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Sample records for curated mitochondrial genome

  1. Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR): A global grass-roots consortium to facilitate deposition, curation, annotation, and integrated analysis of genomic data for the mitochondrial disease clinical and research communities

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Marni J.; Shen, Lishuang; Gonzalez, Michael; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T.; Stassen, Alphons P.M.; Diroma, Maria Angela; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Yeske, Philip; Bai, Renkui; Boles, Richard G.; Brilhante, Virginia; Ralph, David; DaRe, Jeana T.; Shelton, Robert; Terry, Sharon; Zhang, Zhe; Copeland, William C.; van Oven, Mannis; Prokisch, Holger; Wallace, Douglas C.; Attimonelli, Marcella; Krotoski, Danuta; Zuchner, Stephan; Gai, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    Success rates for genomic analyses of highly heterogeneous disorders can be greatly improved if a large cohort of patient data is assembled to enhance collective capabilities for accurate sequence variant annotation, analysis, and interpretation. Indeed, molecular diagnostics requires the establishment of robust data resources to enable data sharing that informs accurate understanding of genes, variants, and phenotypes. The “Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR) Consortium” is a grass-roots effort facilitated by the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation to identify and prioritize specific genomic data analysis needs of the global mitochondrial disease clinical and research community. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) facilitates the coherent compilation, organization, annotation, and analysis of sequence data from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of individuals and families with suspected mitochondrial disease. This Web portal provides users with a flexible and expandable suite of resources to enable variant-, gene-, and exome-level sequence analysis in a secure, Web-based, and user-friendly fashion. Users can also elect to share data with other MSeqDR Consortium members, or even the general public, either by custom annotation tracks or through use of a convenient distributed annotation system (DAS) mechanism. A range of data visualization and analysis tools are provided to facilitate user interrogation and understanding of genomic, and ultimately phenotypic, data of relevance to mitochondrial biology and disease. Currently available tools for nuclear and mitochondrial gene analyses include an MSeqDR GBrowse instance that hosts optimized mitochondrial disease and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) specific annotation tracks, as well as an MSeqDR locus-specific database (LSDB) that curates variant data on more than 1,300 genes that have been implicated in mitochondrial disease and/or encode mitochondria-localized proteins. MSeqDR is

  2. Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR): a global grass-roots consortium to facilitate deposition, curation, annotation, and integrated analysis of genomic data for the mitochondrial disease clinical and research communities.

    PubMed

    Falk, Marni J; Shen, Lishuang; Gonzalez, Michael; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; Stassen, Alphons P M; Diroma, Maria Angela; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Yeske, Philip; Bai, Renkui; Boles, Richard G; Brilhante, Virginia; Ralph, David; DaRe, Jeana T; Shelton, Robert; Terry, Sharon F; Zhang, Zhe; Copeland, William C; van Oven, Mannis; Prokisch, Holger; Wallace, Douglas C; Attimonelli, Marcella; Krotoski, Danuta; Zuchner, Stephan; Gai, Xiaowu

    2015-03-01

    Success rates for genomic analyses of highly heterogeneous disorders can be greatly improved if a large cohort of patient data is assembled to enhance collective capabilities for accurate sequence variant annotation, analysis, and interpretation. Indeed, molecular diagnostics requires the establishment of robust data resources to enable data sharing that informs accurate understanding of genes, variants, and phenotypes. The "Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR) Consortium" is a grass-roots effort facilitated by the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation to identify and prioritize specific genomic data analysis needs of the global mitochondrial disease clinical and research community. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) facilitates the coherent compilation, organization, annotation, and analysis of sequence data from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of individuals and families with suspected mitochondrial disease. This Web portal provides users with a flexible and expandable suite of resources to enable variant-, gene-, and exome-level sequence analysis in a secure, Web-based, and user-friendly fashion. Users can also elect to share data with other MSeqDR Consortium members, or even the general public, either by custom annotation tracks or through the use of a convenient distributed annotation system (DAS) mechanism. A range of data visualization and analysis tools are provided to facilitate user interrogation and understanding of genomic, and ultimately phenotypic, data of relevance to mitochondrial biology and disease. Currently available tools for nuclear and mitochondrial gene analyses include an MSeqDR GBrowse instance that hosts optimized mitochondrial disease and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) specific annotation tracks, as well as an MSeqDR locus-specific database (LSDB) that curates variant data on more than 1300 genes that have been implicated in mitochondrial disease and/or encode mitochondria-localized proteins. MSeqDR is

  3. Platyzoan mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Platyzoa is a putative lophotrochozoan (spiralian) subtaxon within the protostome clade of Metazoa, comprising a range of biologically diverse, mostly small worm-shaped animals. The monophyly of Platyzoa, the relationships between the putative subgroups Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha and Gnathifera (the latter comprising at least Gnathostomulida, "Rotifera" and Acanthocephala) as well as some aspects of the internal phylogenies of these subgroups are highly debated. Here we review how complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data contribute to these debates. We highlight special features of the mt genomes and discuss problems in mtDNA phylogenies of the clade. Mitochondrial genome data seem to be insufficient to resolve the position of the platyzoan clade within the Spiralia but can help to address internal phylogenetic questions. The present review includes a tabular survey of all published platyzoan mt genomes. PMID:23274056

  4. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

  5. Modifying the Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Patananan, Alexander N; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Teitell, Michael A

    2016-05-10

    Human mitochondria produce ATP and metabolites to support development and maintain cellular homeostasis. Mitochondria harbor multiple copies of a maternally inherited, non-nuclear genome (mtDNA) that encodes for 13 subunit proteins of the respiratory chain. Mutations in mtDNA occur mainly in the 24 non-coding genes, with specific mutations implicated in early death, neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. A significant barrier to new insights in mitochondrial biology and clinical applications for mtDNA disorders is our general inability to manipulate the mtDNA sequence. Microinjection, cytoplasmic fusion, nucleic acid import strategies, targeted endonucleases, and newer approaches, which include the transfer of genomic DNA, somatic cell reprogramming, and a photothermal nanoblade, attempt to change the mtDNA sequence in target cells with varying efficiencies and limitations. Here, we discuss the current state of manipulating mammalian mtDNA and provide an outlook for mitochondrial reverse genetics, which could further enable mitochondrial research and therapies for mtDNA diseases. PMID:27166943

  6. FMiR: A Curated Resource of Mitochondrial DNA Information for Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome sequences have been widely used for evolutionary and phylogenetic studies. Among vertebrates, fish are an important, diverse group, and their mitogenome sequences are growing rapidly in public repositories. To facilitate mitochondrial genome analysis and to explore the valuable genetic information, we developed the Fish Mitogenome Resource (FMiR) database to provide a workbench for mitogenome annotation, species identification and microsatellite marker mining. The microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and used as molecular markers in studies on population genetics, gene duplication and marker assisted selection. Here, easy-to-use tools have been implemented for mining SSRs and for designing primers to identify species/habitat specific markers. In addition, FMiR can analyze complete or partial mitochondrial genome sequence to identify species and to deduce relational distances among sequences across species. The database presently contains curated mitochondrial genomes from 1302 fish species belonging to 297 families and 47 orders reported from saltwater and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, the database covers information on fish species such as conservation status, ecosystem, family, distribution and occurrence downloaded from the FishBase and IUCN Red List databases. Those fish information have been used to browse mitogenome information for the species belonging to a particular category. The database is scalable in terms of content and inclusion of other analytical modules. The FMiR is running under Linux operating platform on high performance server accessible at URL http://mail.nbfgr.res.in/fmir. PMID:26317619

  7. Genome Annotation and Curation Using MAKER and MAKER-P

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael S.; Holt, Carson; Moore, Barry; Yandell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use the genome annotation and curation tools MAKER and MAKER-P to annotate protein coding and non-coding RNA genes in newly assembled genomes, update/combine legacy annotations in light of new evidence, add quality metrics to annotations from other pipelines, and map existing annotations to a new assembly. MAKER and MAKER-P can rapidly annotate genomes of any size, and scale to match available computational resources. PMID:25501943

  8. Mitochondrial fusion and inheritance of the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroyoshi; Onoue, Kenta; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2010-03-01

    Although maternal or uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial genomes is a general rule, biparental inheritance is sometimes observed in protists and fungi,including yeasts. In yeast, recombination occurs between the mitochondrial genomes inherited from both parents.Mitochondrial fusion observed in yeast zygotes is thought to set up a space for DNA recombination. In the last decade,a universal mitochondrial fusion mechanism has been uncovered, using yeast as a model. On the other hand, an alternative mitochondrial fusion mechanism has been identified in the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum.A specific mitochondrial plasmid, mF, has been detected as the genetic material that causes mitochondrial fusion in P. polycephalum. Without mF, fusion of the mitochondria is not observed throughout the life cycle, suggesting that Physarum has no constitutive mitochondrial fusion mechanism.Conversely, mitochondria fuse in zygotes and during sporulation with mF. The complete mF sequence suggests that one gene, ORF640, encodes a fusogen for Physarum mitochondria. Although in general, mitochondria are inherited uniparentally, biparental inheritance occurs with specific sexual crossing in P. polycephalum.An analysis of the transmission of mitochondrial genomes has shown that recombinations between two parental mitochondrial genomes require mitochondrial fusion,mediated by mF. Physarum is a unique organism for studying mitochondrial fusion. PMID:20196232

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drosophila albomicans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiongbin; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Junqing; Bi, Guiqi

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila albomicans has been widely used as an important animal model for chromosome evolution. In this study, the mitochondrial genome sequence of this species is determined and described for the first time. The mitochondrial genome (15 849 bp) encompasses two rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 13 protein-coding genes. Genome content and structure are similar to those reported from other Drosophila mitochondrial genomes. Phylogeny analysis indicates that D. albomicans have a closer genetic relationship with Drosophil aincompta and Drosophil alittoralis. This mitochondrial genome is potentially important for studying molecular evolution and conservation genetics in Drosophila genus. PMID:26358579

  10. Restriction enzyme analysis of the mitochondrial genome in mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, J; Turnbull, D M; Mehta, A B; Wilson, J; Gardiner, R M

    1988-01-01

    The mitochondrial myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders some of which may be caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial DNA from 10 patients with mitochondrial myopathy and their mothers was analysed using five restriction enzymes and 11 mitochondrial probes in bacteriophage M13. No abnormalities were found in seven out of the 10 patients. Polymorphisms which have not previously been reported were detected in three patients and two of their mothers. These results exclude the presence of deletions or insertions of greater than 60 bp in the region of the mitochondrial genome examined. Any causative mitochondrial DNA mutations in these disorders are therefore likely to be point mutations or small structural rearrangements. Images PMID:2903249

  11. Network Thermodynamic Curation of Human and Yeast Genome-Scale Metabolic Models

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Verónica S.; Quek, Lake-Ee; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-scale models are used for an ever-widening range of applications. Although there has been much focus on specifying the stoichiometric matrix, the predictive power of genome-scale models equally depends on reaction directions. Two-thirds of reactions in the two eukaryotic reconstructions Homo sapiens Recon 1 and Yeast 5 are specified as irreversible. However, these specifications are mainly based on biochemical textbooks or on their similarity to other organisms and are rarely underpinned by detailed thermodynamic analysis. In this study, a to our knowledge new workflow combining network-embedded thermodynamic and flux variability analysis was used to evaluate existing irreversibility constraints in Recon 1 and Yeast 5 and to identify new ones. A total of 27 and 16 new irreversible reactions were identified in Recon 1 and Yeast 5, respectively, whereas only four reactions were found with directions incorrectly specified against thermodynamics (three in Yeast 5 and one in Recon 1). The workflow further identified for both models several isolated internal loops that require further curation. The framework also highlighted the need for substrate channeling (in human) and ATP hydrolysis (in yeast) for the essential reaction catalyzed by phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase in purine metabolism. Finally, the framework highlighted differences in proline metabolism between yeast (cytosolic anabolism and mitochondrial catabolism) and humans (exclusively mitochondrial metabolism). We conclude that network-embedded thermodynamics facilitates the specification and validation of irreversibility constraints in compartmentalized metabolic models, at the same time providing further insight into network properties. PMID:25028891

  12. The rice mitochondrial genomes and their variations.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangjun; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2006-02-01

    Based on highly redundant and high-quality sequences, we assembled rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial genomes for two cultivars, 93-11 (an indica variety) and PA64S (an indica-like variety with maternal origin of japonica), which are paternal and maternal strains of an elite superhybrid rice Liang-You-Pei-Jiu (LYP-9), respectively. Following up with a previous analysis on rice chloroplast genomes, we divided mitochondrial sequence variations into two basic categories, intravarietal and intersubspecific. Intravarietal polymorphisms are variations within mitochondrial genomes of an individual variety. Intersubspecific polymorphisms are variations between subspecies among their major genotypes. In this study, we identified 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 25 indels, and three segmental sequence variations as intersubspecific polymorphisms. A signature sequence fragment unique to indica varieties was confirmed experimentally and found in two wild rice samples, but absent in japonica varieties. The intersubspecific polymorphism rate for mitochondrial genomes is 0.02% for SNPs and 0.006% for indels, nearly 2.5 and 3 times lower than that of their chloroplast counterparts and 21 and 38 times lower than corresponding rates of the rice nuclear genome, respectively. The intravarietal polymorphism rates among analyzed mitochondrial genomes, such as 93-11 and PA64S, are 1.26% and 1.38% for SNPs and 1.13% and 1.09% for indels, respectively. Based on the total number of SNPs between the two mitochondrial genomes, we estimate that the divergence of indica and japonica mitochondrial genomes occurred approximately 45,000 to 250,000 years ago. PMID:16384910

  13. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response - synchronizing genomes

    PubMed Central

    Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of the mitochondrial proteome is performed primarily by chaperones, which fold and assemble proteins, and by proteases, which degrade excess damaged proteins. Upon various types of mitochondrial stress, triggered genetically or pharmacologically, dysfunction of the proteome is sensed and communicated to the nucleus, where an extensive transcriptional program, aimed to repair the damage, is activated. This feedback loop, termed the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), synchronizes the activity of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and as such ensures the quality of the mitochondrial proteome. Here we review the recent advances in the UPRmt field and discuss its induction, signaling, communication with the other mitochondrial and major cellular regulatory pathways and its potential implications on health and lifespan. PMID:25543897

  14. Manual curation is not sufficient for annotation of genomic databases

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, William A.; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Fox, Lynne M.; Acquaah-Mensah, George; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Motivation Knowledge base construction has been an area of intense activity and great importance in the growth of computational biology. However, there is little or no history of work on the subject of evaluation of knowledge bases, either with respect to their contents or with respect to the processes by which they are constructed. This article proposes the application of a metric from software engineering known as the found/fixed graph to the problem of evaluating the processes by which genomic knowledge bases are built, as well as the completeness of their contents. Results Well-understood patterns of change in the found/fixed graph are found to occur in two large publicly available knowledge bases. These patterns suggest that the current manual curation processes will take far too long to complete the annotations of even just the most important model organisms, and that at their current rate of production, they will never be sufficient for completing the annotation of all currently available proteomes. Contact larry.hunter@uchsc.edu PMID:17646325

  15. The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts. PMID:18682828

  16. A 454 sequencing approach to dipteran mitochondrial genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of complete mitochondrial genome data for Diptera, one of the largest Metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. Herein, we generated the complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipa...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Coregonus autumnalis.

    PubMed

    Yi-Fan, Liang; Huai-Ning, Li; Qi, Zhang; Dan, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Coregonus autumnalis is determined in this study. The mitogenome is 16,736 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 26.73% A, 29.44% C, 18.14% for G and 25.69% for T. The G+C content is 47.58%. In this article, the mitochondrial genome sequencing for Coregonus autumnalis is carried out for the first time. PMID:26024145

  18. Minimally destructive sampling of type specimens of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) recovers complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rohmer, Laurence; Tortolani, Jacquie; Silva, Mayra; Miller, Kathy Ann; Young, Joel D; Martell, Craig; Ruediger, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Plant species, including algae and fungi, are based on type specimens to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached. Applying a scientific name to any specimen therefore requires demonstrating correspondence between the type and that specimen. Traditionally, identifications are based on morpho-anatomical characters, but recently systematists are using DNA sequence data. These studies are flawed if the DNA is isolated from misidentified modern specimens. We propose a genome-based solution. Using 4 × 4 mm(2) of material from type specimens, we assembled 14 plastid and 15 mitochondrial genomes attributed to the red algae Pyropia perforata, Py. fucicola, and Py. kanakaensis. The chloroplast genomes were fairly conserved, but the mitochondrial genomes differed significantly among populations in content and length. Complete genomes are attainable from 19(th) and early 20(th) century type specimens; this validates the effort and cost of their curation as well as supports the practice of the type method. PMID:24894641

  19. Agile data management for curation of genomes to watershed datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Versteeg, R.

    2015-12-01

    A software platform is being developed for data management and assimilation [DMA] as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Genomes to Watershed Sustainable Systems Science Focus Area 2.0. The DMA components and capabilities are driven by the project science priorities and the development is based on agile development techniques. The goal of the DMA software platform is to enable users to integrate and synthesize diverse and disparate field, laboratory, and simulation datasets, including geological, geochemical, geophysical, microbiological, hydrological, and meteorological data across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The DMA objectives are (a) developing an integrated interface to the datasets, (b) storing field monitoring data, laboratory analytical results of water and sediments samples collected into a database, (c) providing automated QA/QC analysis of data and (d) working with data providers to modify high-priority field and laboratory data collection and reporting procedures as needed. The first three objectives are driven by user needs, while the last objective is driven by data management needs. The project needs and priorities are reassessed regularly with the users. After each user session we identify development priorities to match the identified user priorities. For instance, data QA/QC and collection activities have focused on the data and products needed for on-going scientific analyses (e.g. water level and geochemistry). We have also developed, tested and released a broker and portal that integrates diverse datasets from two different databases used for curation of project data. The development of the user interface was based on a user-centered design process involving several user interviews and constant interaction with data providers. The initial version focuses on the most requested feature - i.e. finding the data needed for analyses through an intuitive interface. Once the data is found, the user can immediately plot and download data

  20. A Manual Curation Strategy to Improve Genome Annotation: Application to a Set of Haloarchael Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Genome annotation errors are a persistent problem that impede research in the biosciences. A manual curation effort is described that attempts to produce high-quality genome annotations for a set of haloarchaeal genomes (Halobacterium salinarum and Hbt. hubeiense, Haloferax volcanii and Hfx. mediterranei, Natronomonas pharaonis and Nmn. moolapensis, Haloquadratum walsbyi strains HBSQ001 and C23, Natrialba magadii, Haloarcula marismortui and Har. hispanica, and Halohasta litchfieldiae). Genomes are checked for missing genes, start codon misassignments, and disrupted genes. Assignments of a specific function are preferably based on experimentally characterized homologs (Gold Standard Proteins). To avoid overannotation, which is a major source of database errors, we restrict annotation to only general function assignments when support for a specific substrate assignment is insufficient. This strategy results in annotations that are resistant to the plethora of errors that compromise public databases. Annotation consistency is rigorously validated for ortholog pairs from the genomes surveyed. The annotation is regularly crosschecked against the UniProt database to further improve annotations and increase the level of standardization. Enhanced genome annotations are submitted to public databases (EMBL/GenBank, UniProt), to the benefit of the scientific community. The enhanced annotations are also publically available via HaloLex. PMID:26042526

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo duvaucelii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lihua; Ge, Chaokun; Liu, Wei; Wu, Changwen; Zhu, Aiyi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the little squid (Loligo duvaucelii). The genome is 17,413 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 3 main non-coding regions. The overall base composition of L. duvaucelii is 40.01% A, 32.33% T, 19.14% C and 8.52% G, with a high A + T bias of 72.34%. All of the three control regions (CR) contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Here, we describe a phylogenetic analysis of 10 species of Cephalopoda based on the complete mitochondrial genome, the result showed that the Loliolus uyii is most closely related to L. duvaucelii. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Cephalopoda. PMID:26104158

  2. Mitochondrial genome sequencing in atherosclerosis: what's next?

    PubMed

    Sazonova, Margarita A; Shkurat, Tatiana P; Demakova, Natalya A; Zhelankin, Andrey V; Barinova, Valeria A; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are currently a basic cause of mortality in highly developed countries. The major reason for genesis and development of cardiovascular diseases is atherosclerosis. At the present time high technology methods of molecular genetic diagnostics can significantly simplify early presymptomatic recognition of patients with atherosclerosis, to detect risk groups and to perform a family analysis of this pathology. A Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology can be characterized by high productivity and cheapness of full genome analysis of each DNA sample. We suppose that in the nearest future NGS methods will be widely used for scientific and diagnostic purposes, including personalized medicine. In the present review article literature data on using NGS technology were described in studying mitochondrial genome mutations associated with atherosclerosis and its risk factors, such as mitochondrial diabetes, mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy and left ventricular hypertrophy. With the use of the NGS technology it proved to be possible to detect a range of homoplasmic and heteroplasmic mutations and mitochondrial genome haplogroups which are associated with these pathologies. Meanwhile some mutations and haplogroups were detected both in atherosclerosis and in its risk factors. It conveys the suggestion that there are common pathogenetic mechanisms causing these pathologies. What comes next? New paradigm of crosstalk between non-pharmaceutical (including molecular genetic) and true pharmaceutical approaches may be developed to fill the niche of effective and pathogenically targeted pretreatment and treatment of preclinical and subclinical atherosclerosis to avoid the development of chronic life-threatening disease. PMID:26561059

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Duan, Jinrong; Xu, Dongpo; Zhou, Yanfeng; Zhang, Minying; Fang, Dian; Xu, Pao

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus. This mitochondrial genome is 16,597 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding control region as found in other vertebrates, with the gene synteny identical to those of typical vertebrates. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp in length, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 25.9%, C 29.5%, A 27.3% and G 17.3%, with an AT bias of 53.2%. PMID:26075475

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-Jia; Hu, Wen-Guo; Wang, Guang-Peng

    2016-09-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis is a species of water mould known for causing downy mildew on cucurbits. 454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing data was used to obtain its complete mitochondrial genome (38 553 bp). The mitogenome contains 60 genes, including two ribosomal RNA, 25 transfer RNA, 15 ribosomal proteins, five open reading frames (ORFs). The rps3 and rpl16 overlapped each other by 14 bp. The gene order and composition of P. cubensis was similar to that of most other oomycetes, and its GC content was 22.4%. It is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome in the genus Pseudoperonospora. Phylogeny analysis indicates that P. cubensis has a close genetic relationship with genus Phytophthora. PMID:26186306

  5. The fractal structure of the mitochondrial genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwa, Nestor N.; Glazier, James A.

