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Sample records for cultured tobacco by-2

  1. Auxin Deprivation Induces Synchronous Golgi Differentiation in Suspension-Cultured Tobacco BY-2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Winicur, Zev M.; Feng Zhang, Guo; Andrew Staehelin, L.

    1998-01-01

    To date, the lack of a method for inducing plant cells and their Golgi stacks to differentiate in a synchronous manner has made it difficult to characterize the nature and extent of Golgi retailoring in biochemical terms. Here we report that auxin deprivation can be used to induce a uniform population of suspension-cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2) cells to differentiate synchronously during a 4-d period. Upon removal of auxin, the cells stop dividing, undergo elongation, and differentiate in a manner that mimics the formation of slime-secreting epidermal and peripheral root-cap cells. The morphological changes to the Golgi apparatus include a proportional increase in the number of trans-Golgi cisternae, a switch to larger-sized secretory vesicles that bud from the trans-Golgi cisternae, and an increase in osmium staining of the secretory products. Biochemical alterations include an increase in large, fucosylated, mucin-type glycoproteins, changes in the types of secreted arabinogalactan proteins, and an increase in the amounts and types of molecules containing the peripheral root-cap-cell-specific epitope JIM 13. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that auxin deprivation can be used to induce tobacco BY-2 cells to differentiate synchronously into mucilage-secreting cells. PMID:9625703

  2. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis - total protein content, thiols - reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  3. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis—total protein content, thiols—reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  4. An isoform of myosin XI is responsible for the translocation of endoplasmic reticulum in tobacco cultured BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Ueda, Shunpei; Tamura, Kentaro; Orii, Hidefumi; Uchi, Satoko; Sonobe, Seiji; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimmen, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of myosin XI in generating the motive force for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is becoming evident. For a comprehensive understanding of the physiological roles of myosin XI isoforms, it is necessary to elucidate the properties and functions of each isoform individually. In tobacco cultured BY-2 cells, two types of myosins, one composed of 175 kDa heavy chain (175 kDa myosin) and the other of 170 kDa heavy chain (170 kDa myosin), have been identified biochemically and immunocytochemically. From sequence analyses of cDNA clones encoding heavy chains of 175 kDa and 170 kDa myosin, both myosins have been classified as myosin XI. Immunocytochemical studies using a polyclonal antibody against purified 175 kDa myosin heavy chain showed that the 175 kDa myosin is distributed throughout the cytoplasm as fine dots in interphase BY-2 cells. During mitosis, some parts of 175 kDa myosin were found to accumulate in the pre-prophase band (PPB), spindle, the equatorial plane of a phragmoplast and on the circumference of daughter nuclei. In transgenic BY-2 cells, in which an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specific retention signal, HDEL, tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was stably expressed, ER showed a similar behaviour to that of 175 kDa myosin. Furthermore, this myosin was co-fractionated with GFP–ER by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. From these findings, it was suggested that the 175 kDa myosin is a molecular motor responsible for translocating ER in BY-2 cells. PMID:19039101

  5. Myosin XI-Dependent Formation of Tubular Structures from Endoplasmic Reticulum Isolated from Tobacco Cultured BY-2 Cells1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Ueda, Haruko; Hashimoto, Kohsuke; Orii, Hidefumi; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimmen, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    The reticular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of tubular and lamellar elements and is arranged in the cortical region of plant cells. This network constantly shows shape change and remodeling motion. Tubular ER structures were formed when GTP was added to the ER vesicles isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured BY-2 cells expressing ER-localized green fluorescent protein. The hydrolysis of GTP during ER tubule formation was higher than that under conditions in which ER tubule formation was not induced. Furthermore, a shearing force, such as the flow of liquid, was needed for the elongation/extension of the ER tubule. The shearing force was assumed to correspond to the force generated by the actomyosin system in vivo. To confirm this hypothesis, the S12 fraction was prepared, which contained both cytosol and microsome fractions, including two classes of myosins, XI (175-kD myosin) and VIII (BY-2 myosin VIII-1), and ER-localized green fluorescent protein vesicles. The ER tubules and their mesh-like structures were arranged in the S12 fraction efficiently by the addition of ATP, GTP, and exogenous filamentous actin. The tubule formation was significantly inhibited by the depletion of 175-kD myosin from the S12 fraction but not BY-2 myosin VIII-1. Furthermore, a recombinant carboxyl-terminal tail region of 175-kD myosin also suppressed ER tubule formation. The tips of tubules moved along filamentous actin during tubule elongation. These results indicated that the motive force generated by the actomyosin system contributes to the formation of ER tubules, suggesting that myosin XI is responsible not only for the transport of ER in cytoplasm but also for the reticular organization of cortical ER. PMID:21427277

  6. Morphological and quantitative changes in mitochondria, plastids, and peroxisomes during the log-to-stationary transition of the growth phase in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2016-03-01

    We developed a wide-range and high-resolution transmission electron microscope acquisition system and obtained giga-pixel images of tobacco BY-2 cells during the log and stationary phases of cell growth. We demonstrated that the distribution and ultrastructure of compartments involved in membrane traffic (i.e., Golgi apparatus, multivesicular body, and vesicle cluster) change during the log-to-stationary transition. Mitochondria, peroxisomes, and plastids were also enumerated. Electron densities of mitochondria and peroxisomes were altered during the growth-phase shift, while their numbers were reduced by nearly half. Plastid structure dramatically changed from atypical to spherical with starch granules. Nearly the same number of plastids was observed in both log and stationary phases. These results indicate that mechanisms regulating organelle populations differ from organelle to organelle. PMID:26855065

  7. Morphological and quantitative changes in mitochondria, plastids, and peroxisomes during the log-to-stationary transition of the growth phase in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a wide-range and high-resolution transmission electron microscope acquisition system and obtained giga-pixel images of tobacco BY-2 cells during the log and stationary phases of cell growth. We demonstrated that the distribution and ultrastructure of compartments involved in membrane traffic (i.e., Golgi apparatus, multivesicular body, and vesicle cluster) change during the log-to-stationary transition. Mitochondria, peroxisomes, and plastids were also enumerated. Electron densities of mitochondria and peroxisomes were altered during the growth-phase shift, while their numbers were reduced by nearly half. Plastid structure dramatically changed from atypical to spherical with starch granules. Nearly the same number of plastids was observed in both log and stationary phases. These results indicate that mechanisms regulating organelle populations differ from organelle to organelle. PMID:26855065

  8. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    PubMed

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  9. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  10. Scale-up of hydrophobin-assisted recombinant protein production in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Lauri J; Bailey, Michael J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Ritala, Anneli

    2014-05-01

    Plant suspension cell cultures are emerging as an alternative to mammalian cells for production of complex recombinant proteins. Plant cell cultures provide low production cost, intrinsic safety and adherence to current regulations, but low yields and costly purification technology hinder their commercialization. Fungal hydrophobins have been utilized as fusion tags to improve yields and facilitate efficient low-cost purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase separation (ATPS) in plant, fungal and insect cells. In this work, we report the utilization of hydrophobin fusion technology in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cell platform and the establishment of pilot-scale propagation and downstream processing including first-step purification by ATPS. Green fluorescent protein-hydrophobin fusion (GFP-HFBI) induced the formation of protein bodies in tobacco suspension cells, thus encapsulating the fusion protein into discrete compartments. Cultivation of the BY-2 suspension cells was scaled up in standard stirred tank bioreactors up to 600 L production volume, with no apparent change in growth kinetics. Subsequently, ATPS was applied to selectively capture the GFP-HFBI product from crude cell lysate, resulting in threefold concentration, good purity and up to 60% recovery. The ATPS was scaled up to 20 L volume, without loss off efficiency. This study provides the first proof of concept for large-scale hydrophobin-assisted production of recombinant proteins in tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions. PMID:24341724

  11. Tobacco, Culture, and Health among American Indians: A Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pego, Christina M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores possible historical and cultural reasons for the high prevalence of contemporary tobacco use among North American Indian populations. Discusses historic ceremonial and medicinal uses of tobacco, contemporary ceremonialism, and clinical observations concerning Indian tobacco use. Recommends that prevention programs promote a return to the…

  12. Activation of tobacco retrotransposons during tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hirochika, H

    1993-01-01

    Sequences of at least three new families of retrotransposons (Tto1-Tto3) were amplified by PCR from cDNA prepared from protoplasts of an established tobacco cell line, based on the fact that certain amino acids are highly conserved in the reverse transcriptases encoded by retrotransposons. Structural analysis indicates that Tto1 is 5.5 kb long and has features typical of retrotransposons. Transcription of Tto1 starting in the long terminal repeat was active only in cultured cells. Protoplast formation enhanced the transcription. The copy number of Tto1 increased 10-fold in established cell lines; it also increased in plants regenerated from tissue cultures and in transgenic plants. These results indicate that Tto1 is activated during tissue culture. This is the first demonstration of activation of a plant retrotransposon by tissue culture. The copy number of Tto2 and a previously isolated transposon, Tnt1, also increased in established cell lines, indicating that these two retrotransposons may also be activated by tissue culture. These three retrotransposons are cryptic in normally propagated plants: no difference in the copy number was observed between individuals of the same cultivars or even between different cultivars. Images PMID:8389699

  13. Femtosecond Optoinjection of Intact Tobacco BY-2 Cells Using a Reconfigurable Photoporation Platform

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Claire A.; Kalies, Stefan; Cizmár, Tomás; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Torrance, Lesley; Roberts, Alison G.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of exogenous substances. Here we demonstrate and quantify femtosecond optical injection of membrane impermeable dyes into intact BY-2 tobacco plant cells growing in culture, investigating both optical and biological parameters. Specifically, we show that the long axial extent of a propagation invariant (“diffraction-free”) Bessel beam, which relaxes the requirements for tight focusing on the cell membrane, outperforms a standard Gaussian photoporation beam, achieving up to 70% optoinjection efficiency. Studies on the osmotic effects of culture media show that a hypertonic extracellular medium was found to be necessary to reduce turgor pressure and facilitate molecular entry into the cells. PMID:24244456

  14. A novel cell division factor from tobacco 2B-13 cells that induced cell division in auxin-starved tobacco BY-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Eguchi, Kentaro; Nishida, Ikuo; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin; van Onckelen, Harry; Nagata, Toshiyuki

    2006-06-01

    Effects of auxin as plant hormones are widespread; in fact in almost all aspects of plant growth and development auxin plays a pivotal role. Although auxin is required for propagating cell division in plant cells, its effect upon cell division is least understood. If auxin is depleted from the culture medium, cultured cells cease to divide. It has been demonstrated in this context that the addition of auxin to auxin-starved nondividing tobacco BY-2 cells induced semisynchronous cell division. On the other hand, there are some cell lines, named habituated cells, that can grow without auxin. The cause and reason for the habituated cells have not been clarified. A habituated cell line named 2B-13 is derived from the tobacco BY-2 cell line, which has been most intensively studied among plant cell lines. When we tried to find the difference between two cell lines of BY-2 and 2B-13 cells, we found that the addition of culture filtrated from the auxin-habituated 2B-13 cells induced semisynchronous cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. The cell division factor (CDF) that is responsible for inducing cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells was purified to near-homogeneity by sequential passage through a hydroxyapatite column, a ConA Sepharose column and a Sephadex gel filtration column. The resulting purified fraction appeared as a single band of high molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels by silver staining and was able to induce cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. Identification of the protein by MALD-TOF-MS/MS revealed that it is structurally related to P-glycoprotein from Gossypioides kirkii, which belongs to ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters. The significance of CDF as a possible ABC-transporter is discussed in relationship to auxin-autotrophic growth and auxin-signaling pathway.

  15. Tobacco use in the Dominican Republic: understanding the culture first

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, A M; Ossip‐Klein, D J; Diaz, S; Chin, N P; Sierra, E; Quiñones, Z; Dye, T D; McIntosh, S; Armstrong, L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To conduct formative research on the landscape of tobacco use to guide survey and subsequent intervention development in the Dominican Republic (DR). Design Rapid Assessment Procedures, systematic qualitative methods (participant‐observations, in‐depth interviewing, focus groups) using bilingual mixed age and gendered teams from the United States and DR. Subjects Over 160 adults (men and women), ages 18 to 90 years, current, former and never smokers, community members and leaders from six underserved, economically disadvantaged DR communities. Main outcome measures Key domains: tobacco use patterns and attitudes; factors affecting smoking initiation, continuation, quitting; perceived risks/benefits/effects of smoking; and awareness/effects of advertising/regulations. Results Perceptions of prevalence varied widely. While “everybody” smokes, smokers or ex‐smokers were sometimes difficult to find. Knowledge of health risks was limited to the newly mandated statement “Fumar es prejudicial para la salud” [Smoking is harmful to your health]. Smokers started due to parents, peers, learned lifestyle, fashion or as something to do. Smoking served as an escape, relaxation or diversion. Quit attempts relied on personal will, primarily for religious or medical reasons. Social smoking (custom or habit) (< 10 cigarettes per day) was viewed as a lifestyle choice rather than a vice or addiction. Out of respect, smokers selected where they smoked and around whom. Health care providers typically were reactive relative to tobacco cessation, focusing on individuals with smoking related conditions. Tobacco advertising was virtually ubiquitous. Anti‐tobacco messages were effectively absent. Cultures of smoking and not smoking coexisted absent a culture of quitting. Conclusions Systematic qualitative methods provided pertinent information about tobacco attitudes and use to guide subsequent project steps. Integrating qualitative then quantitative research can

  16. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  17. Acid-growth response and alpha-expansins in suspension cultures of bright yellow 2 tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells possess an expansin-mediated acid-growth mechanism was examined by multiple approaches. BY2 cells grew three times faster upon treatment with fusicoccin, which induces an acidification of the cell wall. Exogenous expansins likewise stimulated BY2 cell growth 3-fold. Protein extracted from BY2 cell walls possessed the expansin-like ability to induce extension of isolated walls. In western-blot analysis of BY2 wall protein, one band of 29 kD was recognized by anti-expansin antibody. Six different classes of alpha-expansin mRNA were identified in a BY2 cDNA library. Northern-blot analysis indicated moderate to low abundance of multiple alpha-expansin mRNAs in BY2 cells. From these results we conclude that BY2 suspension-cultured cells have the necessary components for expansin-mediated cell wall enlargement.

