenced, one potential antigen was characterised, expressed as a recombinant protein, initially evaluated by western blot (WB) analysis, the diagnostic potential of the IgG subclasses was evaluated by ELISA, and the diagnostic accuracy evaluated using serum from 102 horses with known S. vulgaris infection status. Results The clone expressing the potential antigen encoded a S. vulgaris SXP/RAL2 homologue. The recombinant protein, rSvSXP, was shown to be a potential diagnostic antigen by WB analysis, and a target of serum IgGa, IgG(T) and total IgG in naturally infected horses, with IgG(T) antibodies being the most reliable indicator of S. vulgaris infection in horses. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA resulted in a

  7. Oral Spironolactone in Post-teenage Female Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178

  8. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean. PMID:25623050

  9. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Y.; Feil, H.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Shah, M.B.; Johnson, D.R.; Lee, P.K.H; West, K.A.; Zinder, S.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.

    2011-03-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0±0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1±0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8±0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0±0.5 x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released, compared with 6.8±0.9x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3±1.8x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a whole-genome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  10. Pemphigus vulgaris antigen, a desmoglein type of cadherin, is localized within keratinocyte desmosomes.

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, S; Amagai, M; Prussick, R; Cehrs, K; Stanley, J R

    1993-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris antigen (PVA) is a member of the desmoglein subfamily of cadherin cell adhesion molecules. Because autoantibodies in this disease cause blisters due to loss of epidermal cell adhesion, and because desmoglein is found in the desmosome cell adhesion junction, we wanted to determine if PVA is also found in desmosomes. By immunofluorescence, PV IgG bound, in a dotted pattern, to the cell surface of cultured human keratinocytes induced to differentiate with calcium, suggesting junctional staining. However, by preembedding, immunogold electron microscopic studies only slight labeling could be detected in desmosomes, presumably because of difficulty in gold penetration of intact desmosomes. We therefore treated the keratinocytes with 0.01% trypsin in 1 mM calcium, conditions known to preserve cadherin antigenicity but that caused slight separation of desmosomes, before immunogold staining. In this case there was extensive labeling of the extracellular part of desmosomes but not of the interdesmosomal cell membrane which was stained with anti-beta 2-microglobulin antibodies. To confirm the specificity of this binding we showed that antibodies raised in rabbits against the extracellular portions of PVA also bound desmosomes in these cultures. In intact mouse epidermis we could also show slight, but specific, immunogold desmosomal labeling with PV IgG. Furthermore, neonatal mice injected with PV IgG affinity purified on PVA showed desmosomal separation with the IgG localized to desmosomal cores. These results indicate that PVA is organized and concentrated within the desmosome where it presumably functions to maintain the integrity of stratifying epithelia. PMID:8320263

  11. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  12. Cefadroxil-induced ampicillin-exacerbated pemphigus vulgaris: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J P; Koren, J F; Daniel, R C; Chapman, S W

    1986-03-01

    A 77-year-old patient is described who developed pemphigus vulgaris temporally with the administration of cefadroxil. The disease improved when the drug was discontinued but was exacerbated with the administration of ampicillin. This may be the first case of possible cefadroxil-induced and only the second case of ampicillin-induced pemphigus vulgaris reported. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pemphigus vulgaris is briefly described. Drug-induced pemphigus is reviewed. By far the most incriminated drug has been penicillamine. It is postulated that the sulfhydryl group of penicillamine alters the intercellular cement substance into an antigenic structure with subsequent antibody formation. The chemical similarity between penicillamine, the penicillins, and the cephalosporins is alluded to and the potential for cross-sensitivity between the penicillins and cephalosporins is emphasized. Although the pemphigus vulgaris could have occurred by chance, it seems probable that it was drug-induced. PMID:3956380

  13. Influence of plaque-forming bacterium, Rhodobacteraceae sp. on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Bangzhou; Cai, Guanjing; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to find out the molecular features, infection process of a special alga plaque-forming microorganism and its potential influence on the biomass of Chlorella vulgaris during the infection process. Direct contact between the algal cell and the bacterium may be the primary steps needed for the bacterium to lyse the alga. Addition of C. vulgaris cells into f/2 medium allowed us obtain the object bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons results showed that the plaque-forming bacterium kept the closest relationship with Labrenzia aggregata IAM 12614(T) at 98.90%. The existence of the bacterium could influence both the dry weight and lipid content of C. vulgaris. This study demonstrated that direct cell wall disruption of C. vulgaris by the bacterium would be a potentially effective method to utilize the biomass of microalgae. PMID:25086475

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Erythrobacter vulgaris Strain O1, a Glycosyl Hydrolase-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Yaakop, Amira Suriaty; Chan, Chia Sing; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Ee, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Erythrobacter vulgaris strain O1, a moderate halophile, was isolated from a beach in Johor, Malaysia. Here, we present the draft genome and suggest potential applications of this bacterium. PMID:25977433

  15. Two new cycloartane glycosides from the underground parts of Aquilegia vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nishida, Makiko; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Two new cycloartane glycosides, named aquilegiosides K and L, have been isolated from the dried underground parts of Aquilegia vulgaris. Their structures were determined by two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. PMID:18981620

  16. Narrow- and Broad-Host-Range Symbiotic Plasmids of Rhizobium spp. Strains That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Martinez, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Agrobacterium transconjugants containing symbiotic plasmids from different Rhizobium spp. strains that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained. All transconjugants conserved the parental nodulation host range. Symbiotic (Sym) plasmids of Rhizobium strains isolated originally from P. vulgaris nodules, which had a broad nodulation host range, and single-copy nitrogenase genes conferred a Fix+ phenotype to the Agrobacterium transconjugants. A Fix− phenotype was obtained with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from P. vulgaris nodules that had a narrow host range and reiterated nif genes, as well as with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from other legumes that presented single nif genes and a broad nodulation host range. This indicates that different types of Sym plasmids can confer the ability to establish an effective symbiosis with P. vulgaris. Images PMID:16347637

  17. Newer approaches to the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-12-01

    The multifactorial etiology of acne vulgaris makes it challenging to treat. Current treatments include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, topical and systemic antibiotics, azelaic acid, and systemic isotretinoin. Adjunctive and/or emerging approaches include topical dapsone, taurine bromamine, resveratrol, chemical peels, optical treatments, as well as complementary and alternative medications. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the therapies available for acne and their latest developments, including new treatment strategies (i.e. re-evaluation of the use of oral antibiotics and avoidance of topical antibiotic monotherapy, use of subantimicrobial antibiotic dosing, use of low-dose isotretinoin, optical treatments), new formulations (microsponges, liposomes, nanoemulsions, aerosol foams), new combinations (fixed-combination products of topical retinoids and topical antibiotics [essentially clindamycin] or benzoyl peroxide), new agents (topical dapsone, taurine bromamine, resveratrol) and their rationale and likely place in treatment. Acne vaccines, topical natural antimicrobial peptides, and lauric acid represent other promising therapies. PMID:22920095

  18. Cannibalistic behavior of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Garci, Manuel E; Roura, Alvaro; González, Angel F; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Guerra, Angel

    2014-11-01

    The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and females; (c) in 2 of the records, the prey were transported to the den, which was covered with stones of different sizes; (d) the predator started to eat the tip of the arms of its prey; (e) predation on conspecifics occurred even if there were other abundant prey available (i.e., mussels); and (f) the prey/predator weight ratio in the 3 cases ranged from 20% to 25% body weight. The relationships between this behavior and sex, defense of territory, energy balance, food shortage, competition and predation, as well as how the attacker kills its victim are discussed. PMID:25198542

  19. The Perception of Glass Patterns by Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Glass patterns are structured dot stimuli used to investigate the visual perception of global form. Studies have demonstrated that humans and pigeons differ in their processing of circular versus linearly organized Glass patterns. To test whether this comparative difference is characteristic of birds as a phylogenetic class, we investigated for the first time how a passerine (starlings, Sturnus vulgaris) discriminated multiple Glass patterns from random dot stimuli in a simultaneous discrimination. Examining acquisition, steady-state performance, and the effects of diminishing global coherence, it was found that the perception of Glass patterns by five starlings differed from human perception and corresponded to that established with pigeons. This suggests an important difference in how birds and primates are specialized in their processing of circular visual patterns, perhaps related to face perception, or in how these highly visual animals direct attention to the global and local components of spatially separated form stimuli. PMID:25117091

  20. Characterization of oral pemphigus vulgaris in Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Iamaroon, Anak; Boonyawong, Pattriyaporn; Klanrit, Poramaporn; Prasongtunskul, Suwan; Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2006-03-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a serious mucocutaneous disease that be fatal if left untreated. The oral mucosa is often the first site to be affected by the disease. It is thus important that the dentist is able to recognize oral manifestations of PV and refer appropriately. Although oral PV is a well-characterized condition, the disease characteristics of patients in Thailand have not been previously reported. Here, we describe patient and lesion characteristics of 18 cases of oral PV. For these 18 cases, the mean age was 38 years, and the male:female ratio was 1:2. The most commonly affected sites were the gingiva and buccal mucosa, and the duration of disease was approximately one year. Medications previously used included corticosteroids and interferon, and nine patients reported systemic disease. Histopathologic examination with/without direct immunofluorescence was the method of diagnosis in all cases. PMID:16617201

  1. Relapse of pemphigus vulgaris after topical application of ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Russo, I; Ferrazzi, A; Alaibac, M

    2016-08-01

    Ingenol mebutate is a recently approved topical agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis. Its most common adverse effects are transient local skin reactions. We report a 63-year-old white man who presented with a red-brownish crusted plaque involving the dorsum of his nose and an eroded area on his lower lip, which appeared soon after topical application of ingenol mebutate gel. Clinical, histological and immunopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV). To our knowledge, this is the first report of relapse of PV after topical application of ingenol mebutate gel. The temporal relationship between the application of the drug and the outbreak of PV supports the involvement of this agent in triggering the disease. It is plausible that ingenol mebutate may have induced the disease by its action on the production of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27381839

  2. The importance of photoprotection and moisturization in treating acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Kircik, Leon H

    2014-08-01

    Skin care products are recognized by dermatologists as critical adjunctive therapeutic modalities for patients suffering from acne vulgaris (AV). Prescribing an acne medication without reviewing a patient's skin care regimen can lead to poor compliance, intolerable side effects, and resulting patient and physician frustration. Striking that delicate balance between maintaining the skin barrier while controlling oil and shine has always been a challenge when treating this chronic inflammatory condition, and it necessitates a unique set of ingredients and formulation. Cetaphil® DermaControl™ Moisturizer SPF 30 (Galderma Laboratories, L.P., Fort Worth, Texas) is a new generation of skin care specifically designed for acne-prone skin and acne-affected skin. Both Cetaphil® DermaControl™ Foam Wash and Cetaphil DermaControl Moisturizer SPF 30 incorporate pharmacologically tested, state-of-the-art ingredients and technologies that studies have shown impart substantial benefits to AV patients. PMID:25116982

  3. Mapping the Two-component Regulatory Networks in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric; Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    D. vulgaris Hildenborough has 72 response regulators. The Desulfovibrio are sulfate reducing bacteria that are important in the sulfur and carbon cycles in anoxic habitats. Its large number of two componenent systems are probably critical to its ability to sense and respond to its environment. Our goal is to map these RRs to the genes they regulate using a DNA-affinity-purification-chip (DAP-chip) protocol. First target determined usuing EMSA. A positive target was determined for as many RRs as possible using EMSA. Targets were selected based on gene proximity, regulon predictions and/or predicted sigma54 dependent promoters. qPCR was used to ensure that the target was enriched from sheared genomic DNA before proceeding to the DAP-chip.

  4. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  5. Future therapies for pemphigus vulgaris: Rituximab and beyond.

    PubMed

    Huang, Amy; Madan, Raman K; Levitt, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The conventional treatment for patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) centers on global immunosuppression, such as the use of steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs, to decrease titers of antidesmoglein autoantibodies responsible for the acantholytic blisters. Global immunosuppressants, however, cause serious side effects. The emergence of anti-CD20 biologic medications, such as rituximab, as an adjunct to conventional therapy has shifted the focus to targeted destruction of autoimmune B cells. Next-generation biologic medications with improved modes of delivery, pharmacology, and side effect profiles are constantly being developed, adding to the diversity of options for PV treatment. We review promising monoclonal antibodies, including veltuzumab, obinutuzumab (GA-101), ofatumumab, ocaratuzumab (AME-133v), PRO131921, and belimumab. PMID:26792592

  6. Enhancing methane production of Chlorella vulgaris via thermochemical pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Lara; Mahdy, Ahmed; Timmers, Rudolphus A; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    To enhance the anaerobic digestion of Chlorella vulgaris, thermochemical pretreatments were conducted. All pretreatments markedly improved solubilisation of carbohydrates. Thermal treatments and thermal treatments combined with alkali resulted in 5-fold increase of soluble carbohydrates while thermal treatment with acid addition enhanced by 7-fold. On the other hand, proteins were only solubilized with thermo-alkaline conditions applied. Likewise, all the pretreatments tested improved methane production. Highest anaerobic digestion was accomplished by thermal treatment at 120°C for 40 min without any chemical addition. As a matter of fact, hydrolysis constant rate was doubled under this condition. According to the energetic analysis, energy input was higher than the extra energy gain at the solid concentration employed. Nevertheless, higher biomass organic load pretreatment may be an option to achieve positive energetic balances. PMID:24096280

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hydra vulgaris (Hydroida: Hydridae).

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Fang, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Wei; Liu, Jun-Hong; Wang, Ying; Wang, An-Tai

    2014-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Hydra vulgaris (Hydroida: Hydridae) is composed of two linear DNA molecules. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule 1 is 8010 bp long and contains six protein-coding genes, large subunit rRNA, methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, two pseudogenes consisting respectively of a partial copy of COI, and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mtDNA, while the mtDNA molecule 2 is 7576 bp long and contains seven protein-coding genes, small subunit rRNA, methionine tRNA, a pseudogene consisting of a partial copy of COI and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mtDNA. COI gene begins with GTG as start codon, whereas other 12 protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG initiation codon. In addition, all protein-coding genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon. PMID:23841615

  8. Attenuation of monochromatic and polychromatic lights in Chlorella vulgaris suspensions.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y S; Park, J M

    2001-06-01

    A quantitative description of light attenuation in microalgal suspensions is a prerequisite for kinetic modeling of microalgal photosynthesis and/or growth activity depending upon the light distribution inside photobioreactors. In this study, the light attenuation coefficients in Chlorella vulgaris suspensions were theoretically calculated from light absorption spectra and spectral irradiances of various light sources. By using this method, errors occurring in the direct measurement of the attenuation coefficients can be avoided. The obtained light attenuation coefficients were used for evaluating light attenuation models such as the Beer-Lambert, Cornet, and hyperbolic models. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of these models are discussed with respect to prediction of performance, mechanistic background, and usefulness for further application to calculation of the light distribution inside photobioreactors. PMID:11525626

  9. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds. PMID:26210209

  10. The perception of Glass patterns by starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Cook, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Glass patterns are structured dot stimuli used to investigate the visual perception of global form. Studies have demonstrated that humans and pigeons differ in their processing of circular versus linearly organized Glass patterns. To test whether this comparative difference is characteristic of birds as a phylogenetic class, we investigated for the first time how a passerine (starlings, Sturnus vulgaris) discriminated multiple Glass patterns from random-dot stimuli in a simultaneous discrimination. By examining acquisition, steady-state performance, and the effects of diminishing global coherence, it was found that the perception of Glass patterns by 5 starlings differed from human perception and corresponded to that established with pigeons. This suggests an important difference in how birds and primates are specialized in their processing of circular visual patterns, perhaps related to face perception, or in how these highly visual animals direct attention to the global and local components of spatially separated form stimuli. PMID:25117091

  11. A case of stasis papillomatosis associated with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Katagiri, K; Itami, S; Takayasu, S

    1996-05-01

    A markedly obese, 41-year-old Japanese man who had suffered from psoriasis vulgaris for several years visited us with elephantiasis-like swelling of his lower legs of three months' duration. His right lower leg showed marked papillomatosis with thick scales, and the left lower leg was eroded and papillomatous. Although direct lymphography of his lower extremities showed no abnormality, indirect lymphography revealed local lymphatic damage in the involved skin. Histological examination showed hyperkeratosis, marked papillomatosis, proliferation of capillaries in the upper dermis, and lymphectasia in the lower dermis. The lesions were much improved by washing and topical use of corticosteroids for two months. It was suspected that obesity and the preceding psoriatic lesions caused local lymphatic disturbances, followed by the development of stasis papillomatosis. PMID:8675828

  12. Thermogravimetric analysis of the gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Camila Emilia; Moreira, Paulo Firmino; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-12-01

    The gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris under an atmosphere of argon and water vapor was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The data were interpreted by using conventional isoconversional methods and also by the independent parallel reaction (IPR) model, in which the degradation is considered to happen individually to each pseudo-component of biomass (lipid, carbohydrate and protein). The IPR model allows obtaining the kinetic parameters of the degradation reaction of each component. Three main stages were observed during the gasification process and the differential thermogravimetric curve was satisfactorily fitted by the IPR model considering three pseudocomponents. The comparison of the activation energy values obtained by the methods and those found in the literature for other microalgae was satisfactory. Quantification of reaction products was performed using online gas chromatography. The major products detected were H2, CO and CH4, indicating the potential for producing fuel gas and syngas from microalgae. PMID:26447558

  13. Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2007-11-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.