    2002-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA genome has a definite multifractal structure. We show that loops, hairpins and inverted palindromes are responsible for this self-similarity. We can thus establish a definite relation between the function of subsequences and their fractal dimension. Intriguingly, protein coding DNAs also exhibit palindromic structures, although they do not appear in the sequence of amino acids. These structures may reflect the stabilization and transcriptional control of DNA or the control of posttranscriptional editing of mRNA.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two ornamental fishes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Chen, Baohua; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Feng, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ornamental fishes, black molly (Poecilia sphenops) and blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus), were obtained by the traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing approach. The mitogenomes of P. sphenops and T. trichopterus are determined as 16,533 bp and 16,456 bp in length, respectively. Both the genomes include 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the complete mitogenomes of these two species and closely related 20 teleost species to assess their phylogenic relationship and evolution. PMID:26061340

  7. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of bearded pig, Sus barbatus, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Chuan; Xu, Bao-Hua; Liu, Hong-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of bearded pig, Sus barbatus, with the total length of 16,480 bp, is determined for the first time. This mitogenome harbors 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (34.80%), C (26.07%), G (13.12%), and T (26.01%), so the slight A-T bias (60.81%) was detected. Most of the genes are distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. To obtain the phylogenetic relationship of the Cetartiodactyla, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. The mitochondrial genome of S. barbatus presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics. PMID:26104157

  9. Mitochondrial genomic investigation of flatfish monophyly.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew A; López, J Andrés; Satoh, Takashi P; Chen, Wei-Jen; Miya, Masaki

    2014-11-10

    We present the first study to use whole mitochondrial genome sequences to examine phylogenetic affinities of the flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes). Flatfishes have attracted attention in evolutionary biology since the early history of the field because understanding the evolutionary history and patterns of diversification of the group will shed light on the evolution of novel body plans. Because recent molecular studies based primarily on DNA sequences from nuclear loci have yielded conflicting results, it is important to examine phylogenetic signal in different genomes and genome regions. We aligned and analyzed mitochondrial genome sequences from thirty-nine pleuronectiforms including nine that are newly reported here, and sixty-six non-pleuronectiforms (twenty additional clade L taxa [Carangimorpha or Carangimorpharia] and forty-six secondary outgroup taxa). The analyses yield strong support for clade L and weak support for the monophyly of Pleuronectiformes. The suborder Pleuronectoidei receives moderate support, and as with other molecular studies the putatively basal lineage of Pleuronectiformes, the Psettodoidei is frequently not most closely related to other pleuronectiforms. Within the Pleuronectoidei, the basal lineages in the group are poorly resolved, however several flatfish subclades receive consistent support. The affinities of Lepidoblepharon and Citharoides among pleuronectoids are particularly uncertain with these data. PMID:25172210

  10. Sequencing and comparing whole mitochondrial genomes ofanimals

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Macey, J. Robert; Medina, Monica

    2005-04-22

    Comparing complete animal mitochondrial genome sequences is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. Not only are they much more informative than shorter sequences of individual genes for inferring evolutionary relatedness, but these data also provide sets of genome-level characters, such as the relative arrangements of genes, that can be especially powerful. We describe here the protocols commonly used for physically isolating mtDNA, for amplifying these by PCR or RCA, for cloning,sequencing, assembly, validation, and gene annotation, and for comparing both sequences and gene arrangements. On several topics, we offer general observations based on our experiences to date with determining and comparing complete mtDNA sequences.

  11. The mitochondrial genome in embryo technologies.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, S; Wolf, E

    2003-08-01

    The mammalian mitochondrial genome encodes for 37 genes which are involved in a broad range of cellular functions. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule is commonly assumed to be inherited through oocyte cytoplasm in a clonal manner, and apparently species-specific mechanisms have evolved to eliminate the contribution of sperm mitochondria after natural fertilization. However, recent evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance in embryos and offspring questions the general validity of this model, particularly in the context of assisted reproduction and embryo biotechnology. In addition to normal mt DNA haplotype variation, oocytes and spermatozoa show remarkable differences in mtDNA content and may be affected by inherited or acquired mtDNA aberrations. All these parameters have been correlated with gamete quality and reproductive success rates. Nuclear transfer (NT) technology provides experimental models for studying interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Recent studies demonstrated (i) a significant effect of mtDNA haplotype or other maternal cytoplasmic factors on the efficiency of NT; (ii) phenotypic differences between transmitochondrial clones pointing to functionally relevant nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions; and (iii) neutral or non-neutral selection of mtDNA haplotypes in heteroplasmic conditions. Mitochondria form a dynamic reticulum, enabling complementation of mitochondrial components and possibly mixing of different mtDNA populations in heteroplasmic individuals. Future directions of research on mtDNA in the context of reproductive biotechnology range from the elimination of adverse effects of artificial heteroplasmy, e.g. created by ooplasm transfer, to engineering of optimized constellations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes for the production of superior livestock. PMID:12887568

  12. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Burkhard R; van het Hoog, Marco; d'Enfert, Christophe; Martchenko, Mikhail; Dungan, Jan; Kuo, Alan; Inglis, Diane O; Uhl, M. Andrew; Hogues, Hervé; Berriman, Matthew; Lorenz, Michael; Levitin, Anastasia; Oberholzer, Ursula; Bachewich, Catherine; Harcus, Doreen; Marcil, Anne; Dignard, Daniel; Iouk, Tatiana; Zito, Rosa; Frangeul, Lionel; Tekaia, Fredj; Rutherford, Kim; Wang, Edwin; Munro, Carol A; Bates, Steve; Gow, Neil A; Hoyer, Lois L; Köhler, Gerwald; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Newport, George; Znaidi, Sadri; Raymond, Martine; Turcotte, Bernard; Sherlock, Gavin; Costanzo, Maria; Ihmels, Jan; Berman, Judith; Sanglard, Dominique; Agabian, Nina; Mitchell, Aaron P; Johnson, Alexander D; Whiteway, Malcolm; Nantel, André

    2005-01-01

    Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations) that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:16103911

  13. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources. PMID:26919060

  14. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased ...

  15. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  16. Mitochondrial genome of Micrura bella (Nemertea: Heteronemertea), the largest mitochondrial genome known to phylum Nemertea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunyang; Shi-Chun, Sun

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Micrura bella was sequenced and analyzed. Being the largest mitogenome known to phylum Nemertea, the genome is 16 847 bp in length. It encodes 37 genes typical to metazoan mitogenomes and has the same gene arrangement with the other Heteronemertea mitogenomes sequenced to date. The genome has the maximal number of non-coding nucleotides (2037 bp at 25 sites) in Nemertea mitogenomes, among which two large non-coding regions were found (507 and 508 bp, respectively). PMID:26155969

  17. Simple sequence repeats in bryophyte mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao-Xian; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are thought to be common in plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes, but have yet to be fully described for bryophytes. We screened the mt genomes of two liverworts (Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea), two mosses (Physcomitrella patens and Anomodon rugelii) and two hornworts (Phaeoceros laevis and Nothoceros aenigmaticus), and detected 475 SSRs. Some SSRs are found conserved during the evolution, among which except one exists in both liverworts and mosses, all others are shared only by the two liverworts, mosses or hornworts. SSRs are known as DNA tracts having high mutation rates; however, according to our observations, they still can evolve slowly. The conservativeness of these SSRs suggests that they are under strong selection and could play critical roles in maintaining the gene functions. PMID:24491104

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Changwen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence. The genome was 17,370 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 3 main non-coding regions. The composition and order of genes, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of L. opalescence is A 38.62%, C 19.40%, T 32.37% and G 9.61%, with a highly A + T bias of 70.99%. All of the three control regions (CR) contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Loliginidae. PMID:25703845

  19. OntoMate: a text-mining tool aiding curation at the Rat Genome Database.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weisong; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Hayman, G Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier repository of rat genomic, genetic and physiologic data. Converting data from free text in the scientific literature to a structured format is one of the main tasks of all model organism databases. RGD spends considerable effort manually curating gene, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) and strain information. The rapidly growing volume of biomedical literature and the active research in the biological natural language processing (bioNLP) community have given RGD the impetus to adopt text-mining tools to improve curation efficiency. Recently, RGD has initiated a project to use OntoMate, an ontology-driven, concept-based literature search engine developed at RGD, as a replacement for the PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) search engine in the gene curation workflow. OntoMate tags abstracts with gene names, gene mutations, organism name and most of the 16 ontologies/vocabularies used at RGD. All terms/ entities tagged to an abstract are listed with the abstract in the search results. All listed terms are linked both to data entry boxes and a term browser in the curation tool. OntoMate also provides user-activated filters for species, date and other parameters relevant to the literature search. Using the system for literature search and import has streamlined the process compared to using PubMed. The system was built with a scalable and open architecture, including features specifically designed to accelerate the RGD gene curation process. With the use of bioNLP tools, RGD has added more automation to its curation workflow. Database URL: http://rgd.mcw.edu. PMID:25619558

  20. OntoMate: a text-mining tool aiding curation at the Rat Genome Database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weisong; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Hayman, G. Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R.; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Shimoyama, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier repository of rat genomic, genetic and physiologic data. Converting data from free text in the scientific literature to a structured format is one of the main tasks of all model organism databases. RGD spends considerable effort manually curating gene, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) and strain information. The rapidly growing volume of biomedical literature and the active research in the biological natural language processing (bioNLP) community have given RGD the impetus to adopt text-mining tools to improve curation efficiency. Recently, RGD has initiated a project to use OntoMate, an ontology-driven, concept-based literature search engine developed at RGD, as a replacement for the PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) search engine in the gene curation workflow. OntoMate tags abstracts with gene names, gene mutations, organism name and most of the 16 ontologies/vocabularies used at RGD. All terms/ entities tagged to an abstract are listed with the abstract in the search results. All listed terms are linked both to data entry boxes and a term browser in the curation tool. OntoMate also provides user-activated filters for species, date and other parameters relevant to the literature search. Using the system for literature search and import has streamlined the process compared to using PubMed. The system was built with a scalable and open architecture, including features specifically designed to accelerate the RGD gene curation process. With the use of bioNLP tools, RGD has added more automation to its curation workflow. Database URL: http://rgd.mcw.edu PMID:25619558

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate. PMID:21745140

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiwu; Xia, Yan; Dang, Xiao; Chen, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the largest living species of penguin. Herein, we first reported the complete mitochondrial genome of emperor penguin. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 17 301 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA, and one control region. To verify the accuracy and the utility of new determined mitogenome sequences, we constructed the species phylogenetic tree of emperor penguin together with 10 other closely species. This is the second complete mitochondrial genome of penguin, and this is going to be an important data to study mitochondrial evolution of birds. PMID:26403091

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Parastromateus niger (Perciformes, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huapu; Xie, Zhenzhen; Huang, Hongxin; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Youran; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Parastromateus niger. The mitochondrial genome is 16,561 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Parastromateus niger mitochondrial genome is similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.23% of A, 29.51% of C, 26.01% of T and 16.16% of G. With the exception of five tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:24617473

  4. Mitochondrial genome changes and neurodegenerative diseases☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Milena; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles within the cell where most of the energy production occurs by the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Critical components of the OXPHOS are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and therefore, mutations involving this genome can be deleterious to the cell. Post-mitotic tissues, such as muscle and brain, are most sensitive to mtDNA changes, due to their high energy requirements and non-proliferative status. It has been proposed that mtDNA biological features and location make it vulnerable to mutations, which accumulate over time. However, although the role of mtDNA damage has been conclusively connected to neuronal impairment in mitochondrial diseases, its role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases remains speculative. Here we review the pathophysiology of mtDNA mutations leading to neurodegeneration and discuss the insights obtained by studying mouse models of mtDNA dysfunction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Misfolded Proteins, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Neurodegenerative Diseases. PMID:24252612

  5. Genome Digging: Insight into the Mitochondrial Genome of Homo

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Kholina, Olga I.

    2010-01-01

    Background A fraction of the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome sequence has a similarity with a 5,839-bp nuclear DNA sequence of mitochondrial origin (numt) on the human chromosome 1. This fact has never been interpreted. Although this phenomenon may be attributed to contamination and mosaic assembly of Neanderthal mtDNA from short sequencing reads, we explain the mysterious similarity by integration of this numt (mtAncestor-1) into the nuclear genome of the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans not long before their reproductive split. Principal Findings Exploiting bioinformatics, we uncovered an additional numt (mtAncestor-2) with a high similarity to the Neanderthal mtDNA and indicated that both numts represent almost identical replicas of the mtDNA sequences ancestral to the mitochondrial genomes of Neanderthals and modern humans. In the proteins, encoded by mtDNA, the majority of amino acids distinguishing chimpanzees from humans and Neanderthals were acquired by the ancestral hominins. The overall rate of nonsynonymous evolution in Neanderthal mitochondrial protein-coding genes is not higher than in other lineages. The model incorporating the ancestral hominin mtDNA sequences estimates the average divergence age of the mtDNAs of Neanderthals and modern humans to be 450,000–485,000 years. The mtAncestor-1 and mtAncestor-2 sequences were incorporated into the nuclear genome approximately 620,000 years and 2,885,000 years ago, respectively. Conclusions This study provides the first insight into the evolution of the mitochondrial DNA in hominins ancestral to Neanderthals and humans. We hypothesize that mtAncestor-1 and mtAncestor-2 are likely to be molecular fossils of the mtDNAs of Homo heidelbergensis and a stem Homo lineage. The dN/dS dynamics suggests that the effective population size of extinct hominins was low. However, the hominin lineage ancestral to humans, Neanderthals and H. heidelbergensis, had a larger effective population size and

  6. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Pezizomycete Pyronema confluens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the ascomycete Pyronema confluens has been sequenced. The circular genome has a size of 191 kb and contains 48 protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. Of the protein-coding genes, 14 encode conserved mitochondrial proteins, and 31 encode predicted homing endonuclease genes. PMID:27174271

  7. Correcting Inconsistencies and Errors in Bacterial Genome Metadata Using an Automated Curation Tool in Excel (AutoCurE).

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome data are invaluable for large-scale comparative genomic studies. Current sequencing technologies have made it feasible to sequence entire bacterial genomes with relative ease and time with a substantially reduced cost per nucleotide, hence cost per genome. More than 3,000 bacterial genomes have been sequenced and are available at the finished status. Publically available genomes can be readily downloaded; however, there are challenges to verify the specific supporting data contained within the download and to identify errors and inconsistencies that may be present within the organizational data content and metadata. AutoCurE, an automated tool for bacterial genome database curation in Excel, was developed to facilitate local database curation of supporting data that accompany downloaded genomes from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. AutoCurE provides an automated approach to curate local genomic databases by flagging inconsistencies or errors by comparing the downloaded supporting data to the genome reports to verify genome name, RefSeq accession numbers, the presence of archaea, BioProject/UIDs, and sequence file descriptions. Flags are generated for nine metadata fields if there are inconsistencies between the downloaded genomes and genomes reports and if erroneous or missing data are evident. AutoCurE is an easy-to-use tool for local database curation for large-scale genome data prior to downstream analyses. PMID:26442252

  8. The Mitochondrial Genome of Baylisascaris procyonis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yue; Zhang, Zhihe; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Chengdong; Lan, Jingchao; Deng, Jiabo; Fu, Yan; Nie, Huaming; Yan, Ning; Yang, Deying; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2011-01-01

    Background Baylisascaris procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaridida), an intestinal nematode of raccoons, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal larval migrans in animals and humans. Despite its significant veterinary and public health impact, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes can provide a foundation for investigations in these areas and assist in the diagnosis and control of B. procyonis. In this study, the first complete mt genome sequence of B. procyonis was determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings The circular mt genome (14781 bp) of B. procyonis contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes congruent with other chromadorean nematodes. Interestingly, the B. procyonis mtDNA featured an extremely long AT-rich region (1375 bp) and a high number of intergenic spacers (17), making it unique compared with other secernentean nematodes characterized to date. Additionally, the entire genome displayed notable levels of AT skew and GC skew. Based on pairwise comparisons and sliding window analysis of mt genes among the available 11 Ascaridida mtDNAs, new primer pairs were designed to amplify specific short fragments of the genes cytb (548 bp fragment) and rrnL (200 bp fragment) in the B. procyonis mtDNA, and tested as possible alternatives to existing mt molecular beacons for Ascaridida. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs provided novel estimates of the interrelationships of Baylisasaris and Ascaridida. Conclusions/Significance The complete mt genome sequence of B. procyonis sequenced here should contribute to molecular diagnostic methods, epidemiological investigations and ecological studies of B. procyonis and other related ascaridoids. The information will be important in refining the phylogenetic relationships within the order Ascaridida and

  9. Mitochondrial genomes are retained by selective constraints on protein targeting.

    PubMed

    Björkholm, Patrik; Harish, Ajith; Hagström, Erik; Ernst, Andreas M; Andersson, Siv G E

    2015-08-18

    Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells considered to be of bacterial origin. The mitochondrial genome has evolved under selection for minimization of gene content, yet it is not known why not all mitochondrial genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome. Here, we predict that hydrophobic membrane proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genomes would be recognized by the signal recognition particle and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum if they were nuclear-encoded and translated in the cytoplasm. Expression of the mitochondrially encoded proteins Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, Apocytochrome b, and ATP synthase subunit 6 in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells confirms export to the endoplasmic reticulum. To examine the extent to which the mitochondrial proteome is driven by selective constraints within the eukaryotic cell, we investigated the occurrence of mitochondrial protein domains in bacteria and eukaryotes. The accessory protein domains of the oxidative phosphorylation system are unique to mitochondria, indicating the evolution of new protein folds. Most of the identified domains in the accessory proteins of the ribosome are also found in eukaryotic proteins of other functions and locations. Overall, one-third of the protein domains identified in mitochondrial proteins are only rarely found in bacteria. We conclude that the mitochondrial genome has been maintained to ensure the correct localization of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. Taken together, the results suggest that selective constraints on the eukaryotic cell have played a major role in modulating the evolution of the mitochondrial genome and proteome. PMID:26195779

  10. Mitochondrial genomes are retained by selective constraints on protein targeting

    PubMed Central

    Björkholm, Patrik; Harish, Ajith; Hagström, Erik; Ernst, Andreas M.; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells considered to be of bacterial origin. The mitochondrial genome has evolved under selection for minimization of gene content, yet it is not known why not all mitochondrial genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome. Here, we predict that hydrophobic membrane proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genomes would be recognized by the signal recognition particle and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum if they were nuclear-encoded and translated in the cytoplasm. Expression of the mitochondrially encoded proteins Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, Apocytochrome b, and ATP synthase subunit 6 in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells confirms export to the endoplasmic reticulum. To examine the extent to which the mitochondrial proteome is driven by selective constraints within the eukaryotic cell, we investigated the occurrence of mitochondrial protein domains in bacteria and eukaryotes. The accessory protein domains of the oxidative phosphorylation system are unique to mitochondria, indicating the evolution of new protein folds. Most of the identified domains in the accessory proteins of the ribosome are also found in eukaryotic proteins of other functions and locations. Overall, one-third of the protein domains identified in mitochondrial proteins are only rarely found in bacteria. We conclude that the mitochondrial genome has been maintained to ensure the correct localization of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. Taken together, the results suggest that selective constraints on the eukaryotic cell have played a major role in modulating the evolution of the mitochondrial genome and proteome. PMID:26195779

  11. Mitochondrial genome of Caenorhabditis nigoni (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Bi, Yu; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-09-01

    To facilitate comparative genomic study in the Caenorhabditis species, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a nematode species Caenorhabditis nigoni (previous name: Caenorhabditis sp. 9) was generated using next-generation sequencing. The mitogenome length is 13,413 bp, containing 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding regions (NCR). The genome organization and nucleotide composition is very similar to that of the mitogenome of C. elegans and C. briggsae. Mitogenome of C. nigoni shows higher sequence similarity to C. briggsae than to C. elegans, which is consistent with the fact that C. nigoni is a sister species of C. briggsae. However, as in C. elegans, two NCRs present in the mitogenome of C. briggsae are missing in C. nigoni. The mitogenome sequence of C. nigoni plays an important role in further studies of phylogenetics, population genetics and evolutionary genetics in nematode species. PMID:25740213