  18. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  19. Production of Haploid Tobacco Plants Using Anther Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Belzer, Norbert F.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tobacco haploid experiment in which students learn the cytogenetic technique of metaphase analysis of chromosomes and experience the basic principles of haploidy, diploidy, and polyploidy. (YDS)

  20. Nitric oxide production is not required for dihydrosphingosine-induced cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Daniel; Lachaud, Christophe; Cotelle, Valérie; Brière, Christian; Grat, Sabine; Mazars, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid Long Chain Base (LCB) in plants, is known to induce a calcium-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco BY-2 cells. We have recently shown that DHS triggers a production of H2O2, via the activation of NADPH oxidase(s). However, this production of H2O2 is not correlated with the DHS-induced cell death but would rather be associated with basal cell defense mechanisms. In the present study, we extend our current knowledge of the DHS signaling pathway, by demonstrating that DHS also promotes a production of nitric oxide (NO) in tobacco BY-2 cells. As for H2O2, this NO production is not necessary for cell death induction. PMID:21455022

  1. Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

  2. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. Methods With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. Findings The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Conclusions Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence. PMID:18257873

  3. Reigniting Tobacco Ritual: Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Establishment Culture in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mary V.; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. Methods: We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Results: Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Conclusions: Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. PMID:24972889

  4. Characterization of sulfate transport in cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, I K

    1976-09-01

    Sulfate transport by tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Xanthi) cultured in liquid medium was investigated.Transport was linear with time, had a sharp pH optimum between 6.5 and 7.5, and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km varied within the range 2 x 10(-5)m and 4 x 10(-5)m and the maximum velocity was in the range 100 to 400 nanomoles per gram fresh weight.hour.Transport was inhibited more than 90% by 10(-4)m sulfite, thiosulfate, metabisulfite, sulfide, selenate, and chromate, but was inhibited less than 40% by 10(-3)m chloride, nitrate, or phosphate. Selenate was a competitive and sulfide a noncompetitive inhibitor of sulfate transport.The oxidative respiration inhibitors, azide and cyanide, uncoupling reagents, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and dinitrophenol, and the ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were all potent inhibitors of transport. Inhibition by CCCP was not prevented by preincubation of cells with dithiothreitol. Removal of CCCP from the transporting medium resulted in a partial resumption of transport, in contrast removal of DCCD had no effect.Sulfate transport was inhibited more than 90% by 10(-4)m mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, or d-cysteine and was abolished by either 10(-5)m N-ethylmaleimide or 10(-4)m iodoacetamide. Removal of mercaptoethanol from the transporting medium resulted in a return to maximal rates of transport whereas when either N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetamide were removed transport remained inhibited.N-ethylmaleimide (10(-5)m) and iodoacetamide (10(-4)m), which inhibited transport completely, induced the efflux of between 70 and 90% of the transported sulfate in 5 hours. Metabolite efflux was induced by the following compounds, which are listed according to their effectiveness, DCCD, CCCP, mercaptoethanol, and selenate. Increasing the concentration of an inhibitor, in excess of that required to inhibit transport 100%, increased the rate of nonspecific metabolite efflux from the

  5. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (∼7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. PMID:26627201

  6. Social and Cultural Influences on Tobacco-Related Health Disparities among South Asians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Morgan, Patricia A.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Ling, Pamela M.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore and understand key cultural contexts of tobacco use among South Asian communities in the United States. DESIGN Focus groups, with homogenous compositions of gender, generational status, and length of time in the United States, were conducted in two distinct South Asian ethnic enclaves. Focus group findings were triangulated with observational data regarding availability of culturally-specific tobacco from commercial ethnic outlets and cultural events. SUBJECTS Respondents included 88 men and women of South Asian descent, aged 18 to 65 years, immigrant and native born, representing diversity of religion, socioeconomic status, and region of origin, with use of at least one culturally-specific tobacco product in previous 24 months. RESULTS A large number of culturally-specific products are commonly used by community members. Knowledge of product-specific health risks was lacking or inaccurate. Many culturally-specific tobacco products were considered to have beneficial properties. South Asian tobacco items were used to preserve cultural traditions and express ethnic identity in a new dominant culture. The social and cultural value ascribed to use helped distinguish community members from mainstream society and from other minority populations. CONCLUSIONS Many cultural factors govern tobacco use among diverse global populations. Especially for migrants with a common regional origin, the role of ethnic identity may strongly influence culturally-specific tobacco patterns. Qualitative inquiry helps elucidate such culturally-framed behaviors in culturally-diverse populations. These cultural contexts should be integrated into research and practice. Understanding multidimensional factors influencing non-traditional tobacco use is key to ensuring that comprehensive tobacco control strategies address tobacco-related disparities. PMID:21708814

  7. Effects of cadmium on growth and respiration in suspension-cultured tobacco cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium uptake and its effects on growth and cellular respiration in tobacco cell suspension cultures were examined. The cells were grown in Gamborg's B5 medium for a 5 day period, and cadmium, at concentrations of 44.5, 89, and 178 ..mu..M, was added to the medium on day 0. Cadmium is accumulated in the tobacco cells at concentrations two or more times the levels in the surrounding media. The addition of 44.5 ..mu..M cadmium stimulated growth as measured by dry weight and packed cell volume measurements, whereas higher levels were inhibitory. At all concentrations tested, cadmium decreased mitotic indices and total DNA content of the tobacco cells. Light and transmission electron microscopic analyses demonstrated cadmium induced increased cell volume per mg dry weight and the formation of small vacuole-like bodies in the cytoplasm of the cultured tobacco cells. Oxygen uptake measurements on whole cells showed cadmium inhibits respiration in the tobacco cells at all levels examined. Measurements of malate, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and succinate oxidation in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that the inhibition of respiration resulted from decreased succinate utilization in the tobacco cells, when cadmium was applied in vivo. The implications of these findings and the potential for future research are discussed.

  8. Historical and cultural roots of tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brady, Maggie

    2002-04-01

    Tobacco smoking has been identified as a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality rates of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. After years of inattention, smoking cessation projects designed for Indigenous Australians are beginning to emerge. Dealing successfully with smoking cessation would be enhanced by an understanding of the long-standing historical, social and cultural antecedents to present-day usage of tobacco. This paper provides a brief account of the historical precursors to present-day patterns of tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Historical records and mission documents, together with ethnographic accounts, suggest that Indigenous tobacco use today demonstrates strong continuity with past patterns and styles of use. These sources also reveal that Europeans deliberately exploited Aboriginal addiction to nicotine. PMID:12054329

  9. Polarized localization and borate-dependent degradation of the Arabidopsis borate transporter BOR1 in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis the borate transporter BOR1, which is located in the plasma membrane, is degraded in the presence of excess boron by an endocytosis-mediated mechanism. A similar mechanism was suggested in rice as excess boron decreased rice borate transporter levels, although in this case whether the decrease was dependent on an increase in degradation or a decrease in protein synthesis was not elucidated. To address whether the borate-dependent degradation mechanism is conserved among plant cells, we analyzed the fate of GFP-tagged BOR1 (BOR1-GFP) in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Cells expressing BOR1-GFP displayed GFP fluorescence at the plasma membrane, especially at the membrane between two attached cells. The plasma membrane signal was abolished when cells were incubated in medium with a high concentration of borate (3 to 5 mM). This decrease in BOR1-GFP signal was mediated by a specific degradation of the protein after internalization by endocytosis from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological analysis indicated that the decrease in BOR1-GFP largely depends on the increase in degradation rate and that the degradation was mediated by a tyrosine-motif and the actin cytoskeleton. Tyr mutants of BOR1-GFP, which has been shown to inhibit borate-dependent degradation in Arabidopsis root cells, did not show borate-dependent endocytosis in tobacco BY-2 cells. These findings indicate that the borate-dependent degradation machinery of the borate transporter is conserved among plant species. PMID:24715955

  10. Culture Change From Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Green, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century-one of the greatest improvements in public health-illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable. The role of health communication in predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing the normative social changes that ensued, however, has been less well documented with the linear, cause-and-effect methods of controlled intervention research. We examine the role of mass communication in the cultural transformation that reduced tobacco use, concluding that its influence on reduction in tobacco use follows a pathway as much through secondary transmissions within groups of people as through direct influence on individuals. PMID:26936279

  11. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Malpass, Gloria E.; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G.L.; Howlett, Allyn C.

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  12. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  13. Culture Change from Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingood, William C., Jr.; Allegrante, John P.; Green, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century--one of the greatest improvements in public health--illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable.…

  14. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  15. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  16. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: procedures to evaluate cytotoxicity in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Dantas, Denise Conceição Mesquita; Linden, Rafael; Ziulkoski, Ana Luiza

    2016-06-01

    The risks associated to tobacco smoking are not ceased with smoke extinction. Many toxic compounds remain in the environment after the cigarette is extinguished and accumulated in the air or on surfaces. However, little is known about the risks of this exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate procedures to collect thirdhand smoke (THS) and prepare the samples to perform three in vitro toxicity tests. Cellulose papers and cotton wipes were used to impregnate with nicotine solution and smoke cigarette in a chamber or in smoker's home. Samples were immersed in methanol or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) to expose Hep-2 cells. MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU) and trypan blue assays were performed. The concentration of nicotine in DMEM extract of THS in paper and cotton was similar to those in methanol extract (p > 0.05). Alterations in the mitochondrial and lysosomal functions were found in both paper and cotton samples; however, the cytotoxic effect was not always observed. There was a decrease of 21-31% in MTT assay and 38-56% in NRU assay (p < 0.003). There was a dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes and lysosomal viability; the correlation was higher for cotton samples (r = -0.843, p < 0.001). As a dose-response relationship was found only in NRU assay, this test may be a more suitable choice rather than the MTT assay. Paper and wipe sampling can be reliable markers of tobacco smoke contamination. Moreover, these materials, if properly prepared, can be used as substrate providers to perform cellular assays. PMID:27268319

  17. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-06-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  18. Microtubule reorganization in tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-MBD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Microtubule organization plays an important role in plant morphogenesis; however, little is known about how microtubule arrays transit from one organized state to another. The use of a genetically incorporated fluorescent marker would allow long-term observation of microtubule behavior in living cells. Here, we have characterized a Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell line that had been stably transformed with a gfp-mbd construct previously demonstrated to label microtubules (J. Marc et al., 1998, Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939). Fluorescence levels were low, but interphase and mitotic microtubule arrays, as well as the transitions between these arrays, could be observed in individual gfp-mbd-transformed cells. By comparing several attributes of transformed and untransformed cells it was concluded that the transgenic cells are not adversely affected by low-level expression of the transgene and that these cells will serve as a useful and accurate model system for observing microtubule reorganization in vivo. Indeed, some initial observations were made that are consistent with the involvement of motor proteins in the transition between the spindle and phragmoplast arrays. Our observations also support the role of the perinuclear region in nucleating microtubules at the end of cell division with a progressive shift of these microtubules and/or nucleating activity to the cortex to form the interphase cortical array.