  14. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  15. URIC ACID: A NEW ANTIOXIDANT IN PATIENTS WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Maryam; Rahimi, Hoda; Barikbin, Behrooz; Toossi, Parviz; Lotfi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi; Younespour, Shima

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are seen in many dermatologic disorders, for example, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, acne vulgaris, pemphigus vulgaris (PV), lichen planus, and alopecia areata. ROS has an important role in the inflammation process. In PV, increased production of ROS leads to decline of antioxidants in plasma and red blood cells which results in oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the level of these antioxidants in PV patients and compare it to the controls. Materials and Methods: Among patients attending the dermatology clinics, 30 patients with PV, who had never been on treatment, were enrolled to the study. The control group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched healthy non-smoker individuals. Venous blood was collected from the subjects for the evaluation of plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, selenium, bilirubin, and uric acid. Results: Age mean and standard deviation of the patients (40.83, 12.74) was comparable to the controls (41.96, 13.08). Mean level of uric acid was significantly lower in PV patients compared to the controls (P = 0.006). Other antioxidants were not different between the two groups. Uric acid of the patients with mucosal involvement was significantly lower than patients with mucocutaneous involvement (P = 0.049). Limitations: The blood level of other antioxidants (e.g. malondialdehyde) was not evaluated. Conclusions: Uric acid as an antioxidant in our study had similar changes to previous studies in the field of other diseases but selenium, bilirubin, and glutathione peroxidase did not differ between patients and controls. PMID:21772587

  16. Effect of triacontanol on plant cell cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, R; Ries, S K

    1978-05-01

    Triacontanol [CH(3)(CH(2))(28)CH(2)OH] increased growth in vitro of cell cultures of haploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The fresh weight of cell cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and barley (Hordeum vulgare x H. jubatum) was also increased. The increase in growth of tobacco callus seems to have been due to an increase in cell number. Another long chain alcohol, octocosanol [CH(3)(CH(2))(26)CH(2)OH], did not increase the growth of tobacco cell cultures. PMID:16660401

  17. Effect of Triacontanol on Plant Cell Cultures in Vitro 1

    PubMed Central

    Hangarter, Roger; Ries, Stanley K.; Carlson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Triacontanol [CH3(CH2)28CH2OH] increased growth in vitro of cell cultures of haploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The fresh weight of cell cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and barley (Hordeum vulgare x H. jubatum) was also increased. The increase in growth of tobacco callus seems to have been due to an increase in cell number. Another long chain alcohol, octocosanol [CH3(CH2)26CH2OH], did not increase the growth of tobacco cell cultures. PMID:16660401

  18. Enhancement of photosynthetic O2 evolution in Chlorella vulgaris under high light and increased CO2 concentration as a sign of acclimation to phosphate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska-Szerenos, Bozena; Bialuk, Izabela; Maleszewski, Stanisław

    2004-05-01

    The photosynthetic oxygen evolution of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijer.) cells taken from phosphate-deficient (-P) and control cultures was measured during 8 days of culture growth. Under inorganic carbon concentration (50 microM) in the measuring cell suspension and irradiance (150 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), the same as during culture growth, there were no marked differences in the photosynthetic O2 evolution rate between the -P cells and the controls. The much slower growth of -P cultures indicated that the utilization of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the CO2 assimilation and biomass production were in -P cells less efficient than in the controls. Alga cells under the phosphorus stress utilized more of the absorbed PAR in the nitrate reduction than the control cells. However, under conditions of more efficient CO2 supply (inorganic carbon concentration 150 microM, introducing of exogenous carbonic anhydrase to the measuring cell suspension) and under increased irradiance (500 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), the photosynthetic O2 evolution in -P cells reached a higher rate than in the controls. The results suggest that in -P cells the restricted CO2 availability limits the total photosynthetic process. But under conditions more favorable for the CO2 uptake and under high irradiance, the -P cells may reveal a higher photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate than the controls. It is concluded that an increased potential activity of the photosynthetic light energy absorption and conversion in the C. vulgaris cells from -P cultures is a sign of acclimation to phosphorus stress by a sun-type like adaptation response of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:15191743

  19. Study of the effect of extract of Thymus vulgaris on anxiety in male rats.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Hoseini, Faeghe; Shahidi, Siamak; Baharlouei, Negar

    2016-07-01

    There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ( bǎi lǐ xiāng) in the treatment of anxiety in humans. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of extract of T. vulgaris on rat behavior in the EPM. In the present study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: saline group and T. vulgaris groups (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg infusion for 7 days by feeding). During the test period, the total distance covered by animals, the number of open- and closed-arm entries, and the time spent in open and closed arms of the EPM were recorded. T. vulgaris increased open-arm exploration and open-arm entry in the EPM, whereas extract of this plant has no effects on the total distance covered by animals and the number of closed-arm entries. The results of the present experiment indicate that T. vulgaris may have an anxiolytic profile in rat behavior in the EPM test, which is not influenced by the locomotor activity. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which T. vulgaris extract exerts an anxiolytic effect in rats. PMID:27419090

  20. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris: Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis and Deduction of Putative Cognate Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Wu, Gang; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-01-20

    ABSTRACT-Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) composed of sensory histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR), constitute a key element of the mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in environments. A large number of TCSTSs including 59 putative HKs and 55 RRs were identified from the Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome, indicating their important roles in regulation of cellular metabolism. In this study, the structural and phylogenetic analysis of all putative TCSTSs in D. vulgaris was performed. The results showed D. vulgaris contained an unexpectedly large number of hybrid-type HKs, implying that multiple-step phosphorelay may be a common signal transduction mechanism in D. vulgaris. Most TCSTS components of D. vulgaris were found clustered into several subfamilies previously recognized in other bacteria and extensive co-evolution between D. vulgaris HKs and RRs was observed, suggesting that the concordance of HKs and RRs in cognate phylogenetic groups could be indicative of cognate TCSTSs...

  1. A clinico-histopathological study of lupus vulgaris: A 3 year experience at a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj Vasant; Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanshetty; Athanikar, S. B.; Dinesh, U. S.; Divyashree, A.; Gupta, Gaurang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in adults. Lupus vulgaris is caused by hematogenous, lymphatic, or contiguous spread from elsewhere in the body. histologically it is charecterised by typical tubercles with or without caseation, surrounded by epitheloid histiocytes and multinucleate giant cells in the superficial epidermis with prominent peripheral lymphocytes. Materials and Method: All cases of clinically and histopathologicaly diagnosed lupus vulgaris over the previous five years were included in the study. Results: Fourteen cases of lupus vulgaris cases reported during the study period with eaqual incidence among males and females. Discussion: Plaque type of lupus vulgaris was the most common type. Histopathologically tubercular granulomas were seen in all cases as compared to other studies. Conclusion: Different patterns of lupus vulgaris are reported PMID:25396129

  2. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method. PMID:25461514

  3. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from prunella vulgaris var. lilacina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Methods Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. Results The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced

  4. SILEN-C3, a Phase 2 Randomized Trial with Faldaprevir plus Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin in Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O.; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143–2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  5. SILEN-C3, a phase 2 randomized trial with faldaprevir plus pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Douglas; Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143-2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  6. Effects of UV Rays and Thymol/Thymus vulgaris L. Extract in an ex vivo Human Skin Model: Morphological and Genotoxicological Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Calò, Rossella; Landoni, Federica; Baruffaldi Preis, William Franz; Marabini, Laura; Donetti, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major environmental factor affecting functions of the skin. Compounds rich in polyphenols, such as Thymus vulgaris leaf extract and thymol, have been proposed for the prevention of UV-induced skin damage. We compared the acute effects induced by UVA and UVB rays on epidermal morphology and proliferation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. Normal human skin explants were obtained from young healthy women (n = 7) after informed consent and cultured at the air-liquid interface overnight. After 24 h, the samples were divided in 2 groups: the former exposed to UVA (16 or 24 J/cm2) and the latter irradiated with UVB (0.24 or 0.72 J/cm2). One hour after the end of irradiation, supernatants were collected for evaluation of the lactate dehydrogenase activity. Twenty-four hours after UVB exposure, biopsies were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy analysis, proliferation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. UVB and UVA rays induced early inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA damage compared to controls. In particular, UVB rays were always more cytotoxic and genotoxic than UVA ones. For this reason, we evaluated the effect of either T. vulgaris L. extract (1.82 µg/ml) or thymol (1 µg/ml) on all samples treated for 1 h before UVB irradiation. While Thymus had a protective action for all of the endpoints evaluated, the action of the extract was less pronounced on epidermal proliferation and morphological features. The results presented in this study could be the basis for investigating the mechanism of thymol and T. vulgaris L. extract against the damage induced by UV radiation. PMID:27023828

  7. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  8. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  9. The role of growth rate, redox-state of the plastoquinone pool and the trans-thylakoid deltapH in photoacclimation of Chlorella vulgaris to growth irradiance and temperature.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K E; Huner, N P

    2000-12-01

    The long-term photoacclimation of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer (UTEX 265) to growth irradiance and growth temperature under ambient CO2 conditions was examined. While cultures grew at a faster rate at 27 than at 5 degrees C, growth rates appeared to be independent of irradiance. Decreases in light-harvesting polypeptide accumulation, increases in xanthophyll pool size and changes in the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments were correlated linearly with increases in the relative reduction state of QA, the primary quinone receptor of photosystem II, when estimated as 1-qP under steady-state growth conditions. However, we show that there is also a specific temperature-dependent component, in addition to the redox-state of the QA, involved in regulating the content and composition of light-harvesting complex II of C. vulgaris. In contrast, modulation of the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool in response to increased 1-qP in cells grown at 5 degrees C was indistinguishable from that of cells grown at 27 degrees C, indicating that light and temperature interact in a similar way to regulate xanthophyll cycle activity in C. vulgaris. Because C. vulgaris exhibited a low-light phenotype in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but a high-light phenotype upon addition of 2,5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, we conclude that the plastoquinone pool acts as a sensor regulating the accumulation of light-harvesting polypeptides in C. vulgaris. However, concomitant measurements of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (qN) and the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool appear to indicate that, in addition to the redox-state of the plastoquinone pool, the trans-thylakoid deltapH may also contribute to sensing changes in irradiance and temperature that would lead to over-excitation of the photosynthetic apparatus. We suggest that sink capacity as reflected in photosynthate utilization and cell growth ultimately regulate

  10. Orally administered extract from Prunella vulgaris attenuates spontaneous colitis in mdr1a-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Haarberg, Kelley MK; Wymore Brand, Meghan J; Overstreet, Anne-Marie C; Hauck, Catherine C; Murphy, Patricia A; Hostetter, Jesse M; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Wannemuehler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of a Prunella vulgaris (P. vulgaris) ethanolic extract to attenuate spontaneous typhlocolitis in mdr1a-/- mice. METHODS: Vehicle (5% ethanol) or P. vulgaris ethanolic extract (2.4 mg/d) were administered daily by oral gavage to mdr1a-/- or wild type FVBWT mice from 6 wk of age up to 20 wk of age. Clinical signs of disease were noted by monitoring weight loss. Mice experiencing weight loss in excess of 15% were removed from the study. At the time mice were removed from the study, blood and colon tissue were collected for analyses that included histological evaluation of lesions, inflammatory cytokine levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Administration of P. vulgaris extracts to mdr1a-/- mice delayed onset of colitis and reduced severity of mucosal inflammation when compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Oral administration of the P. vulgaris extract resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of IL-10 (4.6 ± 2 vs 19.4 ± 4), CXCL9 (1319.0 ± 277 vs 3901.0 ± 858), and TNFα (9.9 ± 3 vs 14.8 ± 1) as well as reduced gene expression by more than two-fold for Ccl2, Ccl20, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, IL-1α, Mmp10, VCAM-1, ICAM, IL-2, and TNFα in the colonic mucosa of mdr1a-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Histologically, several microscopic parameters were reduced (P < 0.05) in P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- mice, as was myeloperoxidase activity in the colon (2.49 ± 0.16 vs 3.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.05). The numbers of CD4+ T cells (2031.9 ± 412.1 vs 5054.5 ± 809.5) and germinal center B cells (2749.6 ± 473.7 vs 4934.0 ± 645.9) observed in the cecal tonsils of P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) from vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice were found to produce serum antibodies to antigens derived from members of the intestinal microbiota, indicative of severe colitis and a loss of adaptive tolerance to the members of the microbiota. These serum antibodies were greatly

  11. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase from Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3’- and 5’- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp encoding a putative protein of 505 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.44 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvCatalase contained several highly conserved motifs including the heme-ligand signature sequence RLFSYGDTH and the active site signature FXRERIPERVVHAKGXGA. A comparative analysis showed the presence of conserved catalytic amino acids [His(71), Asn(145), and Tyr(354)] in HvCatalase as well. Homology modeling indicated the presence of the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating its catalase mRNA transcription. These results indicated that the HvCatalase gene is involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. PMID:22521743

  12. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  13. SNP marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Andrés J; Chavarro, Martha C; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have become a genetic technology of choice because of their automation and high precision of allele calls. In this study, our goal was to develop 94 SNPs and test them across well-chosen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm. We validated and accessed SNP diversity at 84 gene-based and 10 non-genic loci using KASPar technology in a panel of 70 genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations and have been previously evaluated for SSRs. SNPs exhibited high levels of genetic diversity, an excess of middle frequency polymorphism, and a within-genepool mismatch distribution as expected for populations affected by sudden demographic expansions after domestication bottlenecks. This set of markers was useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes but less useful for distinguishing within each gene pool. In summary, slightly greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool but polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Our survey results represent a baseline for the choice of SNP markers for future applications because gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Finally, we discuss that the ideal genetic marker combination with which to carry out diversity, mapping and association studies in common bean should consider a mix of both SNP and SSR markers. PMID:21785951

  14. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Widman, P.K.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for U(VI) reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) was investigated. The H2-dependent U(VI) reductase activity in the soluble fraction of the cells was lost when the soluble fraction was passed over a cationic exchange column which extracted cytochrome c3. Addition of cytochrome c3 back to the soluble fraction that had been passed over the cationic exchange column restored the U(VI)-reducing capacity. Reduced cytochrome c3 was oxidized by U(VI), as was a c-type cytochrome(s) in whole-cell suspensions. When cytochrome c3 was combined with hydrogenase, its physiological electron donor, U(VI) was reduced in the presence of H2. Hydrogenase alone could not reduce U(VI). Rapid U(VI) reduction was followed by a subsequent slow precipitation of the U(IV) mineral uraninite. Cytochrome c3 reduced U(VI) in a uranium-contaminated surface water and groundwater. Cytochrome c3 provides the first enzyme model for the reduction and biomineralization of uranium in sedimentary environments. Furthermore, the finding that cytochrome c3 can catalyze the reductive precipitation of uranium may aid in the development of fixed-enzyme reactors and/or organisms with enhanced U(VI)-reducing capacity for the bioremediation of uranium- contaminated waters and waste streams.

  15. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris and Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Stephanie; Boylan, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (< 1000 mrems) may produce beneficial effects in organisms. Thus the effect of low doses of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation (12 doses ranging from 0.04 mrems of alpha radiation to 17 mrems of gamma radiation) on Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  16. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris growth and Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan, Derek; Durham, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (< 1000 mrems) may produce beneficial effects in organisms. Thus the effect of low doses of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation (12 doses ranging from 0.04 mrems of alpha radiation to 17 mrems of gamma radiation) on Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  17. Purification and Characterization of Asparaginase from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh A.; Elshal, Mohamed F.; Kumosani, Taha A.; Aldahlawi, Alia M.