  12. Improved systematic tRNA gene annotation allows new insights into the evolution of mitochondrial tRNA structures and into the mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Jühling, Frank; Pütz, Joern; Bernt, Matthias; Donath, Alexander; Middendorf, Martin; Florentz, Catherine; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are present in all types of cells as well as in organelles. tRNAs of animal mitochondria show a low level of primary sequence conservation and exhibit ‘bizarre’ secondary structures, lacking complete domains of the common cloverleaf. Such sequences are hard to detect and hence frequently missed in computational analyses and mitochondrial genome annotation. Here, we introduce an automatic annotation procedure for mitochondrial tRNA genes in Metazoa based on sequence and structural information in manually curated covariance models. The method, applied to re-annotate 1876 available metazoan mitochondrial RefSeq genomes, allows to distinguish between remaining functional genes and degrading ‘pseudogenes’, even at early stages of divergence. The subsequent analysis of a comprehensive set of mitochondrial tRNA genes gives new insights into the evolution of structures of mitochondrial tRNA sequences as well as into the mechanisms of genome rearrangements. We find frequent losses of tRNA genes concentrated in basal Metazoa, frequent independent losses of individual parts of tRNA genes, particularly in Arthropoda, and wide-spread conserved overlaps of tRNAs in opposite reading direction. Direct evidence for several recent Tandem Duplication-Random Loss events is gained, demonstrating that this mechanism has an impact on the appearance of new mitochondrial gene orders. PMID:22139921

  13. From simple to supercomplex: mitochondrial genomes of euglenozoan protists

    PubMed Central

    Lukeš, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles of endosymbiotic origin, best known for constituting the centre of energetics of a eukaryotic cell. They contain their own mitochondrial genome, which as a consequence of gradual reduction during evolution typically contains less than two dozens of genes. In this review, we highlight the extremely diverse architecture of mitochondrial genomes and mechanisms of gene expression between the three sister groups constituting the phylum Euglenozoa - Euglenida, Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. The earliest diverging euglenids possess a simplified mitochondrial genome and a conventional gene expression, whereas both are highly complex in the two other groups. The expression of their mitochondrial-encoded proteins requires extensive post-transcriptional modifications guided by complex protein machineries and multiple small RNA molecules. Moreover, the least studied diplonemids, which have been recently discovered as a highly abundant component of the world ocean plankton, possess one of the most complicated mitochondrial genome organisations known to date. PMID:27018240

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo. PMID:26355835

  15. Mitochondrial genomics in Orthoptera using MOSAS.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Nathan C; Hiatt, Kevin D; Valentine, Mark C; Song, Hojun; Whiting, Michael F

    2010-06-01

    We present complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) for three orthopterans (Xyleus modestus, Physemacris variolosa, and Ellipes minuta) and describe MOSAS (manipulation, organization, storage, and analysis of sequences), software we developed to facilitate annotation and analysis. We analyze the base composition, start and stop codons, non-coding regions, and gene order among these and 18 other orthopteran mitogenomes from GenBank and reconstruct a phylogeny of Orthoptera. We propose a tetranucleotide start codon for cox1, and hypothesize that the tRNA(Asp)-tRNA(Lys) rearrangement is a synapomorphy for Acridomorpha, but not Caelifera. We further describe MOSAS, user-friendly software we used for this analysis. MOSAS streamlines sequence data storage, organization, annotation, and alignment, and provides convenient search tools for dataset construction and a robust annotation engine particularly suited to annotating mitogenomes (available at http://mosas.byu.edu). PMID:20795780

  16. The i5k Workspace@NAL—enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes

    PubMed Central

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research. PMID:25332403

  17. The i5k Workspace@NAL--enabling genomic data access, visualization and curation of arthropod genomes.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica; Childers, Christopher; Moore, Gary; Tsavatapalli, Vijaya; Evans, Jay; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Lin, Jun-Wei; Hackett, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5k) has tasked itself with coordinating the sequencing of 5000 insect or related arthropod genomes. The resulting influx of data, mostly from small research groups or communities with little bioinformatics experience, will require visualization, dissemination and curation, preferably from a centralized platform. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has implemented the i5k Workspace@NAL (http://i5k.nal.usda.gov/) to help meet the i5k initiative's genome hosting needs. Any i5k member is encouraged to contact the i5k Workspace with their genome project details. Once submitted, new content will be accessible via organism pages, genome browsers and BLAST search engines, which are implemented via the open-source Tripal framework, a web interface for the underlying Chado database schema. We also implement the Web Apollo software for groups that choose to curate gene models. New content will add to the existing body of 35 arthropod species, which include species relevant for many aspects of arthropod genomic research, including agriculture, invasion biology, systematics, ecology and evolution, and developmental research. PMID:25332403

  18. Selfish drive can trump function when animal mitochondrial genomes compete.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hansong; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial genomes compete for transmission from mother to progeny. We explored this competition by introducing a second genome into Drosophila melanogaster to follow transmission. Competitions between closely related genomes favored those functional in electron transport, resulting in a host-beneficial purifying selection. In contrast, matchups between distantly related genomes often favored those with negligible, negative or lethal consequences, indicating selfish selection. Exhibiting powerful selfish selection, a genome carrying a detrimental mutation displaced a complementing genome, leading to population death after several generations. In a different pairing, opposing selfish and purifying selection counterbalanced to give stable transmission of two genomes. Sequencing of recombinant mitochondrial genomes showed that the noncoding region, containing origins of replication, governs selfish transmission. Uniparental inheritance prevents encounters between distantly related genomes. Nonetheless, in each maternal lineage, constant competition among sibling genomes selects for super-replicators. We suggest that this relentless competition drives positive selection, promoting change in the sequences influencing transmission. PMID:27270106

  19. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haimei; Chen, Xiangdong; Lan, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the well-known medicinal basidiomycetes worldwide. The mitochondrion, referred to as the second genome, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells and participates in critical cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and function of this genome is important to understand completely the genetic contents of G. lucidum. In this study, we assembled the mitochondrial genome of G. lucidum and analyzed the differential expressions of its encoded genes across three developmental stages. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 60,630 bp with a GC content of 26.67%. Genome annotation identified genes that encode 15 conserved proteins, 27 tRNAs, small and large rRNAs, four homing endonucleases, and two hypothetical proteins. Except for genes encoding trnW and two hypothetical proteins, all genes were located on the positive strand. For the repeat structure analysis, eight forward, two inverted, and three tandem repeats were detected. A pair of fragments with a total length around 5.5 kb was found in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, which suggests the possible transfer of DNA sequences between two genomes. RNA-Seq data for samples derived from three stages, namely, mycelia, primordia, and fruiting bodies, were mapped to the mitochondrial genome and qualified. The protein-coding genes were expressed higher in mycelia or primordial stages compared with those in the fruiting bodies. The rRNA abundances were significantly higher in all three stages. Two regions were transcribed but did not contain any identified protein or tRNA genes. Furthermore, three RNA-editing sites were detected. Genome synteny analysis showed that significant genome rearrangements occurred in the mitochondrial genomes. This study provides valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and their differential expressions at various developmental stages of G. lucidum. The results contribute to the understanding of the

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Saxidomus purpuratus (Veneroida: Veneridae).

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiangbo; He, Chongbo; Gao, Xianggang; Li, Yunfeng; Gao, Lei; Jiang, Bing; Liu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Saxidomus purpuratus is determined, which is the first complete mitochondrial genome in the genus Saxidomus. The genome was of 19 637 bp in length, including 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 12 protein-coding genes with the order of ND3 and ND5 reversed. Maximum likelihood tree based on nucleotide sequences of 12 mitochondrial PCGs was constructed, in which S. purpuratus was clustered with 3 Meretrix species. The results are expected to provide useful data for species identification and further studies of the genus Saxidomus. PMID:26329595

  1. The Mitochondrial Genome of an Aquatic Plant, Spirodela polyrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenqin; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirodela polyrhiza is a species of the order Alismatales, which represent the basal lineage of monocots with more ancestral features than the Poales. Its complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome could provide clues for the understanding of the evolution of mt genomes in plant. Methods Spirodela polyrhiza mt genome was sequenced from total genomic DNA without physical separation of chloroplast and nuclear DNA using the SOLiD platform. Using a genome copy number sensitive assembly algorithm, the mt genome was successfully assembled. Gap closure and accuracy was determined with PCR products sequenced with the dideoxy method. Conclusions This is the most compact monocot mitochondrial genome with 228,493 bp. A total of 57 genes encode 35 known proteins, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and 19 tRNAs that recognize 15 amino acids. There are about 600 RNA editing sites predicted and three lineage specific protein-coding-gene losses. The mitochondrial genes, pseudogenes, and other hypothetical genes (ORFs) cover 71,783 bp (31.0%) of the genome. Imported plastid DNA accounts for an additional 9,295 bp (4.1%) of the mitochondrial DNA. Absence of transposable element sequences suggests that very few nuclear sequences have migrated into Spirodela mtDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved protein-coding genes suggests that Spirodela shares the common ancestor with other monocots, but there is no obvious synteny between Spirodela and rice mtDNAs. After eliminating genes, introns, ORFs, and plastid-derived DNA, nearly four-fifths of the Spirodela mitochondrial genome is of unknown origin and function. Although it contains a similar chloroplast DNA content and range of RNA editing as other monocots, it is void of nuclear insertions, active gene loss, and comprises large regions of sequences of unknown origin in non-coding regions. Moreover, the lack of synteny with known mitochondrial genomic sequences shed new light on the early evolution of monocot mitochondrial genomes

  2. IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-25

    A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the scleractinian coral Porites rus.

    PubMed

    Celis, Juan Sebastián; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Wilke, Thomas; Kalinowski, Joern

    2016-09-01

    Scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are found across a wide geographical range along the tropical seas. Some species of the genus such as Porites rus are important reef builders in coral reef ecosystems and display a remarkable stress tolerance. Despite their physiological particularities and ecological importance, there is a scarcity of molecular data for members of this genus. Here, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome of Porites rus (Genbank accession number LN864762) which is 18 647 bp in size. It has the typical coral mitochondrial gene arrangement, consisting of 14 protein-coding genes, with a GC content of 36.2%, 12 tRNAs and two rRNAs. The P. rus mitochondrial genome displays two groups: 1 intron in cox1 and nad5 genes. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the genus Porites. The complete mitochondrial genome will be helpful for addressing questions regarding mitochondrial gene evolution. PMID:27158873

  4. Highly rearranged mitochondrial genome in Nycteria parasites (Haemosporidia) from bats.

    PubMed

    Karadjian, Gregory; Hassanin, Alexandre; Saintpierre, Benjamin; Gembu Tungaluna, Guy-Crispin; Ariey, Frederic; Ayala, Francisco J; Landau, Irene; Duval, Linda

    2016-08-30

    Haemosporidia parasites have mostly and abundantly been described using mitochondrial genes, and in particular cytochrome b (cytb). Failure to amplify the mitochondrial cytb gene of Nycteria parasites isolated from Nycteridae bats has been recently reported. Bats are hosts to a diverse and profuse array of Haemosporidia parasites that remain largely unstudied. There is a need to obtain more molecular data from chiropteran parasites. Such data would help to better understand the evolutionary history of Haemosporidia, which notably include the Plasmodium parasites, malaria's agents. We use next-generation sequencing to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome of Nycteria parasites from African Nycteris grandis (Nycteridae) and Rhinolophus alcyone (Rhinolophidae) and Asian Megaderma spasma (Megadermatidae). We report four complete mitochondrial genomes, including two rearranged mitochondrial genomes within Haemosporidia. Our results open outlooks into potentially undiscovered Haemosporidian diversity. PMID:27528689

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Helen E; Lapraz, François; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Telford, Maximilian J

    2015-01-01

    Strigamia maritima (Myriapoda; Chilopoda) is a species from the soil-living order of geophilomorph centipedes. The Geophilomorpha is the most speciose order of centipedes with over a 1000 species described. They are notable for their large number of appendage bearing segments and are being used as a laboratory model to study the embryological process of segmentation within the myriapods. Using a scaffold derived from the recently published genome of Strigamia maritima that contained multiple mitochondrial protein-coding genes, here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Strigamia, the first from any geophilomorph centipede. The mitochondrial genome of S. maritima is a circular molecule of 14,938 base pairs, within which we could identify the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Sequences resembling 16 of the 22 transfer RNA genes typical of metazoan mitochondrial genomes could be identified, many of which have clear deviations from the standard 'cloverleaf' secondary structures of tRNA. Phylogenetic trees derived from the concatenated alignment of protein-coding genes of S. maritima and >50 other metazoans were unable to resolve the Myriapoda as monophyletic, but did support a monophyletic group of chilopods: Strigamia was resolved as the sister group of the scolopendromorph Scolopocryptos sp. and these two (Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha), along with the Lithobiomorpha, formed a monophyletic group the Pleurostigmomorpha. Gene order within the S. maritima mitochondrial genome is unique compared to any other arthropod or metazoan mitochondrial genome to which it has been compared. The highly unusual organisation of the mitochondrial genome of Strigamia maritima is in striking contrast with the conservatively evolving nuclear genome: sampling of more members of this order of centipedes will be required to see whether this unusual organization is typical of the Geophilomorpha or results from a more

  6. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Youxian sheldrake.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Ping; Liu, Li-Li; Yu, Qi-Fang; Li, Si; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Youxian sheldrake is excellent native breeds in Hunan province in China. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence plays an important role in the accurate determination of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. This is the first study to determine the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Youxian sheldrake using PCR-based amplification and Sanger sequencing. The characteristic of the entire mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail, the total length of the mitogenome is 16,605 bp, with the base composition of 29.21% A, 22.18% T, 32.84% C, 15.77% G in the Youxian sheldrake. It contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Youxian sheldrake provided an important data for further study of the phylogenetics of poultry, and available data for the genetics and breeding. PMID:25090395

  7. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders by concomitant next-generation sequencing of the exome and mitochondrial genome

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Smith, Laurie D.; Miller, Neil A.; Atherton, Andrea M.; Farrow, Emily G.; Strenk, Meghan E.; Soden, Sarah E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose due to extreme locus and allelic heterogeneity, with both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes potentially liable. Using exome sequencing we demonstrate the ability to rapidly and cost effectively evaluate both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to obtain a molecular diagnosis for four patients with three distinct mitochondrial disorders. One patient was found to have Leigh syndrome due to a mutation in MT-ATP6, two affected siblings were discovered to be compound heterozygous for mutations in the NDUFV1 gene, which causes mitochondrial complex I deficiency, and one patient was found to have coenzyme Q10 deficiency due to compound heterozygous mutations in COQ2. In all cases conventional diagnostic testing failed to identify a molecular diagnosis. We suggest that additional studies should be conducted to evaluate exome sequencing as a primary diagnostic test for mitochondrial diseases, including those due to mtDNA mutations. PMID:23631824

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Asian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Fei; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Jian-ning

    2016-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of this Asian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis) was 17,183 bp in length, gene composition and arrangement conformed to other lions, which contained the typical structure of 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding region. The characteristic of the mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail. PMID:24937568

  9. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions. PMID:26289416

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin; Shen, He Ding

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica are described first in the article. The mitogenomes (14 772 bp and 14 601 bp) contain 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes, and one putative control region (CR). CR is not well characterized due to the lack of discrete conserved sequence blocks. This characteristic is similar with CRs of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes, which is the typical bivalvia mitochondrial gene composition. PMID:26244691

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Botia lohachata (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Yang, Qichao; Ding, Shuquan; Wei, Min; Yang, Yingming; Wan, Quan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Botia lohachata was determined (GenBank accession number KP729183). The mitochondrial genome sequence of B. lohachata was a circular molecule with 16,594 bp in length, and it contained 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, an L-strand replication origin (OL) and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 26.53% C, 15.63% G, 31.98% A and 25.86% T, with an AT content of 57.83%. PMID:25939047

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nibea coibor (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Binbin; Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Huosheng; Yan, Yunrong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Nibea coibor has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,509 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)) and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D and CSB-C), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-2, CSB-3). PMID:25228377

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sillago sihama (Perciformes: Sillaginidae).

    PubMed

    Siyal, Fozia Khan; Xiao, Jiaguang; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Sillago sihama has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 17 003 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes and a control region. Within the control region, we identified the variable number tandem repeats, as well as the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F∼CSB-A) and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2, and CSB-3). PMID:26226594

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Crassostrea gasar (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Nathalia P; Solé-Cava, Antonio M; Melo, Cláudio M R; de Almeida, Luiz G; Lazoski, Cristiano; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Crassostrea gasar was sequenced using the Ion Proton technology in combination with 454 Roche GS-FLX plataform data. We assembled a 17,686 bp complete circular mitochondrial genome, containing 13 protein-coding genes, a major non-coding region (MNR), two ribosomal RNA genes and 24 transfer RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequences from mitochondria showed monophyletic clades formed with high bootstrap values. This is the first complete mitochondrial sequence of an oyster from South America. Mitogenome sequence was deposited in GenBank under the accession number KR856227. PMID:27158791

  15. The genomic landscape of polymorphic human nuclear mitochondrial insertions

    PubMed Central

    Dayama, Gargi; Emery, Sarah B.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Mills, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of mitochondrial genetic material into the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes is a well-established phenomenon that has been previously limited to the study of static reference genomes. The recent advancement of high throughput sequencing has enabled an expanded exploration into the diversity of polymorphic nuclear mitochondrial insertions (NumtS) within human populations. We have developed an approach to discover and genotype novel Numt insertions using whole genome, paired-end sequencing data. We have applied this method to a thousand individuals in 20 populations from the 1000 Genomes Project and other datasets and identified 141 new sites of Numt insertions, extending our current knowledge of existing NumtS by almost 20%. We find that recent Numt insertions are derived from throughout the mitochondrial genome, including the D-loop, and have integration biases that differ in some respects from previous studies on older, fixed NumtS in the reference genome. We determined the complete inserted sequence for a subset of these events and have identified a number of nearly full-length mitochondrial genome insertions into nuclear chromosomes. We further define their age and origin of insertion and present an analysis of their potential impact to ongoing studies of mitochondrial heteroplasmy and disease. PMID:25348406

  16. Rolling Circle Amplification of Complete Nematode Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sha; Hyman, Bradley C.

    2005-01-01

    To enable investigation of nematode mitochondrial DNA evolution, methodology has been developed to amplify intact nematode mitochondrial genomes in preparative yields using a rolling circle replication strategy. Successful reactions were generated from whole cell template DNA prepared by alkaline lysis of the rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and a mermithid nematode, Thaumamermis cosgrovei. These taxa, representing the two major nematode classes Chromodorea and Enoplea, maintain mitochondrial genomes of 13.8 kb and 20.0 kb, respectively. Efficient amplifications were conducted on template DNA isolated from individual or pooled nematodes that were alive or stored at -80°C. Unexpectedly, these experiments revealed that multiple T. cosgrovei mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are maintained in our local population. Rolling circle amplification products can be used as templates for standard PCR reactions with specific primers that target mitochondrial genes or for direct DNA sequencing. PMID:19262866

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yurong; Lin, Runmao; Tian, Xueliang; Shen, Baoming; Mao, Zhenchuan; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum is reported for the first time. The genome is concatenated with 22,367 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a set of 17 transfer RNA genes. The synteny analysis reveals that 50.35% of A. implicatum mitochondrial sequences matched to 48.21% of Acremonium chrysogenum mitochondrial sequences with 85.68% identity. Two proteins of cox3 and nad6, as well as seven tRNAs are lost in A. implicatum mitogenome compared to A. chrysogenum mitogenome. The gene orders in A. implicatum and A. chrysogenum mitogenome is different, which is mainly due to the location of nad4 and cox2. In addition, one transposition event related to tRNAs is identified in these two mitogenomes. This study may provide valuable mitochondrial information for research on A. implicatum and facilitate the study of mitochondrial evolution. PMID:25630733

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Scorpaenopsis cirrhosa (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongjie; Wang, Daoru; Hu, Jing; Wang, Qian

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scorpaenopsis cirrhosa has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 966 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region. The gene order and composition of S. cirrhosa mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (27.91%), G (17.71%), C (28.02%), and T (26.35%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The tRNA-Ser2 gene lacked DHC arm and could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, S. cirrhosa, a stonefish and four rockfishes from the same order (Scorpaeniformes) clustered into one branch. PMID:26162048

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Trachinotus ovatus (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuisheng; Yao, Mi; Lu, Danqi; Li, Zhihao; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-08-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Trachinotus ovatus in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,563 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of T. ovatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 29.03% of A, 28.86% of C, 26.23% of T and 15.88% of G. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Two copies of tandem repeat sequence (56 bp) was observed in the 5' end of the control region. PMID:24090004

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara (Perciformes: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Xiang; Tang, Lin; Tang, Zhujing; Liu, Yali; Chen, Huimin; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Epinephelus akaara mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.31% of A, 16.20% of C, 28.68% of T and 27.81% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25405908

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhabdosargus sarba (Perciformes: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhen; Yang, Huirong; Xie, Zhenzhen; Yang, Xiankuan; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Xiang; Li, Shuisheng; Chen, Mingliang; Zhao, Huihong; Zhang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhabdosargus sarba was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,644 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of R. sarba mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.01% of A, 17.96% of C, 26.02% of T and 29.01% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25208166

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ephippus orbis (Perciformes: Ephippidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Zhongjie; Sun, Dongyan; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ephippus orbis has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 670 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. The gene order and the composition of E. orbis mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (27.17%), G (16.41%), C (31.46%), and T (24.96%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Seen from the phylogenetic tree ( Figure 1 ), E. orbis, Platax teira, and Platax orbicularis from the same family (Ephippidae) clustered into one branch and were significantly divergent from the other families of closely related fish species. PMID:26258507

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata (Perciformes: Drepanidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Junfeng; Xie, Zhenzhen; Peng, Chen; Xu, Wen; Wang, Qing; Chen, Huapu; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,397 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 16 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of D. punctata mitochondrial genome was different from that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 24.56% of A, 16.02% of C, 27.81% of T and 31.61% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and five tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25219777

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Nemipterus virgatus (Perciformes: Nemipteridae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongjie; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Nemipterus virgatus has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 992 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The gene order and composition of N. virgatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the light strand is A (27.89%), G (26.61%), C (16.45%), T (29.05%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The tRNA-Ser2 gene lacked DHC arm and could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, N. virgatus, Nemipterus japonicus, and Nemipterus bathybius from the same genus clustered into one branch. PMID:26258518