  19. Transient foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells after biolistic delivery of chloroplast vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, H; Vivekananda, J; Nielsen, B L; Ye, G N; Tewari, K K; Sanford, J C

    1990-01-01

    Expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) by suitable vectors in chloroplasts of cultured tobacco cells, delivered by high-velocity microprojectiles, is reported here. Several chloroplast expression vectors containing bacterial cat genes, placed under the control of either psbA promoter region from pea (pHD series) or rbcL promoter region from maize (pAC series) have been used in this study. In addition, chloroplast expression vectors containing replicon fragments from pea, tobacco, or maize chloroplast DNA have also been tested for efficiency and duration of cat expression in chloroplasts of tobacco cells. Cultured NT1 tobacco cells collected on filter papers were bombarded with tungsten particles coated with pUC118 (negative control), 35S-CAT (nuclear expression vector), pHD312 (repliconless chloroplast expression vector), and pHD407, pACp18, and pACp19 (chloroplast expression vectors with replicon). Sonic extracts of cells bombarded with pUC118 showed no detectable cat activity in the autoradiograms. Nuclear expression of cat reached two-thirds of the maximal 48 hr after bombardment and the maximal at 72 hr. Cells bombarded with chloroplast expression vectors showed a low level of expression until 48 hr of incubation. A dramatic increase in the expression of cat was observed 24 hr after the addition of fresh medium to cultured cells in samples bombarded with pHD407; the repliconless vector pHD312 showed about 50% of this maximal activity. The expression of nuclear cat and the repliconless chloroplast vector decreased after 72 hr, but a high level of chloroplast cat expression was maintained in cells bombarded with pHD407. Organelle-specific expression of cat in appropriate compartments was checked by introducing various plasmid constructions into tobacco protoplasts by electroporation. Although the nuclear expression vector 35S-CAT showed expression of cat, no activity was observed with any chloroplast vectors. Images PMID:2404285

  20. "Asian yuppies...are always looking for something new and different": creating a tobacco culture among young Asians

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify and analyse the themes employed by the Asian based transnational tobacco companies to construct a tobacco culture among Asian young men and women. Methods: Systematic review of relevant tobacco industry documents made public through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The industry utilised six vehicles and themes to construct a tobacco culture in Asia: music, entertainment (including nightclubs, discos, and movies), adventure, sport (including motorsports, soccer, and tennis), glamour (beauty and fashion), and independence. Conclusions: The tobacco industry set about constructing a tobacco culture that sought to make smoking desirable, even normal, for young men and women. Understanding the way industry constructed this culture provides insights into ways that culture might now be challenged. Countering the transnational nature of many activities will require coordinated effort at the international, regional, and national levels. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will be a powerful tool in this process. All nations throughout Asia are encouraged to support the FCTC and its broad protocols addressing advertising and sponsorship. Measures are also required to disassociate smoking from progress in sex equality. PMID:15564216

  1. Induction of Sesquiterpenoid Biosynthesis in Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures by Fungal Elicitor 1

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Joseph; Nable, Ross

    1987-01-01

    Large amounts of the sesquiterpenoid capsidiol accumulated in the media of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY14) cell suspension cultures upon addition of fungal elicitor. Capsidiol accumulation was proportional to the amount of elicitor added. The accumulation of capsidiol was preceded by a transient increase in the capsidiol de novo synthesis rate as measured by the incorporation of exogenous [14C]acetate. Changes in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34), an enzyme of general isoprenoid metabolism, paralleled the changes in [14C]acetate incorporation into capsidiol. Incubation of the cell cultures with mevinolin, a potent in vitro inhibitor of the tobacco HMGR enzyme activity, inhibited the elicitor-induced capsidiol accumulation in a concentration dependent manner. [14C]Acetate incorporation into capsidiol was likewise inhibited by mevinolin treatment. Unexpectedly, [3H] mevalonate incorporation into capsidiol was also partially inhibited by mevinolin, suggesting that mevinolin may effect secondary sites of sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis in vivo beyond HMGR. The data indicated the importance of the induced HMGR activity for capsidiol production in elicitor-treated tobacco cell suspension cultures. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16665722

  2. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Bouteau, François

    2014-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·–) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·– generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca2+]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD. PMID:24420571

  3. Tobacco BY-2 cell-free lysate: an alternative and highly-productive plant-based in vitro translation system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-free protein synthesis is a rapid and efficient method for the production of recombinant proteins. Usage of prokaryotic cell-free extracts often leads to non-functional proteins. Eukaryotic counterparts such as wheat germ extract (WGE) and rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RLL) may improve solubility and promote the correct folding of eukaryotic multi-domain proteins that are difficult to express in bacteria. However, the preparation of WGEs is complex and time-consuming, whereas RLLs suffer from low yields. Here we report the development of a novel cell-free system based on tobacco Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cells harvested in the exponential growth phase. Results The highly-productive BY-2 lysate (BYL) can be prepared quickly within 4–5 h, compared to 4–5 d for WGE. The efficiency of the BYL was tested using three model proteins: enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and two versions of luciferase. The added mRNA was optimized by testing different 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs). The protein yield in batch and dialysis reactions using BYL was much higher than that of a commercial Promega WGE preparation, achieving a maximum yield of 80 μg/mL of eYFP and 100 μg/mL of luciferase, compared to only 45 μg/mL of eYFP and 35 μg/mL of luciferase in WGEs. In dialysis reactions, the BYL yielded about 400 μg/mL eYFP, representing up to 50% more of the target protein than the Promega WGE, and equivalent to the amount using 5Prime WGE system. Conclusions Due to the high yield and the short preparation time the BYL represents a remarkable improvement over current eukaryotic cell-free systems. PMID:24886601

  4. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space.

    PubMed

    Sieberer, Björn J; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W

    2009-11-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March-April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton, the results suggest a role for the cell wall, or its production machinery, in structuring the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:19756725

  5. Proteins associated with adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.K.; Handa, A.K.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Bressan, R.A.

    1985-09-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands are reduced. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate /sup 35/S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From their results, the authors suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Cigarettes, social reinforcement, and culture: a commentary on "Tobacco as a social currency: cigarette gifting and sharing in China".

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-03-01

    As Rich and Xiao suggested, cigarette sharing and gifting play an important role in China's smoking epidemic. Understanding the cultural roots, history, and impacts of such practices should be emphasized in tobacco control efforts. "Tobacco as a social currency" is a consequence of the tobacco industry usurping traditional values and cultural customs to make cigarette gifting acceptable, desirable, and socially reinforcing. The cigarettes-social reinforcement link created by the tobacco industry can be broken by deglamorizing smoking and cigarette gifting and by reinforcing alternative healthful behaviors. A behavioral ecological perspective, with an emphasis of understanding and engineering cultures, should guide future health promotion efforts to reduce smoking and other risk practices in China. PMID:22180592

  7. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  8. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K.L.N.; Siva Raju, K.; Ravisankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  9. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  10. Assessment of Cultivation Factors that Affect Biomass and Geraniol Production in Transgenic Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  11. Response of tobacco tissue cultures growing in contact with lunar fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    During the quarantine periods following each Apollo mission to the moon, various biological systems were placed in the presence of lunar material to determine if pathogenic agents were present. Although no detrimental effects resulted, various responses by the several plant systems tested were noted. One such response was the increased pigmentation observed in the callus tissue cultures of tobacco. Further investigations revealed that these tissues grown in the presence of lunar material resulted in as much as a 35% increase in total pigments while differences in fatty acid and sterol concentrations were also noted when compared to the controls. It is believed that these changes brought about by the lunar material can be attributed to a change in the nutritional environment caused by its dissolution.

  12. Prenylcysteine α-Carboxyl Methyltransferase in Suspension-Cultured Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Dring N.; Sen, Stephanie E.; Randall, Stephen K.

    1998-01-01

    Isoprenylation is a posttranslational modification that is believed to be necessary, but not sufficient, for the efficient association of numerous eukaryotic cell proteins with membranes. Additional modifications have been shown to be required for proper intracellular targeting and function of certain isoprenylated proteins in mammalian and yeast cells. Although protein isoprenylation has been demonstrated in plants, postisoprenylation processing of plant proteins has not been described. Here we demonstrate that cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright Yellow-2) cells contain farnesylcysteine and geranylgeranylcysteine α-carboxyl methyltransferase activities with apparent Michaelis constants of 73 and 21 μm for N-acetyl-S-trans,trans-farnesyl-l-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-all-trans-geranylgeranyl-l-cysteine, respectively. Furthermore, competition analysis indicates that the same enzyme is responsible for both activities. These results suggest that α-carboxyl methylation is a step in the maturation of isoprenylated proteins in plants. PMID:9733531

  13. Evaluation of Parameters in the Isolation of Viable Protoplasts from Cultured Tobacco Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Murashige, Toshio

    1974-01-01

    A systematic evaluation disclosed the following conditions to be optimum for the isolation of viable protoplasts from cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum L. `Bright Yellow' grown in liquid suspensions: (a) the cell culture in the early phase of cell number increase, (b) an enzyme mixture of 1% cellulase “Onozuka” and 0.2% Macerozyme, (c) an enzyme solution pH of 4.7 or 5.7, (d) a 2- to 3-hr incubation period, (e) 5 ml of enzyme solution per 500 mg cells and contained in a 50-ml Delong flask, (f) agitation on a gyrotory shaker at 50 rpm, and (g) 0.3 to 0.8 m mannitol as osmoticum in the cell enzyme mixture. The incubation temperature may be varied from 22 to 37 C. The procedure enabled 30% of the tobacco cells to form protoplasts, 80% of which regenerated cell walls in 4 days and 40% resumed cell division activity when returned to cell culture medium. Images PMID:16659004

  14. High-yield production of apoplast-directed human adenosine deaminase in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Singhabahu, Sanjeewa; George, John; Bringloe, David

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, where a deleterious mutation in the ADA gene of patients results in a dysfunctional immune system, is ultimately caused by an absence of ADA. Over the last 25 years the disease has been treated with PEG-ADA, made from purified bovine ADA coupled with polyethylene glycol (PEG). However, it is thought that an enzyme replacement therapy protocol based on recombinant human ADA would probably be a more effective treatment. With this end in mind, a human ADA cDNA was inserted into plant expression vectors used to transform tobacco plant cell suspensions. Transgenic calli expressing constructs containing apoplast-directing signals showed significantly higher levels of recombinant ADA expression than calli transformed with cytosolic constructs. The most significant ADA activities, however, were measured in the media of transgenic cell suspensions prepared from high expressing transformed calli: where incorporation of a signal for arabinogalactan addition to ADA led to a recombinant protein yield of approximately 16 mg L(-1) , a 336-fold increase over ADA produced by cell suspensions transformed with a cytosolic construct. PMID:24825606

  15. Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries: the need for social and cultural research.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mimi; Greaves, Lorraine; Bloch, Michele; Paglia, Michael; Scarinci, Isabel; Tolosa, Jorge E; Novotny, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of death and of poor pregnancy outcome in many countries. While tobacco use is decreasing in many high-income countries, it is increasing in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where by the year 2030, 80% of deaths caused by tobacco use are expected to occur. In many LMICs, few women smoke tobacco, but strong evidence indicates this is changing; increased tobacco smoking by pregnant women will worsen pregnancy outcomes, especially in resource-poor settings, and threatens to undermine or reverse hard-won gains in maternal and child health. To date, little research has focused on preventing pregnant women's tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in LMICs. Research on social and cultural influences on pregnant women's tobacco use will greatly facilitate the design and implementation of effective prevention programs and policies, including the adaptation of successful strategies used in high-income countries. This paper describes pregnant women's tobacco use and SHS exposure and the social and cultural influences on pregnant women's tobacco exposure; it also presents a research agenda put forward by an international workgroup convened to make recommendations in this area. PMID:20225988

  16. Cell culture-induced gradual and frequent epigenetic reprogramming of invertedly repeated tobacco transgene epialleles.

    PubMed

    Krizova, Katerina; Fojtova, Miloslava; Depicker, Ann; Kovarik, Ales

    2009-03-01

    Using a two-component transgene system involving two epiallelic variants of the invertedly repeated transgenes in locus 1 (Lo1) and a homologous single-copy transgene locus 2 (Lo2), we have studied the stability of the methylation patterns and trans-silencing interactions in cell culture and regenerated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The posttranscriptionally silenced (PTGS) epiallele of the Lo1 trans-silences and trans-methylates the target Lo2 in a hybrid (Lo1/Lo2 line), while its transcriptionally silenced variant (Lo1E) does not. This pattern was stable over several generations in plants. However, in early Lo1E/Lo2 callus, decreased transgene expression and partial loss of Lo1E promoter methylation compared with leaf tissue in the parental plant were observed. Analysis of small RNA species and coding region methylation suggested that the transgenes were silenced by a PTGS mechanism. The Lo1/Lo2 line remained silenced, but the nonmethylated Lo1 promoter acquired partial methylation in later callus stages. These data indicate that a cell culture process has brought both epialleles to a similar epigenetic ground. Bisulfite sequencing of the 35S promoter within the Lo1 silencer revealed molecules with no, intermediate, and high levels of methylation, demonstrating, to our knowledge for the first time, cell-to-cell methylation diversity of callus. Regenerated plants showed high interindividual but low intraindividual epigenetic variability, indicating that the callus-induced epiallelic variants were transmitted to plants and became fixed. We propose that epigenetic changes associated with dedifferentiation might influence regulatory pathways mediated by trans-PTGS processes. PMID:19129419

  17. Trichoderma viride cellulase induces resistance to the antibiotic pore-forming peptide alamethicin associated with changes in the plasma membrane lipid composition of tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alamethicin is a membrane-active peptide isolated from the beneficial root-colonising fungus Trichoderma viride. This peptide can insert into membranes to form voltage-dependent pores. We have previously shown that alamethicin efficiently permeabilises the plasma membrane, mitochondria and plastids of cultured plant cells. In the present investigation, tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow-2) were pre-treated with elicitors of defence responses to study whether this would affect permeabilisation. Results Oxygen consumption experiments showed that added cellulase, already upon a limited cell wall digestion, induced a cellular resistance to alamethicin permeabilisation. This effect could not be elicited by xylanase or bacterial elicitors such as flg22 or elf18. The induction of alamethicin resistance was independent of novel protein synthesis. Also, the permeabilisation was unaffected by the membrane-depolarising agent FCCP. As judged by lipid analyses, isolated plasma membranes from cellulase-pretreated tobacco cells contained less negatively charged phospholipids (PS and PI), yet higher ratios of membrane lipid fatty acid to sterol and to protein, as compared to control membranes. Conclusion We suggest that altered membrane lipid composition as induced by cellulase activity may render the cells resistant to alamethicin. This induced resistance could reflect a natural process where the plant cells alter their sensitivity to membrane pore-forming agents secreted by Trichoderma spp. to attack other microorganisms, and thus adding to the beneficial effect that Trichoderma has for plant root growth. Furthermore, our data extends previous reports on artificial membranes on the importance of lipid packing and charge for alamethicin permeabilisation to in vivo conditions. PMID:21156059

  18. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Smokeless Tobacco KidsHealth > For Teens > Smokeless Tobacco Print A A ... thing as a "safe" tobacco product. What Is Smokeless Tobacco? Smokeless tobacco is also called spit tobacco, chewing ...

