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Sample records for cundinamarcensis badillo caricaceae

  1. Genome size variation among sex types in dioecious and triecious Caricaceae species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caricaceae is a small family consisting of 35 species of varying sexual systems and includes economically important fruit crop, Carica papaya, and other species of “highland papayas”. Flow cytometry was used to obtain genome sizes for 11 species in three genera of Caricaceae to determine if genome s...

  2. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  3. A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Carica L. (Caricaceae) based on restriction fragment length variation in a cpDNA intergenic spacer region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogenetic relationships among twelve wild and cultivated species of Carica (Caricaceae) were analyzed using restriction fragment length variation in a 3.2-kb PCR amplified intergenic spacer region of the chloroplast DNA. A total of 138 fragments representing 137 restriction sites accounting f...

  5. Antiangiogenesis, Loss of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis Are Involved in the Antitumoral Activity of Proteases from V. cundinamarcensis (C. candamarcensis) in Murine Melanoma B16F1

    PubMed Central

    Dittz, Dalton; Figueiredo, Cinthia; Lemos, Fernanda O.; Viana, Celso T. R.; Andrade, Silvia P.; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M.; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Salas, Carlos E.; Lopes, Miriam T. P.

    2015-01-01

    The proteolytic enzymes from V. cundinamarcensis latex, (P1G10), display healing activity in animal models following various types of lesions. P1G10 or the purified isoforms act as mitogens on fibroblast and epithelial cells by stimulating angiogenesis and wound healing in gastric and cutaneous ulcers models. Based on evidence that plant proteinases act as antitumorals, we verified this effect on a murine melanoma model. The antitumoral effect analyzed mice survival and tumor development after subcutaneous administration of P1G10 into C57BL/6J mice bearing B16F1 low metastatic melanoma. Possible factors involved in the antitumoral action were assessed, i.e., cytotoxicity, cell adhesion and apoptosis in vitro, haemoglobin (Hb), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity. We observed that P1G10 inhibited angiogenesis measured by the decline of Hb and VEGF within the tumor, and TGF-β displayed a non-significant increase and TNF-α showed a minor non-significant reduction. On the other hand, there was an increase in NAG activity. In treated B16F1 cells, apoptosis was induced along with decreased cell binding to extracellular matrix components (ECM) and anchorage, without impairing viability. PMID:25826531

  6. Registration of 'Badillo' Light Red Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Badillo’, Reg. No. CV-294, PI658490, a multiple disease resistant light red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar adapted to the humid tropics, was developed and released in 2009 cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Agricultural Experiment Station and the United States Depart...

  7. Reform at CUNY: A Discussion with Dorothy Lang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Carol

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, trustees, led by Herman Badillo, were struggling mightily to shore up the City University of New York, a system beleaguered academically and financially after decades of open admissions. Badillo and his allies enjoyed key successes. "AQ" now has the opportunity to recap that struggle by interviewing NAS member and committed battler for…

  8. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs. PMID:21750871

  9. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  10. Isolation of cDNA from Jacaratia mexicana encoding a mexicain-like cysteine protease gene.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Erick M; Herrera-Ramírez, Alejandra C; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; González-Rábade, Nuria; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) from the C1 family, which are similar to papain, can be found in animals and plants, as well as some viruses and prokaryotes. These enzymes have diverse physiological functions and are thus very attractive for science and industry. Jacaratia mexicana, a member of the Caricaceae plant family, contains several CPs, the principal being mexicain, found to favorably compete against papain for many industrial applications due to its high stability and specific activity. In this study, leaves of J. mexicana were used to isolate a CP-coding gene, similar to those that code for mexicain and chymomexicain. By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) as well as oligonucleotide design from papain-like conserved amino acids (aa), a sequence of 1404 bp consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 153 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 131 bp, with a polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal sequence and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1046 bp, was obtained by overlapping three partial sequences. Two full-length cDNA sequences that encode for mexicain-like proteases were cloned from mRNA (JmCP4 and JmCP5). JmCP4 is predicted to have an ORF of 1044 bp, which codifies for polypeptides that have a 26 aa signal peptide region, a 108 aa propeptide region and a mature enzyme of 214 aa. A 969 bp fragment (JmCP5) encodes for a partial sequence of a CP gene, without the signal peptide region but with a full-length propeptide region. The sequence analysis showed that this protease presented a high similarity to other plant CPs from J. mexicana, Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, Vasconcellea stipulata, and Carica papaya, among others, mainly at the conserved catalytic site. Obtaining the sequence of this CP gene from J. mexicana provides an alternative for production in a standard system and could be an initial step towards the commercialization of this enzyme. PMID:22543019

  11. Conference Report on "Aqui Se Habla Espanol:" A Conference on the Role of Educational Institutions in Solving Problems Related to the Identity, Status and Future of Spanish-Speaking Peoples of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabb, Martin S.; And Others

    This conference sought to bring to the attention of a broad audience of educators the problems facing Spanish-speakers in this country. The speakers, including Congressman Herman Badillo of New York, all agreed that not enough was being done to assist the person of Spanish background in adapting to a new and foreign culture, and presented specific…

  12. What Koch Plans for the City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Marcia

    1978-01-01

    Presents a recent interview with education and political reporters of the New York Times and Herman Badillo, the man in charge of education and a Deputy Mayor of New York, on the Koch administration's plans for the New York City public school system. (Author/RK)

  13. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. After the section Vasconcellea with 21 species was reinstated as a separate genus based on molecular marker data, papaya became the sole species in Carica. S...