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus (Perciformes: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Xie, Zhenzhen; He, Jianan; Wang, Dengdong; Chen, Huimin; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of E. lanceolatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 26.55% of A, 15.02% of C, 29.67% of T and 28.76% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25286235

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Hexagrammos otakii (Scorpaeniformes: Hexagrammidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zheng, Fengrong; Wang, Bo; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Hexagrammos otakii has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 513 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. The gene order and composition of H. otakii mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (26.90%), G (17.33%), C (29.87%), and T (25.90%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The 22 tRNA genes could be folded into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, H. otakii, Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos lagocephalus from the same genus clustered into one branch. PMID:26153750

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cephalothrix simula (Iwata) (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Sundberg, Per; Norenburg, Jon L; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2009-08-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence for a nemertean, Cephalothrix simula, was determined by conventional and long PCR and sequencing with primer walking methods. This circular genome is 16,296 bp in size and encodes 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs) typically found in metazoans. All genes are encoded on H-strand except two tRNAs (trnT and trnP). It differs from those reported for other metazoans, but some gene junctions are shared with those of other protostomes. Structure of the mitochondrial genome of C. simula is mostly concordant with the partial mitochondrial genome known for Cephalothrix rufifrons, but notable differences include three large indel events and transposition of 2 tRNAs. Nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial genome of C. simula is highly A+T biased. The compositional skew is strongly reflected in the codon-usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins. An AT-rich noncoding region with potential to form stem-loop structures may be involved in the initiation of replication or transcription. Gene adjacencies and phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 concatenated amino acid sequences (except atp8) of mitochondrial protein-coding genes show that the nemertean is close to the coelomate lophotrochozoans, rather than the acoelomate platyhelminths. PMID:19397957

  8. One-step PCR amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, U W; Park, C J; Yong, T S; Kim, W

    2001-06-01

    A new PCR primer set which enables one-step amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes was designed from two conserved 16S rDNA regions for the long PCR technique. For this purpose, partial 16S rDNAs amplified with universal primers 16SA and 16SB were newly sequenced from six representative arthropods: Armadillidium vulgare and Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea), Anopheles sinensis (Insecta), Lithobius forficatus and Megaphyllum sp. (Myriapoda), and Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata). The genomic locations of two new primers, HPK16Saa and HPK16Sbb, correspond to positions 13314-13345 and 12951-12984, respectively, in the Drosophila yakuba mitochondrial genome. The usefulness of the primer set was experimentally examined and confirmed with five of the representative arthropods, except for A. vulgare, which has a linearized mitochondrial genome. With this set, therefore, we could easily and rapidly amplify complete mitochondrial genomes with small amounts of arthropod DNA. Although the primers suggested here were examined only with arthropod groups, a possibility of successful application to other invertebrates is very high, since the high degree of sequence conservation is shown on the primer sites in other invertebrates. Thus, this primer set can serve various research fields, such as molecular evolution, population genetics, and molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences, RFLP, and gene rearrangement of mitochondrial genomes in arthropods and other invertebrates. PMID:11399145

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes; order Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masato; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    We used two sequencing methods, namely long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer walking, to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Dugesia japonica and most of the mtDNA sequence of Dugesia ryukyuensis. The genome of D. japonica contained 36 genes including 12 of the 13 protein-coding genes characteristic of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The genome of D. ryukyuensis contained 33 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 19 transfer RNA genes. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome from the Dugesia species showed no clear homology with either the Neodermata or other free-living Rhabditophora. This indicates that the platyhelminths exhibit great variability in mitochondrial gene order. This is the first complete sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome of a free-living member of Rhabditophora, which will facilitate further studies on the population genetics and genomic evolution of the Platyhelminthes. PMID:23030340

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Mao-Liang, Ran; Chen, Bin; Ouyang, Xuxiang; Li, Zhi; Dong, Lian-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus) is a native breed of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiangdong black goat is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,641 bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 33.53% A, 13.12% G, 27.25% T and 26.09% C, in the order A > T > C > G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25423508

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Punhal, Lashari; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Waryani, Baradi; Jalbani, Shaista; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Zhang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Eutropiichthys vacha, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red-listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,478 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.06% A, 27.59% C, 15.65% G, and 25.68% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, E. vacha provides the fundamental tool for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:25630731

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nepa hoffmanni (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danli; Xie, Tongyin; Li, Teng; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mt-genome) of Nepa hoffmanni has been reported in this study. This mitochondrial genome is 15 774 bp long, with an A + T content of 72.04%, containing the typical 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes) and a control region. All genes are arranged in the same gene order as most other known heteropteran mt-genome. This is the second completely sequenced mt-genome from the family Nepidae of Nepomorpha. Bayesian analyses were performed using the mt-genome of Nepa hoffmanni and its relatives, including 17 taxa, showing a reasonable placement of Nepa hoffmanni. PMID:26403708

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sinergasilus polycolpus (Copepoda:Poecilostomatoida).

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Li; Wang, Li-Xia; Huang, Jinyan; Jiang, Jinbin; Tang, Dunping; Fang, Rui; Su, Ying-Bing

    2016-07-01

    The full mitochondrial (mt) genome of Sinergasilus polycolpus is 14 000 bp in length, and it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are different compared to other Copepodas, such as Lernaea cyprinacea. The full mt genome of S. polycolpus provides useful information for further studies on epidemiology and phylogenetics. PMID:26152348

  14. Comparative mitochondrial genomics within and among species of killifish

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was motivated by the observation of unusual mitochondrial haplotype distributions and associated physiological differences between populations of the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus distributed along the Atlantic coast of North America. A distinct "northern" haplotype is fixed in all populations north of New Jersey, and does not appear south of New Jersey except in extreme upper-estuary fresh water habitats, and northern individuals are known to be more tolerant of hyposmotic conditions than southern individuals. Complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced from individuals from northern coastal, southern coastal, and fresh water populations (and from out-groups). Comparative genomics approaches were used to test multiple evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain among-population genome variation including directional selection and hybridization. Results Structure and organization of the Fundulus mitochondrial genome is typical of animals, yet subtle differences in substitution patterns exist among populations. No signals of directional selection or hybridization were detected. Mitochondrial genes evolve at variable rates, but all genes exhibit very low dN/dS ratios across all lineages, and the southern population harbors more synonymous polymorphism than other populations. Conclusion Evolution of mitochondrial genomes within Fundulus is primarily governed by interaction between strong purifying selection and demographic influences, including larger historical population size in the south. Though directional selection and hybridization hypotheses were not supported, adaptive processes may indirectly contribute to partitioning of variation between populations. PMID:19144111

  15. Mitochondrial genomic variation associated with higher mitochondrial copy number: the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mitochondria are essential organelles and are the location of cellular respiration, which is responsible for the majority of ATP production. Each cell contains multiple mitochondria, and each mitochondrion contains multiple copies of its own circular genome. The ratio of mitochondrial genomes to nuclear genomes is referred to as mitochondrial copy number. Decreases in mitochondrial copy number are known to occur in many tissues as people age, and in certain diseases. The regulation of mitochondrial copy number by nuclear genes has been studied extensively. While mitochondrial variation has been associated with longevity and some of the diseases known to have reduced mitochondrial copy number, the role that the mitochondrial genome itself has in regulating mitochondrial copy number remains poorly understood. Results We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from 1007 individuals randomly selected from the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging utilizing the inferred evolutionary history of the mitochondrial haplotypes present in our dataset to identify sequence variation and mitochondrial haplotypes associated with changes in mitochondrial copy number. Three variants belonging to mitochondrial haplogroups U5A1 and T2 were significantly associated with higher mitochondrial copy number in our dataset. Conclusions We identified three variants associated with higher mitochondrial copy number and suggest several hypotheses for how these variants influence mitochondrial copy number by interacting with known regulators of mitochondrial copy number. Our results are the first to report sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome that causes changes in mitochondrial copy number. The identification of these variants that increase mtDNA copy number has important implications in understanding the pathological processes that underlie these phenotypes. PMID:25077862

  16. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Venomous Cone Snail Conus consors

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stöcklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription. PMID:23236512

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of speckled dace, Rhinichthys osculus.

    PubMed

    Quan, Huang; Xu, Ji

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of speckled dace, Rhinichthys osculus, for the first time. The length of this genome is 16 611 bp, and the mitochondrial genome harbors 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), and one control region (D-loop), and it has a base composition of A (30.7%), G (16.3%), C (26.5%), and T (26.5%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (57.2%) was higher than that of G + C (42.8%). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. osculus mitochondrial genome formed a cluster with the other seven Rhodeus genus genomes. The mitochondrial genome of R. osculus presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics. PMID:26359550

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ochetobius elongatus (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Ping; Li, Xin Hui; Li, Yue Fei; Li, Jie; Shuai, Fang Min; Zhu, Shu Li

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Ochetobius elongatus was first sequenced and annotated. The entire mitogenome is 16 613 bp in length and has a typical vertebrate mitochondrial genetic trait, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region. The overall nucleotide composition of O. elongatus mt genome is A: 30.96%, T: 25.38%, G: 16.26% and C: 27.40%, with the A + T content of 56.34%, showing an obvious anti-G bias. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Leuciscinae formed a clade first and then clustered with Cultrinae. The complete mitochondrial genome of O. elongatus will benefit to a better understanding of population genetics, molecular systematics and stock evaluation, further serving the germplasm resources conservation and management of O. elongatus. PMID:26477619

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Mustela eversmannii (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Honghai; Sun, Guolei; Zhao, Chao; Dou, Huashan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Steppe polecat, Mustela eversmannii, was sequenced for the first time using muscle tissue. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16 463 bp in length and overall base composition is A (32.7%), T (27.3%), C (26.1%), and G (13.9%), which indicates a strong A-T bias. A phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 13 protein-coding genes and two rRNA genes of 10 Mustela species' mitochondrial genomes using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) demonstrated that these Mustela species were clustered into two clades and M. eversmannii was close to M. putorius. PMID:26367202

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae: Cynopterus).

    PubMed

    Li, Linmiao; Li, Min; Wu, Zhengjun; Chen, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae: Cynopterus) and described its organization in this study. The total length of C. sphinx complete mitochondrial genome was 16,895 bp with the base composition of 32.54% A, 14.05% G, 25.82% T and 27.59% C. The complete mitochondrial genome included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and 1 control region (D-loop). The control region was 1435 bp long with the sequence CATACG repeat 64 times. Three protein-coding genes (ND1, COI and ND4) were ended with incomplete stop codon TA or T. PMID:24409875

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hemiculterella sauvagei (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Hemiculterella).

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Chen, Yeyu; Liu, Ya; Du, Jun; Deng, Xiaochuan

    2016-09-01

    Hemiculterella sauvagei, a Chinese minnow endemic to the upper Yangtze River, is an important part of the aquatic ecosystem and plays a vital ecological role in maintaining aquatic biodiversity. In this study, we provide the first mitochondrial genome of H. sauvagei. The complete mitochondrial genome of H. sauvagei is 16618 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12 S and 16 S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of H. sauvagei is A = 29.9%, T = 27.0%, C = 17.4% and G = 25.6%, with a slight AT bias of 56.9%. The complete mitochondrial genome of H. sauvagei would be useful for further studies on genetic diversity and molecular phylogenetic relationship of the subfamily Cultrinae. PMID:25693700

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates sylvaticus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Ni, Ningning; Yu, Danna; Storey, Kenneth B; Zheng, Rongquan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates sylvaticus (Anura: Ranidae) was sequenced. The genome is a circular molecule of 17,343 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a large non-coding region. The gene order and mitochondrial genome information of L. sylvaticus is similar to most other frogs. The overall AT content of L. sylvaticus mitochondrial DNA is 59.3%. In BI and MLtrees, we found L. sylvaticus is a sister clade to L. catesbeianus. The monophyly of Lithobates, Rana, Odorrana, Glandirana, Pelophylax, and Amolops is well supported, but the paraphyly of Babina is supported. PMID:26016875

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xupu goose.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Jiang, Gui-Tao; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Guan-Bo; Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing; He, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Xupu goose is one of the famous native breed in China. In this work we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xupu goose in Hunan Province for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,742 bp, with the base composition of 30.21% for A, 22.70% for T, 32.02% for C, 15.08% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurring in the Xupu goose. And it is made up of two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The characteristics of the mitochondrial genome were analyzed and discussed in detail. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xupu goose will be useful for the phylogenetics of poultry, and be available as basic data for the genetics and breeding. PMID:24938098

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Parachromis managuensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihui; He, Jinzhao; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Shi, Cunbin; Lv, Yejian; Zhang, Zhixin

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parachromis managuensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) is sequenced in this study. The genome sequence was 16 526 bp in length, with the base composition of 28.1% A, 25.5% T, 15.4% G, 31.0% C. The gene order and genes are the same as found in other previously reported cichlid fish, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 D-loop region. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Parachromis managuensis was closely related to Amphilophus citrinellus and Petenia splendid, based on its complete mitochondrial genome sequences. This complete mitogenome data provide the basis for taxonomic and conservation research of Parachromis managuensis. PMID:26153742

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ancherythroculter lini (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidea).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibin; Hu, Juan; Zhao, Huihong; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Li

    2016-07-01

    Ancherythroculter lini is the endemic species of fish in China. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Ancherythroculter lini using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The total length of the complete mitochondrial genome is 16 616 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNAs genes, and a control region. Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The genes order and locations are similar to other vertebrates. The H-strand has a nucleotide composition of 30.78% A, 24.74% T, 16.48% G, and 28.00% C. 13 intergenic spacers and five gene overlaps exist in the complete mitochondrial genome. And, we found the culter genus and Ancherythroculter nigrocauda are more closely related to Ancherythroculter lini by constructing a phylogenetic tree. PMID:27158794

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Sepiella maindroni (Sepioidea: Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fengrong; Wang, Bo; Wang, Qian

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sepiella maindroni has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 170 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The gene order and composition of S. maindroni mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other invertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (39.91%), G (8.06% of), C (16.52%), and T (35.50%), with highly A + T bias of 75.41%. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, S. maindroni, Sepiella japonica, and Sepiella inermis from the same genus (Sepiella) clustered into one branch. PMID:26370159

  7. Base composition of the Danio chrysotaenitus complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Chen, Lin; Wu, Yuanan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liao, Fuchu; Wang, Dongwu; Huang, Xiangrong; Deng, Shiming; Liu, Lingli

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 16 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Danio chrysotaenitus in order to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,608 bp and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KP407138. The organization of the mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other Mountain carp fishes mitochondrial genomes containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. The nucleotide skewness for the coding strands of Danio chrysotaenitus (AT-skew = 0.10, GC-skew = -0.25) is biased toward T and G. The complete mitogenome may provide important date set for the study of genetic mechanism of Danio chrysotaenitus. PMID:25738218

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sinovipera sichuanensis (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Liu, Qin; Zhong, Guanghui; Xiao, Rong; Fang, Min; Guo, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Sinovipera sichuanensis is one of the Asian green pit vipers with less concern. It is endemic to China and only known in Hejiang, Sichuan Province and Jiangkou, Guizhou Province. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome and characterize each partition. The complete mitochondrial genome is 17 225 bp in length containing 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 control regions and 22 tRNAs. We use Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods to infer the phylogenetic relationship of S. sichuanensis. Both BI and ML analyses strongly support that S. sichuanensis is independent from the other two Asian green pit vipers. PMID:26406352

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Triplophysa robusta (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Balitoridae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Pengfei; Li, Jiuxuan; Ma, Qingzhan; Deng, Yuanping; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Triplophysa robusta has been determined in this study. It is 16,572 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy strand of the T. robusta mitochondrial genome was A: 28.20%, T: 28.27%, C: 25.37%, and G: 18.16%. The total length of the 13 protein-coding genes was 11,428 bp. Analysis of the genes indicated the high genetic variability among Triplophysa species. PMID:25238109

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yan, Shou-Qing; Guo, Peng-Cheng; Li, Yu-Mei; Qi, Shun-Min; Bai, Chun-Yan; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Sun, Jin-Hai

    2016-09-01

    The Spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) is a member of the bird family Columbidae. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of this species. The mitochondrial genome of Spotted dove is a circular molecule of 16,966 bp in size and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one control region. The total base composition is 30.1% for A, 32.1% for C, 13.9% for G, and 23.9% for T. These data will be useful for the phylogenetic and population diversity analyses of birds, especially Columbidae species. PMID:25600734

  11. Mitochondrial genome of the Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis (Phocaenidae: Neophocaena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyang; Chen, Ran; Li, Gang; Li, Jinhua

    2016-09-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis, is a cetacea animal which has been reclassified as a Critically Endangered species by IUCN in 2013. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of N. a. asiaeorientalis for use in future phylogenetic analyses. The complete mitochondrial genome of N. a. asiaeorientalis (16,385 bp in length) contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and a non-coding region (D-loop). Additionally, a rep-origin (35 bp) exists which is located between tRNA(Asn) and tRNA(Cys). PMID:25703854

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Tamiops swinhoei (Rodentia: Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Li, Yankuo; Guo, Yingrong; Cheng, Songlin; Lei, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Tamiops swinhoei has been determined in this study. It is 16,513 bp in size and consists of 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and one non-coding region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy strand of the T. swinhoei mitochondrial genome is A: 32.63%, T: 28.67%, C: 26.33% and G: 12.37%. The alignment of the Tamiops species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content (63.42%). PMID:25427814

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the penguin tetra, Thayeria boehlkei.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Jiong-Tang; Li, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiu-Li; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-09-01

    The penguin tetra (Thayeria boehlkei) is one of the most popular aquarium fish and belongs to the family of Characidae. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of this family are uncertain. Here, the complete mitogenome of T. boehlkei was reported to be 16,524 bp in length. It contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of T. boehlkei with its congener Astyanax mexicanus revealed high-sequence similarity. The mitochondrial genome of T. boehlkei will contribute to conservation studies and evolution analysis of Characidae family. PMID:25707407

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenic analysis of Pseudobagrus vachelli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guosong; Wang, Ruoran; Mao, Jianqiang; Yin, Shaowu; Tao, Panfeng; Chen, Jiawei; Yu, Xingda; Tang, Zhonglin; Chen, Shuqiao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudobagrus vachelli has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 529 bp in length, with the base composition of 31.61% A, 26.88% T, 26.55% C, and 14.96% G, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The gene order and orientation are similar with some typical fish species. The data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic studies concerning P. vachelli and its related species. PMID:26260177

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Rasbora trilineata (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Chuan-Wen; Liu, Min-Yun; Chen, Meng-Hsien

    2016-05-01

    We describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rasbora trilineata, which is a small cyprinid popular in aquarium trade. The circle genome (16,747 bp) has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a non-coding control region. The overall base composition of R. trilineata is 25.35% for T, 26.43% for C, 33.57% for A, and 14.65% for G, with a slight AT bias of 58.92%. PMID:25264837

  16. Dataset of mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sazonova, Margarita A.; Zhelankin, Andrey V.; Barinova, Valeria A.; Sinyov, Vasily V.; Khasanova, Zukhra B.; Postnov, Anton Y.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset report is dedicated to mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis. These data were obtained using the method of next generation pyrosequencing (NGPS). The whole mitochondrial genome of the sample of patients from the Moscow region was analyzed. In this article the dataset including anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters along with detected mtDNA variants in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and healthy individuals was presented. Among 58 of the most common homoplasmic mtDNA variants found in the observed sample, 7 variants occurred more often in patients with atherosclerosis and 16 variants occurred more often in healthy individuals. PMID:27222855

  17. Dataset of mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sazonova, Margarita A; Zhelankin, Andrey V; Barinova, Valeria A; Sinyov, Vasily V; Khasanova, Zukhra B; Postnov, Anton Y; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    This dataset report is dedicated to mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis. These data were obtained using the method of next generation pyrosequencing (NGPS). The whole mitochondrial genome of the sample of patients from the Moscow region was analyzed. In this article the dataset including anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters along with detected mtDNA variants in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and healthy individuals was presented. Among 58 of the most common homoplasmic mtDNA variants found in the observed sample, 7 variants occurred more often in patients with atherosclerosis and 16 variants occurred more often in healthy individuals. PMID:27222855

  18. Mitochondrial Genome Supports Sibling Species of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chow, Wan-Loo; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abrahams-Sandi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal angiostrongyliasis in humans. It is endemic to the Americas. Although the mitochondrial genome of the Brazil taxon has been published, there is no available mitochondrial genome data on the Costa Rica taxon. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Costa Rica taxon and its genetic differentiation from the Brazil taxon. The whole mitochondrial genome was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 13,652 bp, comprising 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes—PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (A + T rich non-coding region). It is longer than that of the Brazil taxon (13,585 bp). The larger mitogenome size of the Costa Rica taxon is due to the size of the control region as the Brazil taxon has a shorter length (265 bp) than the Costa Rica taxon (318 bp). The size of 6 PCGs and the start codon for ATP6, CYTB and NAD5 genes are different between the Costa Rica and Brazil taxa. Additionally, the two taxa differ in the stop codon of 6 PCGs. Molecular phylogeny based on 12 PCGs was concordant with two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 36 mitochondrial genes. The two taxa have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 PCGs, p = 15.3% based on 36 mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA genes, indicating status of sibling species. The Costa Rica and Brazil taxa of A. costaricensis are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex. PMID:26230642

  19. Mitochondrial genome evolution and the origin of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lang, B F; Gray, M W; Burger, G

    1999-01-01

    Recent results from ancestral (minimally derived) protists testify to the tremendous diversity of the mitochondrial genome in various eukaryotic lineages, but also reinforce the view that mitochondria, descendants of an endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacterium, arose only once in evolution. The serial endosymbiosis theory, currently the most popular hypothesis to explain the origin of mitochondria, postulates the capture of an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont by a nucleus-containing eukaryotic host resembling extant amitochondriate protists. New sequence data have challenged this scenario, instead raising the possibility that the origin of the mitochondrion was coincident with, and contributed substantially to, the origin of the nuclear genome of the eukaryotic cell. Defining more precisely the alpha-proteobacterial ancestry of the mitochondrial genome, and the contribution of the endosymbiotic event to the nuclear genome, will be essential for a full understanding of the origin and evolution of the eukaryotic cell as a whole. PMID:10690412

  20. Mitochondrial genome of the Marbled goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Hong-Wei; Li, Zhong; Wang, Dan; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The marble goby is a carnivorous fish native to freshwater in Asia-Pacific region, and it is marketed as a high-valued fish in some Asia countries such as China, Thailand and Vietnam. This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome of O. marmorata, which is 16,525 bp length with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrate. PMID:24963775

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Paegniodes cupulatus (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Jun-Zhi; Han, Yi-Ke; Zhou, Chang-Fa

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Paegniodes cupulatus (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae), which is sequenced for the first time here, is 15,715 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is 33.1% for T, 20.7% for C, 32.5% for A and 13.7% for G, with an AT bias of 65.6%. PMID:24938100

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Telmatobufo australis (Amphibia: Anura: Calyptocephalellidae).