  19. Dental hygiene students' perceptions of a cultural competence component in a tobacco dependence education curriculum: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Heather J; Maillet, Peggy J; Brillant, Martha G; Tax, Cara L

    2015-06-01

    First Nations and Inuit peoples have tobacco use rates three times that of the Canadian national average. Providing tobacco dependence education (TDE) requires an understanding of the factors surrounding tobacco use that are culturally specific to this population. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new cultural competence component for Canadian First Nations and Inuit peoples in a TDE curriculum at Dalhousie University School of Dental Hygiene, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. In 2011, the TDE curriculum was revised to include a First Nations and Inuit people's cultural component. A 32-question survey was developed for the study, with questions divided into four subscales regarding students' perceived knowledge, skills, comfort level, and attitudes about working with this population. Responses from students in two succeeding years were compared: the first cohort had not participated in the revised curriculum (56% response rate), and the second cohort had (63% response rate). The results showed an overall improvement in the subscales evaluated and a significant (p=0.002) improvement in the knowledge subscale of the students who received the new TDE curriculum, specifically regarding knowledge about sociocultural characteristics, health risks, and cultural healing traditions of First Nations and Inuit people. Although the results indicated an increase in the knowledge of the culture of First Nations and Inuit peoples, it is unclear whether the students felt better prepared to provide TDE to this population. For future research, the investigators would examine what learning experiences and further changes to the curriculum could be provided to facilitate the level of preparedness to successfully deliver TDE. PMID:26034033

  20. Intracellular concentrations and metabolism of carbon compounds in tobacco callus cultures: Effects of light and auxin

    SciTech Connect

    Lawyer, A.L.; Grady, K.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    Callus cultures derived from pith tissue of Nicotiana tobacum were grown on two media either under continuous illumination or in complete darkness. The first medium limited greening ability of callus grown in the light (3 milligrams per liter naphthalene acetic acid, 0.3 milligram per liter 2-isopentenylaminopurine, Murashige and Skoog salts, and 2% sucrose). The second medium encouraged chlorophyll synthesis (greening) though not shoot formation (0.3 milligram per liter naphthalene acetic acid; 0.3 milligrams per liter 2-isopentylaminopurine). To measure intracellular concentrations, calli were grown for 15 days on these standard media containing (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose. The dry weight proportions of the calli (as a fraction of fresh weight) and many metabolite concentrations nearly doubled in light-grown cells compared to dark-grown cells and increase 30 to 40% on low-auxin media relative to high-auxin media. Glutamine concentrations (from 4 to 26 millimolar) were very high, probably due to the NH/sub 3/ content of the media. Proline concentrations were 20-fold higher in calli grown on low-auxin media in the light (green cells), possibly a stress response to high osmotic potentials in these cells. To analyze sucrose metabolism, callus cells were allowed to take up 0.2% (weight per volume) (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for up to 90 minutes. In callus tissues and in pith sections from stems of tobacco plants, sucrose was primarily metabolized through invertase activity, producing equal amounts of labeling glucose and fructose. Respiration of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ followed the labeling patterns of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Photorespiration activity was low.

  1. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL. PMID:24555083

  2. Auxin autonomy in cultured tobacco teratoma tissues transformed by an auxin-mutant strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Campell, B R; Su, L Y; Pengelly, W L

    1992-08-01

    We have studied the mechanism of auxin autonomy in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) crowngall tissues transformed by the auxin-mutant (tms (-)) A66 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Normally, tms (-) tobacco tumor tissues require the formation of shoots to exhibit auxin-independent growth in culture. We have isolated from tms (-) tobacco cells several stable variants that are fully hormone-independent and grow rapidly as friable, unorganized tissues, thus mimicking the growth and morphology of tms (+) tobacco cells that produce high levels of auxin. However, none of the variants contained the high levels of auxin found in tms (+) tumor cells. The variants could be divided into two classes with respect to their response to applied auxin. The first class was highly sensitive to applied auxin: low concentrations (1 μM) of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) severely inhibited growth and markedly stimulated the accumulation of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The second class of variants showed a low sensitivity to applied auxin: growth was promoted by concentrations of NAA up to 10 μM, and growth inhibition and high ACC levels were observed only at high NAA concentrations (100 μM). Unorganized variants with low auxin sensitivity were also isolated from a variant line with high auxin sensitivity. The isolation of tumor cells that exhibited the growth phenotype of tms (+) cells while retaining the low auxin content and low auxin sensitivity of tms (-) cells indicates that full hormone autonomy, characteristic of wild-type crown-gall tumors, can be achieved by a mechanism that is independent of changes in the auxin physiology of the cells. PMID:24178208

  3. A novel mechanism of aluminum-induced cell death involving vacuolar processing enzyme and vacuolar collapse in tobacco cell line BY-2.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Koki; Demiral, Tijen; Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Turkan, Ismail; Sano, Toshio; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2013-11-01

    The role of vacuole in the cell death mechanism induced by aluminum (Al) was investigated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell line BY-2. Cells at logarithmic phase of growth were treated without (control) or with Al (up to 150 μM) in a treatment medium containing CaCl2, sucrose and 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer (pH 5.0). After 18 h treatment, both the integrity of the plasma membrane (estimated by Evans blue uptake) and growth capacity (estimated by post-Al treatment growth in nutrient medium) were decreased, while the activity of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) was increased, in the Al dose-dependent manner. The activity of the vacuole (estimated by neutral red uptake) was slightly increased at 50 μM then decreased with an increase in Al concentration. Direct observation of morphological changes of vacuole in a transgenic BY-2 expressing GFP-AtVam3p fusion protein localized on tonoplast indicated Al-induced collapse of vacuole. Time-course experiments indicated that both an increase in VPE activity and a loss of growth capacity were clearly observed at 6 h of the treatment time, prior to the loss of plasma membrane integrity. The presence of Ac-YVAD-CHO (an inhibitor effective to VPE) during Al treatment suppressed a loss of plasma membrane integrity. The expression of VPE genes (VPE-1a, VPE-1b) were significantly enhanced by Al treatment. Taken together, we conclude that an enhancement of VPE activity by Al is controlled at transcriptional level, and is a key factor leading to a loss of integrity of the plasma membrane and a loss of growth capacity. PMID:23891542

  4. Dissection of autophagy in tobacco BY-2 cells under sucrose starvation conditions using the vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A and the autophagy-related protein Atg8

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Kanako; Yanagisawa, Takahiro; Mukae, Kyosuke; Niwa, Yasuo; Inoue, Yuko; Moriyasu, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells undergo autophagy in sucrose-free culture medium, which is the process mostly responsible for intracellular protein degradation under these conditions. Autophagy was inhibited by the vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitors concanamycin A and bafilomycin A1, which caused the accumulation of autophagic bodies in the central vacuoles. Such accumulation did not occur in the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and concanamycin in turn inhibited the accumulation of autolysosomes in the presence of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64c. Electron microscopy revealed not only that the autophagic bodies were accumulated in the central vacuole, but also that autophagosome-like structures were more frequently observed in the cytoplasm in treatments with concanamycin, suggesting that concanamycin affects the morphology of autophagosomes in addition to raising the pH of the central vacuole. Using BY-2 cells that constitutively express a fusion protein of autophagosome marker protein Atg8 and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we observed the appearance of autophagosomes by fluorescence microscopy, which is a reliable morphological marker of autophagy, and the processing of the fusion protein to GFP, which is a biochemical marker of autophagy. Together, these results suggest the involvement of vacuole type H+-ATPase in the maturation step of autophagosomes to autolysosomes in the autophagic process of BY-2 cells. The accumulation of autophagic bodies in the central vacuole by concanamycin is a marker of the occurrence of autophagy; however, it does not necessarily mean that the central vacuole is the site of cytoplasm degradation. PMID:26368310

  5. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  6. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  7. The externally derived portion of the hyperosmotic shock-activated cytosolic calcium pulse mediates adaptation to ionic stress in suspension-cultured tobacco cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influx of Ca2+ into the cytosol has long been suggested to serve as a signaling intermediate in the acquisition of tolerance to hyperosmotic and/or salinity stresses. Here we use aequorin-transformed suspension-cultured tobacco cells to directly assess the role of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+cyt) si...

  8. Ties That Work: The Interaction between Group Assignment Method and a Culturally-Relevant Curriculum in the Context of Middle School Anti-Tobacco Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Johnson, C. Anderson; Valente, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-led programs that employ classroom-based group exercises have been shown to be the most effective in preventing adolescent tobacco use. In addition, health promotion programs that include cultural referents have also been shown to be advantageous. The purpose of this study was to test the interaction between the method by which leaders and…

  9. Early events responsible for aluminum toxicity symptoms in suspension-cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Yamamoto, Yoko; Rengel, Zdenko; Ahn, Sung Ju; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the aluminum (Al)-induced alterations in zeta potential, plasma membrane (PM) potential and intracellular calcium levels to elucidate their interaction with callose production induced by Al toxicity. A noninvasive confocal laser microscopy has been used to analyse the live tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell events by means of fluorescent probes Fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester (intracellular calcium) and DiBAC4 (PM potential) as well as to monitor callose accumulation. Log-phase cells showed no detectable changes in the PM potential during the first 30 min of Al treatment, but sustained large depolarization from 60 min onwards. Measurement of zeta potential confirmed the depolarization effect of Al, but the kinetics were different. The Al-treated cells showed a moderate increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels and callose production in 1 h, which coincided with the time course of PM depolarization. Compared with the Al treatment, cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, facilitated a higher increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels, but resulted in accumulation of only moderate levels of callose. Calcium channel modulators and Al induced similar levels of callose in the initial 1 h of treatment. Callose production induced by Al toxicity is dependent on both depolarization of the PM and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. PMID:15720625

  10. Metabolism of tobacco-specific nitrosamines by cultured rat nasal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Brittebo, E.B.; Castonguay, A.; Furuya, K.; Hecht, S.S.

    1983-09-01

    The metabolism of two nasal carcinogens, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), was investigated using cultured nasal septa of F344 rats. The explants were cultured with 14C-labeled N-nitrosamines, and unbound metabolites present in the medium were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the mucosa of the nasal septum had a marked capacity to metabolize NNN and NNK to hydroxylated products which were released into the culture media. Extensive activation by alpha-carbon hydroxylation of NNN (preferentially 2'-carbon hydroxylation) and NNK was observed, whereas no deactivation by pyridine N-oxidation could be detected. Microautoradiographic studies of explants showed that binding of radioactivity occurred preferentially in the respiratory and olfactory epithelia and in the subepithelial glands of the nasal mucosa. The results suggest that reactive metabolites of NNN and NNK are formed within the target tissue rather than being transported from the liver to the nasal mucosa. The results also show that the culture of nasal septa can be used to ascertain the role of the nasal mucosa in the activation of nasal-specific carcinogens.

  11. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... stillbirth when used during pregnancy Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine poisoning and even death in children who mistake it for candy. Smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction. This can lead to smoking and using other forms of tobacco. ...

  12. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increasedmore » wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.« less

  13. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  14. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production. PMID:25536327

  15. Changes in cell wall properties coincide with overexpression of extensin fusion proteins in suspension cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Kieliszewski, Marcia J

    2014-01-01

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production. PMID:25536327

  16. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  17. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste. PMID:27376833

  18. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

  19. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  20. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups. PMID:24563138

  1. New artificial electron donors for in vitro assay of nitrate reductase isolated from cultured tobacco cells and other organisms.