    2015-01-01

    L-asparaginase from bacteria has been used in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize L-asparaginase from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds instead of microbial sources. L-asparaginase was purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme has molecular mass of 79 kDa. The purified asparaginase had very low activity toward a number of asparagine and glutamine analogues. L-asparaginase was free from glutaminase activity. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of purified enzyme, were found to be 6.72 mM and 0.16 μM, respectively. The enzyme had optimum pH at 8.0. The enzyme showed high stability at alkaline pH (pH 7.5–9.0) when incubated for up to 24 h. L-asparaginase had the same temperature optimum and thermal stability at 37°C. K+ was able to greatly enhance the activity of asparaginase by 150% compared with other metals tested. In conclusion, L-asparaginase showed no glutaminase activity and good stability over a wide range of physiological conditions, and thus it could be used as a potential candidate for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:26413120

  18. Molecular characterization of two superoxide dismutases from Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Metz, Richard; Huebner, Henry J.; Porter, Weston; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Apparent full-length cDNA sequences coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (HvMnSOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (HvEC-SOD) were isolated from Hydra vulgaris in order to understand their expression and 3D structures; and explore their possibility of being used as for biomarkers for environmental stress and toxicity. The deduced HvMnSOD protein consists of 219 amino acids of which first 21 amino acids constitute a presumed mitochondria-targeting signal peptide whereas HvEC-SOD protein consists of 189 amino acids of which first 19 amino acids constitute a presumed signal peptide. Molecular model generated for HvMnSOD displayed the N-terminal long alpha antiparallel hairpin and the C-terminal mixed alpha/beta fold characteristic of MnSODs and that for HvEC-SOD displayed the characteristic CuZnSOD beta-barrel fold. Hydrae subjected to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating MnSOD and EC-SOD mRNA transcription. These results indicated that these genes are involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. Hence the expression of these SODs in hydra may have potential as molecular biomarkers for assessing stress, toxicity and pro-oxidant quality of chemicals and aquatic environmental quality. PMID:17150313

  19. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased. PMID:26508358

  20. Nest odor dynamics in the social wasp Vespula vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Inge; Schmolz, Erik

    2005-09-01

    We investigated nest odor dynamics in the common yellow jacket, Vespula vulgaris. In six isolated colonies, we tested the aggression rates toward dead nestmates that had been stored for 10 min, 10 and 19 days outside their colonies at 76 °C. The aggression rate increased from about 12% toward recently killed nestmates up to 30% toward nestmates killed 19 days before the experiment. Obviously, the conserved nest odor profile of the nestmates frozen for several days did not match with that of their colony anymore. This indicates a change of the nest odor within the colony. In a second experiment, we kept two colonies each in one nest box with a complete separation of both neighbor nests by a solid wall inside the box for 28 days. In confrontation experiments, the colony members treated dead foragers from the neighbor nest as aggressively as dead foreign, non-neighbor workers (about 39% each) whereas only about 14% reacted aggressively toward dead nestmates. Seventeen days after the replacement of the solid wall by a metallic grid, which allowed no physical contact but air exchange between the two neighbor colonies, the aggression rates toward foreign workers and nestmates remained relatively unaffected whereas it decreased significantly toward dead neighbors to about 11%. These results suggest a nest odor dynamic caused by volatiles transferred between two adjacent colonies, resulting in an equalization of the former colony specific nest odors. A change of nest odor dynamics influenced by volatiles was so far described only for one ant species at all.

  1. Quality of life issues for South Africans with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Vawda, N B; Gordhan, A H; Nkwanyana, N; Aboobaker, J

    2005-01-01

    The adverse effects of acne on the psyche have been established in patients from 'first world' countries. There has been no in depth study in predominantly black patients from Africa addressing this issue. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of acne patients attending a dermatology unit in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A questionnaire was completed and acne graded by the Global Acne Grading scale. Psychological morbidity and quality of life (QOL) were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and Dermatology Specific Quality of Life Questionnaires, respectively. We found that clinical severity was not associated with patient perception or psychological distress. The QOL measures such as feelings, social activities, performance at work or school, activities of daily living and overall mental health were found to be associated with distress with associated P-values of 0.0002, 0.0168, 0.0032, 0.033 and < 0.0001, respectively. The severity of acne was not associated with psychological distress. Painful and bleeding lesions were associated with distress levels; P = 0.042 and P = 0.019, respectively. In conclusion, South African patients with acne vulgaris suffer significant psychological distress, which affects the quality of their lives. PMID:15663491

  2. Family study of monozygotic twins affected by pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Salathiel, Adriana Martinelli; Brochado, Maria José Franco; Kim, Olivia; Deghaide, Neifi Hassan Saloum; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    Rare are the family studies that include siblings affected by pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and in whom HLA class II alleles are related. HLA-DR and -DQ genotyping and profiling of antibodies against desmogleins (Dsg) 1 and Dsg3 were performed in ten members of a family including monozygotic twins affected by PV. The twin sisters were heterozygotes; they presented the haplotypes most commonly associated with increased susceptibility to PV (DRB1∗04:02-DQA1∗03:01-DQB1∗03:02 and DRB1∗14:04-DQA1∗01:01-DQB1∗05:03). Their parents and five siblings had only one or none of these two haplotypes in combination with the alleles or haplotypes associated with resistance to PV (DRB1∗07:01-DQA1∗02:01-DQB1∗02:02 and DRB1∗13:01-DQA1∗01:03-DQB1∗06:03). Only the monozygotic twins presented IgG antibodies against both Dsg1 and Dsg3. According to our knowledge based on a review of published literature on the topic, this is the first report of PV affecting monozygotic twins. PMID:27177496

  3. Extraocular spectral photosensitivity in the tentacles of Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Guertin, S; Kass-Simon, G

    2015-06-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies on the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have shown that hydra have a highly developed and specific photoresponse despite their lack of any structure recognizable as a traditional photoreceptor. In an effort to identify the site of hydra's photoreceptors, we recorded extracellularly from single excised tentacles and from ablated hypostomes lacking tentacles in absolute darkness and during exposure to light of various wavelengths. During recording, after an initial period of absolute darkness, tentacles or hypostomes were exposed to light from 450nm to 600nm, red, and white light. Exposure to light caused a change in the pattern and frequency of impulses in the tentacles that varied with color. The number of large tentacle pulses (TPs) increased at 550 and 600nm relative to darkness, whereas the number of small tentacle pulses (STPs) tended to decrease in 500nm light. Impulse frequency was significantly different among the different wavelengths. In addition to bursts of tentacle contraction pulses, long trains of pulses were observed. A change in lighting caused a switch from bursting to trains or vice versa. In contrast to excised tentacles, no change in electrical activity was seen in ablated hypostomes at any of the wavelengths relative to each other or relative to darkness. These results indicate that isolated tentacles can distinguish among and respond to various colors across the visible spectrum and suggest that electromagnetic information is transmitted from the tentacles to the hypostome where it may be integrated by the hypostomal nervous system, ultimately contributing to hydra's photoreceptive behavior. PMID:25724097

  4. Indocyanine green-laser thermolysis of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2005-08-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy and photothermolysis. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser photothermolysis in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris. Two volunteers with back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during a month after the treatment have shown that ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec.

  5. Carbon assimilation and export in sugar beet leaves. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, M.A.; Geiger, D.K.; Servaites, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    Net carbon exchange rates (NCE), starch accumulation rates, gas exchange, and the maximum amount of carbon available for export were studied in Beta vulgaris L. following a 25% increase or a 25% decrease in ambient CO/sub 2/ (340 ..mu..l/L). Changing CO/sub 2/ by 25% above or below ambient had no effect on the ratio of internal CO/sub 2/ to ambient CO/sub 2/. Stomatal aperature adjusted in both cases to maintain the same relative stomatal limitation to NCE. Increasing CO/sub 2/ 25% increased NCE and water use efficiency, but slightly decreased stomatal conductance by 9% below leaves maintained at ambient. In contrast, a 25% reduction in CO/sub 2/ decreased NCE and water use efficiency. Decreasing CO/sub 2/ caused an increase in conductance also by 9%. Increasing CO/sub 2/ increased starch storage by 36%, but caused no change in the ratio of starch accumulation to NCE. A reduction in CO/sub 2/ caused a 60% decrease in the rate of starch storage and decreased the ratio of starch accumulation to NCE by one-half. The maximum amount of carbon available for export was increased 25% by increasing CO/sub 2/, but decreased by 5% following a reduction in CO2 level. These data are evidence that export rates are maintained at the expense of starch synthesis during periods of low NCE.

  6. A small peptide with therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiye; Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Duan, Zilei; Wang, Fengyu; Wei, Lin; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    A designed peptide named LZ1 with 15 amino acid residues containing strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria pathogens of acne vulgaris including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus. Especially, it exerted strong anti-P. acnes ability. The minimal inhibitory concentration against three strains of P. acnes was only 0.6 µg/ml, which is 4 times lower than that of clindamycin. In experimental mice skin colonization model, LZ1 significantly reduced the number of P. acnes colonized on the ear, P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration. It ameliorated inflammation induced by P. acnes by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β. LZ1 showed little cytotoxicity on human keratinocyte and hemolytic activity on human blood red cells. Furthermore, LZ1 was very stable in human plasma. Combined with its potential bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties, simple structure and high stability, LZ1 might be an ideal candidate for the treatment of acne. PMID:24013774

  7. [Preliminary analysis of bitter substances in spica of Prunella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xin; Xi, Meng-Qian; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Rong-bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Huan-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Volatile oil components and the contents and types of amino acid in spica of Prunella vulgaris were analysed by GC-MS and amino acid analyzer. Esters, fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbon, ketone and several alcohol compounds were identified by mass spectrum comparison. In these ingredients, beta-ionone smelled aroma of cedar, raspberry, nerolidol showed weak sweet soft orange blossom flavor, neroli tasted sweet and fresh, nerolidol tasted sweet with light aroma of wood, hexadecanal showed a weak aroma of flowers and wax, alpha-sinensal had rich and fresh sweet orange flavor. To some extent, these types of aromatic substances can affect the taste of herbal tea or decoction made of Spica Prunellae. Among amino acids detected, natural amino acids accounted for a larger proportion, and those natural amino acids showed bitterness, slight bitterness, sourness (freshness), sweetness, slight sweetness, sourness (slight freshness). The results indicated that bitter and slightly bitter amino acids have the greatest impacts on the sense of Spica Prunellae. PMID:24946541

  8. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers

    PubMed Central

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  9. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    PubMed

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. PMID:24721259

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments. PMID:25042247

  11. Fontibacillus phaseoli sp. nov. isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    PubMed

    Flores-Félix, José David; Mulas, Rebeca; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, María José; Rivas, Raúl; Brañas, Javier; Mulas, Daniel; González-Andrés, Fernando; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated BAPVE7BT, was isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate into the genus Fontibacillus with Fontibacillus panacisegetis KCTC 13564T its closest relative with 97.1 % identity. The isolate was observed to be a Gram-positive, motile and sporulating rod. The catalase test was negative and oxidase was weak. The strain was found to reduce nitrate to nitrite and to produce β-galactosidase but the production of gelatinase, caseinase, urease, arginine dehydrolase, ornithine or lysine decarboxylase was negative. Acetoin production and aesculin hydrolysis were found to be positive. Growth was observed to be supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon source. MK-7 was identified as the predominant menaquinone and the major fatty acid (43.7 %) as anteiso-C15:0, as occurs in the other species of the genus Fontibacillus. Strain BAPVE7BT displayed a complex lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four glycolipids, four phospholipids, two lipids, two aminolipids and an aminophospholipid. Mesodiaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The G+C content was determined to be 45.6 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain BAPVE7BT should be considered a new species of genus Fontibacillus, for which the name Fontibacillus phaseoli sp. nov. is proposed (type strain, LMG 27589T, CECT 8333T). PMID:24122118

  12. In vitro activity of heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] extracts on selected urinary tract pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Vučić, Dragana M.; Petković, Miroslav R.; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B.; Stefanović, Olgica D.; Vasić, Sava M.; Čomić, Ljiljana R.

    2014-01-01

    Calluna vulgaris L. Hull (Ericaceae) has been used for treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. In this study we analyzed in vitro antibacterial activity of the plant extracts on different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris, as well as the concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 67.55 to 142.46 mg GAE/g. The concentrations of flavonoids in extracts were determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and the values ranged from 42.11 to 63.68 mg RUE/g. The aqueous extract of C. vulgaris showed a significant antibacterial activity. The values of MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml for this extract. Proteus vulgaris strains were found to be the most sensitive. The results obtained suggest that all tested extracts of C. vulgaris inhibit the growth of human pathogens, especially the aqueous extract. PMID:25428676

  13. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  14. LC-MS/MS based proteomic analysis and functional inference of hypothetical proteins in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Nie, Lei; Scholten, Johannes C.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-11-03

    ABSTRACT In the previous study, the whole-genome gene expression profiles of D. vulgaris in response to oxidative stress and heat shock were determined. The results showed 24-28% of the responsive genes were hypothetical proteins that have not been experimentally characterized or whose function can not be deduced by simple sequence comparison. To further explore the protecting mechanisms employed in D. vulgaris against the oxidative stress and heat shock, attempt was made in this study to infer functions of these hypothetical proteins by phylogenomic profiling along with detailed sequence comparison against various publicly available databases. By this approach we were ableto assign possible functions to 25 responsive hypothetical proteins. The findings included that DVU0725, induced by oxidative stress, may be involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, implying that the alternation of lipopolysaccharide on cell surface might service as a mechanism against oxidative stress in D. vulgaris. In addition, two responsive proteins, DVU0024 encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and DVU1670 encoding predicted redox protein, were sharing co-evolution atterns with rubrerythrin in Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Clostridium perfringens, respectively, implying that they might be part of the stress response and protective systems in D. vulgaris. The study demonstrated that phylogenomic profiling is a useful tool in interpretation of experimental genomics data, and also provided further insight on cellular response to oxidative stress and heat shock in D. vulgaris.

  15. Mechanisms of Eu(III) and Cm(III) Association With Chlorella Vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Chlorella vulgaris and cellulose was studied by a batch method, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The kinetics study performed by a batch method showed that the maximum adsorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris was attained within three minutes of contact time, and afterwards the percentage adsorption decreased with time due to exudates released from C. vulgaris with affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). TRLFS showed that the short-term adsorption of Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was attributed to their coordination with the cell wall components comprised of cellulose. TRLFS also demonstrated that Eu(III) coordinated with the functional groups of cellulose very weakly in spite of the large distribution coefficients observed. EXAFS analysis showed the local structure around the Eu(III) adsorbed on cellulose and with C. vulgaris was similar. These results indicate that the reactions both at cell surfaces through the adsorption as well as in solution phases through chelation with the exudates are important in estimating the environmental behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) in aqueous environments.

  16. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. PMID:26832644

  17. In vitro activity of heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] extracts on selected urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vučić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2014-01-01

    Calluna vulgaris L. Hull (Ericaceae) has been used for treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. In this study we analyzed in vitro antibacterial activity of the plant extracts on different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris, as well as the concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 67.55 to 142.46 mg GAE/g. The concentrations of flavonoids in extracts were determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and the values ranged from 42.11 to 63.68 mg RUE/g. The aqueous extract of C. vulgaris showed a significant antibacterial activity. The values of MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml for this extract. Proteus vulgaris strains were found to be the most sensitive. The results obtained suggest that all tested extracts of C. vulgaris inhibit the growth of human pathogens, especially the aqueous extract. PMID:25428676

  18. A study on aromatic profiles of Thymus hyemalis and Spanish T. vulgaris essential oils at five physiological stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrubs of clonal selections of Thymus hyemalis L. and Spanish T. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris were harvested at five phenological stages during the plant growing cycle: vegetative (VEG), floral (FL), floral-fructification (FL-FR), fructification (FR), and passed fructification (FR-pas). The volatile pro...

  19. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field. PMID:22565861

  20. The inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Microorganisms are responsible for many problems in industry and medicine because of biofilm formation. Therefore, this study was aimed to examine the effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: Antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against the planktonic form of the bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. MIC and MBC values were evaluated using macrobroth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. Results: According to disc diffusion test (MIC and MBC), the ability of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris ) extracts for inhibition of bacteria in planktonic form was confirmed. In dealing with biofilm structures, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was directly correlated to their concentration. Except for the inhibition of biofilm formation, efficacy of each extract was independent from type of solvent. Conclusion: According to the potential of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts to inhibit the test bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form, it can be suggested that Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic bacteria particularly in biofilm forms. PMID:26442753

  1. Transcriptome characterization of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pods from two genotypes with contrasting seed zinc concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two c...

  2. Comparative genomics approaches within Beta vulgaris to reveal loci relevant to root development and secondary metabolite storage traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and patterning of Beta vulgaris root tissues is key to obtaining a good crop. This study aims to undertake a comparative systems biology approach for the study of root development, physiology, and storage characteristics within two B. vulgaris crop types, sugar beet and red beet. Generat...

  3. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic. PMID:27226905

  4. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs. PMID:20973400

  5. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I.