    PubMed

    Grau, José H; Nuñez, José J; Plötner, Jörg; Poustka, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of Telmatobufo australis is a circular molecule of 17,989 bp in length, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. Gene order and content are identical to those previously reported from other neobatrachian mt genomes. Two protein-coding genes (COI and ATP6) presumably used GTG as start codons while COIII possessed an incomplete stop codon. PMID:26094990

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias przewalskii (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Qiu, Qing-Bo; Tong, Qing-Lin; Lin, Long-Hui

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias przewalskii (Squamata: Lacertidae) is reported, which is a circular molecule of 18,225 bp in size. The base composition of mtDNA is as follows: 30.3% A, 27.9% T, 27.9% C and 13.9% G. The genome consists of 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one putative control region. PMID:25319296

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Iwatanemertes piperata (Nemertea: Heteronemertea).

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun-Yang; Sun, Wen-Yan; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Iwatanemertes piperata (Nemertea: Heteronemertea) was determined. The genome, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes, is 16,382 bp in length and has a base composition of G (25.87%), A (21.53%), T (40.64%) and C (11.95%). The gene order is identical to other Heteronemertea mitogenomes published to date. PMID:24409934

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengsong; Chen, Dan; Shen, Yiping; Ye, Baodong

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a haploid filamentous fungus that is common in the environment and has been implicated in human infections. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. flavus has been determined by high-throughput sequencing technology in this work. Our study revealed that the mitochondrial genome of A. flavus is 31,602 bp long, with an A + T content of 74.83%, which consists of a usual set of mitochondrial proteins and RNA genes, including large and small ribosomal RNAs, 15 proteins, and 20 tRNA genes and contains two introns. Notably, it also contains two hypothetical proteins without obvious homology to any known proteins. All structural genes are located on one strand and are apparently transcribed in one direction. Codon usage analysis indicated that all protein coding genes employ the standard fungal mitochondrial start and stop codons; and the nucleotide bias toward AT was also reflected in the codon usage. The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. flavus would be useful for future investigation of the genetic, evolution, and clinical identification of Aspergillus species. PMID:25922962

  6. The mitochondrial genome of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Yao, Chengyi; Li, Lei; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Papilio demoleus (GenBank accession number KR024009) by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15,249 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (39.31%), T (41.57%), C (11.33%) and G (7.78%) with an A + T-rich region, similar to other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATG in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, Cob and ND1, while ATA for ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. The stop codon was mainly TAA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, whereas TAG was found in ND1 gene only. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et) with a length of 403 bp. PMID:26024148

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Macaca mulatta brevicaudus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangjian; Tan, Xinxin; Shi, Fanglei; Liu, Zhijin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence of the Macaca mulatta brevicaudus has been determined by mapping the raw data to previously published mitochondrial assemblies of the corresponding species. The total sequence length is 16,561 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one D-loop control region. The base composition of the mtDNA genome is 31.77% A, 25.14% T, 30.33% C, and 12.76% G, with an AT content of 56.90%. The arrangement of genes in M. m. brevicaudus is identical to that of M. mulatta. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of M. m. brevicaudus presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics, help to protect its genetic diversity and resolve phylogenetic relationships within the family. PMID:25962482

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Junda; Jiang, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus was determined by the overlapped polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,544 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 28.68% for A, 16.27% for G, 26.00% for T, 29.06% for C, respectively, with a high A+T content (54.68%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The sequence data of T. carolinus can provide useful information for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. carolinus resource. PMID:24730608

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sillago asiatica (Perciformes: Sillaginidae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiaguang; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhao, Yuhui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Sillago asiatica has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16,493 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)), and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). PMID:25231722

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Beaufortia szechuanensis (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; He, Yuxiao; Ren, Hongmei; Zhang, Yi; Du, Zongjun; Xie, Meng; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; He, Tao; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-07-01

    The Beaufortia szechuanensis is endemic to the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China. In this study, we successfully sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the B. szechuanensis, collected from the Qingyi River. The complete mitochondrial genome of B. szechuanensis was a circular molecule of 16,559 bp in length, containing 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, an origin of light-strand replication (OL) and a control region (D-loop). It is the first complete mitochondrial DNA data in the genus Beaufortia. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of 14 species in Balitoridae was used for phylogenetic analysis. The topology demonstrated that the Balitoridae can be classified into two subfamilies, and the B. szechuanensis belongs to the subfamily Gastromyzoninae. PMID:25922961

  11. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in the nuclear genome of a locust.

    PubMed

    Gellissen, G; Bradfield, J Y; White, B N; Wyatt, G R

    The endosymbiotic theory of the origin of mitochondria is widely accepted, and implies that loss of genes from the mitochondria to the nucleus of eukaryotic cells has occurred over evolutionary time. However, evidence at the DNA sequence level for gene transfer between these organelles has so far been limited to a single example, the demonstration that a mitochondrial ATPase subunit gene of Neurospora crassa has an homologous partner in the nuclear genome. From a gene library of the insect, Locusta migratoria, we have now isolated two clones, representing separate fragments of nuclear DNA, which contain sequences homologous to the mitochondrial genes for ribosomal RNA, as well as regions of homology with highly repeated nuclear sequences. The results suggest the transfer of sequences between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, followed by evolutionary divergence. PMID:6298629

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Glaucidium brodiei (Strigiformes: Strigidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaonan; Zhou, Wenliang; Sun, Zhonglou; Qian, Lifu; Zhang, Yanan; Pan, Tao; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Glaucidium brodiei is sequenced and reported for the first time. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 17,318 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region. Overall base composition of the complete mitochondrial DNA is A (29.9%), G (14.1%), C (32.1%) and T (23.9%), the percentage of A and T (53.8%) is slightly higher than G and C (46.2%). All the genes in G. brodiei are distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and nine tRNA genes, which are encoded on the L-strand. PMID:26075474

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow-browed tit (Sylviparus modestus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of yellow-browed tit was 17,086 bp in length, and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. In control region, a 117 bp long tandem repeat was identified, which was the first reported tandem repeats in tits. PMID:25765087

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian Yi; Li, Lei; Xin, Tianrong; Wang, Yayu; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (GenBank accession number KT182067) by the long PCR and primer walking method. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15 511 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a A + T-rich region (D-loop). The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The base composition of the genome is A (39.17%), T (37.24%), C (14.22%), and G (9.37%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codon and terminate with the stop codon T (AA) or TAG. The A + T-rich region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ile). In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of Coleoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Coleoptera species. PMID:26330111

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of dwarf danio, Danio nigrofasciatus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Quan; Ji, Xu; Wang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of dwarf danio, Danio nigrofasciatus, for the first time. The genome is found to be 16 616 bp in length and has a base composition of A (31.97%), G (15.88%), C (23.99%), and T (28.16%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (60.13%) was higher than G + C (39.87%). The mitochondrial genome contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history between the dwarf danio and other species, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. This mitochondrial sequence reported here would be useful to uncover the D. nigrofasciatus evolution and add a new genetic resource for the genus Danio. PMID:26273920

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Aluterus monoceros.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenshen; Zhang, Guoqing; Wen, Xin; Wang, Qian; Chen, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Aluterus monoceros (A. monoceros) has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome of A. monoceros is 16,429 bp in length, consisting of 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a D-loop region (Gen Bank accession number KP637022). The base A + T of the mitochondrial genome is 63.25%, including 33.16% of A, 30.09% of T and 20.74% of C. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a standard ATG as the initiation codon, expect for the COXI, which begins with GTG. Some of the termination codons are incomplete T or TA, except for the ND1, COXI, ATP8, ND4L1, ND5 and ND6, which stop with TAA. Construction of phylogenetic trees based on the entire mitochondrial genome sequence of 14 Tetrodontiformes species constructed has suggested that A. monoceros has closer relationship with Acreichthys tomentosus and Monacanthus chinensis, and they constitute a sister group. PMID:26006288

  18. Review: Progress in the Researches on Insect Mitochondrial Genome and Analysis of Gene Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li; Jianyu, Gao; Haiyu, Liu; Wanzhi, Cai

    2009-04-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome is a double-stranded circular genomes which range from 14,503 bp to 19,571 bp in size. Nearly all the sequenced insect mitochondrial genomes encode 37 genes: two for rRNAs, 13 for proteins and 22 for tRNAs. This review compares and summarizes the features of complete mitochondrial genomes from 175 sequenced species of insects in 22 orders. The genomic organization, contents, gene order, and rearrangements of gene order are analyzed.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ostrea denselamellosa (Bivalvia, Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the flat oyster, Ostrea denselamellosa, was determined using Long-PCR and genome walking techniques in this study. The total length of the mt genome sequence of O. denselamellosa was 16,227 bp, which is the smallest reported Ostreidae mt genome to date. It contained 12 protein-coding genes (lacking of ATP8), 23 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. A bias towards a higher representation of nucleotides A and T (60.7%) was detected in the mt genome of O. denselamellosa. The rrnL was split into two fragments (3' half, 711 bp; 5' half, 509 bp), which seems to be the unique characteristics of Ostreidae mt genomes. PMID:24779597

  20. MicroScope--an integrated microbial resource for the curation and comparative analysis of genomic and metabolic data.

    PubMed

    Vallenet, David; Belda, Eugeni; Calteau, Alexandra; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Engelen, Stefan; Lajus, Aurélie; Le Fèvre, François; Longin, Cyrille; Mornico, Damien; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoé; Salvignol, Gregory; Scarpelli, Claude; Thil Smith, Adam Alexander; Weiman, Marion; Médigue, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    MicroScope is an integrated platform dedicated to both the methodical updating of microbial genome annotation and to comparative analysis. The resource provides data from completed and ongoing genome projects (automatic and expert annotations), together with data sources from post-genomic experiments (i.e. transcriptomics, mutant collections) allowing users to perfect and improve the understanding of gene functions. MicroScope (http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/microscope) combines tools and graphical interfaces to analyse genomes and to perform the manual curation of gene annotations in a comparative context. Since its first publication in January 2006, the system (previously named MaGe for Magnifying Genomes) has been continuously extended both in terms of data content and analysis tools. The last update of MicroScope was published in 2009 in the Database journal. Today, the resource contains data for >1600 microbial genomes, of which ∼300 are manually curated and maintained by biologists (1200 personal accounts today). Expert annotations are continuously gathered in the MicroScope database (∼50 000 a year), contributing to the improvement of the quality of microbial genomes annotations. Improved data browsing and searching tools have been added, original tools useful in the context of expert annotation have been developed and integrated and the website has been significantly redesigned to be more user-friendly. Furthermore, in the context of the European project Microme (Framework Program 7 Collaborative Project), MicroScope is becoming a resource providing for the curation and analysis of both genomic and metabolic data. An increasing number of projects are related to the study of environmental bacterial (meta)genomes that are able to metabolize a large variety of chemical compounds that may be of high industrial interest. PMID:23193269

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Aoluguya reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Huamiao; Rong, Min; Yang, Yifeng; Wei, Haijun; Shao, Yuanchen; Chen, Xiumin; Xing, Xiumei

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondria genome of the reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome is 16,357 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a D-loop region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the reindeer's mitochondrial genome is 33.7% of A, 23.1% of C, 30.1% of T and 13.2%of G. A termination associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region. PMID:25469816

  2. Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long‒held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases. PMID:23244780

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Allocricetulus eversmanni (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangjie; Liao, Jicheng

    2016-09-01

    Allocricetulus eversmanni is a unique species in the Allocricetulus, belonging to the Cricetinae group. Its complete mitochondrial genome was first obtained and the total length was 16,282 bp. Protein-coding genes approximately accounted for 69.6% of the complete genome. The heavy strand contained 30% A, 14.4% G, 27.9% C, 27.7% T. Compared with most other mammals, it had the same arrangement and similar length of vary genes or regions. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. eversmanni was conducive to more accurately locate its taxonomic status in Cricetinae and its evolutionary history. At the same time, it provided significant information about consummation of A. eversmanni gene pool. PMID:25765085

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Rhodeus ocellatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Juan; Chen, Yibin; Zhao, Huihong; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Li

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner) was determined using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The genome was 16 761 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.43% A, 27.50% T, 25.94% C, and 16.13% G, with an A + T bias of 57.93%. The gene composition and the arrangement of the R. ocellatus mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence will help to study the evolutionary relationships and population genetics of Rhodeus fish. PMID:26258516

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Gao, Jianzhong; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Lei; Li, Zhongpu; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chenghui

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) is an important aquarium fish that has served as a model organism for studying sympatric speciation. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the midas cichlid. We report that the cichlid's mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA double strand of 16,521 bp length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The overall-base compositions of the H-strand are as follows: A, 28.56%; C, 30.69%; G, 15.11%; T, 25.64%. This study provides important genomic data to further the research of the genetic evolution of cichlids. PMID:25489778

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Margaritiana dahurica Middendorff.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shoubao; Mi, Zhongxiang; Tao, Gang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wei, Min; Wang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the total mitochondrial genome of a freshwater pearl mussel Margaritiana dahurica Middendorff (Eulamellibranchia: Margaritanidae) was first determined. The genome is 16,112 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 HORF. The overall nucleotide composition of the H-strand of M. dahurica Middendorff mitochondrial genome is A: 37.85%, G: 13.22%, T: 23.74% and C: 25.19%, respectively, with an A + T rich feature (61.59%). These results provide useful information to further study of the molecular systematics, species identification and conservation genetics of M. dahurica Middendorff. PMID:24617476

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cacopsylla coccinae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Que, Shengquan; Yu, Liping; Xin, Tianrong; Zou, Zhiwen; Hu, Liangxiong; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Cacopsylla coccinae was determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 14,832 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes as well as a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (38.16%), T (33.88%), C (17.95%) and G (10.01%). Stop codon was incomplete for coxII gene and ND1 gene. The gene overlaps were suggested between 13 pairs of the contiguous genes in C. coccinae. The mitogenome would contribute to resolving phylogenetic position and interrelationships of Cacopsylla. PMID:25693718

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eleotris oxycephala (Perciformes: Eleotridae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongyong; Ma, Hongyu; Ma, Chunyan; Wei, Hongqing; Liu, Yuexing; Zhang, Fengying; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mengdi; Chen, Fenfang; Ma, Lingbo

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we obtained the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eleotris oxycephala, which was 16 527 bp in length. This genome consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. Of the 37 genes, 28 were encoded by heavy strand, while nine were encoded by light strand. The overall base composition of this mitogenome was 28.21% for A, 16.81% for G, 24.75% for T, 30.23% for C, respectively, with a slight higher A + T content (52.96%). The phylogenetic analysis based on 13 concatenated protein-coding genes suggested that E. oxycephala as a sister species to Eleotris acanthopoma was clustered in family Eleotridae. This complete mitochondrial genome sequence of E. oxycephala should be helpful for the studies on population genetic structure, molecular evolution and phylogeny of E. oxycephala and related species. PMID:27158874

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequences and comparative genomics of Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the oomycetes Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae were determined during the course of their complete nuclear genome sequencing (Tyler et al. 2006). Both are circular, with sizes of 39,314 bp for P. ramorum and 42,977 bp for P. sojae. Each contain...

  10. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Effectively Reveal the Phylogeny of Hylobates Gibbons

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yi-Chiao; Roos, Christian; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Inoue, Eiji; Shih, Chih-Chin; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background Uniquely among hominoids, gibbons exist as multiple geographically contiguous taxa exhibiting distinctive behavioral, morphological, and karyotypic characteristics. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the various gibbons, especially among Hylobates species, is still limited because previous studies used limited taxon sampling or short mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Here we use mtDNA genome sequences to reconstruct gibbon phylogenetic relationships and reveal the pattern and timing of divergence events in gibbon evolutionary history. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of 51 individuals representing 11 species belonging to three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus) using the high-throughput 454 sequencing system with the parallel tagged sequencing approach. Three phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, Bayesian analysis and neighbor-joining) depicted the gibbon phylogenetic relationships congruently and with strong support values. Most notably, we recover a well-supported phylogeny of the Hylobates gibbons. The estimation of divergence times using Bayesian analysis with relaxed clock model suggests a much more rapid speciation process in Hylobates than in Nomascus. Conclusions/Significance Use of more than 15 kb sequences of the mitochondrial genome provided more informative and robust data than previous studies of short mitochondrial segments (e.g., control region or cytochrome b) as shown by the reliable reconstruction of divergence patterns among Hylobates gibbons. Moreover, molecular dating of the mitogenomic divergence times implied that biogeographic change during the last five million years may be a factor promoting the speciation of Sundaland animals, including Hylobates species. PMID:21203450

  11. The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Webb; Drautz, Daniela I.; Janecka, Jan E.; Lesk, Arthur M.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Packard, Mike; Zhang, Yeting; McClellan, Lindsay R.; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Dalén, Love; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ericson, Per G.P.; Huson, Daniel H.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.; Götherström, Anders; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first two complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), or so-called Tasmanian tiger, extinct since 1936. The thylacine's phylogenetic position within australidelphian marsupials has long been debated, and here we provide strong support for the thylacine's basal position in Dasyuromorphia, aided by mitochondrial genome sequence that we generated from the extant numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus). Surprisingly, both of our thylacine sequences differ by 11%–15% from putative thylacine mitochondrial genes in GenBank, with one of our samples originating from a direct offspring of the previously sequenced individual. Our data sample each mitochondrial nucleotide an average of 50 times, thereby providing the first high-fidelity reference sequence for thylacine population genetics. Our two sequences differ in only five nucleotides out of 15,452, hinting at a very low genetic diversity shortly before extinction. Despite the samples’ heavy contamination with bacterial and human DNA and their temperate storage history, we estimate that as much as one-third of the total DNA in each sample is from the thylacine. The microbial content of the two thylacine samples was subjected to metagenomic analysis, and showed striking differences between a wild-captured individual and a born-in-captivity one. This study therefore adds to the growing evidence that extensive sequencing of museum collections is both feasible and desirable, and can yield complete genomes. PMID:19139089

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Terapon jarbua (Perciformes: Terapontidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangcan; Wu, Changsong; Wang, Qian; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Terapon jarbua has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16,570 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. The gene order and the composition of T. jarbua mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (27.36%), G (16.57%), C (29.87%), and T (26.20%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The tRNA-Ser2 gene lacked DHC arm and could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, T. jarbua, Bidyanus bidyanus, and Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus from the same family (Terapontidae) clustered into one branch and were significantly divergent from the other families of closely related fish species. PMID:25996955

  13. The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Webb; Drautz, Daniela I; Janecka, Jan E; Lesk, Arthur M; Ratan, Aakrosh; Tomsho, Lynn P; Packard, Mike; Zhang, Yeting; McClellan, Lindsay R; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ericson, Per G P; Huson, Daniel H; Helgen, Kristofer M; Murphy, William J; Götherström, Anders; Schuster, Stephan C

    2009-02-01

    We report the first two complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), or so-called Tasmanian tiger, extinct since 1936. The thylacine's phylogenetic position within australidelphian marsupials has long been debated, and here we provide strong support for the thylacine's basal position in Dasyuromorphia, aided by mitochondrial genome sequence that we generated from the extant numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus). Surprisingly, both of our thylacine sequences differ by 11%-15% from putative thylacine mitochondrial genes in GenBank, with one of our samples originating from a direct offspring of the previously sequenced individual. Our data sample each mitochondrial nucleotide an average of 50 times, thereby providing the first high-fidelity reference sequence for thylacine population genetics. Our two sequences differ in only five nucleotides out of 15,452, hinting at a very low genetic diversity shortly before extinction. Despite the samples' heavy contamination with bacterial and human DNA and their temperate storage history, we estimate that as much as one-third of the total DNA in each sample is from the thylacine. The microbial content of the two thylacine samples was subjected to metagenomic analysis, and showed striking differences between a wild-captured individual and a born-in-captivity one. This study therefore adds to the growing evidence that extensive sequencing of museum collections is both feasible and desirable, and can yield complete genomes. PMID:19139089

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Donghai; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Xiumei; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-05-01

    The toad-headed lizards of genus Phrynocephalus are one of the most prevalent animals in the central Asian desert. A few studies have investigated molecular phylogenesis of Phrynocephalus, yet yield inconsistent results. Moreover, these studies were only based on a few specific DNA fragments of mitochondrial genome. To facilitate the clarification of molecular phylogenesis of Phrynocephalus, we conducted this study to sequence the entire mitochondrial genome of the Phrynocephalus helioscopus collected from Northwest China. The length of complete mitochondrial DNA is 16,249 nucleotides, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 control regions (CR). The gene arrangement and composition of P. helioscopus resemble those of other Phrynocephalus sand lizard, except for P. przewalskii and P. versicolor. The overall A, T, C, G base composition of the heavy-strand was 35.9%, 26.4%, 25.2%, 12.5%, respectively, which is biased toward AT (about 62.3%). The AT-biased base composition was similar to what observed in most vertebrates. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. helioscopus may help to clarify the phylogenetic relationships related to Phrynocephalus oviparity. PMID:25319288

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis chengi chengi (Cyprinidae, Schizothoracinae, Schizopygopsis).