    PubMed

    Hoarau, J; Hirel, B; Nato, A

    1986-04-01

    The capacity of bromphenol blue and its analogs to act as electron donors for measurement of in vitro nitrate reductase activity from tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum var Techné SP 25 strain) was determined. Competitive inhibition was demonstrated to occur between NADH, the natural electron donor, and bromphenol blue, the artificial electron donor, suggesting that both donors bind to a similar active site on the enzyme. NADH-dependent or bromphenol blue-dependent nitrate reductase activity was carried out by a similar molecular weight protein exhibiting similar antigenic sites. Following ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density gradient and two chromatographic steps, nitrate reductase activity from tobacco cells was purified near homogeneity using bromphenol blue as an electron donor in the absence of measurable NADH-dependent activity. The enzyme is composed of two identical subunits of 83 kilodaltons < Momega < 94 kilodaltons. PMID:16664746

  2. Race and Tobacco Use: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel; Caixeta, Roberta; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Blanco, Adriana; Hennis, Anselm

    2016-04-01

    These findings suggest that there are no "fixed" racial patterns of tobacco use around the globe. Cross-country differences in tobacco use among races could be modified by cultural influences, domestic tobacco control, or socioeconomic factors. There is need for enhanced efforts to monitor tobacco use by race/ethnicity to identify existing and emerging patterns in tobacco use by race, as well as identify opportunities for interventions. Tailored interventions to reduce tobacco use within different settings and countries may help reduce tobacco use among racial/ethnic minorities. Implementation of comprehensive tobacco control measures could be facilitated by community-based efforts, ensuring that disadvantaged populations are engaged as partners to adapt tobacco control policies and interventions to local contexts and health equity issues. PMID:26980869

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing applications for monitoring and stress detection in cultural plants: viral infections in tobacco plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Petrov, Nikolai; Maneva, Svetla

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal the presence of viral infections in two varieties of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) as well as to discriminate the levels of the disease using hyperspectral leaf reflectance. Data sets were collected from two tobacco cultivars, Xanthi and Rustica, known as most widespread in Bulgaria. Experimental plants were grown in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf plants of cultivar Xanthi were inoculated with Potato virus Y (PVY) while the Rustica plants were inoculated with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). These two viruses are worldwide distributed and cause significant yield losses in many economically important crops. In the course of time after inoculation the concentration of the viruses in plant leaves was assessed by erological analysis via DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR techniques. Hyperspectral reflectance data were collected by a portable fibreoptics spectrometer in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm). As control plants healthy untreated tobacco plants were used. The significance of the differences between reflectance spectra of control and infected leaves was analyzed by means of Student's t-criterion at p<0.05. The analyses were performed at ten wavebands selected to cover the green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm) spectral ranges. Changes in SRC were found for both viral treatments and comparative analysis showed that the influence of PVY was stronger. The discrimination of disease intensity was achieved by derivative analysis of the red edge position.

  4. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  5. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco? Does smokeless tobacco cause cancer? Does smokeless tobacco cause other diseases? Can a ... chemicals in smokeless tobacco have been found to cause cancer ( 1 ). The most harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco ...

  6. Glutamine synthetase in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase deficient tobacco mutants in cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Hirel, B; Nato, A; Martin, F

    1984-06-01

    In two tobacco mutants lacking ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase the amount of glutamine synthetase and its activity were determined and compared with the wild type green cells. It was shown that in these two mutants glutamine synthetase protein content was six times lower than in the wild type. This situation was comparable to that found in etiolated cells where ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was absent. These observations suggest that a common regulatory mechanism might control the dual light dependent biosynthesis of both enzymes. The results have also implications concerning the efficiency of the reassimilation of ammonia by chloroplastic glutamine synthetase during the photorespiratory process. PMID:24253436

  7. Milk whey culture with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 is effective on the colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masayuki; Mogami, Orie

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether milk whey culture with Propinibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 (milk whey culture), which has been reported to have Bifidogenic activity, is effective on the colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. For the induction of colitis, the colon was clamped and 0.1 M TNBS in 35% ethanol was injected into the luminal side of the clamped portion under pentobarbital anesthesia. From the next day of colitis induction, milk whey culture was administered orally at doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, twice a day for 9 days. On the 10th day, rats were sacrificed and ulcer size was measured. Milk whey culture significantly accelerated the healing of the colitis in a dose-dependent manner, but culture medium did not. To clarify the active substance, the effects of propionic acid and acetic acid contained in milk whey culture was tested. Sodium propionate significantly accelerated the healing of TNBS-induced colitis, but sodium acetate did not. The above results show that milk whey culture may become a useful prebiotic for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease and that propionic acid may be one of the active substances contained in milk whey culture. PMID:16314691

  8. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping carries risks like Cancer of the mouth Decay of exposed tooth roots Pulling away of the gums from the teeth ...

  9. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  10. Phenotypic and physiologic variability in nasal epithelium cultured from smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergence of air-liquid interface (ALI) culturing of mammalian airway epithelium is a recent innovation for experimental modeling of airway epithelial development, function, and pathogenic mechanisms associated with infectious agent and irritant exposure. This construct provi...

  11. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  12. Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... pneumonia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the ...

  13. Auxin Reduces the Synthesis of Major Vacuolar Proteins in Tobacco Mesophyl Protoplast

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Yves; Chartier, Yvette; Alibert, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    We have established that polypeptides whose synthesis is reduced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid during in vitro culture of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts are secreted into the vacuole where they constitute the bulk of labeled proteins. In addition, these proteins continue to be synthesized in protoplast-derived cultured cells and their synthesis is strictly correlated with the size of the cell, i.e. with vacuolar size. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665313

  14. Current challenges in tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Slama, K

    2004-10-01

    Tobacco is the world's biggest preventable killer, but the circumstances of its history, the power and influence of its commerce and the nature of addiction make it a very difficult public health issue. Determinants of smoking are both individual and environmental. Genetics and environment influence to varying degrees all of the steps in a smoker's career. Persistence of use, degree of addiction to nicotine and difficulty in stopping are influenced by inherited traits and nicotine susceptibility, whereas the social environment and the individual's cognitions are the key factors in starting smoking and successfully stopping smoking. The tools available to tobacco control include influencing the social and cultural norms concerning tobacco; legislative and regulatory measures to protect the population and to limit tobacco industry marketing tactics, now encapsulated in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; and programmes to enhance the chance of not starting and successfully stopping. Strategies for tobacco control must work at both societal and individual levels, and directions are being taken that include genetic, pharmacological, behavioural, socio-cultural and international approaches. PMID:15527147

  15. You and Me Tobacco Free: Children's Activities in Tobacco Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Judith K.

    This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. The booklet presents seven activities to teach young children in kindergarten through third grade to remain tobacco free.…

  16. Military Tobacco Policies: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Haddock, C. Keith; Long, Mark A. D.; Williams, CAPT Larry N.; Lando, Harry A.; Carlos Poston, W. S.

    2012-01-01

    The United States military has the legacy of a pro-tobacco culture and still has prevalence rates of tobacco use that are higher than their civilian counterparts. One tactic for decreasing use and the subsequent health problems is through effective tobacco control policies. We collected available tobacco control policies from all four branches of the military and, through qualitative analysis, identified policies that were unique either as providing more or less detail and restriction than peer group policies. Best and worst practice policies in the areas of enforcement, smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, framing tobacco as non-normative, designated tobacco use areas, and monitoring of tobacco use are presented. Because policy making can be an effective tool for improving the health of military members, understanding what policy components are comparatively positive or negative is an important tool for health advocates both in the military and civilian settings. PMID:22338352

  17. Youth and Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... from Tobacco Regulations Restricting the Sale, Distribution, and Marketing of Cigarettes, Cigarette Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco. Preventing ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Ozone-Induced Cell Death Mediated with Oxidative and Calcium Signaling Pathways in Tobacco Bel-W3 and Bel-B Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Furuichi, Takuya; Hirono, Manabu; Garrec, Jean Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Ozone (O3)-induced cell death in two suspension-cultured cell lines of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) derived from Bel-W3 (hyper-sensitive to O3) and Bel-B (highly tolerant to O3) varieties were studied. By exposing the newly prepared cell lines to the pulse of ozonized air, we could reproduce the conditions demonstrating the difference in O3 sensitivity as observed in their original plants, depending on the exposure time. Since O3-induced acute cell death was observed in the dark, the requirement for photochemical reactions could be eliminated. Addition of several ROS scavengers and chelators inhibited the cell death induced by O3, indicating that singlet oxygen (1O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical and redox-active metals such as Fe2+ play central roles in O3-induced acute damages to the cells. As expected, we observed the generation of 1O2 and H2O2 in the O3-treated cells using chemiluminescent probes. On the other hand, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and some SOD mimics showed no inhibitory effect. Thiols added as antioxidants unexpectedly behaved as prooxidants drastically enhancing the O3-induced cell death. It is noteworthy that some ROS scavengers effectively rescued the cells from dying even treated after the pulse of O3 exposure, confirming the post-ozone progress of ROS-dependent cell death mechanism. Since one of the key differences between Bel-B and Bel-W3 was suggested to be the capacity for ROS detoxification by catalase, the endogenous catalase activities were compared in vivo in two cell lines. As expected, catalase activity in Bel-B cells was ca. 7-fold greater than that in Bel-W3 cells. Interestingly, Ca2+ chelators added prior to (not after) the pulse of O3 effectively inhibited the induction of cell death. In addition, increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration sensitive to Ca2+ chelators, ion channel blockers, and ROS scavengers were observed in the transgenic Bel-W3 cells expressing aequorin, suggesting the

  19. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure. PMID:19079300

  20. Longitudinal effects of pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on adolescent smoking susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Cen, Steven; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson; Mouttapa, Michele; Schreiner, William S; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2006-06-01

    We examined the longitudinal impact of self-reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking, using in-school surveys from a culturally diverse sample. Ethnicity and acculturation also were examined as potential moderators. Middle-school students (N = 2,292) completed self-report questionnaires during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media varied according to ethnicity, acculturation, and immigration status. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure in 6th grade was associated with susceptibility to smoking by later grades. Recall of people smoking in television programs and pro-tobacco advertisements in stores was associated with adolescent smoking susceptibility. Exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements on television protected against susceptibility. No significant interaction effects between pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure on smoking susceptibility were found. Ethnicity and acculturation did not moderate these associations. Our longitudinal study provides evidence that pro-tobacco media and advertising increases susceptibility to smoking over time. More important, anti-tobacco advertisements are not sufficient to reduce the harmful effects of adolescent exposure to pro-tobacco media. Policy-level interventions such as restrictions in tobacco advertising may be necessary to prevent adolescent smoking. PMID:16801303

  1. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  2. Chinese Tobacco Industry Promotional Activity on the Microblog Weibo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Methods Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Results Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by ‘advertisement’ and ‘tobacco culture’ (both at 12%), ‘traditional culture’ and ‘public relations’ (both at 11%), and finally ‘social and business affairs’ (5%). 33% of posts included the words ‘cigarette’ or ‘smoking’ and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Conclusions Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban. PMID:24914739

  3. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    PubMed

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts. PMID:21322408

  4. Tobacco use among adults in Cambodia: evidence for a tobacco epidemic among women

    PubMed Central

    Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. Methods We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005–2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Findings Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560 482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504 783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. Conclusion The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices. PMID:20454481

  5. Toxicity assessment of tobacco products in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manuppello, Joseph R; Sullivan, Kristie M

    2015-03-01

    Driven by new regulatory demands to demonstrate risk reduction, the toxicity assessment of tobacco products increasingly employs innovative in vitro methods, including biphasic cell and tissue cultures exposed to whole cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface, cell transformation assays, and genomic analyses. At the same time, novel tobacco products are increasingly compared to traditional cigarettes. This overview of in vitro toxicology studies of tobacco products reported in the last five years provides evidence to support the prioritisation of in vitro over in vivo methods by industry and their recommendation by regulatory authorities. PMID:25802997

  6. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  7. You(th) & Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... on tobacco. Spend it on CDs, clothes, computer games, and movies. Get involved: make your team, school, ... home for parents to review. Make all practices, games, and competitions tobacco-free—on the field and ...

  8. Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cancer Get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it affects different groups ... Any Type of Smoking Safe? Health Risks of Smokeless Tobacco Health Risks of Secondhand Smoke Smoking While You ...

  9. Youth and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 Lower socioeconomic status, including lower income or education Lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use Lack of support or involvement from parents Accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco products Low levels of academic achievement ...

  10. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    MedlinePlus

    TOBACCO HARM TO KIDS Over 1.8 million high school students still smoke . 1 Nationwide, about one in ten ... women are exposed to secondhand smoke – causing enormous harms to newborn babies. 11 Tobacco Use Harms At ...