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic. PMID:27226905

  6. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  7. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Luque, Luis; Orr, Valerie C A; Chen, Sean; Westerhof, Roel; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rossum, Guus van; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich in levoglucosan which was upgraded to glucose by acid hydrolysis. Blending of pyrolytic sugars with pure glucose in both nitrogen rich and nitrogen limited conditions was studied for R. diobovatum, and under nitrogen limited conditions for C. vulgaris. Glucose consumption rate decreased with increasing proportions of pyrolytic sugars increasing cultivation time. While R. diobovatum was capable of growth in 100% (v/v) pyrolytic sugars, C. vulgaris growth declined rapidly in blends greater than 20% (v/v) until no growth was detected in blends >40%. Finally, the effects of pyrolysis sugars on lipid composition was evaluated and biodiesel fuel properties were estimated based on the lipid profiles. PMID:27208736

  8. Association between Psoriasis Vulgaris and Coronary Heart Disease in a Hospital-Based Population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Masayuki; Kato, Takao; Funasako, Moritoshi; Nakane, Eisaku; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Izumi, Toshiaki; Haruna, Tetsuya; Inoko, Moriaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with an immune-genetic background. It has been reported as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States and Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psoriasis and CHD in a hospital-based population in Japan. Methods For 113,065 in-hospital and clinic patients at our institution between January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2013, the diagnostic International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes for CHD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and psoriasis vulgaris were extracted using the medical accounting system and electronic medical record, and were analyzed. Results The prevalence of CHD (n = 5,167, 4.5%), hypertension (n = 16,476, 14.5%), dyslipidemia (n = 9,236, 8.1%), diabetes mellitus (n = 11,555, 10.2%), and psoriasis vulgaris (n = 1,197, 1.1%) were identified. The prevalence of CHD in patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and psoriasis vulgaris were 21.3%, 22.2%, 21.1%, and 9.0%, respectively. In 1,197 psoriasis patients, those with CHD were older, more likely to be male, and had more number of the diseases surveyed by ICD-10 codes. Multivariate analysis showed that psoriasis vulgaris was an independent associated factor for CHD (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.58; p = 0.0404) along with hypertension (adjusted OR: 7.78; 95% CI: 7.25–8.36; p < 0.0001), dyslipidemia (adjusted OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 2.19–2.52; p < 0.0001), and diabetes (adjusted OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 2.67–3.06; p < 0.0001). Conclusion Psoriasis vulgaris was independently associated with CHD in a hospital-based population in Japan. PMID:26910469

  9. The influence of aluminium availability on phosphate uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.

    PubMed

    Mimmo, Tanja; Sciortino, Marco; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Gianquinto, Giorgio; Gessa, Carlo E

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity is one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity on acid soils. High levels of available aluminium in soil may induce phosphorus deficiency in plants. This study investigates the influence of Aluminium (Al) on the phosphate (P(i)) uptake of two Phaseolus species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L. The two bean species were treated first with solutions of Al at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100microM, pH 4.50) and second with solutions of P(i) (150microM) at pH 4.50. The higher the Al concentration the higher the Al concentration sorbed but P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney adsorbed significantly more Al than P. lunatus L. Both species released organic acids: P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney released fumaric acid and P. lunatus L. fumaric and oxalic acids which could have hindered further Al uptake. The two bean species showed a sigmoid P(i) uptake trend but with two different mechanisms. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney showed a starting point of 3h whereas P. lunatus L. adsorbed P(i) immediately within the first minutes. In addition, P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney presented significantly higher P(i) uptake (higher uptake rate 'k' and higher maximum adsorption 'a' of the kinetic uptake model). The Al treatments did not significantly influence P(i) uptake. Results suggest that P. lunatus L. might adopt an external Al detoxification mechanism by the release of oxalic acid. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney on the other hand seemed to adopt an internal detoxification mechanism even if the Al sorbed is poorly translocated into the shoots. More detailed studies will be necessary to better define Al tolerance and/or resistance of Phaseolus spp. PMID:18996705

  10. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide. PMID:19767424

  11. Concomitant pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigoid gestationis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vin, Harina; Seyfer, Sarah J; McClain, Colt M; Hsu, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus and pemphigoid are two unique acquired immunobullous diseases with distinct clinical presentations, histological findings, and characteristic serology; they are rarely reported to coexist in the same patient. Herein we present a 29-year-old woman with a history of pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed by histology and positive desmoglein-3 antibodies on ELISA. She presented to our clinic shortly after the delivery of her first child with tense vesicles and bullae on an erythematous base on her abdomen. Biopsy was consistent with pemphigoid gestationis and direct immunofluorescence confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, there are no other reported cases of pemphigoid gestationis occurring in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris. PMID:26990471

  12. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Damage in Keratinocytes by Pemphigus Vulgaris Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Chen, Yumay; Deng, Wu; Chernyavsky, Alex; Marchenko, Steve; Wang, Ping H.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nonhormonal treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to keratinocyte (KC) detachment and death in pemphigus. In this study, we sought to identify changes in the vital mitochondrial functions in KCs treated with the sera from PV patients and healthy donors. PV sera significantly increased proton leakage from KCs, suggesting that PV IgGs increase production of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species production showed a drastic increase of cell staining in response to treatment by PV sera, which was confirmed by FACS analysis. Exposure of KCs to PV sera also caused dramatic changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential detected with the JC-1 dye. These changes can trigger the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Although sera from different PV patients elicited unique patterns of mitochondrial damage, the mitochondria-protecting drugs nicotinamide (also called niacinamide), minocycline, and cyclosporine A exhibited a uniform protective effect. Their therapeutic activity was validated in the passive transfer model of PV in neonatal BALB/c mice. The highest efficacy of mitochondrial protection of the combination of these drugs found in mitochondrial assay was consistent with the ability of the same drug combination to abolish acantholysis in mouse skin. These findings provide a theoretical background for clinical reports of the efficacy of mitochondria-protecting drugs in PV patients. Pharmacological protection of mitochondria and/or compensation of an altered mitochondrial function may therefore become a novel approach to development of personalized nonhormonal therapies of patients with this potentially lethal autoimmune blistering disease. PMID:23599429

  13. The efficacy of acyclovir in treatment of the pemphigus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Siadat, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pemphigus is a group of autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the presence of antibodies against adhesion molecules on the cell surface of keratinocytes. The possible role of herpes simplex virus infection in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been suggested. In this study, we evaluated the impact of a course of acyclovir in improvement of the pemphigus patients and reduction of the hospitalization duration. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with definitive diagnosis of PV were recruited in study. They were randomized in two groups. One group received routine treatment and another received the routine plus 2 week course of oral acyclovir (1200 mg/day). The improvement was defined as a more than 50% change in baseline severity score of the disease. All data was registered at the checklists and after follow-up period, the statistical analyses were performed by aid of t-test and Fisher's exact test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean severity score and improvement rates between two groups at the end of study (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no statistical difference in duration of hospitalization in two groups (P > 0.05) though the severity score and hospitalization duration were apparently less in acyclovir-group than control group. Neither of the patients (in acyclovir group) showed any side effect. Conclusion: We did not observe any difference between response to treatment and hospitalization period in the group that was treated with acyclovir as compared with control group. However, the partial and complete remissions were higher in patients on acyclovir therapy compared to controls. In those pemphigus patients who do not respond to sufficient immunosuppressive regimen or show a sudden relapse after reaching partial or complete clinical remission, a trial of oral acyclovir therapy may have promising result. PMID:24523784

  14. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  15. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

    2003-11-19

    This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively. PMID:14611168

  16. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Rebecca C.; Lee, Stephen; Choi, James Y. J.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Stockmann, Karola S.; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index) completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002), but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index −26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index −16 ± 7%, p = 0.01), but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60) and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = −0.196, p = 0.244). Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys. PMID:22253996

  17. Geometry applied to breeding common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lima, J G; Ramalho, M A P

    2016-01-01

    The primary components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grain yield (W) are the number of pods (X), the number of grains per pod (Y), and the weight of the grains (Z). In 1964, Grafius suggested using geometry in plant breeding; W corresponds to the volume of a parallelepiped with three axes, X, Y, and Z. Because the cube is the largest parallelepiped by volume, maximum yield is obtained when the relative contributions of X, Y, and Z are the same. We evaluated individual plants of a 'Talismã' x 'L.59583' cross in two sowing periods. The sum of squares of deviations from the ideal plant (GI), i.e., the plant in which the X, Y, and Z contributions were the same, was estimated. Mean and variance genetic components, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the characteristics were also estimated. Good concordance was observed in the magnitude and direction of the genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates of the paired characteristics. However, a low GI heritability (h(2)r = 6.7%) indicated that success due to selection should be small. Ninety-four progenies of 'Pérola' x 'ESAL 686' crosses were also evaluated, where X, Y, Z, and W were obtained and GI was estimated. The h(2) estimate was higher, but still low (h(2) = 39.0%). Therefore, the selection of individuals to obtain plants in which the X, Y, and Z products tend to the cube is unfeasible, because the sums of X, Y, and Z vary between individuals. In addition, the GI h2 value was low. PMID:27173247

  18. Advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Riyanto, Puguh; Subchan, Prasetyowati; Lelyana, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is the commonest skin disorder, whereas soybean isoflavone had been proved as antiandrogen that is it can inhibit the enzyme 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase. The purpose of this study is to prove the advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on AV. Methods: this study is a clinical study using randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This study is a study with 40 samples randomized into 2 groups, i.e. placebo group and 160 mgs of isoflavone group, the duration is 12 weeks, conducted a double-blind manner. The dependent variabel is total of AV lesion, whereas the intermediate variable is DHT that will be examined using ELISA. Defferential test and multivariate analysis were performed on dependent, independent and intermediate variables. Results: This study found that the difference in mean of total AV lesion before treatment was not significant (p: 0.099), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Difference of mean DHT level before treatment was not significant (p: 0.574), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Delta of DHT (p: 0.003) (r: 0.736) had significant influence on delta of total AV lesion (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that supplementation with 160 mgs/day of soybean isoflavone can reduce total AV lesion as a result of decreased DHT level. PMID:26413190

  19. Thermoregulation of water foraging wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Polistes dominulus)

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the thermoregulation of water foraging wasps (Vespula vulgaris, Polistes dominulus) under special consideration of ambient temperature and solar radiation was conducted. The body surface temperature of living and dead wasps was measured by infrared thermography under natural conditions in their environment without disturbing the insects’ behaviour. The body temperature of both of them was positively correlated with Ta and solar radiation. At moderate Ta (22–28 °C) the regression lines revealed mean thorax temperatures (Tth) of 35.5–37.5 °C in Vespula, and of 28.6–33.7 °C in Polistes. At high Ta (30–39 °C) Tth was 37.2–40.6 °C in Vespula and 37.0–40.8 °C in Polistes. The thorax temperature excess (Tth–Ta) increased at moderate Ta by 1.9 °C (Vespula) and 4.4 °C (Polistes) per kW−1 m−2. At high Ta it increased by 4.0 °C per kW−1 m−2 in both wasps. A comparison of the living water foraging Vespula and Polistes with dead wasps revealed a great difference in their thermoregulatory behaviour. At moderate Ta (22–28 °C) Vespula exhibited distinct endothermy in contrast to Polistes, which showed only a weak endothermic activity. At high Ta (30–39 °C) Vespula reduced their active heat production, and Polistes were always ectothermic. Both species exhibited an increasing cooling effort with increasing insolation and ambient temperature. PMID:19589341

  20. Characterization of iron uptake from hydroxamate siderophores by Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Allnutt, F.C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Iron uptake by Chlorella vulgaris from ferric-hydroxamate siderophores and the possible production of siderophores by these algae was investigated. No production of siderophores or organic acids was observed. Iron from the two hydroxamate siderophores tested, ferrioximine B (Fe/sup 3 +/-DFOB) and ferric-rhodotorulate (Fe/sup 3 +/-RA), was taken up at the same rate as iron chelated by citrate or caffeate. Two synthetic chelates, Fe/sup 3 +/-EDTA and Fe/sup 3 +/-EDDHA, provided iron at a slower rate. Iron uptake was inhibited by 50 ..mu..M CCCP or 1 mM vanadate. Cyanide (100 ..mu..M KCN) or 25 ..mu..M antimycin A failed to demonstrate a link between uptake and respiration. Labeled iron (/sup 55/Fe) was taken up while labeled ligands ((/sup 14/C) citrate or RA) were not accumulated. Cation competition from Ni/sup 2 +/ and Co/sup 2 +/ observed using Fe/sup 3 +/-DFOB and Fe/sup 3 +/-RA while iron uptake from Fe/sup 3 +/-citrate was stimulated. Iron-stress induced iron uptake from the hydroxamate siderophores. Ferric reduction from the ferric-siderophores was investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and bathophenathroline disulfonate (BPDS). Ferric reduction was induced by iron-stress and inhibited by CCCP. A close correlation between iron uptake and ferric reduction was measured by the EPR method. Ferric reduction measured by the BPDS method was greater than that measure by EPR. BPDS reduction was interpreted to indicate a potential for reduction while EPR measures the physiological rate of reduction. BPDS inhibition of iron uptake and ferricyanide interference with reduction indicate that reduction and uptake occur exposed to the external medium. Presumptive evidence using a binding dose response curve for Fe/sup 3 +/-DFOB indicated that a receptor may be involved in this mechanism.

  1. I Know My Neighbour: Individual Recognition in Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Tricarico, Elena; Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about individual recognition (IR) in octopuses, although they have been abundantly studied for their sophisticated behaviour and learning capacities. Indeed, the ability of octopuses to recognise conspecifics is suggested by a number of clues emerging from both laboratory studies (where they appear to form and maintain dominance hierarchies) and field observations (octopuses of neighbouring dens display little agonism between each other). To fill this gap in knowledge, we investigated the behaviour of 24 size-matched pairs of Octopus vulgaris in laboratory conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental design was composed of 3 phases: Phase 1 (acclimatization): 12 “sight-allowed” (and 12 “isolated”) pairs were maintained for 3 days in contiguous tanks separated by a transparent (and opaque) partition to allow (and block) the vision of the conspecific; Phase 2 (cohabitation): members of each pair (both sight-allowed and isolated) were transferred into an experimental tank and were allowed to interact for 15 min every day for 3 consecutive days; Phase 3 (test): each pair (both sight-allowed and isolated) was subject to a switch of an octopus to form pairs composed of either familiar (“sham switches”) or unfamiliar conspecifics (“real switches”). Longer latencies (i.e. the time elapsed from the first interaction) and fewer physical contacts in the familiar pairs as opposed to the unfamiliar pairs were used as proxies for recognition. Conclusions Octopuses appear able to recognise conspecifics and to remember the individual previously met for at least one day. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study showing the occurrence of a form of IR in cephalopods. Future studies should clarify whether this is a “true” IR. PMID:21533257

  2. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). PMID:23294646

  3. Pretreatment of poultry manure anaerobic-digested effluents by electrolysis, centrifugation and autoclaving process for Chlorella vulgaris growth and pollutants removal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengzi; Wu, Yu; Li, Baoming; Dong, Renjie; Lu, Haifeng; Zhou, Hongde; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Different pretreatments (electrolysis, centrifugation and autoclaving) coupled with Chlorella vulgaris biological system was used for the treatment of poultry manure anaerobic-digested effluents. The pretreated effluents were used as the growth medium for algal cultivation. The pollutant removal efficiencies of the combined treatments were determined. Electrochemical pretreatment can efficiently remove the ammonia (NH4+), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), total carbon (TC), turbidity and bacteria in the digested effluents. About 100.0% NH4+, turbidity and bacteria, 97.6% TP, 81.5% TOC and 96.6% inorganic carbon were removed by 5-h electrochemical treatment. The maximal algal biomass accumulation (0.53 g L(-1)) was obtained from culture in the effluents pretreated with 2-h electrolysis. The pollutants removal amounts by the combination of electrolysis and biological treatment were much higher than the other combinations. PMID:25204620

  4. Low-dose intragastric administration of Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) does not induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Herzig, K H; André, S; Galle, J; Gronow, A; Gabius, H J

    2001-04-01

    Native Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) poses a potential health threat, when ingested with improperly cooked red kidney beans. Since PHA triggers human basophilic granulocytes in culture to rapidly release considerable amounts of interleukin-(IL-)4 and IL-13, key cytokines for inducing immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, the question was addressed whether this lectin can evoke in vivo IgE production. IgE-low-responder (Sprague-Dawley) rats received PHA (6 mg/rat/day) intragastrically by gavage over a period of 10 days. Up to day 35, there was no IgE induction regardless of whether the animals were boostered subcutaneously with PHA or not, indicating that PHA cannot be regarded as a general IgE inducer in rats. PMID:11788794

  5. Increased Growth of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris when Coimmobilized and Cocultured in Alginate Beads with the Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Luz E.; Bashan, Yoav

    2000-01-01

    Coimmobilization of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in small alginate beads resulted in a significantly increased growth of the microalga. Dry and fresh weight, total number of cells, size of the microalgal clusters (colonies) within the bead, number of microalgal cells per cluster, and the levels of microalgal pigments significantly increased. Light microscopy revealed that both microorganisms colonized the same cavities inside the beads, though the microalgae tended to concentrate in the more aerated periphery while the bacteria colonized the entire bead. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid addition to microalgal culture prior to immobilization of microorganisms in alginate beads partially imitated the effect of A. brasilense. We propose that coimmobilization of microalgae and plant-growth-promoting bacteria is an effective means of increasing microalgal populations within confined environments. PMID:10742237

  6. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    López, Ana; El-Naggar, Tarek; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ortega, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Palomino, Olga M; Carretero, M Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Legumes are the basés diet in several countries. They hold a high nutritional value, but other properties related to human health are nowadays being studied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. c.v. Tolosana) and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer ability. Phenolic composition of raw and processed dark beans was analysed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC. Astrocytes cultures (U-373) have been used to test their neuroprotective effect. Anticancer activities were evaluated on three different cell lines (renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62)) by sulphorhodamine B method. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition have been observed between raw and processed dark beans that influence the antioxidant activity, mainly for germinated samples which show a decrease of antioxidant capacity. Although every assayed extracts decreased reactive oxygen species release and exhibited cytotoxicity activities on cancer cell lines, raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects; this sample is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. This study further demonstrated that phenolic composition of dark beans is related with cooking process and so with their neuroprotective and anticancer activity; cooking of dark beans improves their digestion and absorption at intestinal level, while maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at cellular level. PMID:23265523

  7. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development. PMID:21535793

  8. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. PMID:26433786

  9. Investigation and modeling of the effects of light spectrum and incident angle on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Souliès, Antoine; Legrand, Jack; Marec, Hélène; Pruvost, Jérémy; Castelain, Cathy; Burghelea, Teodor; Cornet, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth investigation of how various illumination conditions influence microalgal growth in photobioreactors (PBR) has been presented. Effects of both the light emission spectrum (white and red) and the light incident angle (0° and 60°) on the PBR surface were investigated. The experiments were conducted in two fully controlled lab-scale PBRs, a torus PBR and a thin flat-panel PBR for high cell density culture. The results obtained in the torus PBR were used to build the kinetic growth model of Chlorella vulgaris taken as a model species. The PBR model was then applied to the thin flat-panel PBR, which was run with various illumination conditions. Its detailed representation of local rate of photon absorption under various conditions (spectral calculation of light attenuation, incident angle influence) enabled the model to take into account all the tested conditions with no further adjustment. This allowed a detailed investigation of the coupling between radiation field and photosynthetic growth. Effects of all the radiation conditions together with pigment acclimation, which was found to be relevant, were investigated in depth. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:247-261, 2016. PMID:26871260

  10. Effects of vegetative propagule pressure on the establishment of an introduced clonal plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruihua; Chen, Qiuwen; Dong, Bicheng; Yu, Feihai

    2014-01-01

    Some introduced clonal plants spread mainly by vegetative (clonal) propagules due to the absence of sexual reproduction in the introduced range. Propagule pressure (i.e. total number of propagules) may affect the establishment and thus invasion success of introduced clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. A greenhouse experiment with an introduced plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris was conducted to investigate the role of propagule pressure on its invasion process. High (five ramets) or low (one ramet) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil or in an experimental plant community consisting of four grassland species. H. vulgaris produced more total biomass under high than under low propagule pressure in both habitat conditions. Interestingly, the size of the H. vulgaris individuals was smaller under high than under low propagule pressure in bare soil, whereas it did not differ between the two propagule pressure treatments in the grassland community. The results indicated that high propagule pressure can ensure the successful invasion in either the grass community or bare soil, and the shift in the intraspecific interaction of H. vulgaris from competition in the bare soil to facilitation in the grassland community may be a potential mechanism. PMID:24981102

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mint family produces many metabolites with medicinal properties. Several species are reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm, peppermint, hyssop, basil, sage and self-heal. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activity of self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), we tested water an...