    PubMed

    Du, Zongjun; Wu, Jiayun; Lin, Rongnan; Zhu, Guangxiang; Xie, Meng; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Schizopygopsis chengi chengi collected from the Dadu River was determined in this study. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. chengi chengi was a circular molecule of 16 688 bp in size, and all genes showed the typical gene arrangement conforming to the vertebrate consensus. Twelve protein-coding genes (except ND6) of S. chengi chengi and other 22 Schizothoracinae species from two genera were used for phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The topology confirmed the close genetic relationship between S. chengi chengi and S. chengi baoxinggensis. PMID:26370533

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-04-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic wasps Diadromus collaris, the fourth sequenced mitogenome in the family Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). The sequenced segment is 14,621 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 19 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Four tRNAs are rearranged comparing to the ancestral insect mitochondrial gene arrangements, which coincides with the fact that the most rearranged genes are tRNA genes in the Ichneumonidae, and trnI-trnQ-trnM is a hot-spot of gene rearrangement. The lrRNA secondary structure was predicted, containing six domains (I-VI) and 49 helics. PMID:24047184

  17. PREPACT 2.0: Predicting C-to-U and U-to-C RNA Editing in Organelle Genome Sequences with Multiple References and Curated RNA Editing Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Henning; Knoop, Volker

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing is vast in some genetic systems, with up to thousands of targeted C-to-U and U-to-C substitutions in mitochondria and chloroplasts of certain plants. Efficient prognoses of RNA editing in organelle genomes will help to reveal overlooked cases of editing. We present PREPACT 2.0 (http://www.prepact.de) with numerous enhancements of our previously developed Plant RNA Editing Prediction & Analysis Computer Tool. Reference organelle transcriptomes for editing prediction have been extended and reorganized to include 19 curated mitochondrial and 13 chloroplast genomes, now allowing to distinguish RNA editing sites from “pre-edited” sites. Queries may be run against multiple references and a new “commons” function identifies and highlights orthologous candidate editing sites congruently predicted by multiple references. Enhancements to the BLASTX mode in PREPACT 2.0 allow querying of complete novel organelle genomes within a few minutes, identifying protein genes and candidate RNA editing sites simultaneously without prior user analyses. PMID:23362369

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Gorilla species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri for the first time. The total genome was 16,416 bp in length. It contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The base composition was A (30.88%), G (13.10%), C (30.89%) and T (25.13%), indicating that the percentage of A+T (56.01%) was higher than G+C (43.99%). Comparisons with the other publicly available Gorilla mitogenome showed the conservation of gene order and base compositions but a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitochondrial genome sequence will provide valuable genetic information for further studies on conservation genetics of eastern lowland gorilla. PMID:25162588

  19. A linear mitochondrial genome of Cyclospora cayetanensis (Eimeriidae, Eucoccidiorida, Coccidiasina, Apicomplexa) suggests the ancestral start position within mitochondrial genomes of eimeriid coccidia.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Alexandre J; Arrowood, Michael J; Barta, John R

    2015-05-01

    The near complete mitochondrial genome for Cyclospora cayetanensis is 6184 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (Cox1, Cox3, CytB) and numerous lsrDNA and ssrDNA fragments. Gene arrangements were conserved with other coccidia in the Eimeriidae, but the C. cayetanensis mitochondrial genome is not circular-mapping. Terminal transferase tailing and nested PCR completed the 5'-terminus of the genome starting with a 21 bp A/T-only region that forms a potential stem-loop. Regions homologous to the C. cayetanensis mitochondrial genome 5'-terminus are found in all eimeriid mitochondrial genomes available and suggest this may be the ancestral start of eimeriid mitochondrial genomes. PMID:25812835

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hirudo nipponia (Annelida, Hirudinea).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunling; Nie, Jing; Hou, Junjie; Xiao, Ling; Lv, Pan

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (14,414 bp) of the blood-feeding leech Hirudo nipponia, which was an important natural medicinal resource, was sequenced and characterized. The genome encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. The content of A + T was 72.60% for H. nipponia (31.69% A, 40.91% T, 15.45% G and 11.95% C). All protein-coding genes started with ATN except for nad3 and nad5, which used GTG as start codon. Eight protein-coding genes stopped with termination codon TAA. Five protein-coding genes used incomplete stop codon TA or T. The A + T-rich region was located between tRNA-Arg and tRNA-His with a length of 83 bp. This is the first report about completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the family Hirudinidae. The complete mitochondrial genomes of H. nipponia would be useful for the exploration of Hirudinea polygenetic relationships. PMID:24521495

  1. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Daurian ground squirrel, Spermophilus dauricus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Yao; Huang, Hai-Jiao; Zhang, Ming-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Daurian ground squirrel, Spermophilus dauricus, is determined and described for the first time in this study. The genome was a total of 16 512 bp in length and had a base composition of A (32.08%), G (12.53%), C (24.35%), and T (31.04%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (63.12%) is higher than G + C (36.88%). Similar to those reported from other animal mitochondrial genomes, it possessed a typically conserved structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of these genes were found to locate on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed Spermophilus dauricus formed the sister group to the Pteromyini tribe. This mitochondrial genome sequence would supply useful genetic resources to uncover Sciuridae family evolution. PMID:26328762

  3. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor. PMID:26590215

  4. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor. PMID:26590215

  5. Accelerated evolution of the mitochondrial genome in an alloplasmic line of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is not only an important crop but also an excellent plant species for nuclear mitochondrial interaction studies. To investigate the level of sequence changes introduced into the mitochondrial genome under the alloplasmic conditions, three mitochondrial genomes of Triticum-Aegilops species w...

  6. Frequent somatic transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome of human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Seok; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Mifsud, William; Fu, Beiyuan; Davies, Helen R.; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Li, Yilong; Yates, Lucy; Gundem, Gunes; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Martin, Sancha; Fullam, Anthony; Gerstung, Moritz; Nangalia, Jyoti; Green, Anthony R.; Caldas, Carlos; Borg, Åke; Tutt, Andrew; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; van't Veer, Laura J.; Tan, Benita K.T.; Aparicio, Samuel; Span, Paul N.; Martens, John W.M.; Knappskog, Stian; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Foster, Christopher; Neal, David E.; Cooper, Colin; Eeles, Rosalind; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Desmedt, Christine; Thomas, Gilles; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin A.; Thompson, Alastair M.; McDermott, Ultan; Yang, Fengtang; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are separated from the nuclear genome for most of the cell cycle by the nuclear double membrane, intervening cytoplasm, and the mitochondrial double membrane. Despite these physical barriers, we show that somatically acquired mitochondrial-nuclear genome fusion sequences are present in cancer cells. Most occur in conjunction with intranuclear genomic rearrangements, and the features of the fusion fragments indicate that nonhomologous end joining and/or replication-dependent DNA double-strand break repair are the dominant mechanisms involved. Remarkably, mitochondrial-nuclear genome fusions occur at a similar rate per base pair of DNA as interchromosomal nuclear rearrangements, indicating the presence of a high frequency of contact between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA in some somatic cells. Transmission of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome occurs in neoplastically transformed cells, but we do not exclude the possibility that some mitochondrial-nuclear DNA fusions observed in cancer occurred years earlier in normal somatic cells. PMID:25963125

  7. Frequent somatic transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome of human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young Seok; Tubio, Jose M C; Mifsud, William; Fu, Beiyuan; Davies, Helen R; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Li, Yilong; Yates, Lucy; Gundem, Gunes; Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Martin, Sancha; Fullam, Anthony; Gerstung, Moritz; Nangalia, Jyoti; Green, Anthony R; Caldas, Carlos; Borg, Åke; Tutt, Andrew; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; van't Veer, Laura J; Tan, Benita K T; Aparicio, Samuel; Span, Paul N; Martens, John W M; Knappskog, Stian; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Foster, Christopher; Neal, David E; Cooper, Colin; Eeles, Rosalind; Lakhani, Sunil R; Desmedt, Christine; Thomas, Gilles; Richardson, Andrea L; Purdie, Colin A; Thompson, Alastair M; McDermott, Ultan; Yang, Fengtang; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are separated from the nuclear genome for most of the cell cycle by the nuclear double membrane, intervening cytoplasm, and the mitochondrial double membrane. Despite these physical barriers, we show that somatically acquired mitochondrial-nuclear genome fusion sequences are present in cancer cells. Most occur in conjunction with intranuclear genomic rearrangements, and the features of the fusion fragments indicate that nonhomologous end joining and/or replication-dependent DNA double-strand break repair are the dominant mechanisms involved. Remarkably, mitochondrial-nuclear genome fusions occur at a similar rate per base pair of DNA as interchromosomal nuclear rearrangements, indicating the presence of a high frequency of contact between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA in some somatic cells. Transmission of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome occurs in neoplastically transformed cells, but we do not exclude the possibility that some mitochondrial-nuclear DNA fusions observed in cancer occurred years earlier in normal somatic cells. PMID:25963125

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Pseudolaubuca sinensis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huijuan; Wang, Dengqiang; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Pseudolaubuca sinensis was determined using PCR amplificationand DNA sequencing, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,617 bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The codon usage followed the typical vertebrate mitochondrial pattern (ATG or GTG for start codon and TAA or TAG for stop codon). There are 6 regions of gene share totaling 22 bp and 14 intergenic spacer regions totaling 66 bp. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of Pseudolaubuca sinensis. PMID:25714142

  9. [Mitochondrial Genome Variability in the Wolverine (Gulo gulo)].

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A

    2015-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an extended mitochondrial genome segment (11473 base pairs in size) was determined in the wolverine (Gulo gulo) from Magadan oblast. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of mustelids showed that the separation of the Gulo phylogenetic branch occurred at the Miocene--early Pliocene (about 5.6 million years ago (MYA)), while the formation of the species G. gulo took place in the Middle Pleistocene (181 and 234 thousand years ago (KYA), according to the results of molecular dating based on the variability of the extended mtDNA segment and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, respectively). The molecular data were in agreement with the fossil records for wolverines. PMID:26845858

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Gnathopogon imberbis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianheng; Tian, Huiwu; Wang, Dengqiang; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Gnathopogon imberbis is determined using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,598 bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the H-strand. The codon usage followed the typical vertebrate mitochondrial pattern (ATG or GTG for start codon and TAA or TAG for stop codon). The overall nucleotide composition was 30.0% A, 27.0% T, 25.8% C and 17.2% G, with an A + T bias of 57.0%. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence will be useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of G. imberbis. PMID:26017045

  11. Rearrangement and evolution of mitochondrial genomes in parrots.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Jessica R; Wright, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome rearrangements that result in control region duplication have been described for a variety of birds, but the mechanisms leading to their appearance and maintenance remain unclear, and their effect on sequence evolution has not been explored. A recent survey of mitochondrial genomes in the Psittaciformes (parrots) found that control region duplications have arisen independently at least six times across the order. We analyzed complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 20 parrot species, including representatives of each lineage with control region duplications, to document the gene order changes and to examine effects of genome rearrangements on patterns of sequence evolution. The gene order previously reported for Amazona parrots was found for four of the six independently derived genome rearrangements, and a previously undescribed gene order was found in Prioniturus luconensis, representing a fifth clade with rearranged genomes; the gene order resulting from the remaining rearrangement event could not be confirmed. In all rearranged genomes, two copies of the control region are present and are very similar at the sequence level, while duplicates of the other genes involved in the rearrangement show signs of degeneration or have been lost altogether. We compared rates of sequence evolution in genomes with and without control region duplications and did not find a consistent acceleration or deceleration associated with the duplications. This could be due to the fact that most of the genome rearrangement events in parrots are ancient, and additionally, to an effect of body size on evolutionary rate that we found for mitochondrial but not nuclear sequences. Base composition analyses found that relative to other birds, parrots have unusually strong compositional asymmetry (AT- and GC-skew) in their coding sequences, especially at fourfold degenerate sites. Furthermore, we found higher AT skew in species with control region duplications. One

  12. Sessile snails, dynamic genomes: gene rearrangements within the mitochondrial genome of a family of caenogastropod molluscs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Widespread sampling of vertebrates, which comprise the majority of published animal mitochondrial genomes, has led to the view that mitochondrial gene rearrangements are relatively rare, and that gene orders are typically stable across major taxonomic groups. In contrast, more limited sampling within the Phylum Mollusca has revealed an unusually high number of gene order arrangements. Here we provide evidence that the lability of the molluscan mitochondrial genome extends to the family level by describing extensive gene order changes that have occurred within the Vermetidae, a family of sessile marine gastropods that radiated from a basal caenogastropod stock during the Cenozoic Era. Results Major mitochondrial gene rearrangements have occurred within this family at a scale unexpected for such an evolutionarily young group and unprecedented for any caenogastropod examined to date. We determined the complete mitochondrial genomes of four species (Dendropoma maximum, D. gregarium, Eualetes tulipa, and Thylacodes squamigerus) and the partial mitochondrial genomes of two others (Vermetus erectus and Thylaeodus sp.). Each of the six vermetid gastropods assayed possessed a unique gene order. In addition to the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 37 genes, additional tRNA genes were evident in D. gregarium (trnK) and Thylacodes squamigerus (trnV, trnLUUR). Three pseudogenes and additional tRNAs found within the genome of Thylacodes squamigerus provide evidence of a past duplication event in this taxon. Likewise, high sequence similarities between isoaccepting leucine tRNAs in Thylacodes, Eualetes, and Thylaeodus suggest that tRNA remolding has been rife within this family. While vermetids exhibit gene arrangements diagnostic of this family, they also share arrangements with littorinimorph caenogastropods, with which they have been linked based on sperm morphology and primary sequence-based phylogenies. Conclusions We have uncovered major changes in gene

  13. Efficient Mitochondrial Genome Editing by CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Areum; Ham, Sangwoo; Lee, Gum Hwa; Lee, Yun-Il; Kim, SangSeong; Lee, Yun-Song; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yunjong

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been widely used for nuclear DNA editing to generate mutations or correct specific disease alleles. Despite its flexible application, it has not been determined if CRISPR/Cas9, originally identified as a bacterial defense system against virus, can be targeted to mitochondria for mtDNA editing. Here, we show that regular FLAG-Cas9 can localize to mitochondria to edit mitochondrial DNA with sgRNAs targeting specific loci of the mitochondrial genome. Expression of FLAG-Cas9 together with gRNA targeting Cox1 and Cox3 leads to cleavage of the specific mtDNA loci. In addition, we observed disruption of mitochondrial protein homeostasis following mtDNA truncation or cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9. To overcome nonspecific distribution of FLAG-Cas9, we also created a mitochondria-targeted Cas9 (mitoCas9). This new version of Cas9 localizes only to mitochondria; together with expression of gRNA targeting mtDNA, there is specific cleavage of mtDNA. MitoCas9-induced reduction of mtDNA and its transcription leads to mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and cell growth inhibition. This mitoCas9 could be applied to edit mtDNA together with gRNA expression vectors without affecting genomic DNA. In this brief study, we demonstrate that mtDNA editing is possible using CRISPR/Cas9. Moreover, our development of mitoCas9 with specific localization to the mitochondria should facilitate its application for mitochondrial genome editing. PMID:26448933

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Yangyang; He, Dekui

    2016-09-01

    The Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) is an ecological important fish in East Asia. In this study, we firstly sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of R. oxycephalus. The mitogenome is 16,606 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and two non-coding regions (origin of light-strand replication and control region). The gene content and order is in accord with the common vertebrate form. The nucleotide base composition of H-strand is 28.4% A, 27.2% T, 26.4% C and 18.0% G. The complete mitochondrial genome data would be useful for further studies of genetics, conservation biology and adaptive evolution of R. oxycephalus. PMID:25799350

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Trichogaster leeri (Anabantoidei: Osphronemidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xialian; Chen, Ke; Yang, Huaqiao; Qu, Qiwen; Feng, Yu; Bai, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trichogaster leeri is determined in this study. It is 16,454 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy-strand (H-strand) of the T. trichopterus mitochondrial genome is A: 29.18%, T: 28.07%, C: 27.20% and G: 15.55%. The total length of the 13 protein-coding genes was 11,435 bp. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Trichogaster (T. trichopterus, T. lalius and T. leeri) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship with the species of Anabantoidei. This study provides an important data set for phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses of the species of genus Trichogaster. PMID:26006287

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus parallens (Cypriniformes, Barbinae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiang Yun; Huang, Gu Fu; Li, Yu Ting; Zhang, Yu Ting; Chen, Shi Xi

    2016-09-01

    The omnivorous fish Acrossocheilus parallens (Cypriniformes, Barbinae) is endemic to China. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of A. parallens was firstly determined. The circle genome (16,592 bp) comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The overall base composition of A. parallens is 31.0% for A, 24.7% for T, 28.0% for C, and 16.3% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 55.7%. The termination-associated sequence and conserved sequence block domains were found in the control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. PMID:25714150

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Onychostoma gerlachi (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Chen, Feng; Huang, Daoming; Wang, Hongying

    2016-09-01

    Onychostoma gerlachi, which belongs to the genus Onychostoma (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), is an economic fish that inhabits the flowing freshwater in south of China. The complete mitochondrial genome of O. gerlachi was determined to be 16,601 bp long circular molecule with a typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. It includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of O. gerlachi is 31.38% for A, 24.24% for T, 28.29% for C and 16.09% for G, with a slight AT bias of 55.62%. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of O. gerlachi obtained in this study provides fundamental data for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetics on this species. PMID:25761419

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Heliocidaris crassispina (Camarodonta, Echinometridae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Gila; Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-07-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome sequence of sea urchin Heliocidaris crassispina of the family Echinometridae is determined for the first time in this study. The circular mitogenome (15,702 bp) consists of typical Camarodonta gene order and its components including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes and a control region. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 13 concatenated protein-coding gene sequences shows that H. crassispina is closer to the species of Strongylocentrotidae than Parechinidae, but the separation between H. crassispina and the Strongylocentrotid species occurred early in their evolution. The complete mitochondrial genome presented in this study is useful for inferring the phylogenetic relationship among the families of Echinidea sea urchins. PMID:26006289

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lasiopodomys mandarinus mandarinus (Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Li, Yangwei; Lu, Jiqi; Wang, Zhenlong

    2016-01-01

    Mandarin voles (Lasiopodomys mandarinus) is a subterranean rodent species that are often used as a model for studying subterranean hypoxic stress in mammals. Its subspecies L. m. mandarinus span in cropland in most area of north China and is regarded as an agricultural pest. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of L. m. mandarinus has been determined. Our results showed that the mitochondrial genome of L. m. mandarinus is a circular molecule of 16,367 bp, which contents 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 32.47% A, 27.04% T, 27.01% C, and 13.47% G. with an AT content of 59.51%. PMID:26258511

  20. The first complete mitochondrial genome of the Microtus ochrogaster.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Xia, Yan; Dang, Xiao; Xu, Qiwu

    2016-09-01

    Microtus ochrogaster, a small vole, found in central North America. Recently the genome sequencing had been done, but no more information of its mitochondrial reported. Herein, we first assembled the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Microtus ochrogaster. It is a 16 292 bp long sequence with most mitogenome's characteristic structure, 13 protein-coding genes, two of rRNA genes, 22 of tRNA genes, one D-loop region, one repeat region, and three STS regions. The GC-content of our fresh sequence is 40%. It can verify the accuracy and utility of new determined mitogenome sequences by the phylogenetic analysis, based on the whole mitogenome alignment with Microtus fortis calamorum, Microtus levis, and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis, which is closest relative to Microtus ochrogaster. We expect that using the full mitogenome to address taxonomic issues and study the related evolution events. PMID:26305486

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Schizothorax lissolabiatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Yue, Xingjian; Shi, Jinrong; Zou, Yuanchao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Schizothorax lissolabiatus is a widely distributed fish species in Lancang River, Yuanjiang River, Pearl River, Nujiang River in China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. lissolabiatus from Yuanjiang River (the upper Red River) has been sequenced, which is 16,583 bp in length and contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication and control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The length of mitochondrial genome, the order, composition and anticodons of all genes are exactly similar to that of S. dolichonema. The phylogenetic tree suggested S. prenanti, S. dolichonema and S. lissolabiatus may have closer affinities than other fish of the genus Schizothorax. PMID:25976234

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sinibrama taeniatus (Cyprinidae: Cultrinae).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Tao; Shao, Ke; Xiong, Mei-Hua; Yan, Shu-Xiang; Liao, Xiao-Lin; Que, Yan-Fu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of Sinibrama taeniatus was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequence of S. taeniatus was a circular molecule of 16,623 bp in length. It consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of S. taeniatus was 31.3% A, 26.8% C, 16.1% G, and 25.8% T, with a relatively high A + T content (57.1%). The results could provide useful data for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetics in S. taeniatus and related species. PMID:25208187

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xenophysogobio nudicorpa (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Tao; Shao, Ke; Yan, Shu-Xiang; Xu, Nian; Xiong, Mei-Hua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of Xenophysogobio nudicorpa was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequence of X. nudicorpa is a circular molecule of 16,616 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of X. nudicorpa is 30.5% A, 26.0% C, 16.8% G, and 26.7% T, with a relatively high A+T content (57.2%). The results could provide useful data for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetics in X. nudicorpa and related species. PMID:25319287

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Platysmacheilus nudiventris (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae).