  11. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural

  12. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  13. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  14. Tobacco Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Camenga, Deepa R; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco use is a pervasive public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. This article reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use in youth, with a description of cigarettes, alternative tobacco product, and polytobacco use patterns among the general population and among adolescents with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. The article also provides an update on the diagnosis and assessment of tobacco use disorder in adolescents, with a particular focus on the clinical management of tobacco use in adolescents with co-occurring disorders. PMID:27338966

  15. Is Tobacco Use a Problem among Deaf College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara A.; Bernaards, Coen; Eckhardt, Elizabeth A.; Kleiger, Heidi B.; Maucere, Lauren; Streja, Leanne; Wong, Glenn; Barkin, Shari; Bastani, Roshan

    2006-01-01

    College students' tobacco use poses a significant public health problem. Effective intervention requires understanding of this behavior among race/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic collegiate subgroups, including deaf and hard of hearing collegians. Findings from a first-ever tobacco-related survey among this understudied population are reported.…

  16. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions

  17. Smokeless tobacco use in Urban Indian women: Prevalence and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Kulkarni, Sheetal V.; Gupta, Subhadra D.; Shastri, Surendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco. Tobacco consumption in nonsmoking forms is culturally accepted even among women. Aims: This study aimed at understanding the patterns and predictors of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among the urban low-socioeconomic women in Mumbai, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional community-based survey of tobacco usage among women residing in seven low-socioeconomic communities in suburbs of Mumbai, India. Staff for the study was recruited, trained, clusters selected, accurately mapped, households identified, meetings held with community leaders, and household surveys conducted. Women using tobacco were invited to participate in the detailed survey and interviewed to document the various sociodemographic factors and in depth information on tobacco use. The data were computerized and analyzed. Results: About 22.30% of the total female population consumed tobacco, mainly in the smokeless forms, with only 0.50% of the tobacco users using smoked tobacco. Masheri was the most common form of tobacco used, followed by chewing tobacco. The median frequency of use of different tobacco products varied from 2 to 4 per day. The mean age at initiation of tobacco was 26.23 years. According to the results of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, illiterate women, with advancing age, belonging to Hindu, Muslim, or Buddhist communities, who were either manual laborers or housewives, divorced or separated, and speaking Marathi were at higher risk of being tobacco user. Conclusion: Patterns and predictors of SLT use among women have been identified in the present study. This will guide in planning prevention and control strategies. PMID:26681842

  18. Women and tobacco in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To present a broad exploration of the relationship of women and tobacco in Indonesia and to describe action on tobacco and health specific to women taken by government and non-government agencies.
DATA SOURCES—Published and unpublished prevalence surveys, official documents, vernacular newspapers, secondary sources, unstructured interviews, and personal observations.
STUDY SELECTION—Data on smoking prevalence among women was primarily sought from official household surveys but several smaller scale local surveys were also examined. The only representative national household data on smoking prevalence from 1995 suggested a national prevalence for occasional and regular smoking of 2.6% for women aged 20 years or older. Smaller, local level surveys had reported rates varying from 4% for junior high school girls, and 2.9% for women undergraduates at a provincial university, to 6.4% of women in a representative sample in Jakarta. Claims that the incidence of female smoking is increasing cannot be confirmed due to an absence of comparable national longitudinal data.
CONCLUSION—Although Indonesian women are conspicuous in growing and processing tobacco, their rates of smoking are low in comparison with their male compatriots and internationally. Anecdotal evidence suggests that their disinclination to smoke is commonly attributed to cultural values, which stigmatise women smokers as morally flawed, while at the same time sanctioning smoking by men. Although there is little evidence of tobacco advertising directly targeting women, Indonesian health activists interviewed by the author felt that women are increasingly taking up smoking due to a weakening of stigma and to Western cultural influences. Cultural factors in the low rates of smoking among Indonesian women deserve closer investigation as they have proved to be a major source of health protection, albeit within a stigmatising context. More also needs to be known about the dynamics of

  19. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  20. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed. PMID:25526245

  1. Developing a Tobacco Survey for Deaf Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara A.; Eckhardt, Elizabeth A.; Kleiger, Heidi B.; Wong, Glenn; Lipton, Douglas S.; Bastani, Roshan; Barkin, Shari

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development of a culturally appropriate data collection instrument for a study of tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among youth with deafness. The instrument uses interactive multimedia technology to administer a questionnaire translated into the primary language used by individuals with deafness.…

  2. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    PubMed Central

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  3. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Gillman, I. Gene; Melvin, Matt S.; Paolantonio, Amelia R.; Gardow, Wendy J.; Humphries, Kathy E.; Brown, Sherri E.; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. Conclusions. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products. PMID:25811768

  4. Ameliorative effects of docosahexaenoic acid on the toxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2016-06-01

    The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant toxicant that mediates carcinogenic effects associated with oxidative DNA damage. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with antioxidant functions has many biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions for cells. The present study assessed, for the first time, the ameliorative effect of DHA in alleviating the toxicity of TCDD on primary cultured rat hepatocytes (HEPs). In vitro, isolated HEPs were incubated with TCDD (5 and 10 μM) in the presence and absence of DHA (5, 10, and 20 μM) for 48 h. The cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. DNA damage was analyzed by liver micronucleus assay and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) level. In addition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) were assessed to determine the oxidative injury in HEPs. The results of MTT and LDH assays showed that TCDD decreased cell viability but not DHA. On the basis of increasing treatment concentrations, the dioxin caused significant increases of micronucleated HEPs and 8-OH-dG as compared to control culture. TCDD also led to significant increases in TOS content. On the contrary, in cultures treated with DHA, the level of TAC was significantly increased during treatment in a concentration-dependent fashion. DHA showed therapeutic potential against TCDD-mediated cell viability and DNA damages. As conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that DHA has protective effects against TCDD toxicity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. PMID:25187318

  5. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  6. Tobacco Interventions. Fastback 421.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    Tobacco is routinely used during the school day by many middle school, junior, and senior high school students. Since the cost of tobacco addiction in terms of illness and the drain on school resources are enormous, an in-school cessation program is needed. No other institution in the community is better situated to provide intervention programs…

  7. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Pregnancy HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  8. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on how to stop Why is it hard to quit using smokeless tobacco? Like cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco) contains ...

  9. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  10. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  11. Westernization and tobacco use among young people in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Stigler, Melissa; Dhavan, Poonam; Van Dusen, Duncan; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K S; Perry, Cheryl L

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between acculturation and health in non-immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between "westernization" and tobacco use among adolescents living in Delhi, India. A bi-dimensional model of acculturation was adapted for use in this study to examine (a) whether young people's identification with Western culture in this setting is related to tobacco use, and (b) whether their maintenance of more traditional Indian ways of living is related to tobacco use. Multiple types of tobacco commonly used in India (e.g., cigarettes, bidis, chewing tobacco) were considered. Socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and grade level were examined as potential effect modifiers of the relationship between "westernization" and tobacco use. The study was cross-sectional by design and included 3512 students in eighth and tenth grades who were enrolled in 14 Private (higher SES) and Government (lower SES) schools in Delhi, India. A self-report survey was used to collect information on tobacco use and "westernization." The results suggest that young people's identification with Western influences may increase their risk for tobacco use, while their maintenance of traditional Indian ways of living confers some protection. Importantly, these effects were independent of one another. Boys benefitted more from protective effects than girls, and tenth graders gained more consistent benefits than eighth graders in this regard, too. Negative effects associated with identification with Western ways of living were, in contrast, consistent across gender and grade level. The positive and negative effects of acculturation on adolescent tobacco use held for all tobacco products considered here. Future interventions designed to curb youth tobacco use in India may benefit by paying closer attention to cultural preferences of these young consumers. PMID:20598413

  12. Westernization and Tobacco Use Among Young People in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Dhavan, Poonam; Van Dusen, Duncan; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between acculturation and health in non-immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between “westernization” and tobacco use among adolescents living in Delhi, India. A bi-dimensional model of acculturation was adapted for use in this study to examine (a) whether young people's identification with Western culture in this setting is related to tobacco use and (b) whether their maintenance of more traditional Indian ways of living is related to tobacco use, also. Multiple types of tobacco use common in India (e.g., cigarettes, bidis, chewing tobacco) were considered. Socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and grade level were examined as potential effect modifiers of the relationship between “westernization” and tobacco use. The study was cross-sectional by design and included 3,512 students in eighth and tenth grades who were enrolled in 14 Private (higher SES) and Government (lower SES) schools in Delhi, India. A self-report survey was used to collect information on tobacco use and “westernization.” The results suggest that young people's identification with Western influences may increase their risk for tobacco use (p<0.001), while their maintenance of traditional Indian ways of living confers some protection (p<0.001). Importantly, these effects were independent of one another. Boys benefitted more from protective effects than girls, and tenth graders gained more consistent benefits than eighth graders in this regard, too. Negative effects associated with identification with Western ways of living were, in contrast, consistent across gender and grade level. The positive and negative effects of acculturation on adolescent tobacco use generalized across all tobacco products considered here. Future interventions designed to curb youth tobacco use in India may benefit by paying closer attention to cultural preferences of these young consumers. PMID:20598413

  13. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  14. Sensitivity of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) hepatocyte cultures to induction of cytochrome P4501A by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sean W; Jones, Stephanie P; Elliott, John E

    2003-01-01

    Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were added to primary hepatocyte cultures of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) embryos to determine their sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and porphyrin accumulation. No porphyrin accumulation was observed, but both CYP1A catalytic activity (using the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and immunodetectable CYP1A were induced by relatively high concentrations of TCDD. Bald eagle hepatocytes were less sensitive to CYP1A induction than hepatocytes from any other avian species that we have studied to date. These in vitro results are in general agreement with recent assessments of field data, which indicate that bald eagles are relatively insensitive to some of the effects of TCDD and related compounds. Preparation of bald eagle hepatocytes was challenging because existing methods did not yield monolayers of cells. Here we describe details of a new method that was successful for bald eagle hepatocytes. This new method is used routinely in our laboratory to prepare hepatocyte cultures from birds for examination of various biochemical responses to environmental contaminants. PMID:12739865

  15. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  16. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  17. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents. PMID:22210554

  18. Slowing the Epidemic of Tobacco Use Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Rod; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2003-01-01

    Data on tobacco use among the Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) population remain limited, although existing studies indicate that tobacco use prevalence among males from specific AAPI groups is significantly higher than in the general US male population. This high prevalence of tobacco use and the disparities in use result from social norms, targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, lack of culturally and linguistically tailored prevention and control programs, and limited impact of mainstream tobacco control programs for AAPIs. We review the available literature on tobacco use among AAPI men and women, highlight a national agenda that promotes tobacco prevention and control for AAPI communities, and acknowledge recent trends including the increase of tobacco use among AAPI women and girls. PMID:12721139

  19. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  20. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes primarily imported to the United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco ... in the United States. However, research studies from India show that bidi smoking is associated with cancer ...

  1. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  2. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... Infants and children who are often exposed to secondhand smoke are at ... cessation medications . Join a smoking cessation program and ...

  3. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukkonen, Anu . E-mail: anummela@mappi.helsinki.fi; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Alaluusua, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2006-05-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposure impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling.

  4. Cytochrome P4501A induction by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two chlorinated dibenzofurans in primary hepatocyte cultures of three avian species.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Jessica C; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P; Mundy, Lukas J; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve B; Wan, Yi; Kennedy, Sean W

    2010-02-01

    Relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) were determined in vitro in primary hepatocyte cultures of chicken (Gallus gallus), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryos. Concentration-dependent effects on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and expression of cytochrome P4501A4 and cytochrome P4501A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) messenger RNA (mRNA) were determined in hepatocytes exposed to serial dilutions of TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF for 24 h. In chicken hepatocytes, the three compounds were equipotent inducers of EROD activity and CYP1A4/CYP1A5 mRNA expression. However, in ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail hepatocytes, PeCDF was more potent than TCDD (3- to 5-fold in ring-necked pheasant and 13- to 30-fold in Japanese quail). Among species, the rank order of sensitivity (most to least) to EROD and CYP1A4/CYP1A5 mRNA induction for TCDD and TCDF was chicken > ring-necked pheasant > Japanese quail. In contrast, the three species were approximately equisensitive to EROD and CYP1A4/CYP1A5 mRNA induction by PeCDF. It has generally been assumed that TCDD is the most potent "dioxin-like compound" (DLC) and that the chicken is the most sensitive avian species to CYP1A induction by all DLCs. This study indicates that PeCDF is more potent than TCDD in ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail hepatocytes and that ring-necked pheasant, Japanese quail, and chicken hepatocytes are equally sensitive to CYP1A induction by PeCDF. PMID:19884122

  5. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  6. Tobacco document research reporting