  12. Novel bioconversions of municipal effluent and CO₂ into protein riched Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Li, Yuji; Cheng, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-03-01

    Batch, modified semi-continuous and continuous cultivations of Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN 2010 cells in municipal effluent were performed and analyzed. The experiments were carried out in 7.5-L photo-bioreactors, to which 2% of CO2 was supplied. Biomass and specific growth rate of C. vulgaris were 0.528-0.760gl(-1) and 0.200-0.374d(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, it could efficiently remove ammonia-N, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, CODCr and BOD5 by around 98.0%, 90.9-93.6%, 89.9-91.8%, 60.7-90.0% and 83.4-88.4%, respectively. Algal protein content was 550±30.0mgg(-1) of the harvested biomass of C. vulgaris which was rich in eight kinds of essential amino acids (around 44.5% of the total). The processes of cultivation of C. vulgaris in municipal effluent could be proposed as dual-beneficial approaches, which could produce profitable byproducts and simultaneously reduce the contaminations to environment. PMID:23399495

  13. [Roaccutan in the therapy of severe manifestations of acne vulgaris and rosacea].

    PubMed

    Gromova, S A; Samgin, M A; Kolesnikov, Iu Iu

    1989-01-01

    Roakkutan was used in the treatment of 49 patients with severe acne vulgaris and 8 patients with rosacea. The treatment was highly effective. The primary and maintenance daily doses of the drug are suggested and the terms of therapy defined. PMID:2534455

  14. Learning and memory in Octopus vulgaris: a case of biological plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zarrella, Ilaria; Ponte, Giovanna; Baldascino, Elena; Fiorito, Graziano

    2015-12-01

    Here we concisely summarize major aspects of the learning capabilities of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, a solitary living marine invertebrate. We aim to provide a backdrop against which neurobiology of these animals can be further interpreted and thus soliciting further interest for one of the most advanced members of invertebrate animals. PMID:26186237

  15. Gene flow and mode of pollination in a dry-grassland species, Filipendula vulgaris (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Weidema, I R; Magnussen, L S; Philipp, M

    2000-03-01

    Filipendula vulgaris is a characteristic species of dry nonacidic grasslands in Denmark. This habitat type occurs only on marginal areas not suitable for agriculture or urbanization and that are by their nature fragmented. The population genetic structure of F. vulgaris was investigated in 17 populations within two regions of Denmark, using isozyme electrophoresis. Small populations were found to have significantly fewer polymorphic loci than larger populations, but all populations maintained the same common allelic variants. The degree of isolation of individual populations did not affect the amount of genetic variation. Offspring arrays revealed a very high outcrossing rate (0.96). The field study demonstrated a very high level of gene flow between populations considering that small insects are thought to be the main pollinators of this species. An experiment to verify whether pollen transport by wind could explain the results from the field study demonstrated long-distance transport from isolated plants to bagged plants. Filipendula vulgaris pollen grains are very small and this explains why outcrossed progeny were found using pollination bags with small pore sizes. We conclude that wind pollination is indeed possible and together with insect pollination is causing the observed patterns of genetic variation. The substantial gene flow between populations may be reducing the effects of genetic drift in the small fragmented populations of F. vulgaris. PMID:10762401

  16. Release of ‘Beniquez’ White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed yield when susceptible bean cultivars are planted in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCM...

  17. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  18. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.

  19. σ54-dependent regulome in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rajeev, Lara; Chen, Amy; Luning, Eric G.; Dubchak, Inna; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Novichkov, Pavel S.

    2015-11-10

    The σ54 subunit controls a unique class of promoters in bacteria. Such promoters, without exception, require enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) for transcription initiation. Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model bacterium for sulfate reduction studies, has a high number of EBPs, more than most sequenced bacteria. Finally, the cellular processes regulated by many of these EBPs remain unknown.

  20. Patterns of cortical microtubules formed in epidermis of Beta vulgaris L. roots under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G. V.

    1999-01-01

    Changes of cortical microtubules (MTs) from the normal transverse arrangement were observed in epidermal cells of Beta vulgaris roots under clinorotation. We hypothesize that the epidermis is sensitive to clinorotation and that the microtubular cytoskeleton plays a key role in the ensuing growth response.

  1. Conversion of starch from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for potential conversion of starch to ethanol. Eight varieties of beans with average starch content of 46% (db) were assayed in a laboratory-scaled process based upon the commercial corn dry grind fermentation process. Ethanol yield was 0.43-0....

  2. Mutual facilitations of food waste treatment, microbial fuel cell bioelectricity generation and Chlorella vulgaris lipid production.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingjie; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Jiang, Liqun; Yu, Ze

    2016-03-01

    Food waste contains large amount of organic matter that may be troublesome for handing, storage and transportation. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was successfully constructed with different inoculum densities of Chlorella vulgaris for promoting food waste treatment. Maximum COD removal efficiency was registered with 44% and 25 g CODL(-1)d(-1) of substrate degradation rate when inoculated with the optimal initial density (150 mg L(-1)) of C. vulgaris, which were 2.9 times and 3.1 times higher than that of the abiotic cathode. With the optimum inoculum density of C. vulgaris, the highest open circuit voltage, working voltage and power density of MFC were 260 mV, 170 mV and 19151 mW m(-3), respectively. Besides the high biodiesel quality, promoted by MFC stimulation the biomass productivity and highest total lipid content of C. vulgaris were 207 mg L(-1)d(-1) and 31%, which were roughly 2.7 times and 1.2 times higher than the control group. PMID:26720139

  3. The Use of Chlorella Vulgaris in a Simple Demonstration of Heavy Metal Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, J. F.; Biro, P.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental system, suitable for secondary schools, uses Chlorella vulgaris to demonstrate the effects of mercury and cadmium. Very low concentrations of mercury or cadmium decrease growth, whereas lead or arsenic have little effect. Further experiments show additive interactions between mercury and cadmium and antagonistic interactions…

  4. Release of ‘XRAV-40-4’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by viral diseases. Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reduction in common bean seed yield when...

  5. Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been...

  6. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  7. Generation of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs and investigation of the regulation upon Uromyces appendiculatus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : No soybean (Glycine max) cultivars are available that show field resistance to Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by the biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. However, in a closely related crop, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) several resistant genes were identified that confer resistance to exa...

  8. Transcriptome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) through RNA-seq: nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, transcription factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We have performed next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) o...

  9. First Report of Puccinia lagenophorae on Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia lagenophorae, a rust fungus from Europe and Australia, has been studied for biological control of Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) in North America. It has since been found in the United States (California, Oklahoma, and on the East Coast). In September, 2005, it was found in two locat...

  10. A high recombination rate in eusocial Hymenoptera: evidence from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High recombination rates have previously been detected in two groups of eusocial insects; honeybees and ants. In this study we estimate recombination rate in a eusocial wasp Vespula vulgaris that represents a third phylogenetic lineage within eusocial hymenopterans. Results A genetic linkage map of V. vulgaris based on 210 markers shows that the total map length is 2129 cM and the recombination rate is 9.7 cM/Mb (or 103 kb/cM). The present estimate in V. vulgaris is somewhat smaller than in the honeybee Apis mellifera and intermediate between the estimates from two ant species (Acromyrmex echinatior, Pogonomyrmex rugosus). Altogether, the estimates from these eusocial species are higher than in any other insect reported so far. Conlusions The four species (V. vulgaris, A. mellifera, A. echinatior, P. rugosus) are characterized by advanced eusociality with large colonies, clear queen-worker dimorphism and well developed task specialization. They also have colonies with a single, normally multiply inseminated (polyandrous) queen. Benefits of genotypic diversity within colonies (e.g. through improved task specialization or pathogen and parasite resistance) may have selected for both polyandry and high recombination rate in such advanced eusocial insects. PMID:22054484

  11. Topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate for psoriasis vulgaris: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ru; Jiang, Shibin; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment/gel has been commonly used for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. However, the efficacy of this combination needs to be consolidated. We aimed to assess the effects and safety profile of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, using evidence based approach. Randomized controlled trials on the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate were identified by searching PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Cochrane Library. The primary outcome measure was the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Ten randomized controlled trials involving 6590 participants were included. The methodologies of the studies were generally of moderate to high quality. These trials used topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate for 4 or 8 weeks, and were compared with topical calcipotriol or betamethasone. The results showed that calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate was more effective than controls. A four-week treatment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate did not show any significant difference between the once-daily or twice-daily regimen. The adverse events of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate were tolerable and acceptable. The reports included in this review are heterogenous and have limitations. Topical application of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate once daily is an efficacious treatment for psoriasis vulgaris and is associated with few side effects. PMID:26924402

  12. Assessment of Life Quality Index Among Patients with Acne Vulgaris in a Suburban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Neirita; Rajaprabha, Radha K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of age with acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris and its sequelae were graded, and QoL was assessed by using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Most cases (64%) were between 15 and 20 years. Females (57%) outnumbered males. Facial lesions (61.4%) and grade II acne were most common. Mean DLQI score was 7.22. DLQI scores were statistically influenced by the age of the patient, duration and grade of acne, acne scar, and postacne hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: This study showed significant impairment of QoL in acne patients. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris are important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27057015

  13. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE SHRIMPS, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM', 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' AND 'PALAEMONETES VULGARIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from this experiment show that grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris, were acutely and chronically more sensitive to cadmium than the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. Bioaccumulation of cadmium from water occurred at concentrations as low as 2 micrograms/l in P. duorarum and 7.9...

  14. Influence of atmospheric vapour pressure deficit on ozone responses of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genotypes of snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one known to be sensitive to ozone and the other resistant, were examined to determine their response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the presence and absence of ozone. Plants were grown in Outdoor Plant Environment Chambers in combin...

  15. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  16. The Bioconcentration and Degradation of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates by Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong-Wen; Hu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Lei; Yang, Ying; Huang, Guo-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs), a major class of nonionic surfactants, can easily enter into aquatic environments through various pathways due to their wide applications, which leads to the extensive existence of their relative stable metabolites, namely nonylphenol (NP) and mono- to tri-ethoxylates. This study investigated the bioconcentration and degradation of NP and NPnEO oligomers (n = 1–12) by a green algae, Chlorella vulgaris. Experimental results showed that C. vulgaris can remove NP from water phase efficiently, and bioconcentration and degradation accounted for approximately half of its loss, respectively, with a 48 h BCF (bioconcentration factor) of 2.42 × 103. Moreover, C. vulgaris could concentrate and degrade NPnEOs, distribution profiles of the series homologues of the NPnEOs in algae and water phase were quite different from the initial homologue profile. The 48 h BCF of the NPnEO homologues increased with the length of the EO chain. Degradation extent of total NPnEOs by C. vulgaris was 95.7%, and only 1.1% remained in water phase, and the other 3.2% remained in the algal cells. The algae removed the NPnEOs mainly through degradation. Due to rapid degradation, concentrations of the long chain NPnEO homologous in both water (n ≥ 2) and the algal phase (n ≥ 5) was quite low at the end of a 48 h experiment. PMID:24445260

  17. Pre-emergence Damping Off of Beta vulgaris by Rhizopus stolonifer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs), a cool temperature zygomycete that can cause a post-harvest rot on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), also causes pre-emergence damping off in other crops. We are interested in its potential pre-emergence damping off activity in sugarbeet. Sugarbeets are quite susceptible to seedli...

  18. Identifying genes involved in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Phaseolus vulgaris using RNAseq technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. Legumes form a unique symbiotic relationship with rhizob...

  19. Human beta defensin-1 and -2 expression in human pilosebaceous units: upregulation in acne vulgaris lesions.

    PubMed

    Chronnell, C M; Ghali, L R; Ali, R S; Quinn, A G; Holland, D B; Bull, J J; Cunliffe, W J; McKay, I A; Philpott, M P; Müller-Röver, S

    2001-11-01

    A rich residential microflora is harboured by the distal outer root sheath of the hair follicle and the hair canal - normally without causing skin diseases. Although the basic mechanisms involved in the development of inflammation during acne vulgaris remain unclear, microbial agents might play an important role in this process. In this study we have analyzed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry the expression patterns of two antimicrobial peptides, human beta defensin-1 and human beta defensin-2, in healthy human hair follicles as well as in perilesional and intralesional skin of acne vulgaris lesions such as comedones, papules, and pustules. Strong defensin-1 and defensin-2 immunoreactivity was found in all suprabasal layers of the epidermis, the distal outer root sheath of the hair follicle, and the pilosebaceous duct. Marked defensin-1 and defensin-2 immunoreactivity was also found in the sebaceous gland and in the basal layer of the central outer root sheath including the bulge region. The majority of acne biopsies displayed a marked upregulation of defensin-2 immunoreactivity in the lesional and perilesional epithelium - in particular in pustules - and a less marked upregulation of defensin-1 immunoreactivity. The upregulation of beta-defensin expression in acne vulgaris lesions compared to controls suggests that beta-defensins may be involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. PMID:11710922

  20. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  1. Identification of Nutritional Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators for Arabidopsis development and stress responses. A hybridization approach using miRNAs-macroarrays was used to identify miRNAs that respond to nutritional stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. miRNAs-macroarrays were prepared by printing nylon filters with DNA syntheti...

  2. Patterns of fructose, glucose, and sucrose accumulation in snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Little is known regarding differences in sugar content among dry bean and snap bean cultivars and the patterns of sugar accumulation with increasing ...

  3. Low efficiency processing of an insecticidal Nicotiana proteinase inhibitor precursor in Beta vulgaris hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assimilation of dietary proteins is critical to insect survival; therefore, inhibition of digestive proteolytic enzymes presents itself as an effective strategy for control of insect pests. To specifically target proteases of several insect pests of sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, we used PCR and gene s...

  4. Effect of Ethephon as an Ethylene-Releasing Compound on the Metabolic Profile of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hyun; Lim, Sa Rang; Hong, Seong-Joo; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Lee, Hookeun; Lee, Choul-Gyun; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2016-06-15

    In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was treated with ethephon at low (50 μM) and high (200 μM) concentrations in medium and harvested at 0, 7, and 14 days, respectively. The presence of ethephon led to significant metabolic changes in C. vulgaris, with significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine, and proline, but lower levels of glycine, citrate, and galactose relative to control. Ethephon induced increases in saturated fatty acids but decreases in unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of highly saturated sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol species and palmitic acid bound phospholipids were increased on day 7 of ethephon treatment. Among the metabolites, the productivities of α-tocopherol (0.70 μg/L/day) and GABA (1.90 μg/L/day) were highest for 50 and 200 μM ethephon on day 7, respectively. We propose that ethephon treatment involves various metabolic processes in C. vulgaris and can be an efficient way to enrich the contents of α-tocopherol and GABA. PMID:27213977

  5. [Using Excess Activated Sludge Treated 4-Chlorophenol Contained Waste Water to Cultivate Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiu-rong; Yan, Long; He, Yi-xuan; Shi, Zhen-dong

    2015-04-01

    Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. The experiments were performed in 500 mL flasks with different rations of sludge extracts & BG-11 and supernate & BG-11 in a light growth chamber respectively. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity index were investigated. Result showed that the nutrition supplies and toxicity in the excess sludge were removed efficiently via Chlorella vulgaris, the removal rates of TN and TP were at least 40% and 90% respectively; After 10 days cultivation, the density growth of 50% sludge extracts was 20 times higher of the beginning while its chlorophyll content was lower than that of the blank group. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity. PMID:26164919

  6. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. Evidence Acquisition: A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Results: Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Conclusions: Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections. PMID:26862380

  7. Beta vulgaris crop types: Genomic signatures of selection (GSS) using next generation sequencing of pooled samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta vulgaris crop types represent highly diverged populations with distinct phenotypes resulting from long-term selection. Differential end use in the crop types includes: leaf quality (chard/leaf beet), root enlargement and biomass, (table beet, fodder beet, sugar beet), and secondary metabolite a...