  14. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  15. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  16. Survey of Mymarommatidae and Their Occurrence in Agricultural Systems in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benassi, Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Machado; Valente, Fabrício Iglesias; Lenzi, Jessica Cristina; Carvalho, Simão

    2014-01-01

    Mymarommatidae surveys were carried out through the use of yellow pan traps in crops of green dwarf coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), citrus, Citrus spp. L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), in the northern Espirito Santo State, Brazil. 146 specimens of mymarommatids were collected, of which 71, 55, 16, and 4 exemplars were obtained in the area cultivated with guava, papaya, citrus, and coconut, respectively. The mean numbers of mymarommatids collected in the period from April to June 2011 were significantly higher than those obtained in the other nine months. Two genera, Mymaromma and Mymaromella, were identified The most abundant genus was Mymaromma, comprising 93.8% of the total collection; however, the genus Mymaromella was encountered in all crops. This is the first record of the presence of mymarommatids in these agricultural systems. PMID:25373162

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 Å, β = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution. PMID:18540057

  18. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae). PMID:26816487

  19. Survey of Mymarommatidae and their occurrence in agricultural systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Machado; Valente, Fabrício Iglesias; Lenzi, Jessica Cristina; Carvalho, Simão

    2014-01-01

    Mymarommatidae surveys were carried out through the use of yellow pan traps in crops of green dwarf coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), citrus, Citrus spp. L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), in the northern Espirito Santo State, Brazil. 146 specimens of mymarommatids were collected, of which 71, 55, 16, and 4 exemplars were obtained in the area cultivated with guava, papaya, citrus, and coconut, respectively. The mean numbers of mymarommatids collected in the period from April to June 2011 were significantly higher than those obtained in the other nine months. Two genera, Mymaromma and Mymaromella, were identified The most abundant genus was Mymaromma, comprising 93.8% of the total collection; however, the genus Mymaromella was encountered in all crops. This is the first record of the presence of mymarommatids in these agricultural systems. PMID:25373162

  20. Determination of glucosinolates in 19 Chinese medicinal plants with spectrophotometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Hong, Yuancheng

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates were evaluated in 19 traditional Chinese medicinal plants involved in seven different families: Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Caricaceae and Rubiaceae. The total glucosinolate contents were determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that the high contents of total glucosinolates were found in some herbs of Brassicaceae, Capparaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, while low total glucosinolate contents were observed in two Rubiaceae herbs. In addition, eight glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin, sinigrin, progoitrin, 4-hydroglucobrassicin, glucoiberin and glucoibervirin) in these herbs were measured using HPLC, and the data showed that individual glucosinolates and their contents varied at different degrees among the distinct species. The highest contents of cancer-protective compounds were found in the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (glucoraphenin), Sinapis alba (sinalbin) and Phyllanthus emblica L. (sinigrin). PMID:20645206

  1. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae). PMID:26816487

  2. Taxonomic synopsis of Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh, 1973 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jimenez, Andrea; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh, 1973 is the second most diverse genus of Doryctinae in the Neotropical region, however, in Colombia only two species have been reported and no studies on the diversity of the genus have been conducted. We present a taxonomic synopsis of the genus from Colombia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) allowed the taxonomic evaluation of morphometric characters used by other authors and those proposed in the present study to differentiate the species. Forty seven of 104 characters studied are useful to discriminate the species. Twenty three species are reported. The following new records for Colombia are: Notiospathius angustus Marsh, 2002; N. badius Marsh, 2002; N. bicolor Marsh, 2002; N. ninae Marsh, 2002; N. rugonotum Marsh, 2002; N. shawi Marsh, 2002; N. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1887) and N. venezuelae López-Estrada & Zaldívar-Riverón, 2012. The following 14 new species are described: N. alejandroi sp. nov., N. amazonensis sp. nov., N. carmenae sp. nov., N. cundinamarcensis sp. nov., N. farallonensis sp. nov., N. julianoi sp. nov., N. magdalenensis sp. nov., N. marshi sp. nov., N. payae sp. nov., N. putumayensis sp. nov., N. quimbayensis sp. nov., N. tayronensis sp. nov., N. utriae sp. nov., N. vallensis sp. nov. Notiospathius ugaldei Marsh, 2002 is the junior synonym of N. columbianus (Enderlein, 1912); Notiospathius mariachi Reséndiz-Flores, Nunes and Zaldívar-Riverón, 2014 is the junior synonym of N. carolinae (Marsh, 2002); and N. chinanteco Reséndiz-Flores, Nunes and Zaldívar-Riverón, 2014 is the junior synonym of N. rugonotum Marsh, 2002. A comprehensive taxonomic key with illustrations is presented. PMID:27395661