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2005-01-01

    Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

  7. Tobacco NUP1 transports both tobacco alkaloids and vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keita; Shitan, Nobukazu; Shoji, Tsubasa; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The purine permeases (PUPs) constitute a large plasma membrane-localized transporter family in plants that mediates the proton-coupled uptake of nucleotide bases and their derivatives, such as adenine, cytokinins, and caffeine. A Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) PUP-family transporter, nicotine uptake permease 1 (NtNUP1), was previously shown to transport tobacco alkaloids and to affect both nicotine biosynthesis and root growth in tobacco plants. Since Arabidopsis PUP1, which belongs to the same subclade as NtNUP1, was recently reported to transport pyridoxine and its derivatives (vitamin B6), it was of interest to examine whether NtNUP1 could also transport these substrates. Direct uptake measurements in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that NtNUP1 efficiently promoted the uptake of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, anatabine, and nicotine. The naturally occurring (S)-isomer of nicotine was preferentially transported over the (R)-isomer. Transport studies using tobacco BY-2 cell lines overexpressing NtNUP1 or PUP1 showed that NtNUP1, similar to PUP1, transported various compounds containing a pyridine ring, but that the two transporters had distinct substrate preferences. Therefore, the previously reported effects of NtNUP1 on tobacco physiology might involve bioactive metabolites other than tobacco alkaloids. PMID:24947336

  8. An ethnographic study of tobacco control in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Annette S H; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L

    2006-01-01

    Background Tobacco control in hospital settings is characterised by a focus on protection strategies and an increasing expectation that health practitioners provide cessation support to patients. While practitioners claim to have positive attitudes toward supporting patient cessation efforts, missed opportunities are the practice norm. Objective To study hospital workplace culture relevant to tobacco use and control as part of a mixed‐methods research project that investigated hospital‐based registered nurses' integration of cessation interventions. Design The study was conducted at two hospitals situated in British Columbia, Canada. Data collection included 135 hours of field work including observations of ward activities and designated smoking areas, 85 unstructured conversations with nurses, and the collection of patient‐care documents on 16 adult in‐patient wards. Results The findings demonstrate that protection strategies (for example, smoking restrictions) were relatively well integrated into organisational culture and practice activities but the same was not true for cessation strategies. An analysis of resources and documentation relevant to tobacco revealed an absence of support for addressing tobacco use and cessation. Nurses framed patients' tobacco use as a relational issue, a risk to patient safety, and a burden. Furthermore, conversations revealed that nurses tended to possess only a vague awareness of nicotine dependence. Conclusion Overcoming challenges to extending tobacco control within hospitals could be enhanced by emphasising the value of addressing patients' tobacco use, raising awareness of nicotine dependence, and improving the availability of resources to address addiction issues. PMID:16885581

  9. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  10. Tobacco use in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E; Ellegaard, Pernille K; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M

    2015-04-30

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behavior, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  11. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Caitlin R.; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. Results: In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London’s Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Conclusion: Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions. PMID:20159772

  12. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco smoking among youth.

    PubMed

    Martinasek, Mary P; McDermott, Robert J; Martini, Leila

    2011-02-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a centuries old practice, influenced by cultural tradition in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. It historically has been an activity enjoyed primarily by men. In the past 2 decades, however, this method of tobacco smoking has increased in popularity in other parts of the world, including the USA. Growing interest in this form of smoking can be traced, in part, to the advent of a flavored tobacco, called maassel. The combination of flavoring agents and the paraphernalia itself used in the smoking process, along with its mystic appeal, novelty, affordability, and the social atmosphere in which smoking often occurs, has made waterpipe smoking attractive to women as well as men, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers alike, and particular groups, including persons of college age and younger adolescents. Although waterpipe smoking is perceived by its new generation of users to be less addictive and hazardous to health than cigarette smoking, researchers draw diametrically opposed conclusions. Research demonstrates that numerous toxic agents, including carcinogens, heavy metals, other particulate matter, and high levels of nicotine, are efficiently delivered through waterpipes. Moreover, sidestream smoke exposes others in the vicinity of waterpipe smokers to the risk of respiratory diseases and other conditions. In addition, persons sharing waterpipe mouthpieces may share infectious agents as well. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been declared a public health problem by the World Health Organization and other authorities. Recognition of the deleterious effects of waterpipe smoking has led to initial attempts to expand regulatory control. Because waterpipe tobacco is not directly burned in the smoking process, many existing control measures do not apply. Public health authorities should monitor waterpipe tobacco use carefully. Finally, pediatricians and other healthcare providers should discourage experimentation and

  13. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

  14. Tobacco use prevention and cessation in dental and dental hygiene undergraduate education.

    PubMed

    Ramseier, Christoph A; Christen, Arden; McGowan, Joan; McCartan, Bernard; Minenna, Luigi; Ohrn, Kerstin; Walter, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    Oral health care professionals are aware of their responsibility to advise patients to stop using tobacco. However, they do not feel sufficiently prepared to help their patients to quit, and consequently are not confident in providing these preventive measures. This fact reflects the lack of emphasis on tobacco cessation in both dental and dental hygiene undergraduate education. It may therefore be assumed that improvement of dental and dental hygiene education in tobacco use cessation counselling may result in increased self-confidence and frequency of its provision. The importance of making space in the curriculum for tobacco use prevention and cessation has to be emphasised. Dental schools and dental hygiene programmes have to be reminded of the key role the dental profession has in tobacco control. Next to the public health aspect of tobacco control, such involvement may be both an ethical and a legal responsibility. The implementation of effective tobacco use prevention and cessation in a dental educational setting requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the school's entire teaching personnel and external experts. In general, a knowledge base attained through lecture, Problem-Based Learning (PBL), or E-Learning, and clinical skills attained through clinical instructions and practices is required. It is suggested that curriculum content should include (1) the biological effects of tobacco use, (2) the history of tobacco culture and psychosocial aspects of tobacco use, (3) prevention and treatment of tobacco use and dependence, and (4) development of clinical skills for tobacco use prevention and cessation. PMID:16683397

  15. An endgame for tobacco?

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2013-01-01

    Since its origins in the 1960s, tobacco control has achieved remarkable success against the scourge of tobacco-produced disease and death. Yet tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, remains the world's leading cause of preventable premature death and is likely to do so for decades to come. Evidence-based policies seem incapable of substantially hastening the demise of smoking. Slowness in the decline of smoking in developed nations, and increasing smoking in many low- and middle-income countries has sparked interest in novel, even radical 'endgame' strategies to eliminate the toll of tobacco. This paper identifies the principal endgame proposals and, with the other papers in this volume, has the goal of expanding and deepening the endgame conversation by engaging the broader tobacco control community. While we struggle today with often widely divergent perspectives and beliefs about what is possible and how it might be achieved, we all share the same vision of the final words to this story: ‘The end’. PMID:23591502

  16. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  17. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  18. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  19. School Tobacco Policies in a Tobacco-Growing State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T.C.; Riker, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health…

  20. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity. PMID:20595351

  1. Prevalence of and Factors Related to Tobacco Ban Implementation in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T; Moore, Nancy D

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and factors (psychological climate for change and staff attributes) related to indoor and outdoor tobacco bans for patients, employees, and visitors in U.S. substance use disorder treatment programs. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,026 program administrators. Almost all programs banned tobacco use indoors and around one third banned tobacco use outdoors. When there was no tobacco ban, the majority of programs restricted smoking to designated indoor and/or outdoor areas. Further, all psychological climate for change factors (perceived program support, perceived tobacco culture, and tobacco ban beliefs) but none of the staff attributes (percentage licensed/certified clinicians, percentage clinicians with master's degrees, total staff with education in health-related field) were significantly related to the implementation of comprehensive tobacco bans (both indoors and outdoors). PMID:25677250

  2. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  3. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent young people from ever starting to smoke INTERNATIONAL ISSUES Tobacco use killed one hundred million people ... laws and litigation from around the world. Key International Issues Advertising and Promotion Bans on tobacco advertising, ...

  4. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  5. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  6. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  7. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  8. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  9. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p < 0.05). The median of prevalence of support for different tobacco control policies among all countries was as follows: complete ban on tobacco advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. PMID:25524474

  10. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  11. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  12. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  13. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  14. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  15. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  16. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  17. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  18. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  19. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following...

  20. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    PubMed Central

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  1. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. PMID:26504135

  2. Tobacco point‐of‐purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-01-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point‐of‐purchase promotion (also called point‐of‐sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point‐of‐purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well‐trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point‐of‐sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172

  3. Epidemiology of tobacco use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Gary A

    2002-10-21

    Efforts to understand trends in and patterns of lung cancer are well served by studies of trends in and patterns of tobacco use. In the United States, the manufactured cigarette emerged as the tobacco product of choice shortly after the turn of the twentieth century. Lung cancer emerged after years of inhalation of cigarette smoke, first among men and then among women. The massive public health education campaign that began after scientists recognized the dangers of cigarette smoking has contributed to large reductions in cigarette use and subsequent smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. Since 1965, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults has declined by almost half, with positive trends observed among persons in almost all sociodemographic groups and efforts to reduce disparities recognized as an important goal in public health. An epidemiologic approach to understanding and controlling patterns of tobacco use is proposed. The model focuses on the agent (tobacco products), host (consumer or potential consumer), vector (tobacco companies and other users), and environment (with influences from families, social sources, culture, history, politics, law, and media). Accelerating progress in reducing tobacco use will accelerate reductions in tobacco-attributable morbidity and mortality. PMID:12379876

  4. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  7. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  8. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S.; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). PMID:19440528

  9. Adolescent tobacco use and cessation.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Smith, J A

    1999-09-01

    Over one third of high school students in the United States smoke cigarettes, and close to 10% use spit tobacco. Tobacco use clusters with alcohol use, other substance abuse, and other health risk behaviors among teenagers. Public health and law enforcement policy changes, combined with effective substance use prevention programs in both elementary and middle school, are needed to prevent the early age of onset of tobacco use by youth. Primary care providers can play a key role in identifying children and adolescents who smoke or use spit tobacco and helping them discontinue their tobacco use. PMID:10436287

  10. Patterns of Tobacco Consumption among Indian Men with Schizophrenia Compared to Their Male Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Vatss, Saurabh; Mehar, Harpreet; Bhatia, Triptish; Richard, Jan; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Tobacco consumption among patients with schizophrenia has been investigated extensively in western countries, but there is a dearth of studies in India, where socio-economic and cultural variables are different. This study aims to investigate the patterns of tobacco consumption among schizophrenia patients compared with their non-psychotic siblings. Methods Consenting, successive male outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=100, DSM-IV criteria), and their non-psychotic brothers (n=100) were compared. Following a structured diagnostic interview, detailed information about tobacco consumption (including smokeless tobacco) was obtained using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for smoked tobacco, and FTND-smokeless tobacco. The University of Pennsylvania Computerized Neurocognitive battery (CNB) was administered to a sub-group of patients (n=48). Results Schizophrenia patients initiated tobacco use at a significantly earlier age than their brothers, but there was no significant difference with regard to type, quantity or frequency of tobacco use (smoke or smokeless varieties). Patients who consumed tobacco had significantly higher positive symptom scores compared with non-users (p=0.043). There were no significant differences between nicotine dependent and non-dependent patients with regard to CNB domains except attention. Conclusion Patterns of tobacco consumption were similar among schizophrenia patients and their non-psychotic brothers. Tobacco use was associated with increased positive symptom scores, but there were no significant differences in cognitive measures among nicotine dependent and non-dependent patients. PMID:22993523

  11. Alkaloid Changes in Tobacco Seeds during Germination 1

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, W. W.; Bush, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine, normally found in growing and mature tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants, were extracted and quantified from mature tobacco seeds and young tobacco seedlings. The rate of net alkaloid disappearance and accumulation in tobacco seedlings was related to phases of germination. In general, the increased rate of germination associated with higher temperatures also increased the rate of initial loss of alkaloids and the subsequent rate of accumulation of alkaloids. Maximum alkaloid accumulation in 144-hour-old seedlings cultured with 10-hour day occurred at 27 C. Following an 8-hour photoinduction period, seeds germinated in darkness accumulated greater amounts of alkaloids than seeds exposed to light each day. Seeds germinated in darkness for 96 hours, following the 8-hour photoinduction period, and then exposed to light each day accumulated the greatest amounts of alkaloids. PMID:16658655

  12. Smokeless tobacco: how exposed are our schoolchildren?

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rastogi, Natasha; Suri, Anuj; Hass, Cara; Bari, Sehrish; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is linked to poor health outcomes, including oral and esophageal cancers. Adolescents who use ST are also more likely to use cigarettes and develop lung cancer later in life. Evidence shows that proximity to tobacco retailers increases youth initiation of use. We assessed availability of ST in neighborhoods surrounding ten high schools in New York City. Three hundred and twenty-one retailers were visited. Sixty-three percent of likely tobacco-selling businesses surrounding schools sold cigarettes. About 20 % sold snus, while 3 % sold snuff. Culturally-linked ST products, such as paan and gutka, were largely confined to ethnic neighborhoods, while snuff was more prevalent in neighborhoods with predominantly US born residents. A variety of ST products are easily accessible to adolescents and are located within close proximity to schools, perhaps facilitating use, as has been documented with youth smoking. Further research is needed on adolescent use of culturally-linked ST products. This research can serve as a foundation for development of interventions to reduce ST use among adolescents and for policy recommendations. PMID:23526095

  13. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  14. Tobacco industry tactics.