  8. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Arion vulgaris--Proteins for Probably Successful Survival Strategies?

    PubMed

    Bulat, Tanja; Smidak, Roman; Sialana, Fernando J; Jung, Gangsoo; Rattei, Thomas; Bilban, Martin; Sattmann, Helmut; Lubec, Gert; Aradska, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The Spanish slug, Arion vulgaris, is considered one of the hundred most invasive species in Central Europe. The immense and very successful adaptation and spreading of A. vulgaris suggest that it developed highly effective mechanisms to deal with infections and natural predators. Current transcriptomic and proteomic studies on gastropods have been restricted mainly to marine and freshwater gastropods. No transcriptomic or proteomic study on A. vulgaris has been carried out so far, and in the current study, the first transcriptomic database from adult specimen of A. vulgaris is reported. To facilitate and enable proteomics in this non-model organism, a mRNA-derived protein database was constructed for protein identification. A gel-based proteomic approach was used to obtain the first generation of a comprehensive slug mantle proteome. A total of 2128 proteins were unambiguously identified; 48 proteins represent novel proteins with no significant homology in NCBI non-redundant database. Combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed an extensive repertoire of novel proteins with a role in innate immunity including many associated pattern recognition, effector proteins and cytokine-like proteins. The number and diversity in gene families encoding lectins point to a complex defense system, probably as a result of adaptation to a pathogen-rich environment. These results are providing a fundamental and important resource for subsequent studies on molluscs as well as for putative antimicrobial compounds for drug discovery and biomedical applications. PMID:26986963

  9. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  10. Differential Expression of Salt Stress-related Genes in Wild Beta vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differential display reverse transcription (DDRT) technique was used to detect differentially expressed genes for wild Beta vulgaris in response to salt stress. Two month-old seedlings were treated with 250 mM Na for 1H, 10H and untreated seedlings were used as controls. A group of differentially di...

  11. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  12. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  13. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  14. Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Giraldo, M C; Buendía, H F; Tovar, E; Duque, M C; Beebe, S E

    2006-06-01

    A diversity survey was used to estimate allelic diversity and heterozygosity of 129 microsatellite markers in a panel of 44 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations. Two types of microsatellites were evaluated, based respectively on gene coding and genomic sequences. Genetic diversity was evaluated by estimating the polymorphism information content (PIC), as well as the distribution and range of alleles sizes. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic than genomic microsatellites in terms of both number of alleles (6.0 vs. 9.2) and PIC values (0.446 vs. 0.594) while greater size differences between the largest and the smallest allele were observed for the genomic microsatellites than for the gene-based microsatellites (31.4 vs. 19.1 bp). Markers that showed a high number of alleles were identified with a maximum of 28 alleles for the marker BMd1. The microsatellites were useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes, for uncovering the races within each genepool and for separating wild accessions from cultivars. Greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool and polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Comparisons between Andean genotypes had higher polymorphism (53.0%) on average than comparisons among Mesoamerican genotypes (33.4%). Within the Mesoamerican parental combinations, the intra-racial combinations between Mesoamerica and Durango or Jalisco race genotypes showed higher average rates of polymorphism (37.5%) than the within-race combinations between Mesoamerica race genotypes (31.7%). In multiple correspondance analysis we found two principal clusters of genotypes corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools and subgroups representing specific races especially for the Nueva Granada and Peru races of the Andean gene pool. Intra population diversity

  15. Severity and impact of acne vulgaris on the quality of life of adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Henshaw, Eshan B

    2014-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, which affects most adolescents at some point in their lives. It has been found to have a significant impact on their psychological well-being and has been associated with depression and suicide ideation. Many studies have assessed the impact of acne vulgaris on the quality of life (QoL) in different population subgroups around the world, but there is a dearth of reports from the African subcontinent. This study thus seeks to assess the severity of acne vulgaris and determine its effect on the QoL of adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods In a cross-sectional survey employing a two-stage sampling method, the severity of acne vulgaris and its impact on the QoL of adolescents attending a senior secondary school in Lagos, Nigeria was assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS) and the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI), respectively. The correlation between the results of the GAGS and CADI was also determined. Results One hundred and sixty adolescent students with acne were recruited, with males accounting for 51.9% and females 48.1%. The mean and standard deviation of the GAGS severity scores were 11.3±5.4 for males and 11.9±5.4 for females. Only one student had severe acne vulgaris (GAGS, 31–38), 10% moderate (GAGS, 19–30), and 89.4% mild (GAGS, 1–18). The overall CADI score was 3.4±3.0, which suggests mild impairment in QoL; however, the solitary student with severe acne had severe QoL impairment. There was a weak positive correlation between the GAGS and the CADI score. Conclusion Most adolescents in our study had mild acne vulgaris, and the overall impact on their QoL was mild. However, the correlation between the psychosocial impact and acne severity was weak. There is a need for similar studies in other parts of the country and for further studies to determine the adequacy of the existing instruments in assessing the impact of acne vulgaris in Nigerian adolescents. PMID:25525376

  16. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  17. Relationship between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of women.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Çolak, Rukiye Sivri; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2016-04-01

    Acne vulgaris has recently been reported to be associated with elevated rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epidemiological studies. This report examines childhood and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of female adults. Ninety-one women with acne vulgaris and 53 controls were included in this study. The aforementioned symptoms were measured in participants. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in any of the measurements. Contrary to the findings of epidemiological studies, this study did not uncover a link between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:27192533

  18. Expression of a tetraheme protein, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F cytochrome c(3), in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozawa, K.; Tsapin, A. I.; Nealson, K. H.; Cusanovich, M. A.; Akutsu, H.

    2000-01-01

    Cytochrome c(3) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was successfully expressed in the facultative aerobe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under anaerobic, microaerophilic, and aerobic conditions, with yields of 0.3 to 0.5 mg of cytochrome/g of cells. A derivative of the broad-host-range plasmid pRK415 containing the cytochrome c(3) gene from D. vulgaris Miyazaki F was used for transformation of S. oneidensis MR-1, resulting in the production of protein product that was indistinguishable from that produced by D. vulgaris Miyazaki F, except for the presence of one extra alanine residue at the N terminus.

  19. Relationship between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of women*

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Çolak, Rukiye Sivri; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris has recently been reported to be associated with elevated rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in epidemiological studies. This report examines childhood and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of female adults. Ninety-one women with acne vulgaris and 53 controls were included in this study. The aforementioned symptoms were measured in participants. No significant differences were found between patients and controls in any of the measurements. Contrary to the findings of epidemiological studies, this study did not uncover a link between acne vulgaris and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder PMID:27192533

  20. Chlorella vulgaris as a lipid source: Cultivation on air and seawater-simulating medium in a helicoidal photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Frumento, Davide; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Al Arni, Saleh; da Silva, Milena Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris was cultured batchwise on the seawater-simulating Schlösser medium either in a 1.1-L-working volume helicoidal photobioreactor (HeP) or Erlenmeyer flask (EF) as control and continuously supplying air as CO2 source. In these systems, maximum biomass concentration reached 1.65 ± 0.17 g L(-1) and 1.25 ± 0.06 g L(-1) , and maximum cell productivity 197.6 ± 20.4 mg L(-1)  day(-1) and 160.8 ± 12.2 mg L(-1)  day(-1) , respectively. Compared to the Bold's Basal medium, commonly employed to cultivate this microorganism on a bench-scale, the Schlösser medium ensured significant increases in all the growth parameters, namely maximum cell concentration (268% in EF and 126% in HeP), maximum biomass productivity (554% in EF and 72% in HeP), average specific growth rate (67% in EF and 42% in HeP), and maximum specific growth rate (233% in EF and 22% in HeP). The lipid fraction of biomass collected at the end of runs was analyzed in terms of both lipid content and fatty acid profile. It was found that the seawater-simulating medium, despite of a 56-63% reduction of the overall biomass lipid content compared to the Bold's Basal one, led in HeP to significant increases in both the glycerides-to-total lipid ratio and polyunsaturated fatty acid content compared to the other conditions taken as an average. These results as a whole suggest that the HeP configuration could be a successful alternative to the present means to cultivate C. vulgaris as a lipid source. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:279-284, 2016. PMID:26697953

  1. Specific HLA-DQB and HLA-DRB1 alleles confer susceptibility to pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, S J; Freidmann, A; Steinman, L; Brautbar, C; Erlich, H A

    1989-01-01

    The autoimmune dermatologic disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is associated with the serotypes HLA-DR4 and HLA-DRw6. Based on nucleotide sequence and oligonucleotide probe analysis of enzymatically amplified DNA encoding HLA-DR beta chain (HLA-DRB) and HLA-DQ beta chain (HLA-DQB; henceforth HLA is omitted from designations), we showed previously that the DR4 susceptibility was associated with the Dw10 DRB1 allele [encoding the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-defined Dw10 specificity]. The DRw6 susceptibility similarly was shown to be associated with a rare DQB allele (DQB1.3), which differed from another nonsusceptible allele by only a valine-to-aspartic acid substitution at position 57. Given the linkage disequilibrium that characterizes HLA haplotypes, it is difficult to assign disease susceptibility to a specific locus rather than to a closely linked gene(s) on the same haplotype. To address this problem, we have analyzed all of the polymorphic loci of the class II HLA region (DRB1, DRB3, DQA, DQB, and DPB) on the DRw6 haplotypes in patients and controls. In 22 PV patients, 4 different DRw6 haplotypes were found that encode the same DQ beta chain (DQB1.3) but contained silent nucleotide differences at the DQB locus as well as coding sequence differences in the DQA and DRB loci. These results, obtained by using a method for allele-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification, strongly support the hypothesis that the allele DQB1.3 confers susceptibility. This DQB allele is correlated with the MLC-defined Dw9 specificity and is associated with two different DRB1 alleles (the common "6A" associated with DRw13 and the rare "6B" associated with DRw14). Since 86% (19 of 22) of DRw6+ patients contain the DQB1.3 allele (vs. 3% of controls), whereas 64% (14 of 22) contain the DRB1 allele 6B (vs. 6% of the controls), we conclude that most of the DRw6 susceptibility to PV can be accounted for by the DQ beta chain. Images PMID:2503828

  2. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  3. Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Dapsone 5% Gel in Adult Versus Adolescent Females with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kircik, Leon; Gallagher, Conor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the response to dapsone 5% gel was similar in adolescent girls and adult women with facial acne vulgaris. Design and setting: Subgroup analysis of female subjects with acne vulgaris receiving active treatment enrolled in two randomized, double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials. Treatment: Twice-daily applications of dapsone 5% gel over 12 weeks. Participants: Adolescent (12-17 years of age) and adult (≥18 years of age) females. Measurements: At baseline and at Weeks 2,4,6,8, and 12, subjects were evaluated using the global acne assessment score and by counts of inflammatory, noninflammatory, and total acne vulgaris lesions. Adverse events were monitored. Results: A total of 347 adolescent and 434 adult women were included in the subgroup analysis. At Week 12, dapsone 5% gel significantly reduced mean global acne assessment score in both subgroups (p<0.001); however, the proportion of subjects with clinical success (no or minimal acne based on global acne assessment score) at Week 12 was greater in adult women (53.5%) versus adolescent females (45.3%, p=0.022). Significantly greater percentage reductions in both noninflammatory (p<0.0001) and total lesion counts (p=0.0008) were observed in the adult group as compared to the adolescent group. Percentage reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions were similar in both groups. No major safety issues and no previously unrecognized safety signals were noted. Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of female patients indicates that dapsone 5% gel twice daily is effective in reducing inflammatory and noninflammatory acne vulgaris lesions in both adolescent and adult women, and is safe in these subgroups. Overall, these data suggest that efficacy of dapsone 5% gel twice daily for facial acne vulgaris may be greater in the adult female population. PMID:25610522

  4. Oxidative Stress and Heat-Shock Responses in Desulfovibrio vulgaris by Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Hogan, Mike; Vitiritti, Luigi; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-05-30

    Abstract Sulfate-reducing bacteria, like Desulfovibrio vulgaris have developed a set of reactions allowing them to survive in environments. To obtain further knowledge of the protecting mechanisms employed in D. vulgaris against the oxidative stress and heat shock, we performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to determine the cellular responses to both stimuli. The results showed that 130 genes were responsive to oxidative stress, while 427 genes responsive to heat-shock, respectively. Functional analyses suggested that the genes regulated were involved in a variety of cellular functions. Metabolic analysis showed that amino acid biosynthetic pathways were induced by both oxidative stress and heat shock treatments, while fatty acid metabolism, purine and cofactor biosynthesis were induced by heat shock only. Rubrerythrin gene (rbR) were upregulated by the oxidative stress, suggesting its important role in the oxidative resistance, whereas the expression of rubredoxin oxidoreductase (rbO), superoxide ismutase (sodB) and catalase (katA) genes were not subjected to regulation by oxidative stress in D. vulgaris. In addition, the results showed that thioredoxin reductase (trxB) was responsive to oxidative stress, suggesting the thiol-specific redox system might be involved in oxidative protection in D. vulgaris. Comparison of cellular responses to oxidative stress and heat-shock allowed the identification of 66 genes that showed a similar drastic response to both environmental stimuli, implying that they might be part of the general stress response (GSR) network in D. vulgaris, which was further supported by the finding of a conserved motif upstream these common-responsive genes.

  5. AFLP-based genetic mapping of the “bud-flowering” trait in heather (Calluna vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calluna vulgaris is one of the most important landscaping plants produced in Germany. Its enormous economic success is due to the prolonged flower attractiveness of mutants in flower morphology, the so-called bud-bloomers. In this study, we present the first genetic linkage map of C. vulgaris in which we mapped a locus of the economically highly desired trait “flower type”. Results The map was constructed in JoinMap 4.1. using 535 AFLP markers from a single mapping population. A large fraction (40%) of markers showed distorted segregation. To test the effect of segregation distortion on linkage estimation, these markers were sorted regarding their segregation ratio and added in groups to the data set. The plausibility of group formation was evaluated by comparison of the “two-way pseudo-testcross” and the “integrated” mapping approach. Furthermore, regression mapping was compared to the multipoint-likelihood algorithm. The majority of maps constructed by different combinations of these methods consisted of eight linkage groups corresponding to the chromosome number of C. vulgaris. Conclusions All maps confirmed the independent inheritance of the most important horticultural traits “flower type”, “flower colour”, and “leaf colour”. An AFLP marker for the most important breeding target “flower type” was identified. The presented genetic map of C. vulgaris can now serve as a basis for further molecular marker selection and map-based cloning of the candidate gene encoding the unique flower architecture of C. vulgaris bud-bloomers. PMID:23915059

  6. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  7. Comparative effect of thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen on primary dysmenorrhea: A triple-blind clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Salmalian, Hajar; Saghebi, Roshanak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Bijani, Ali; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Fereshte; Bekhradi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common medical problems in gynecology causing several problems in the personal and social life of women. This study was conducted to compare the effect of thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea Methods: This clinical study was conducted on 84 students of Babol University of Medical Sciences with primary dysmenorrhea. The students were randomly assigned to three groups receiving thymus vulgaris, ibuprofen and placebo. In all three groups, with the beginning of pain, 200 mg capsules and 25 drops of essential oil were given every 6 hours for two consecutive cycles. Pain intensity used the visual scale before and one hour after each dose for 48 hour after starting medication. The data were collected and analyzed. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (www.irct.ir) with registration number ID: IRCT201101245683N1 Results: The mean age of participants was 20.5±1.8 years. Both thymus vulgaris and ibuprofen were effective to reduce the pain severity of dysmenorrhea. Before treatment, the mean pain intensity in thymus vulgaris, ibuprofen and placebo groups were 6.57±2.02, 5.30±2.23 and 6.18±1.78, respectively and after treatment decreased to 1.21±1.06, 1.48±1.62 and 3.54±2.26, respectively. Reduction of pain severity was not statistically significant between the two medications, however it was significant for each drug compared with placebo (p<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that thymus vulgaris as well as ibuprofen can be effective in reducing the severity of pain and spasm in primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24778782

  8. Electron microscopic characterization of the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris: biofilms and clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, M.; Remis, J.; Jorgens, D.; Zemla, M.; Singer, M.; Schmitt, J.; Gorby, Y.; Hazen, T.; Wall, J.; Elias, D.; Torok, T.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies have helped characterize the stress response of the anaerobic sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). Yet all of these techniques represent bulk analyses of cells grown mostly under liquid culture conditions in large reactors. Such results represent an average over a large variety of individual cellular responses, hence assuming a homogeneous distribution of physiological traits. Moreover, only recently are those techniques applied to the environmentally more relevant condition of microbial communities (biofilms). What is missing is a detailed ultrastructural analysis of such biofilms in order to determine biofilm organization and its extracellular metal deposition distribution. Using sophisticated sample cryo-preparation approaches such as high-pressure freezing, freeze-substitution or microwave- assisted processing, followed serial section TEM imaging, we have found a large heterogeneity with respect to metal precipitation with some cells being surrounded by metal precipitates whereas neighboring cells, being genetically identical and seeing virtually the exact same microenvironment, completely lack extracellular metal deposits. Interestingly, apart from metal deposits near cell surfaces, we also found string- and sheet- like metal deposits in between neighboring cells that in mature biofilms can extend for hundreds of micrometers. In mature DvH biofilms such deposits were predominantly associated with areas of intact cells in biofilms, with areas devoid of such metal deposits displayed predominantly cell debris, suggesting a role of such deposits for cell survival, which may be of high significance to biofilms at DOE sites. Upon tomographic imaging we found that extracellular metal deposits were often associated with thin filaments and vesicle-like features. To complement our serial section 2D analysis of resin-embedded samples and the resulting limitation of sampling 3D biofilm as thin sections of arbitrary orientation, we

  9. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  10. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  11. Correlation between mRNA and protein abundance in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: A multiple regression to identify sources of variations

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, G; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-01-13

    Using whole-genome microarray and LC-MC/MS proteomic data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris grown under three different conditions, we systematically investigate the relationship between mRNA and protein abundunce by a multiple regression approach.