    PubMed

    Shao, Ke; Xiong, Mei-Hua; Yan, Shu-Xiang; Li, Wei-Tao

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Platysmacheilus nudiventris (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae), an endemic Chinese cyprinid fish, was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,603 bp, including 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall-based composition is 30.2% A, 26.9% T, 16.7% G and 26.1% C, with high A+T content (57.1%). The results will provide useful data for further studies on species identification, evolutionary and population genetic studies of P. nudiventris and its related species. PMID:25329268

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of a cavefish, Sinocyclocheilus anophthalmus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihui; Zhang, Qidi; Qu, Baohan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a cavefish Sinocyclocheilus anophthalmus. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,574 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 31.1% for A, 25.5% for T, 26.9% for C and 16.5% for G, indicating an A-T (56.6%)-rich feature in cavefish mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of these genes was the same as that found in other fishes. All the protein initiation codons were ATG, except for COX1 starting with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the cavefish would provide new insight for cavefish's genetic mechanisms. PMID:24438242

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome organization of Tor tor (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Goel, Chirag; Kumari Sahoo, Prabhati; Singh, Atul K; Barat, Ashoktaru

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Tor tor, a threatened "Mahseer" was sequenced for the first time. The mitochondrial genome size determined to be 16,554 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes and a control region or displacement loop (D-Loop) region, resembling the typical organizational pattern of most of the teleost. The overall base composition found was A: 31.8%, T: 25%, G: 15.7% and C: 27.4%; A + T: 56.9% and G + C: 43.1%. The phylogenetic tree constructed using 11 other cyprinids' total mtDNA datasets confirmed the location of present species among mahseers. The total sequence data could support further study in molecular systematics, species identification, evolutionary and conservation genetics. PMID:26017044

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Border Collie dog.

    PubMed

    Wu, An-Quan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Li, Li-Li; Chen, Long; Yang, Tong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Border Collie dog is one of the famous breed of dog. In the present work we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Border Collie dog for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,730 bp with the base composition of 31.6% for A, 28.7% for T, 25.5% for C, and 14.2% for G and an A-T (60.3%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of dogs. PMID:24905136

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Ambastaia sidthimunki (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Wei, Min; Yang, Qichao; Yang, Yingming; Wan, Quan

    2016-09-01

    Ambastaia sidthimunki is a beautiful small-sized fish and it was categorized as Endangered B2ab (iii,v) in the IUCN Red List. In this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of the A. sidthimunki. The mitochondrial genome sequence was a circular molecule with 16,574 bp in length, and it contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, an L-strand replication origin (OL) and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 26.94% for C, 15.55% for G, 31.84% for A and 25.67% for T, with an AT content of 57.51%. This research contributes new molecular data for the conservation of this Endangered species. PMID:25722037

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Youxian duck.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qian; Qiu, Lei; Cao, Rong; Jiang, Gui-Tao; Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing; He, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Youxian duck is one of the famous native breed in China. In this work we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Youxian duck in Human Province for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,606 bp, with the base composition of 29.21% for A, 22.18% for T, 32.83% for C, 15.78% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurring in the Youxian duck. It is made up of two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Youxian duck will be useful for the phylogenetics of poultry, and be available as basic data for the genetics and breeding. PMID:24938109

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of striped gourami, Trichogaster fasciata (Perciformes: Osphronemidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xialian; Luo, Lin; He, Huan; Tian, Yinshuai; Bai, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trichogaster fasciata is determined in this study. It is 16,635 bp in size and consists of 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy strand of the T. fasciata mitochondrial genome is A: 29.18%, T: 30.22%, C: 25.14%, and G: 15.46%. A 78 bp AT tandem repeats was identified in the control region. This present study will be helpful to bring out the fact of genetic divergence among the genus Trichogaster. PMID:25765086

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Perca schrenkii (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qiong; Zhang, Xiujie; Xie, Congxin; Cai, Lingang; Gao, Zexia

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Perca schrenkii was obtained in the present study. The total length of the mitogenome was 16 536 bp in accordance with other teleost fish. It consisted of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). All protein-coding genes started with ATG except for COX1, which began with GTG. However, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes were varied with TAA, TA, T or TAG. The overall base composition in descending order was T 27.9%, C 27.7%, A 27.1% and G 17.4%, with a slight A + T bias. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence may provide important information for phylogenetic analysis and studies on the population genetics of P. schrenkii. PMID:26122343

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Tyto longimembris (Strigiformes: Tytonidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Li, Yankuo; Miao, Lujun; Xie, Guangyong; Huang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Tyto longimembris has been determined in this study. It is 18,466 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy strand of the T. longimembris mitochondrial genome is A: 30.1%, T: 23.5%, C: 31.8% and G: 14.6%. The structure of control region should be characterized by a region containing tandem repeats as two definitely separated clusters of tandem repeats were found. This study provided an important data set for phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses of Tyto species. PMID:25974667

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Himalayan honey bee, Apis laboriosa.

    PubMed

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Sudalaimuthu, Naganeeswaran; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Senthil Kumar, Nachimuthu

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Himalayan bee Apis laboriosa, from Mizoram, India, has been sequenced using Illumina NextSeq500 platform and analysed. The mitogenome was assembled and found to be 15 266 bp in length and the gene arrangement is similar to other honey bee species. The A. laboriosa mitogenome comprises of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and an A + T-rich region of 346 bp. Based on the concatenated PCGs, in the phylogenetic tree, A. laboriosa is placed as a sister group along with the cavity nesting honey bees. The present study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of A. laboriosa, which will enhance our knowledge on Apinae mitogenomes and phylogeny. PMID:26360118

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Trichogaster microlepis (Anabantoidei: Osphronemidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Haiyan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trichogaster microlepis was determined in this study. It is 16,435 bp in size and consists of 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy strand of the T. microlepis mitochondrial genome is A: 29.50%, T: 28.38%, C: 26.62%, and G: 15.49%. The total length of the 13 protein-coding genes was 11,427 bp. This study provides an important data set for the phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses of the Trichogaster species. PMID:26017049

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pimephales promelas (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Kai; Xiao, Liang

    2016-09-01

    The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is an ecological important fish distributed across North America. In this study, we firstly assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of P. promelas. The mitogenome is 16 709 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The gene content and order is in accord with the common vertebrate form. ATG acts as the start codon for all PCGs except cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI), which has GTG as a start codon. The nucleotide base composition of H-strand is 29.2% A, 27.9% T, 25.9% C, and 17.0% G. The complete mitochondrial genome data would be useful for further studies of reproduction, development, and adaptive evolution of P. promelas. PMID:26328777

  16. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%. PMID:24047169

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Grundulus bogotensis (Humboldt, 1821).

    PubMed

    Isaza, Juan P; Alzate, Juan F; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2016-05-01

    The Grundulus bogotensis is an Endangered fish in Colombia. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of G. bogotensis. The entire genome comprised 17.123 bases and a GC content of 39.84%. The mitogenome sequence of G. bogotensis would contribute to better understand population genetics, and evolution of this lineage. Molecule was deposited at the GenBank database under the accession number KM677190. PMID:25405907

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Polymastia littoralis (Demospongiae, Polymastiidae).

    PubMed

    del Cerro, Carlos; Peñalver, Ana; Cuevas, Carmen; de la Calle, Fernando; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Polymastia littoralis (Demospongiae, Polymastiidae) is reported here for the first time. The P. littoralis mitogenome is 21,719 bp base pairs in total length and includes 14 protein-coding gene sequences, small and large rRNA sequences, and 25 tRNA sequences. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand. There are two overlapping genes trnE and nad6. PMID:24617477

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetrastemma olgarum (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea).

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Yan; Shen, Chun-Yang; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tetrastemma olgarum is sequenced. It is 14,580 bp in length and contains 37 genes typical for metazoan mitogenomes. The gene order is identical to that of the previously published Hoplonemertea mitogenomes. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand except for trnT and trnP. The coding strand is AT-rich, accounting for 69.2% of overall nucleotide composition. PMID:24975556

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Romanogobio tenuicorpus (Amur whitefin gudgeon).

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Kuang, You-Yi; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Amur whitefin gudgeon (Romanogobio tenuicorpus) belongs to the family Cyprinidae, it is freshwater aquaculture species in China. In the report, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Romanogobio tenuicorpus, which is 16,600 bp long circular molecule with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region, the conserved sequence blocks, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 were also detected. PMID:24409923

  1. Comparison of mitochondrial genome sequences of pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for three species of pangolins, Manis javanica, Phataginus tricuspis, and Smutsia temminckii, and comparisons were made with two other species, Manis pentadactyla and Phataginus tetradactyla. The genome of Manidae contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome, and the structure of the control region is highly conserved among species. In Manis, the overall base composition differs from that found in African genera. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the genera Manis, Phataginus, and Smutsia, as well as the basal division between Maninae and Smutsiinae. Comparisons with GenBank sequences reveal that the reference genomes of M. pentadactyla and P. tetradactyla (accession numbers NC_016008 and NC_004027) were sequenced from misidentified taxa, and that a new species of tree pangolin should be described in Gabon. PMID:25746396

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Shrew Gymnure, Neotetracus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Tu, Feiyun; Yan, Chaochao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-01

    The Shrew Gymnure Neotetracus sinensis belongs to family Erinaceidae, and distributes in China, Myanmar, and northern Vietnam. In this study, the whole mitochondrial genome of N. sinensis was first sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,982 bases in length. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the subfamily Galericinae diverged prior to the subfamily Erinaceinae, support the species N. sinensis was in distinct genus Neotetracus rather than Hylomys, and N. sinensis diverged later than Echinosorex gymnura. PMID:23206249

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Tu, Feiyun; Ma, Lele; Yan, Chaochao; Yang, Nan; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Ran, Jianghong

    2013-10-01

    The blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentus belongs to the family Phasianidae and distributes in the eastern Himalayas, India, Nepal, Bhutan and China. In this study, the total mitochondrial genome of I. cruentus was firstly determined. The genome is 16,683 bases in length. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses further confirmed that Ithaginis clearly diverged later than Arborophila, and Arborophila was a basal branch within Phasianidae. PMID:23521063

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Numenius phaeopus (Charadriiformes, Scolopacidae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Ge; Zhang, Huabin; Zhang, Daizhen

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA genome of Numenius phaeopus was determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The whole genome (17,091 bp in length) contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (D-loop), which was similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates. Almost all the PCGs in N. phaeopus were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes, which were encoded on the L-strand. PMID:25630727

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Red devil cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus).

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Mei; Liu, Chao; Liu, Yi; Wei, Min-Xia; Luo, Jian-ren; Hu, Yin-chang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Amphilophus citrinellus was firstly sequenced and determined. The total genome is 16,522 bp in length with an A + T content of 54.19%, and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and two main non-coding regions. The gene composition and order is similar to that of most other vertebrates, as is base composition and codon usage. These data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships within the family Cichlidae species. PMID:24892490

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe bimaculata (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Long; Geng, Zhang-Zhen; Yan, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese leopard snake (Elaphe bimaculata) is an endemic species to China. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of E. bimaculata is determined in this study. The circle genome was 17,183 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 duplicate control regions. Several peculiar features were observed in mitogenome of E. bimaculata, such as the translocation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene and an incomplete copy for tRNA(Pro). PMID:25090378

  8. Copia-, Gypsy- and Line-like Retrotransposon Fragments in the Mitochondrial Genome of Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Knoop, V.; Unseld, M.; Marienfeld, J.; Brandt, P.; Sunkel, S.; Ullrich, H.; Brennicke, A.

    1996-01-01

    Several retrotransposon fragments are integrated in the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. These insertions are derived from all three classes of nuclear retrotransposons, the Ty1/copia-, Ty3/gypsy- and non-LTR/LINE-families. Members of the Ty3/gypsy group of elements have not yet been identified in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. The varying degrees of similarity with nuclear elements and the dispersed locations of the sequences in the mitochondrial genome suggest numerous independent transfer-insertion events in the evolutionary history of this plant mitochondrial genome. Overall, we estimate remnants of retrotransposons to cover >/=5% of the mitochondrial genome in Arabidopsis. PMID:8852855

  9. How rapidly does the human mitochondrial genome evolve?

    PubMed Central

    Howell, N.; Kubacka, I.; Mackey, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of an empirical nucleotide-sequencing approach indicate that the evolution of the human mitochondrial noncoding D-loop is both more rapid and more complex than is revealed by standard phylogenetic approaches. The nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome was determined for 45 members of a large matrilineal Leber hereditary optic neuropathy pedigree. Two germ-line mutations have arisen in members of one branch of the family, thereby leading to triplasmic descendants with three mitochondrial genotypes. Segregation toward the homoplasmic state can occur within a single generation in some of these descendants, a result that suggests rapid fixation of mitochondrial mutations as a result of developmental bottlenecking. However, slow segregation was observed in other offspring, and therefore no single or simple pattern of segregation can be generalized from the available data. Evidence for rare mtDNA recombination within the D-loop was obtained for one family member. In addition to these germ-line mutations, a somatic mutation was found in the D-loop of one family member. When this genealogical approach was applied to the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial coding regions, the results again indicated a very rapid rate of evolution. PMID:8751850

  10. How rapidly does the human mitochondrial genome evolve?

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, N.; Kubacka, I.; Mackey, D.A. |

    1996-09-01

    The results of an empirical nucleotide-sequencing approach indicate that the evolution of the human mitochondrial noncoding D-loop is both more rapid and more complex than is revealed by standard phylogenetic approaches. The nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome was determined for 45 members of a large matrilineal Leber hereditary optic neuropathy pedigree. Two germ-line mutations have arisen in members of one branch of the family, thereby leading to triplasmic descendants with three mitochondrial genotypes. Segregation toward the homoplasmic state can occur within a single generation in some of these descendants, a result that suggests rapid fixation of mitochondrial mutations as a result of developmental bottlenecking. However, slow segregation was observed in other offspring, and therefore no single or simple pattern of segregation can be generalized from the available data. Evidence for rare mtDNA recombination within the D-loop was obtained for one family member. In addition to these germ-line mutations, a somatic mutation was found in the D-loop of one family member. When this genealogical approach was applied to the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial coding regions, the results again indicated a very rapid rate of evolution. 44 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Complete male mitochondrial genome of Anodonta anatina (Mollusca: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Soroka, Marianna; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Anodonta anatina is a freshwater mussel of the family Unionidae. These mussels have a unique mitochondria inheritance system named doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). Under DUI males have two, potentially very divergent mitochondrial genomes: F-type inherited from mother and M-type inherited from father. F-type is present in soma whereas M-type is present in gonadal tissues and sperm. Here we report two M-type sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes from Anodonta anatina. They are 16,906 bp long and their sequences are similar (0.1% divergence). The genome organization is identical to the other Unionidean M-type genomes published to date. There are 38 genes, including the recently described M-type specific M ORF. The presence of tRNA-like repeat in one of the noncoding regions, suggests that the control region is located in this area. Nucleotide composition is quite extreme, with AT content (66.2%) higher than in any other of the six published Unionidean M genomes. PMID:25317641

  12. The F-type complete mitochondrial genome of Arconaia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiling; Guo, Liping; Li, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    In this study, complete nucleotide sequence of the F-type mitochondrial genome of Arconaia lanceolata (Bivalvia: Unioninae), the endemic species of freshwater pearl mussel in China, was first determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of Arconaia lanceolata is 15,782 bp in size, and encodes 35 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs. Those genes are similar to most species of Unioninae in order, structure and composition. In the 13 protein-coding genes, ND2, Cytb, ND1 and ND6 are located in the light chain while the rest on the heavy chain. Also, COXI, Cytb, ND1, ND6 and ND4L with ATA as start codon, the remaining protein-coding genes initiated with the orthodox ATG as start codon. There are 28 non-coding regions in the mitochondrial genome of A. lanceolata, the largest is of 345 bp in length, located between ND5 and tRNA(Gln) gene. PMID:24660914

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    He, Chong-Bo; Wang, Jian; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Song, Wen-Tao; Li, Hong-Jun; Li, Yun-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Su, Hao

    2011-06-01

    Veneridae is a diverse, commercially important, and cosmopolitan family. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (Bivalvia: Veneridae). The entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of M. meretrix is 19,826 bp in length, and contains 37 genes including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 23 tRNAs. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand. In contrast to the typical animal mitochondrial genome, it lacks the protein-coding gene ATP8, and has only one copy of the tRNA(Ser) gene, but three duplications of the tRNA(Gln), which is the first report among the present molluscan mtDNAs. We observed that the gene arrangement between M. meretrix and M. petechialis is same except one more tRNAGln gene in M. meretrix., and the sequence similarity is as high as 99%, indicating that M. petechialis and M. meretrix could be treated as a junior synonym of M. meretrix. Maximum Likelihood and Bayeslan analysis of 12 concatenated protein-coding amino acid sequences place the Unionidae as a sister group to other bivalves, which reflects the general opinion that the Unionidae deverged very early in Bivalvia evolution. PMID:21086173

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Angaracris barabensis Pallas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).

    PubMed

    Han, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaorong; Pang, Baoping

    2016-05-01

    Angaracris barabensis Pallas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) is one of important pests in the grasslands in northern China. The complete mitochondrial genome of this insect was sequenced. This genome is 15,930 bp long, with an AT content of 75.5%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a AT-rich region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Acridoidea. All 13 mitochondrial PCGs share the start codon ATN, and the usual termination codons (TAA) are found from 13 protein-coding genes, except for ND2, COII, ND3 (T). All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes were found in A. barabensis mt-genome, and most of the tRNAs could be folded into the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA-Ser (AGN), which lacks the dihydrouracil (DHU) stem. The sizes of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1319 and 830 bp, respectively. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 85.6%. PMID:25317639

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Garrulax elliotii (Passeriformes, Timaliidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanyan; Wei, Dingju; Qi, Yu; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Diyan; Ni, Qingyong; Zhang, Mingwang; Yao, YongFang

    2016-09-01

    Garrulax elliotii belonged to Passeriformes, one of the members of Timaliidae family. It was a kind of unique and resident species habitat in the evergreen broadleaf forest and alpine shrub belt. The complete mitochondrial genome of G. elliotii was constituted by 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) genes, two Ribosomal RNA (12SrRNA and 16SrRNA) genes, and two control regions (D-loop) genes. ND6 and eight tRNA genes (tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Ser(UCN)), tRNA(Pro), and tRNA(Glu)) encoded on light strand, and the other 12 protein-coding genes encoded on heavy strand. Mitochondrial genes had been widely used in studies of phylogenetic relationships, molecular diagnostics, and an important tool for genome architecture, it has a significance mean for us provided the complete mitochondrial genome of G. elliotii to the Timaliidae family construction in the future. PMID:26366960

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the Sichuan field mouse (Apodemus latronum).

    PubMed

    Yue, Hao; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Fan, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Wood mice of the genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields and broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Apodemus latronum. It was endemic species to China, which mainly inhabited at the high land of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of A. latronum was estimated to be 16,288 bases. Its organization and order were similar to that of typical vertebrate and other rodents' mitochondrial genomes, which consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Most protein-coding genes used ATG as the initiation codon. However, ND1, ND2 and ND5 began with ATA, whereas ND3 initiated with ATT. The termination codon also showed some degree of variation, and three types of stop codons were observed. The mitogenome sequence of A. latronum could provide helpful data to study the phylogeny of Apodemus. PMID:24963761

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the stramenopile alga Chrysodidymus synuroideus. Complete sequence, gene content and genome organization

    PubMed Central

    Chesnick, Joby M.; Goff, Megan; Graham, James; Ocampo, Christopher; Lang, B. Franz; Seif, Elias; Burger, Gertraud

    2000-01-01

    This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a photosynthetic member of the stramenopiles, the chrysophyte alga Chrysodidymus synuroideus. The circular-mapping mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 34 119 bp contains 58 densely packed genes (all without introns) and five unique open reading frames (ORFs). Protein genes code for components of respiratory chain complexes, ATP synthase and the mitoribosome, as well as one product of unknown function, encoded in many other protist mtDNAs (YMF16). In addition to small and large subunit ribosomal RNAs, 23 tRNAs are mtDNA-encoded, permitting translation of all codons present in protein-coding genes except ACN (Thr) and CGN (Arg). The missing tRNAs are assumed to be imported from the cytosol. Comparison of the C.synuroideus mtDNA with that of other stramenopiles allowed us to draw conclusions about mitochondrial genome organization, expression and evolution. First, we provide evidence that mitochondrial ORFs code for highly derived, unrecognizable versions of ribosomal or respiratory genes otherwise ‘missing’ in a particular mtDNA. Secondly, the observed constraints in mitochondrial genome rearrangements suggest operon-based, co-ordinated expression of genes functioning in common biological processes. Finally, stramenopile mtDNAs reveal an unexpectedly low variability in genome size and gene complement, testifying to substantial differences in the tempo of mtDNA evolution between major eukaryotic lineages. PMID:10871400

  18. VaDE: a manually curated database of reproducible associations between various traits and human genomic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko; Takahashi, Yasuko; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the development of common diseases. However, it is clear that genetic risk factors of common diseases are heterogeneous among human populations. Therefore, we developed a database of genomic polymorphisms that are reproducibly associated with disease susceptibilities, drug responses and other traits for each human population: 'VarySysDB Disease Edition' (VaDE; http://bmi-tokai.jp/VaDE/). SNP-trait association data were obtained from the National Human Genome Research Institute GWAS (NHGRI GWAS) catalog and RAvariome, and we added detailed information of sample populations by curating original papers. In addition, we collected and curated original papers, and registered the detailed information of SNP-trait associations in VaDE. Then, we evaluated reproducibility of associations in each population by counting the number of significantly associated studies. VaDE provides literature-based SNP-trait association data and functional genomic region annotation for SNP functional research. SNP functional annotation data included experimental data of the ENCODE project, H-InvDB transcripts and the 1000 Genome Project. A user-friendly web interface was developed to assist quick search, easy download and fast swapping among viewers. We believe that our database will contribute to the future establishment of personalized medicine and increase our understanding of genetic factors underlying diseases. PMID:25361969

  19. Curation of the genome annotation of Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) CBS7435 from gene level to protein function.