    PubMed

    Sweda, E L; Daynard, R A

    1996-01-01

    The tobacco industry's strong-arm tactics have been used consistently over many years. These tactics include: using the industry's size, wealth, and legal resources to intimidate individuals and local governmental bodies; setting up 'front groups' to make it appear that it has more allies than it really does; spending large sums of money to frame the public debate about smoking regulations around 'rights and liberty' rather than health and portraying its tobacco company adversaries as extremists; 'investing' thousands of dollars in campaign contributions to politicians; and using financial resources to influence science. These tactics are designed to produce delay, giving the nicotine cartel more time to collect even more profits at the direct expense of millions of lives around the world. PMID:8746306

  15. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  16. Tobacco habit in northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Upendra; Bala, Nidhi; Tewar, Varsha; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai

    2006-01-01

    To study tobacco consumption practices in north-Indian population, a community-based, stratified sampling survey using validated interview schedule was performed in rural/urban areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. There were 432 tobacco users (385 men, 47 women; 276 urban, 156 rural) taken as subjects. Tobacco use practices ie, chewing/smoking/rubbing/snuffing, frequency, starting age, supply, place/context of use, quid habit, affect, facilitating conditions/barriers, tobacco users' opinion on control measures were all taken into consideration. Single mode of tobacco use was reported by 277 subjects (64.1%) and the rest had a plethora of tobacco practices. Chewing was prevalent in 322(74.5%), smoking in 256(59.3%), rubbing in 32(7.4%) and snuffing in 4 subjects (0.9%). Of the 10 preparations in the questionnaire, the "top 5" preferences ranked as tobacco-betel, gutka, cigarette, bidi and khaini that remained unchanged between sexes, rural/urban people and age groups. Women significantly (p<0.00001) preferred smokeless tobacco and perceived social barrier for smoking. Gutka consumption was significantly higher in youngsters (<25 yeans; p<0.0001). Most subjects (235; 54.3%) used tobacco 7-24 times/day. Majority (259; 60%) users started consuming tobacco before 21 years of age and about a fifth 95(22%) before 15 years. Majority users (232; 53.6%) did not procure tobacco from a fixed shop. The commonest context of tobacco use was with any refreshment (337; 78.0%). Of the 322 tobacco chewers, about half the subjects (178; 52.2%) rotated the quid in their mouth, 313(97.2%) later spat it out, 9(2.1%) swallowed it and 15(4.7%) admitted to sleep with the quid in mouth. Tobacco along with alcohol was consumed by 82(19%) and with opium by 33 subjects (7.6%). Social barrier to tobacco use was perceived by 231 subjects (53.5%), especially by smokers. Majority users (355; 82.2%) did not have negative feelings or embarrassment in using tobacco. Most users (351; 81.4%) said they would

  17. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  2. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  3. The potential of the internet as a medium to encourage and discourage youth tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, K M

    2003-06-01

    The internet is fast becoming a new battleground between tobacco control advocates and pro-tobacco forces, and this new media will certainly have a greater impact on tobacco use behaviour in the future. This paper reviews how the internet can encourage youth smoking by providing youth access to tobacco products and offering content that glamorises smoking lifestyle and culture, particularly in hundreds of websites and chat rooms. These sites feature pictures of celebrity smokers, provide information about smoking in movies, and provide smoking advice to teen smokers. In contrast, youth smoking is discouraged on online grassroots advocacy and countermarketing websites. Although these strategies show promise, more research is needed to evaluate their impact. Recommendations are made for future research to study pro-smoking internet content and ways to counteract it, as well as to monitor the online activities of the tobacco companies. Finally, some of the challenges in addressing tobacco related internet content are discussed. PMID:12773785

  4. "Fighting a hurricane": tobacco industry efforts to counter the perceived threat of Islam.

    PubMed

    Petticrew, Mark; Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry's response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25880961

  5. “Fighting a Hurricane”: Tobacco Industry Efforts to Counter the Perceived Threat of Islam

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry’s response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25880961

  6. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  7. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  8. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  9. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  10. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  11. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  12. Tobacco use and dental disease.

    PubMed

    Hart, G T; Brown, D M; Mincer, H H

    1995-04-01

    The previously cited Indiana University School of Dentistry teaching monograph, "The Impact of Tobacco Use and Cessation on Nonmalignant and Precancerous Oral and Dental Diseases and Conditions," reviewed over 800 articles and concluded that tobacco use is strongly associated with many dental and oral mucosal diseases, and may contribute to others. Our study of a relatively small sample of 200 patients, of whom 33 percent were tobacco users, found statistically significant data correlating tobacco use with a higher Decayed, Missing and Filled Index (a measurement of caries and tooth loss experience of patients) and relating periodontal bone loss to smokeless tobacco use. And, while this investigation did not find a statistically significant correlation between smoking and periodontitis severity, there was a data trend in that direction. Conclusions about tooth loss in the Indiana monograph were limited to smokers; however, there was an association of ST use with gingival recession, which can become quite severe in the area in which the smokeless tobacco is placed. It might be theorized that the significantly larger number of missing teeth among ST users in our study is associated with the generally poor oral hygiene and less sophisticated outlook on health care that tobacco users often display. Indeed, of the 65 denture wearers in our study, 7.7 percent were ST users and 40.0 percent were tobacco users of some type. In view of the large amount of data in the scientific literature associating tobacco with dental diseases as summarized by the Indiana monograph, and the position of several groups such as the American Cancer Society that tobacco is one of the risk factors most associated with intraoral cancer, it would appear that dentists have a vested professional interest in promoting tobacco use cessation among their patients. Dentists should take every reasonable opportunity to persuade patients to discontinue the tobacco habit, thus preventing life

  13. Contesting modernity: Tobacco use and romanticism among older Dai farmers in Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Davey, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies. PMID:26147626

  14. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  15. “It's Just a Way of Fitting In:” Tobacco Use and the Lived Experience of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Appalachians

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Keisa; Ricks, JaNelle M.; Howell, Britteny M.

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people are affected by multiple health disparities and risk factors, including tobacco use. Few studies to date have examined tobacco use specifically in rural LGB populations, and none has investigated the intersections of identity, rural LGB culture, and tobacco. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspective of Appalachian LGB people regarding tobacco use. Methods Nineteen LGB-identified Appalachian residents participated in audiotaped, semi-structured interviews. Two authors analyzed and coded transcripts through constant comparison, and determined themes through consensus. Results Five themes emerged: the convergence of Appalachian and LGB identities, tacit awareness of LGB identity by others, culture and tobacco use, perceived associations with tobacco use, and health beliefs and health care. Conclusions LGB Appalachians connect stress and culture to tobacco, but seem less aware that partial concealment of their identity might be a source of the stress that could influence their smoking. PMID:25418233

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2012-01-01

    L-Galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPPase) is an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in higher plants. We isolated a cDNA encoding GPPase from tobacco, and named it NtGPPase. The putative amino acid sequence of NtGPPase contained inositol monophosphatase motifs and metal binding sites. Recombinant NtGPPase hydrolyzed not only L-galactose-1-phosphate, but also myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The optimum pH for the GPPase activity of NtGPPase was 7.5. Its enzyme activity required Mg2+, and was inhibited by Li+ and Ca2+. Its fluorescence, fused with green fluorescence protein in onion cells and protoplasts of tobacco BY-2 cells, was observed in both the cytosol and nucleus. The expression of NtGPPase mRNA and protein was clearly correlated with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of BY-2 cells during culture. The AsA contents of NtGPPase over expression lines were higher than those of empty lines at 13 d after subculture. This suggests that NtGPPase contributes slightly to AsA biosynthesis. PMID:22790939

  17. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations. PMID:25495141

  18. Assessing Support for Campus Tobacco Policy in Tobacco Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Kerry; Simmons, Susan J.; Caldwell, Rebecca; Dowd, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of comprehensive tobacco policies has shown positive results regarding limiting exposure to secondhand smoke. While many states were moving forward with respect to implementation of tobacco policies, North Carolina has lagged behind in this regard. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess support for a…

  19. Tobacco in the Arab world: old and new epidemics amidst policy paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Nakkash, Rima; Bahelah, Raed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Fanous, Nadia; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Arab world is comprised of 22 countries with a combined population of ∼360 million. The region is still at the initial stages of the tobacco epidemic, where it is expected to witness an increase in smoking levels and mounting tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the future. Still, the bleak outlook of the tobacco epidemic in the Arab world continues to be faced with complacency in the form of underutilization of surveillance systems to monitor the tobacco epidemic and prioritize action, and failure to implement and enforce effective policies to curb the tobacco epidemic. Understandably, the focus on the Arab world carries the risk of trying to generalize to such a diverse group of countries at different level of economic and political development. Yet, tobacco control in the Arab world faces some shared patterns and common challenges that need to be addressed to advance its cause in this region. In addition, forces that promote tobacco use, such as the tobacco industry, and trends in tobacco use, such as the emerging waterpipe epidemic tend to coalesce around some shared cultural and socio-political features of this region. Generally, available data from Arab countries point at three major trends in the tobacco epidemic: (1) high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Arab men compared with women; (2) the re-emergence of waterpipe (also known as hookah, narghile, shisha, arghile) smoking as a major tobacco use method, especially among youth and (3) the failure of policy to provide an adequate response to the tobacco epidemic. In this review, we will discuss these trends, factors contributing to them, and the way forward for tobacco control in this unstable region. PMID:23958628

  20. Tobacco in the Arab world: old and new epidemics amidst policy paralysis.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Nakkash, Rima; Bahelah, Raed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Fanous, Nadia; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The Arab world is comprised of 22 countries with a combined population of ∼360 million. The region is still at the initial stages of the tobacco epidemic, where it is expected to witness an increase in smoking levels and mounting tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the future. Still, the bleak outlook of the tobacco epidemic in the Arab world continues to be faced with complacency in the form of underutilization of surveillance systems to monitor the tobacco epidemic and prioritize action, and failure to implement and enforce effective policies to curb the tobacco epidemic. Understandably, the focus on the Arab world carries the risk of trying to generalize to such a diverse group of countries at different level of economic and political development. Yet, tobacco control in the Arab world faces some shared patterns and common challenges that need to be addressed to advance its cause in this region. In addition, forces that promote tobacco use, such as the tobacco industry, and trends in tobacco use, such as the emerging waterpipe epidemic tend to coalesce around some shared cultural and socio-political features of this region. Generally, available data from Arab countries point at three major trends in the tobacco epidemic: (1) high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Arab men compared with women; (2) the re-emergence of waterpipe (also known as hookah, narghile, shisha, arghile) smoking as a major tobacco use method, especially among youth and (3) the failure of policy to provide an adequate response to the tobacco epidemic. In this review, we will discuss these trends, factors contributing to them, and the way forward for tobacco control in this unstable region. PMID:23958628

  1. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces. PMID:25794360

  2. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  3. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  4. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  5. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  6. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  7. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  8. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Health HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  9. WHEN TOBACCO TARGETS DIRECT DEMOCRACY

    PubMed Central

    Laposata, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Allison P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control advocates began to use ballot initiatives to enact tobacco control policies in the late 1970s. In response, the tobacco industry worked for over two decades to change laws governing initiative and referendum processes to prevent passage of tobacco control measures. In 1981, the tobacco industry’s political lobbying arm, the Tobacco Institute, created a front group that presented itself as a neutral initiative research clearinghouse to affect changes in state initiative and referenda laws. In 1990, the Tobacco Institute began creating an in-house team, and worked with third party groups to try to change state initiative laws. While the industry ultimately abandoned both efforts when neither achieved immediate success, over time, the industry’s goals have penetrated legitimate discourse on the I&R process in the United States and many specific ideas it advocated have garnered mainstream support. Direct democracy advocates, as well as public health advocates and policymakers, need to understand the tobacco industry’s goals (which other industries adopted) of limiting the direct democracy process in order to ensure that any changes do not inadvertently increase the power of the special interests that direct democracy was developed to counterbalance. PMID:24603083

  10. Attempts to Undermine Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses “youth smoking prevention” programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called “social reports,” media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted “youth smoking prevention” programs as part of their “Corporate Social Responsibility” campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry’s goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  11. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    PubMed Central

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  12. The Public Health Implications of the Use and Misuse of Tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers. PMID:23283033

  13. Roadmap to a Tobacco Epidemic: Transnational Tobacco Companies Invade Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indonesia is the world’s fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. Objective To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. Methods We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and “The Roadmap.” Results Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernized versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI maintained the basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and Westernization of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. Conclusion PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians. PMID:21852413

  14. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates. PMID:24331906

  15. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes: “not medicine but less harmful”?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes. Methods Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Results Twenty‐three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb‐only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb‐only product. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal‐tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal‐tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal‐tobacco brands as key for development. Conclusion Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting. PMID:17400933

  16. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Stanton Glantz

    2005-09-19

    The principal aim of this roadmap is to place the US and Fermilab in the best position to host the International Linear Collider (ILC). The strategy must be resilient against the many vicissitudes that will attend the development of such a large project. Pier Oddone will explore the tension between the needed concentration of effort to move a project as large as the ILC forward and the need to maintain the breadth of our field. America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the #1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  17. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  19. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  5. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  6. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  10. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...