  12. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater with waste glycerol: Strategies for improving nutrients removal and enhancing lipid production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-05-01

    To improve nutrients removal from wastewater and enhance lipid production, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater with waste glycerol generated from biodiesel production using scum derived oil as feedstock was studied. The results showed that nutrients removal was improved and lipid production of C. vulgaris was enhanced with the addition of waste glycerol into wastewater to balance its C/N ratio. The optimal concentration of the pretreated glycerol for C. vulgaris was 10gL(-1) with biomass concentration of 2.92gL(-1), lipid productivity of 163mgL(-1)d(-1), and the removal of 100% ammonia and 95% of total nitrogen. Alkaline conditions prompted cell growth and lipid accumulation of C. vulgaris while stimulating nutrients removal. The application of the integration process can lower both wastewater treatment and biofuel feedstock costs. PMID:26894565

  13. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Mediators and Cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sibi, G.; Rabina, Santa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Methods: Methanolic extracts (80%) of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50) were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO) production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls. Results: MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P < 0.01), PGE2 (P < 0.05), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.001) release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study. Conclusion: The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. SUMMARY C. vulgaris extracts have potential anti

  14. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving. PMID:23262270

  15. Reducing effect of a Phaseolus vulgaris dry extract on food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Noemi; Cabras, Claudia; Lobina, Carla; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Donzelli, Fabio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Carai, Mauro A M

    2009-10-14

    Extracts of kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) are known to reduce food intake and glycemia in rodents and humans. This study evaluated the effect of a novel extract of P. vulgaris on food (regular food pellets, starch-enriched diet, and chocolate-flavored beverage) intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats. The effect of the combination of the colecistokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist, lorglumide, and P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake was also investigated. Administration of doses of P. vulgaris dry extract devoid of any behavioral toxicity dose-dependently decreased food intake (irrespective of the diet), body weight gain, and glycemia. Pretreatment with lorglumide blocked the reducing effect of P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake. The capacity of this P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats may be due to (a) inhibition of alpha-amylase, (b) stimulation of CCK release from the intestinal brush border cells, and/or (c) interference with the central mechanism(s) regulating appetite, food intake, and food palatability. PMID:19731962

  16. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. PMID:25157359

  17. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris. PMID:25672875

  18. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  19. Flow Cytometry Pulse Width Data Enables Rapid and Sensitive Estimation of Biomass Dry Weight in the Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Chioccioli, Maurizio; Hankamer, Ben; Ross, Ian L.

    2014-01-01

    Dry weight biomass is an important parameter in algaculture. Direct measurement requires weighing milligram quantities of dried biomass, which is problematic for small volume systems containing few cells, such as laboratory studies and high throughput assays in microwell plates. In these cases indirect methods must be used, inducing measurement artefacts which vary in severity with the cell type and conditions employed. Here, we utilise flow cytometry pulse width data for the estimation of cell density and biomass, using Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as model algae and compare it to optical density methods. Measurement of cell concentration by flow cytometry was shown to be more sensitive than optical density at 750 nm (OD750) for monitoring culture growth. However, neither cell concentration nor optical density correlates well to biomass when growth conditions vary. Compared to the growth of C. vulgaris in TAP (tris-acetate-phosphate) medium, cells grown in TAP + glucose displayed a slowed cell division rate and a 2-fold increased dry biomass accumulation compared to growth without glucose. This was accompanied by increased cellular volume. Laser scattering characteristics during flow cytometry were used to estimate cell diameters and it was shown that an empirical but nonlinear relationship could be shown between flow cytometric pulse width and dry weight biomass per cell. This relationship could be linearised by the use of hypertonic conditions (1 M NaCl) to dehydrate the cells, as shown by density gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometry for biomass estimation is easy to perform, sensitive and offers more comprehensive information than optical density measurements. In addition, periodic flow cytometry measurements can be used to calibrate OD750 measurements for both convenience and accuracy. This approach is particularly useful for small samples and where cellular characteristics, especially cell size, are expected to vary during growth. PMID

  20. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 μm±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 μm±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes. PMID:24296436

  1. Anti-allergic Inflammatory Triterpenoids Isolated from the Spikes of Prunella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Choia, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah

    2016-01-01

    Twelve known triterpenoids (1-12) and two steroids (13 and 14) have been isolated from the spike of the plant Prunella vulgaris. Among them, 2α,3α,23-trihydroxyursa-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid (10) was isolated for the first time from this plant. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and release of histamine in human mast cells. β-Amyrin (5), 10, and euscaphic acid (12) showed suppression of histamine release with percentage inhibitions of 46.7, 57.9, and 54.2%, respectively. In addition, 5 and 10 showed strong inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 in the test for pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that compounds 5 and 10 largely contribute to the anti-allergic inflammatory effect of P. vulgaris. PMID:26996013

  2. Saline wastewater treatment by Chlorella vulgaris with simultaneous algal lipid accumulation triggered by nitrate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Gong, Yu-Peng; Fang, Wen-Zhe; Bi, Zi-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, a marine microalgae strain adaptable to 0-50 g L(-1) of salinity, was selected for studying the coupling system of saline wastewater treatment and lipid accumulation. The effect of total nitrogen (T N) concentration was investigated on algal growth, nutrients removal as well as lipid accumulation. The removal efficiencies of TN and total phosphorus (TP) were found to be 92.2-96.6% and over 99%, respectively, after a batch cultivation of 20 days. To illustrate the response of lipid accumulation to nutrients removal, C. vulgaris was further cultivated in the recycling experiment of tidal saline water within the photobioreactor. The lipid accumulation was triggered upon the almost depletion of nitrate (<5 mg L(-1)), till the final highest lipid content of 40%. The nitrogen conversion in the sequence of nitrate, nitrite, and then to ammonium in the effluents was finally integrated with previous discussions on metabolic pathways of algal cell under nitrogen deficiency. PMID:26117237

  3. Thyroid abnormalities in patients previously treated with irradiation for acne vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, D.B.; Grammes, C.F.; Starkey, R.H.; Monsaert, R.P.; Sunderlin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    Of 1,203 patients who received radiation treatment for acne vulgaris between 1940 and 1968, 302 patients were recalled and examined, 121 at Geisinger Medical Center and the remainder by their local physicians. Radiation records were reviewed on all patients. Lead-rubber and cones had been used as shielding. Mean age at the time of exposure was 21 years and mean total exposure was 692 R. Palpable nodular thyroid disease was found in eight patients (2.6%). Of these, thyroid carcinoma was detected in two patients (0.66%). Although the number of patients examined was small, the incidence of carcinomas was unexpectedly high. We conclude that follow-up examination is worthwhile for patients previously treated by irradiation for acne vulgaris.

  4. Thyroid abnormalities in patients previously treated with irradiation for acne vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, D.B.; Grammes, C.F.; Starkey, R.H.; Monsaert, R.P.; Sunderlin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    Of 1203 patients who received radiation treatment for acne vulgaris between 1940 and 1968, 302 were recalled and examined, 121 at Geisinger Medical Center and the remainder by their local physicians. Radiation records were reviewed on all patients. Lead-rubber and cones had been used as shielding. Mean age at the time of exposure was 21 years and mean total exposure was 692 R. Palpable nodular thyroid disease was found in eight patients (2.6%). Of these, thyroid carcinoma was detected in two patients (0.66%). Although the number of patients examined was small, the incidence of carcinomas was unexpectedly high. The authors conclude that follow-up examination is worthwhile for patients previously treated by irradiation for acne vulgaris.

  5. Power generation enhancement in novel microbial carbon capture cells with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; He, Huanhuan; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing concerns for global climate change, a sustainable, efficient and renewable energy production from wastewater is imperative. In this study, a novel microbial carbon capture cell (MCC), is constructed for the first time by the introduction of immobilized microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) into the cathode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to fulfill the zero discharge of carbon dioxide. This process can achieve an 84.8% COD removal, and simultaneously the maximum power density can reach 2485.35 mW m-3 at a current density of 7.9 A m-3 and the Coulombic efficiency is 9.40%, which are 88% and 57.7% greater than that with suspended C. vulgaris, respectively. These enhancements in performance demonstrate the feasibility of an economical and effective approach for the simultaneous wastewater treatment, electricity generation and biodiesel production from microalgae.

  6. Vulgarinin, a broad-spectrum antifungal peptide from haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-08-01

    From the seeds of haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kDa was purified by using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on Superdex 75. This peptide named vulgarinin manifested an antifungal activity toward fungal species such as Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola and Botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris. It also inhibited proliferation in leukemia cell lines L1210 and M1 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This peptide could reduce the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Its antifungal activity was retained after incubation with trypsin. PMID:15896669

  7. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Kummer, Raquel; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Cunha, Joice Maria; Grespan, Renata; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL) were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear), applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration. PMID:22919415

  8. Etoposide interferes with the process of chromatin condensation during alga Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Agnieszka, Wojtczak

    2014-10-01

    DNA topoisomerase II plays an essential role in animal spermiogenesis, where changes of chromatin structure are connected with appearance of transient DNA breaks. Such topo II activity can be curtailed by inhibitors such as etoposide and suramine. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of etoposide on spermatid chromatin remodeling in the green alga Chara vulgaris. This inhibitor prolonged the early spermiogenesis stages and blocked the formation of the phosphorylated form of histone H2AX at stages VI-VII. The lack of transient DSBs at these stages impairs the elimination of supercoils containing nucleosomes which lead to disturbances in nucleoprotein exchange and the pattern of spermatid chromatin fibrils at stages VI-VIII. Immunofluorescent and ultrastructural observations revealed that during C. vulgaris spermiogenesis topo II played an important role similar to that in mammals. Some corresponding features had been pointed out before, the present studies showed further similarities. PMID:25041830

  9. Cytoskeletal components of Beta vulgaris root hairs in altered gravity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G. V.

    Root hairs of Beta vulgaris are protrusions from rhizodermal cells and are characterised by plagiotropic growth. The roles of the cytoskeleton and of gravity in this growth process are being studied with the help of a clinostat. Through the use of immunocytochemical and fluorescent staining methods which reveal microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs), it was found that these cytoskeletal components of the root hairs of 4-day-old seedlings of B. vulgaris were affected by clinorotation at 2 r.p.m. In control conditions, MTs were found to be distributed evenly throughout the root hair, and an intense fluorescence due to MFs was observed at the tip of the hairs. With clinorotation, however, MTs became distributed at random, though no redistribution of MFs was observed. The latter finding conforms to the idea that MFs are responsible for tip growth. That MTs are more sensitive to altered gravity conditions is presently being tested.

  10. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) using next-generation sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Michelle F.; Graf, René; Holderegger, Rolf; Rico, Yessica; Wagner, Helene H.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed novel microsatellite markers for the perennial plant Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) to investigate the effects of fragmentation on gene flow in this imperiled species. Methods and Results: We identified microsatellites and developed primers based on 454 shotgun sequences. We identified 14 markers that were polymorphic and produced clean bands. Of these, eight could be analyzed as diploids. Genotyping of 97 individuals across two populations revealed these markers to be highly polymorphic with seven to 17 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity from 0.41 to 0.83. Conclusions: The markers are highly informative and will be used to test if the reintroduction of shepherding in southern Germany improves genetic connectivity among fragmented populations of P. vulgaris. The combination of diploid and tetraploid markers presented here will be useful in resolving the polyploidization history of this and related species. PMID:26191465

  11. The combined effect of bacteria and Chlorella vulgaris on the treatment of municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    He, P J; Mao, B; Lü, F; Shao, L M; Lee, D J; Chang, J S

    2013-10-01

    Impacts of Chlorella vulgaris with or without co-existing bacteria on the removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter from wastewaters were studied by comparing the wastewater treatment effects between an algae-bacteria consortium and a stand-alone algae system. In the algae-bacteria system, C.vulgaris played a dominant role in the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, while bacteria removed most of the organic matter from the wastewater. When treating unsterilized wastewater, bacteria were found to inhibit the growth of algae at >231 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Using the algae-bacteria consortium resulted in the removal of 97% NH4(+), 98% phosphorus and 26% DOC at a total nitrogen (TN) level of 29-174 mg/L. The reaction rate constant (k) values in sterilized and unsterilized wastewaters were 2.17 and 1.92 mg NH4(+)-N/(mg algal cell ·d), respectively. PMID:23973976

  12. Functional expression of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cytochrome c3 in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G200 after conjugational gene transfer from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, G; Pollock, W B; Bruschi, M; Guerlesquin, F; Rapp-Giles, B J; Wall, J D

    1990-01-01

    Plasmid pJRDC800-1, containing the cyc gene encoding cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough, was transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli DH5 alpha to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G200. The G200 strain produced an acidic cytochrome c3 (pI = 5.8), which could be readily separated from the Hildenborough cytochrome c3 (pI = 10.5). The latter was indistinguishable from cytochrome c3 produced by D. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough with respect to a number of chemical and physical criteria. Images PMID:2170341

  13. Post-Translational Modifications of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Sulfate Reduction Pathway Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Gaucher, S.P.; Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Keasling, J.D.; Singh, A.K.

    2008-03-01

    Recent developments in shotgun proteomics have enabled high-throughput studies of a variety of microorganisms at a proteome level and provide experimental validation for predicted open reading frames in the corresponding genome. More importantly, advances in mass spectrometric data analysis now allow mining of large proteomics data sets for the presence of post-translational modifications(PTMs). Although PTMs are a critical aspectof cellular activity, such information eludes cell-wide studies conducted at the transcript level. Here, we analyze several mass spectrometric data sets acquired using two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 2D-LC/MS/MS, for the sulfate reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Our searches of the raw spectra led us to discover several post-translationally modified peptides in D. vulgaris. Of these, several peptides containing a lysine with a +42 Da modification were found reproducibly across all data sets. Both acetylation and trimethylation have the same nominal +42 Da mass, and are therefore candidates for this modification. Several spectra were identified having markers for trimethylation, while one is consistent with an acetylation. Surprisingly, these modified peptides predominantly mapped to proteins involved in sulfate respiration. Other highly expressed proteins in D. vulgaris, such as enzymes involved in electron transport and other central metabolic processes, did not contain this modification. Decoy database searches were used to control for random spectrum/sequence matches. Additional validation for these modifications was provided by alternate workflows, for example, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gamma-subunit(DsrC) protein. MS data for DsrC in this alternate workflow also contained the +42 Da modification at the same loci. Furthermore, the DsrC homologue in another sulfate reducing bacterium

  14. Beans in Europe: origin and structure of the European landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Angioi, S A; Rau, D; Attene, G; Nanni, L; Bellucci, E; Logozzo, G; Negri, V; Spagnoletti Zeuli, P L; Papa, R

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the expansion of Phaseolus vulgaris in Europe. The pathways of distribution of beans into and across Europe were very complex, with several introductions from the New World that were combined with direct exchanges between European and other Mediterranean countries. We have analyzed here six chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) loci and two unlinked nuclear loci (for phaseolin types and Pv-shatterproof1). We have assessed the genetic structure and level of diversity of a large collection of European landraces of P. vulgaris (307) in comparison to 94 genotypes from the Americas that are representative of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. First, we show that most of the European common bean landraces (67%) are of Andean origin, and that there are no strong differences across European regions for the proportions of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Moreover, cytoplasmic diversity is evenly distributed across European regions. Secondly, the cytoplasmic bottleneck that was due to the introduction of P. vulgaris into the Old World was very weak or nearly absent. This is in contrast to evidence from nuclear analyses that have suggested a bottleneck of greater intensity. Finally, we estimate that a relatively high proportion of the European bean germplasm (about 44%) was derived from hybridization between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Moreover, although hybrids are present everywhere in Europe, they show an uneven distribution, with high frequencies in central Europe, and low frequencies in Spain and Italy. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the entire European continent and not only some of the countries therein can be regarded as a secondary diversification center for P. vulgaris. Finally, we outline the relevance of these inter-gene pool hybrids for plant breeding. PMID:20490446

  15. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Lianping; Huang, Gaoling; Yan, Qingpi; Shi, Bing; Xu, Xiaoqin

    2009-01-18

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n=2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5cmx80cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5cmx30cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p<0.05) on the cell growth were observed when excessive metals such as 80micromoll(-1) of Cd, and 60 and 80micromoll(-1) of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga. PMID:19019465

  16. Single and mixture toxicity of pharmaceuticals and chlorophenols to freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Elisabeth; Hornek-Gausterer, Romana; Saçan, Melek Türker

    2016-07-01

    Organisms in the aquatic environment are exposed to a variety of substances of numerous chemical classes. The unintentional co-occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern may pose risk to non-target organisms. In this study, individual and binary mixture toxicity experiments of selected pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin) and chlorophenols (2.4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 3-chlorophenol (3-CP)) have been performed with freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris. All experiments have been carried out according to the 96-h algal growth inhibition test OECD No. 201. Binary mixture tests were conducted using proportions of the respective IC50s in terms of toxic unit (TU). The mixture concentration-response curve was compared to predicted effects based on both the concentration addition (CA) and the independent action (IA) model. Additionally, the Combination Index (CI)-isobologram equation method was used to assess toxicological interactions of the binary mixtures. All substances individually tested had a significant effect on C. vulgaris population density and revealed IC50 values <100mgL(-1) after exposure period of 96-h. The toxic ranking of these four compounds to C. vulgaris was 2,4-DCP>ciprofloxacin>3-CP>ibuprofen. Generally, it can be concluded from this study that toxic mixture effects of all tested chemicals to C. vulgaris are higher than the individual effect of each mixture component. It could be demonstrated that IC50 values of the tested mixtures predominately lead to additive effects. The CA model is appropriate to estimate mixture toxicity, while the IA model tends to underestimate the joint effect. The CI-isobologram equation method predicted the mixtures accurately and elicited synergism at low effect levels for the majority of tested combinations. PMID:27045919

  17. Clinorotation influence on the growth of root hairs in Beta Vulgaris L. seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G. V.; Kordyum, E. L.

    It is shown that clinorotation affects the angle of Beta Vulgaris L. root hair growth and changes it from 85-95° to 40-60° at the stage of hair initiation. The investigation of actin cytoskeleton arrangement and tip-based gradient of calcium ions proved the involvement of above components in the maintenance of the directed growth in simulated microgravity (clinorotation).

  18. Suspected white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) toxicity in horses and cattle.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, J; Rosel, K; Burns, T; Janzen, E

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four mixed breed horses from two separate farms showed signs of abdominal discomfort, pyrexia and dehydration after being exposed to a new batch of 14% complete horse feed. A new batch of cattle feed from the same manufacturer resulted in dairy cows showing depression, a drop in milk production and diarrhoea. Examination of both diets revealed the presence of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Inclusion of raw beans of this genus in animal feeds is to be avoided. PMID:15086107

  19. Optimising the bioreceptivity of porous glass tiles based on colonization by the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Mas, V; Bond, T; Zhang, Z; Melchiorri, J; Cheeseman, C R

    2016-09-01

    Green façades on buildings can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. An option to obtain green facades is through the natural colonisation of construction materials. This can be achieved by engineering bioreceptive materials. Bioreceptivity is the susceptibility of a material to be colonised by living organisms. The aim of this research was to develop tiles made by sintering granular waste glass that were optimised for bioreceptivity of organisms capable of photosynthesis. Tiles were produced by pressing recycled soda-lime glass with a controlled particle size distribution and sintering compacted samples at temperatures between 680 and 740°C. The primary bioreceptivity of the tiles was evaluated by quantifying colonisation by the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), which was selected as a model photosynthetic micro-organism. Concentrations of C. vulgaris were measured using chlorophyll-a extraction. Relationships between bioreceptivity and the properties of the porous glass tile, including porosity, sorptivity, translucency and pH are reported. Capillary porosity and water sorptivity were the key factors influencing the bioreceptivity of porous glass. Maximum C. vulgaris growth and colonisation was obtained for tiles sintered at 700°C, with chlorophyll-a concentrations reaching up to 11.1±0.4μg/cm(2) of tile. Bioreceptivity was positively correlated with sorptivity and porosity and negatively correlated with light transmittance. The research demonstrates that the microstructure of porous glass, determined by the processing conditions, significantly influences bioreceptivity. Porous glass tiles with high bioreceptivity that are colonised by photosynthetic algae have the potential to form carbon-negative façades for buildings and green infrastructure. PMID:27135568

  20. Kids These Days: Urine as a Home Remedy for Acne Vulgaris?

    PubMed Central

    Totri, Christine R.; Matiz, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine therapies are gaining popularity among patients, aided by modern media outlets that facilitate easy and rapid dissemination of information. “Urine therapy” is one such complementary and alternative medicine and is described by its proponents as a wonder therapy for inflammatory conditions, such as acne vulgaris. As with other complementary and alternative medicines, healthcare providers should be mindful of the use of urine therapy and its potential implications for patients who may utilize it. PMID:26557221

  1. [Verrucous variant of porokeratosis of Mibelli as a differential diagnosis of psoriasis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Wagner, G; Meyer, V; Sachse, M M

    2016-03-01

    In a 37-year-old man, diagnosis of verrucous porokeratosis could only be made by histological examination. Previously, the skin lesions on the right buttock had been treated by several dermatologists as psoriasis vulgaris. The clinical picture of both dermatoses was characterized by sharply defined, erythematous papules and plaques. Precise evaluation of the clinical morphology was key for diagnosis. Moreover, in contrast to psoriasis, verrucous porokeratosis is characterized by a high degree of treatment resistance. PMID:26525967

  2. Exploring the role of CheA3 in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough motility

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Jayashree; Keller, Kimberly L.; Catena, Michela; Juba, Thomas R.; Zemla, Marcin; Rajeev, Lara; Knierim, Bernhard; Zane, Grant M.; Robertson, Jarrod J.; Auer, Manfred; Wall, Judy D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough are often found in environments with limiting growth nutrients. Using lactate as the electron donor and carbon source, and sulfate as the electron acceptor, wild type D. vulgaris shows motility on soft agar plates. We evaluated this phenotype with mutants resulting from insertional inactivation of genes potentially related to motility. Our study revealed that the cheA3 (DVU2072) kinase mutant was impaired in the ability to form motility halos. Insertions in two other cheA loci did not exhibit a loss in this phenotype. The cheA3 mutant was also non-motile in capillary assays. Complementation with a plasmid-borne copy of cheA3 restores wild type phenotypes. The cheA3 mutant displayed a flagellum as observed by electron microscopy, grew normally in liquid medium, and was motile in wet mounts. In the growth conditions used, the D. vulgaris ΔfliA mutant (DVU3229) for FliA, predicted to regulate flagella-related genes including cheA3, was defective both in flagellum formation and in forming the motility halos. In contrast, a deletion of the flp gene (DVU2116) encoding a pilin-related protein was similar to wild type. We conclude that wild type D. vulgaris forms motility halos on solid media that are mediated by flagella-related mechanisms via the CheA3 kinase. The conditions under which the CheA1 (DVU1594) and CheA2 (DVU1960) kinase function remain to be explored. PMID:24639670

  3. Isolation of Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor from Persicaria vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye Young; Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Seung Woong; Kwon, Oh Eok; Chang, Young-Duck; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young-Kook

    2002-09-01

    In the course of our search for Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors from natural sources, a new type of ACAT inhibitor was isolated from the methanol extract of Persicaria vulgaris. On the basis of spectral evidence, the structure of the active compound was identified as pheophorbide A. Pheophorbide A inhibited ACAT activity with an IC 50 value of 1.1 microg/ml in an enzyme assay using rat liver microsomes with a dose dependent fashion. PMID:12357403

  4. A mucocutaneous disease in the dog, resembling pemphigus vulgaris in man.

    PubMed

    Stannard, A A; Gribble, D H; BakerBB

    1975-03-15

    A chronic mucocutaneous disease was diagnosed in 3 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by erosions and ulcerations of the oral mucosa, various mucocutaneous junctions, and the skin. Histologically, there was acantholysis or a separation of the epithelial cells from one another, resulting in the formation of clefts and bullae. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, the disease seemed to be the canine equivalent of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) in man. PMID:1120727

  5. Lupus vulgaris leading to perforation of nasal septum in a child.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in India, mostly involving the lower half of the body. Facial involvement is uncommon. Untreated disease may lead to significant morbidity due to atrophic scarring, mutilation, and deformity. We report a case of multi-focal LV in a 10-year-old boy affecting the nose and cheek that resulted in perforation of the nasal septum, a rarely reported complication. PMID:26009716

  6. Draft Genome Assemblies of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Chertkov, O; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic swarming bacilli of the genus Proteus are common human gut commensal organisms but also the causative agents of recurrent urinary tract infections and bacteremia. We sequenced and assembled the 3.99-Mbp genome of Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 (accession no. JOVJ00000000) and the 3.97-Mbp genome of Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132 (accession no. JPIX00000000), both of which are commonly used reference strains. PMID:25342681

  7. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A M; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a "reinstatement" procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding - being unreinforced - diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40-45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  8. Efficacy of local application of an Unani formulation in acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Shabiya; Zulkifle, Mohd.; Ansari, Abdul Haseeb; Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Buthūr-i-Labaniyya (Acne vulgaris) is affecting up to 80% of adolescents and many adults at different stages of life. It is one of the commonest skin disorders which appears on cheeks and nose as white eruptions that seems like solidified milk drops. These eruptions are treated by drugs having properties of tajfīf wa taḥlīl (desiccant and resolving), as mentioned by Ibne Sina. Daood Antaki in his book Tazkira Oolulalbab recommends the local application of a paste of Shonīz (nigella sativa), Naushādar (ammonium chloride) and Būra Armani mixed with Sirka (vinegar) for effective treatment of Acne vulgaris. Methods: The study was observational self comparison before and after treatment, conducted in the OPD of the hospital which is part of the National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore. The duration of study was one year. 40 Female patients with combination of comedones, papules, pustules and nodules were recruited for this purpose. The test drug, Shonīz, Būra Armani, Naushadar powder, mixed with sirka were applied locally for one month with taqlīl-i-ghidhā tadābīr (low calorie index diet). All subjects were assessed on the basis of changes in subjective and objective parameters. Results: The response of test drugs was statistically highly significant (P < 0.01) by using ANOVA repeated measure test, there was also relief in subjective parameters. Subjects reported a reduction of 82.6%, 80.9%, 66.6% in tenderness, itching and irritation respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study reveals that the test drug formulation is safe and effective in treating Acne vulgaris if used along with low calorie index diet. No side effects of drugs were reported, therefore the trial formulation can be recommended to manage Acne vulgaris of mild to severe degree as a therapy. PMID:26865747

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pheretimoid earthworm Metaphire vulgaris (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Pheretimoid earthworm, Metaphire vulgaris (Chen, 1930). This mitogenome is 15,061 bp in length containing 37 genes typical of other annelid. All genes are encoded by the same strand, ATP8 is not adjacent to ATP6, all 13 PCGs use ATG as a start codon. These features are consistent with first determined earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, but unusual among animal mtDNAs. PMID:24617491

  10. Bilateral lower extremity hyperkeratotic plaques: a case report of ichthyosis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Leight, Hayley; Zinn, Zachary; Jalali, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a middle-aged woman presenting with severe, long-standing, hyperkeratotic plaques of the lower extremities unrelieved by over-the-counter medications. Initial history and clinical findings were suggestive of an inherited ichthyosis. Ichthyoses are genetic disorders characterized by dry scaly skin and altered skin-barrier function. A diagnosis of ichthyosis vulgaris was confirmed by histopathology. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:26396540

  11. Isolation of an immunosuppressive lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Cacahuate using stroma.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Albores, F; Hernández, J; Córdoba, F; Zenteno, E

    1993-11-01

    An immunosuppressive lectin was isolated from seed of Phaseolus vulgaris cv Cacahuate using physically entrapped stroma. The lectin was found to be a 94 kDa tetrameric protein. When 50 micrograms, of this lectin were administered intraperitoneally 2 days before the immunization with sheep red blood cells, humoral response against the immunogen was completely inhibited. Other properties of the protein are discussed. PMID:8248029

  12. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a “reinstatement” procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40–45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  13. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  14. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  15. Linkage disequilibrium and population structure in wild and domesticated populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Monica; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Nanni, Laura; Rau, Domenico; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Together with the knowledge of the population structure, a critical aspect for the planning of association and/or population genomics studies is the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) that characterizes the species and the population used for such an analysis. We have analyzed the population structure and LD in wild and domesticated populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, most of which were genetically mapped in two recombinant inbred populations. Our results reflect the previous knowledge of the occurrence of two major wild gene pools of P. vulgaris, from which two independent domestication events originated, one in the Andes and one in Mesoamerica. The high level of LD in the whole sample was mostly due to the gene pool structure, with a much higher LD in domesticated compared to wild populations. In relation to association studies, our results also suggest that whole-genome-scan approaches are feasible in the common bean. Interestingly, an excess of inter-chromosomal LD was found in the domesticated populations, which suggests an important role for epistatic selection during domestication. Moreover, our results indicate the occurrence of a strong bottleneck in the Andean wild population before domestication, suggesting a Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris. Finally, our data support the occurrence of a single domestication event in Mesoamerica, and the same scenario in the Andes. PMID:25567895

  16. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, liver hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and paraoxonase-1 activities as compared to the normal control group. Treatment of high fat diet rats with Artemisia vulgaris extract for 4 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, resulted in normalized serum lipid profile, a significant increase in paraoxonase-1 activity and decrease in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α level as compared to high fat diet-treated animals. Also the extract caused a significant decrease in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity as compared with both high fat diet-treated animals and control ones. In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris extract has hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties; it may serve as a source for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26236098

  17. Cloning and Expression of a Cytosolic HSP90 Gene in Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Lei; Pu, Yang; Liu, Zhaopu; Li, Zhiling; Zhao, Yushan; Qin, Song

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a highly conserved molecular chaperone, plays essential roles in folding, keeping structural integrity, and regulating the subset of cytosolic proteins. We cloned the cDNA of Chlorella vulgaris HSP90 (named CvHSP90) by combining homology cloning with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis indicated that CvHSP90 is a cytosolic member of the HSP90 family. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in CvHSP90 under different stress conditions. C. vulgaris was kept in different temperatures (5–45°C) for 1 h. The mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased with temperature from 5 to 10°C, went further from 35 to 40°C, and reached the maximum at 40°C. On the other hand, for C. vulgaris kept at 35°C for different durations, the mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased gradually and reached the peak at 7 h and then declined progressively. In addition, the expression level of CvHSP90 at 40 or 45 in salinity (‰) was almost fourfold of that at 25 in salinity (‰) for 2 h. Therefore, CvHSP90 may be a potential biomarker to monitor environment changes. PMID:24738061

  18. Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Two Kenyan Soils with Contrasting pHs

    PubMed Central

    Anyango, B.; Wilson, K. J.; Beynon, J. L.; Giller, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from two Kenyan soils with pHs of 4.5 and 6.8 and characterized on the basis of their host ranges for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, colony morphologies, restriction fragment fingerprints, and hybridization with a nifH probe. The populations of rhizobia nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in the two soils were similar in numbers and in effectiveness of N(inf2) fixation but were markedly different in composition. The population in the Naivasha soil (pH 6.8) was dominated by isolates specific in host range for nodulation to P. vulgaris; these all had multiple copies, in most cases four, of the structural nitrogenase gene nifH. Only one of the isolates from this soil formed effective nodules on Leucaena leucocephala, and this isolate had only a single copy of nifH. By contrast, the population in the acid Daka-ini soil (pH 4.5) was composed largely of broad-host-range isolates which had single copies of nifH. The isolates from the Daka-ini soil which were specific to P. vulgaris generally had three copies of nifH, although one isolate had only two copies. These rhizobial isolates are indigenous to Kenyan soils and yet have marked similarities to previously described Rhizobium species from other continents. PMID:16535165

  19. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens. PMID:27069253

  20. Molecular characterization of two evolutionarily distinct endornaviruses co-infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Yong, Chee Keat; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Aoki, Nanako; Hotate, Shunsuke; Kiyota, Eri; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Two high-molecular-mass dsRNAs of approximately 14 and 15 kbp were isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar Black Turtle Soup. These dsRNAs did not appear to cause obvious disease symptoms, and were transmitted through seeds at nearly 100% efficiency. Sequence information indicates that they are the genomes of distinct endornavirus species, for which the names Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2) are proposed. The PvEV-1 genome consists of 13,908 bp and potentially encodes a single polyprotein of 4496 aa, while that of PvEV-2 consists of 14 820 bp and potentially encodes a single ORF of 4851 aa. PvEV-1 is more similar to Oryza sativa endornavirus, while PvEV-2 is more similar to bell pepper endornavirus. Both viruses have a site-specific nick near the 5' region of the coding strand, which is a common property of the endornaviruses. Their polyproteins contain domains of RNA helicase, UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which are conserved in other endornaviruses. However, a viral methyltransferase domain was found in the N-terminal region of PvEV-2, but was absent in PvEV-1. Results of cell-fractionation studies suggested that their subcellular localizations were different. Most endornavirus-infected bean cultivars tested were co-infected with both viruses. PMID:23015743