    PubMed

    Valli, Minoska; Tatto, Nadine E; Peymann, Armin; Gruber, Clemens; Landes, Nils; Ekker, Heinz; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte; Graf, Alexandra B

    2016-09-01

    As manually curated and non-automated BLAST analysis of the published Pichia pastoris genome sequences revealed many differences between the gene annotations of the strains GS115 and CBS7435, RNA-Seq analysis, supported by proteomics, was performed to improve the genome annotation. Detailed analysis of sequence alignment and protein domain predictions were made to extend the functional genome annotation to all P. pastoris sequences. This allowed the identification of 492 new ORFs, 4916 hypothetical UTRs and the correction of 341 incorrect ORF predictions, which were mainly due to the presence of upstream ATG or erroneous intron predictions. Moreover, 175 previously erroneously annotated ORFs need to be removed from the annotation. In total, we have annotated 5325 ORFs. Regarding the functionality of those genes, we improved all gene and protein descriptions. Thereby, the percentage of ORFs with functional annotation was increased from 48% to 73%. Furthermore, we defined functional groups, covering 25 biological cellular processes of interest, by grouping all genes that are part of the defined process. All data are presented in the newly launched genome browser and database available at www.pichiagenome.org In summary, we present a wide spectrum of curation of the P. pastoris genome annotation from gene level to protein function. PMID:27388471

  20. New Views on Strand Asymmetry in Insect Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin; Sharkey, Michael J.; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ye, Gong-Yin; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera); the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew) was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms. PMID:20856815

  1. Insect mitochondrial genomics: the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, James Bruce; Beckenbach, Andrew T

    2005-02-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidae). This contribution represents the second mitochondrial genome from the Hemiptera and the second of the three hemipteran suborders sampled. The genome is a circular molecule of 16 324 bp with a total A+T content of 77.0% and 76.7% for coding regions only. The gene content, order, and structure are consistent with the Drosophila yakuba genome structure (Clary and Wolstenholme 1985) and the hypothesized ancestral arthropod genome arrangement (Crease 1999). Nucleotide composition and codon usage are near the means observed in other insect mitochondria sequenced to date but have a higher A+T richness compared with the other hemipteran example, the kissing bug Triatoma dimidiata (Dotson and Beard. 2001. Insect Mol. Biol. 10: 205-215). The major noncoding region (the A+T rich region or putative control region) between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two extensive repeat regions. The first repeat region includes 19 tandem repeats of a 46-bp sequence, whereas the second contains a longer sequence (146 bp) tandemly repeated four times. PMID:15729396

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni).

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolei; Chen, Lingyun; Chen, Xi; Jia, Huijue

    2016-09-01

    The Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), a member of Folivora suborder, is found in the rainforest canopy of South America. Both the Hoffmann's two-toed sloth and human belong to Eutheria subclass. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of C. hoffmanni is reported . The whole mitochondrial genome is 16 466 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Comparison between the mitochondrial genome of the C. hoffmanni and that of its congener Choloepus didactylus revealed a high similarity in their gene sequences. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree on the complete mitochondrial genomes of these two species and other 14 closely related species to show their phylogenic relationship. To conclude, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of C. hoffmanni and its phylogenic relationship with other related species, which would facilitate our understanding of the evolution of eutherian mitochondrial genome. PMID:26404730

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Southern pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Macaca species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Mei, Huixian; Luo, Xueting

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southern pig-tailed, Macaca nemestrina for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,560 bp in length and has a base composition of A (32.25%), G (12.31%), C (30.51%), and T (24.93%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (57.18%) was higher than G + C (42.82%). Similar to other monkeys, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of Macaca genus, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. This mitochondrial sequence reported here would be useful to uncover the monkey's evolution and add a new genetic resource for the genus Macaca. PMID:26000941

  4. Evolution of base-substitution gradients in primate mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sameer Z.; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Disotell, Todd R.; Seligmann, Hervé; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Pollock, David D.

    2005-01-01

    Inferences of phylogenies and dates of divergence rely on accurate modeling of evolutionary processes; they may be confounded by variation in substitution rates among sites and changes in evolutionary processes over time. In vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, substitution rates are affected by a gradient along the genome of the time spent being single-stranded during replication, and different types of substitutions respond differently to this gradient. The gradient is controlled by biological factors including the rate of replication and functionality of repair mechanisms; little is known, however, about the consistency of the gradient over evolutionary time, or about how evolution of this gradient might affect phylogenetic analysis. Here, we evaluate the evolution of response to this gradient in complete primate mitochondrial genomes, focusing particularly on A⇒G substitutions, which increase linearly with the gradient. We developed a methodology to evaluate the posterior probability densities of the response parameter space, and used likelihood ratio tests and mixture models with different numbers of classes to determine whether groups of genomes have evolved in a similar fashion. Substitution gradients usually evolve slowly in primates, but there have been at least two large evolutionary jumps: on the lineage leading to the great apes, and a convergent change on the lineage leading to baboons (Papio). There have also been possible convergences at deeper taxonomic levels, and different types of substitutions appear to evolve independently. The placements of the tarsier and the tree shrew within and in relation to primates may be incorrect because of convergence in these factors. PMID:15867428

  5. The Mitochondrial Genome of Soybean Reveals Complex Genome Structures and Gene Evolution at Intercellular and Phylogenetic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shengxin; Wang, Yankun; Lu, Jiangjie; Gai, Junyi; Li, Jijie; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhao, Tuanjie

    2013-01-01

    Determining mitochondrial genomes is important for elucidating vital activities of seed plants. Mitochondrial genomes are specific to each plant species because of their variable size, complex structures and patterns of gene losses and gains during evolution. This complexity has made research on the soybean mitochondrial genome difficult compared with its nuclear and chloroplast genomes. The present study helps to solve a 30-year mystery regarding the most complex mitochondrial genome structure, showing that pairwise rearrangements among the many large repeats may produce an enriched molecular pool of 760 circles in seed plants. The soybean mitochondrial genome harbors 58 genes of known function in addition to 52 predicted open reading frames of unknown function. The genome contains sequences of multiple identifiable origins, including 6.8 kb and 7.1 kb DNA fragments that have been transferred from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, respectively, and some horizontal DNA transfers. The soybean mitochondrial genome has lost 16 genes, including nine protein-coding genes and seven tRNA genes; however, it has acquired five chloroplast-derived genes during evolution. Four tRNA genes, common among the three genomes, are derived from the chloroplast. Sizeable DNA transfers to the nucleus, with pericentromeric regions as hotspots, are observed, including DNA transfers of 125.0 kb and 151.6 kb identified unambiguously from the soybean mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, respectively. The soybean nuclear genome has acquired five genes from its mitochondrial genome. These results provide biological insights into the mitochondrial genome of seed plants, and are especially helpful for deciphering vital activities in soybean. PMID:23431381

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (Primates, Cheirogaleidae).

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emilie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Aujard, Fabienne; Holota, Hélène; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    We report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The sequencing has been performed on an Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. The total length of this mitogenome is 16 963 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other primate's mitochondrial genomes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates. PMID:27158869

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus.

    PubMed

    Blower, Dean C; Hereward, James P; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2013-12-01

    The dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus is economically important but vulnerable to overharvesting. The complete C. obscurus mitogenome was assembled from approximately 1 million whole genome shotgun sequences using a combination of reference mapping and de novo assembly (mean coverage 59x). This resulted in a 16,706 bp double-stranded circular mitochondrial sequence. Following the consensus vertebrate mtDNA genome, it comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs and has 2 non-coding areas. The A + T (56.9%) versus G + C (43.1%) composition confirmed an A + T bias previously noted for sharks. This genome is the first for the speciose Carcharhinus genus and provides a valuable resource for studies of shark molecular systematics, phylogeography, conservation genetics, and stock structure. PMID:23551174

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Thitarodes pui (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiequn; Que, Shengquan; Xin, Tianrong; Xia, Bin; Zou, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    To know the genetic structure and phylogeny status, the complete mitochondrial genome of Thitarodes pui was the first time to be sequenced. The genome was 15,064 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, as well as an AT rich region. The base composition of the genome was A (40.93%), T (39.80%), C (11.72%) and G (7.55%), with an AT content of 80.73%. It is interesting to that the COI would start with CGA. The tRNA order between ND2 and AT rich region was tRNA(Ile)-tRNA(Gln)-tRNA(Met), which confirms the thesis that Thitarodes has the ancestral gene arrangement. It is surprised that AT-rich region was 287 bp in length and became the shortest in contrast to other insects of Hepialidae. PMID:24438300

  9. Maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mitochondrial genome by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fan; Schulz, Anna M; Pellegrino, Mark W; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Haynes, Cole M

    2016-05-19

    Mitochondrial genomes (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) encode essential oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) components. Because hundreds of mtDNAs exist per cell, a deletion in a single mtDNA has little impact. However, if the deletion genome is enriched, OXPHOS declines, resulting in cellular dysfunction. For example, Kearns-Sayre syndrome is caused by a single heteroplasmic mtDNA deletion. More broadly, mtDNA deletion accumulation has been observed in individual muscle cells and dopaminergic neurons during ageing. It is unclear how mtDNA deletions are tolerated or how they are propagated in somatic cells. One mechanism by which cells respond to OXPHOS dysfunction is by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor ATFS-1 that promotes the recovery and regeneration of defective mitochondria. Here we investigate the role of ATFS-1 in the maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mtDNA in a heteroplasmic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that stably expresses wild-type mtDNA and mtDNA with a 3.1-kilobase deletion (∆mtDNA) lacking four essential genes. The heteroplasmic strain, which has 60% ∆mtDNA, displays modest mitochondrial dysfunction and constitutive UPR(mt) activation. ATFS-1 impairment reduced the ∆mtDNA nearly tenfold, decreasing the total percentage to 7%. We propose that in the context of mtDNA heteroplasmy, UPR(mt) activation caused by OXPHOS defects propagates or maintains the deleterious mtDNA in an attempt to recover OXPHOS activity by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics. PMID:27135930

  10. First complete mitochondrial genome from the brown lacewings (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Yunjiao; Zhao, Jing; Liu, ZhiQi

    2016-07-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome of the family Hemerobiidae (Neuronema laminatum Tjeder, 1936) is sequenced in this study. The complete mitochondrial genome is a typical double-stranded circular molecule of 17,164 bp (GenBank accession number: KR078257) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects and other lacewings. Thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) possessed common triplet initiation codons ATN and mostly terminate with TAN codons except for ND5 with a single T residue adjacent to a downstream tRNA gene. All the 22 tRNAs, ranging from 63 to 72 bp, can be folded into classic clover-leaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. The control region is 2131 bp long with an A + T content of 87.4%. In the sampled families of Neuroptera, Osmylidae + the remaining families, Hemerobiidae + Mantispidae, Polystoechotidae + Rapismatidae, are recovered in phylogenetic analyses with high supports. PMID:26367792

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus polyphekadion (Teleostei, Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Chen, Mengmeng; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus polyphekadion has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques strategy. The mitochondrial genome is 16,691 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.90% A, 29.05% T, 27.48% G and 15.58% C. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy-strand (H-strand). All the tRNAs have clover secondary structure with conservative anticodon arm, TΨC arm and D arm except for tRNA-Ser(GCT) and tRNA-Pro(TGG), which D arm consists of 13 bp and 7 bp single-base, respectively. Phylogenetic tree showed that E. latifasciatus, E. polyphekadion, E. epistictus, E. akaara and E. stictus of the Epinephelus formed a monophyletic group, whereas E. latifasciatus, E. polyphekadion and E. epistictus formed a sister group. PMID:26061342

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species. PMID:26029877

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic dragonfish, Parachaenichthys charcoti (Notothenioidei: Bathydraconidae).

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae Soon; Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do Hwan; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Hyoungseok; Chi, Young Min; Park, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic dragonfish, Parachaenichthys charcoti (Vaillant, 1906), is described, representing the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the family Bathydraconidae. The mitochondrial genome is 18,202 base pairs in length and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 2 control regions. The overall base composition is A: 25.8%, T: 25.3%, G: 17.9% and C: 31.0%, with an A:T content of 51.1%. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence will be useful for phylogenetic, evolutionary and functional studies of Antarctic Notothenioids. PMID:25707408

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Asian golden cat, Catopuma temminckii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui-Hua; Deng, Jia-Bo; Yu, Jian-Qiu; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Yu-Liang; Peng, Rui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mitochondrial genome of Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) is sequenced. The mitochondrial genome was 16,985 bp long, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 1 control region and 1 origin of light-strand replication. The overall base composition of the mitochondrial genome was 32.76% A, 27.49 % T, 25.75 % C, and 13.99 % G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Catopuma temminckii could contribute to understanding taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationship of genus Catopuma. PMID:25630725

  15. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Sandu black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Sandu black pig is one of the native breed in Guizhou province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Sandu black pig is 16,741 bp. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Sandu black pig. The mitochondrial genome data of Sandu black pig presented is useful novel markers for further studying the population genetics of sus scrofa. PMID:25259459

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes. PMID:25329264

  17. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Echinostoma hortense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ze-Xuan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yu-Ting; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Su, Xin; Fu, Xue; Yue, Dong-Mei; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Echinostoma hortense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is one of the intestinal flukes with medical importance in humans. However, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of this fluke has not been known yet. The present study has determined the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense and assessed the phylogenetic relationships with other digenean species for which the complete mt genome sequences are available in GenBank using concatenated amino acid sequences inferred from 12 protein-coding genes. The mt genome of E. hortense contained 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region. The length of the mt genome of E. hortense was 14,994 bp, which was somewhat smaller than those of other trematode species. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequence datasets for all 12 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) method showed that E. hortense and Hypoderaeum conoideum gathered together, and they were closer to each other than to Fasciolidae and other echinostomatid trematodes. The availability of the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, population genetics, and evolutionary studies of digeneans. PMID:27180575

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Rui-Heng; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Ke; Liang, De-Quan; Liang, Fan; Cao, De-Ming; Zhou, Fan; Wen, Ge; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    As part of a genome sequencing project for Ophiocordyceps sinensis, strain 1229, a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was assembled as a single circular dsDNA of 157,510 bp, one of the largest reported for fungi. Conserved genes including the large and small rRNA subunits, 27 tRNA and 15 protein-coding genes, were identified. In addition, 58 non-conserved open reading frames (ncORFs) in the intergenic and intronic regions were also identified. Transcription analyses using RNA-Seq validated the expression of most conserved genes and ncORFs. Fifty-two introns (groups I and II) were found within conserved genes, accounting for 68.5% of the genome. Thirty-two homing endonucleases (HEs) with motif patterns LAGLIDADG (21) and GIY-YIG (11) were identified in group I introns. The ncORFs found in group II introns mostly encoded reverse transcriptases (RTs). As in other hypocrealean fungi, gene contents and order were found to be conserved in the mt genome of O. sinensis, but the genome size was enlarged by longer intergenic regions and numerous introns. Intergenic and intronic regions were composed of abundant repetitive sequences usually associated with mobile elements. It is likely that intronic ncORFs, which encode RTs and HEs, may have contributed to the enlarged mt genome of O. sinensis. PMID:26370521

  19. The evolutionary processes of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes differ from those of nuclear genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpelainen, Helena

    2004-11-01

    This paper first introduces our present knowledge of the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and the organization and inheritance patterns of their genomes, and then carries on to review the evolutionary processes influencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. The differences in evolutionary phenomena between the nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes are highlighted. It is emphasized that varying inheritance patterns and copy numbers among different types of genomes, and the potential advantage achieved through the transfer of many cytoplasmic genes to the nucleus, have important implications for the evolution of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Cytoplasmic genes transferred to the nucleus have joined the more strictly controlled genetic system of the nuclear genome, including also sexual recombination, while genes retained within the cytoplasmic organelles can be involved in selection and drift processes both within and among individuals. Within-individual processes can be either intra- or intercellular. In the case of heteroplasmy, which is attributed to mutations or biparental inheritance, within-individual selection on cytoplasmic DNA may provide a mechanism by which the organism can adapt rapidly. The inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes is not universally maternal. The presence of a range of inheritance patterns indicates that different strategies have been adopted by different organisms. On the other hand, the variability occasionally observed in the inheritance mechanisms of cytoplasmic genomes reduces heritability and increases environmental components in phenotypic features and, consequently, decreases the potential for adaptive evolution.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 15,755 bp in length with an A + T content of 81.44%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of cox1 which uses CGA as the initial codon. All of the 22 transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 449 bp, and contains a 19 bp poly-T stretch as found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes. This is the third completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Lymantriidae of Lepidoptera. PMID:25469814

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Babax lanceolatus (Passeriformes: Timaliidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Yu; Zhou, Yanyan; Yao, Yongfang; Huan, Zongjin; Li, Diyan; Xie, Meng; Ni, Qingyong; Zhang, Mingwang; Xu, Huailiang

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial of Babax lanceolatus is 17 849 bp in length. The contents of A, C, T, and G in the mitochondrial genome were 29.53%, 32.62%, 23.72%, and 14.13%, respectively. The mitogenome of B. lanceolatus were composed of 13 typical protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and two putative control regions. All protein-coding, rRNA, and tRNA genes were similar to those of other Passeriformes in gene arrangement and composition. Garrulax perspicillatus was the nearest sister to B. lanceolatus, and they were clustered with other species of Garrulax family. The results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of Passeriformes. PMID:26195215

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Coilia grayii (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Ming; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Coilia grayii has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,851 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). PMID:25693696

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sorex araneus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianhong; Dang, Xiao; An, Mei; Chen, Lingyun; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The Sorex araneus (common shrew), a member of the Soricidae family, is the most common shrew throughout Northern Europe. The region includes Great Britain, but excludes Ireland. Herein, we first publish the complete mitochondrial genome of S. araneus. The mitogenome is 16 887 bp in length, which contains 24 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. The overall GC content is 38.28%, which is lower than AT. To verify the accuracy and utility of new determined mitogenome sequences, a species phylogenetic tree is constructed based on the complete mitogenomes of the species and other 10 close species. The current data provide important resources for the research of S. araneus mitochondrial evolution and the species identification. PMID:26328473

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Common redpoll (Carduelis flammea).

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Mei; Bai, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Shou-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The Common redpoll (Carduelis flammea) is one species of family Fringillidae. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of this species. The mitochondrial genome of Common redpoll is a circular molecule of 16 820 bp in size and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The total base composition is 31.35% for C, 14.14% for G, 30.57% for A and 23.94% for T, respectively. The phylogenetic tree of Common redpoll and 12 other closely related Fringillidae species was built. These data will be useful for studying the genetic diversity within the species of Common redpoll and phylogenetic relationships among different Fringillidae species. PMID:26122338

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops wuyiensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Duan, Renyan; Kong, Xiaoquan; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhu, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    In the organisms, mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in the evolutionary studies, which can serve as a powerful molecular marker. Amolops wuyiensis, belongs to the family Ranidae that is known to occur in southeast China. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. wuyiensis was sequenced (17,797 bp in length, GenBank accession number KM386618). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of A. wuyiensis contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide composition was 25.9% A, 33.8% T, 28.0% C and 12.3% G. PMID:25238108

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epacanthaclisis banksi (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chunhui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Gai, Yonghua; Hao, Jiasheng

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Epacanthaclisis banksi (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) is a circular molecule of 15,870 bp in length, containing 37 typical mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN codon except for the COI which uses TTA as its start codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA or TAG, except for the COI, COII, ND3 and ND5 which use single T as their stop codons. The non-coding AT-rich region is 1065 bp long, located between rrnS and tRNAlle genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the neuropterids. PMID:24409839

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome of Youzhou black-skin goat.

    PubMed

    E, Guangxin; Chen, Li-Peng; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Youzhou black-skin goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous breed of Chinese southwest. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China. PMID:26702472

  8. A complete mitochondrial genome of Dazu Black goat.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Narisu; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Dazu Black goat is an indigenous goat genetic resource in Southwest of China. Here, we describe its complete mitochondrial genome sequence. The mitogenome is 16,641 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the indigenous goat could provide important data to further explore the taxonomic status of the subspecies and also provide a starting point for further phylogenetic studies. PMID:25731719

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Pomacea maculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Liu, Suwen; Song, Fan; Li, Hu; Liu, Jinpeng; Liu, Guangfu; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-07-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) is one of the most serious invasive alien species from the native range of South America. The mitochondrial genome of P. maculata (15 516 bp) consists of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) and a non-coding region with a 16 bp repeat unit. Most mitochondrial genes of P. maculata are distributed on the H-strand, except eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the L-strand. A phylogenetic analysis showed that there was a close relationship between P. maculata and another invasive golden apple snail species, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). PMID:26099974

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis (Cypriniformes, Barbinae, Acrossocheilus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Shiqi; Du, Zongjun; Xie, Meng; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; He, Tao; Ren, Hongmei; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis collected from the Qingyi River is determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. yunnanensis is a circular molecule of 16,596 bp in length, and all genes showed the typical gene arrangement conforming to the vertebrate consensus. The 13 protein-coding genes of A. yunnanensis and other 21 Barbinae species from 3 genera were used for phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The topology demonstrated the genus Acrossocheilus is relatively close to the Labeo than Garra, the A. yunnanensis may have a common ancestor with A. monticola, where both belong to the non-barred group. PMID:26024134