  3. X-ray crystal structure of CMS1MS2: a high proteolytic activity cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marco T R; Teixeira, Raphael D; Lopes, Míriam T P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; Salas, Carlos E

    2012-12-01

    CMS1MS2 (CC-Ib) from Carica candamarcensis (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis) is a cysteine proteinase found as a single polypeptide containing 213 residues of 22,991 Da. The enzyme was purified by three chromatographic steps, two of them involving cationic exchange. Crystals of CMS1MS2 complexed with E-64 were obtained by the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method at 291 K using ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 4000/8000 as precipitant. The complex CMS1MS2-E-64 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2 with unit-cell parameters; a = b = 73.64, c = 118.79 Å. The structure was determined by Molecular Replacement and refined at 1.87 Å resolution to a final R factor of 16.2 % (R (free) = 19.3 %). Based on the model, the structure of CMS1MS2 (PDB 3IOQ) ranks as one of the least basic cysteine isoforms from C. candamarcensis, is structurally closer to papain, caricain, chymopapain and mexicain than to the other cysteine proteinases, while its activity is twice the activity of papain towards BAPNA substrate. Two differences, one in the S2 subsite and another in the S3 subsite of CMS1MS2 may contribute to the enhanced activity relative to papain. In addition, the model provides a structural basis for the sensitivity of CMS1MS2 to inhibition by cystatin, not shown by other enzymes of the group, e.g., glycyl endopeptidase and CMS2MS2. PMID:22610687

  4. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata,Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  5. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata, Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  6. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ruth M.; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R.; Gilbertson, Robert L.; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  7. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. PMID:26458257

  8. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  9. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  10. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of plant extracts from Spathodea campanulata, Ficus bubu, and Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Mbosso Teinkela, Jean Emmanuel; Assob Nguedia, Jules Clément; Meyer, Franck; Vouffo Donfack, Erik; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Guy Blaise Azebaze, Anatole; Wintjens, René

    2016-06-01

    Context African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. Objective The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) flowers, as well as those of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) latex, were determined using the microbroth dilution method against a set of bacteria and fungi pathogens including: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. The tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 2500.0 to 2.4 μg/mL and MIC values were evaluated after 24 h incubation at 37 °C. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to estimate anti-proliferative activity of these methanol extracts and of F. bubu latex on three human cancer cell lines (U373 glioblastoma, A549 NSCLC, and SKMEL-28 melanoma). Results The methanol extract of F. bubu stem bark exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 9.8 μg/mL, while the F. bubu latex and the methanol extract of F. bubu leaves induced significant anti-proliferative activity against lung (IC50 values of 10 and 14 μg/mL, respectively) and glioma (IC50 values of 13 and 16 μg/mL, respectively) cancer cells. Conclusion These results indicate that effective drugs could be derived from the three studied plants. PMID:26799575

  11. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

  12. Conservation of two lineages of peroxisomal (Type I) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases in land plants, specialization of the genes in Brassicaceae, and characterization of their expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bussell, John D

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana has three genes encoding type I 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases (KAT1, KAT2, and KAT5), one of which (KAT5) is alternatively transcribed to produce both peroxisomal and cytosolic proteins. To evaluate the potential importance of these four gene products, their evolutionary history in plants and their expression patterns in Arabidopsis were investigated. Land plants as a whole have gene lineages corresponding to KAT2 and KAT5, implying conservation of distinct functions for these two genes. By contrast, analysis of synteny shows that KAT1 arose by duplication of the KAT2 locus. KAT1 is found in the Brassicaceae family, including in the genera Arabidopsis, Capsella, Thellungiella (=Eutrema) and Brassica, but not in the more distantly related Caricaceae (order Brassicales), or other plants. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR and β-glucuronidase reporter genes showed strong expression of KAT2 during germination and in many plant tissues throughout the life cycle, consistent with its observed dominant function in fatty acid β-oxidation. KAT1 was expressed very weakly while KAT5 was most strongly expressed during flower development and in seedlings after germination. Isoform-specific qRT-PCR analysis and promoter β-glucuronidase reporters revealed that the two splicing variants of KAT5 have similar expression profiles. Alternative splicing of KAT5 to produce cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins is specific to and ubiquitous in the Brassicaceae, and possibly had an earlier origin in the order Brassicales. This implies that an additional function for KAT5 arose between 43 and 115 mybp. We speculate that this KAT5 mutation was recruited for a cytosolic function in secondary metabolism. PMID:23066143

  13. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly

  14. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  15. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae