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Sample records for curitiba pr brazil

  1. {sup 222}Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; Flores da Silva, Ruben D.; Poettker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-08-07

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as {sup 222}Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and {sup 222}Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  2. 222Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; da Silva, Ruben D. Flores; Pöttker, Fabiana; de Paula Melo, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of 222Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as 222Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and 222Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  3. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa M.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    A study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 17.83% out of the measurement sites have presented Leq levels over 65 dB(A), considered by the Preventive Medicine as the maximum level one can be exposed to without being exposed to health impairment risks, and 52.48% out of the meas sites do not satisfy the municipal law 10625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas (AV). The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people users to visit the park every 75% of them seek for the realization of a physical activity during the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of interviewed people point the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 29% of them point the local security.

  4. Tectonics and sedimentation in the Curitiba Basin, south of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamuni, Eduardo; Ebert, Hans Dirk; da Silva Borges, Mauricio; Hasui, Yociteru; Costa, João Batista Sena; Salamuni, Riad

    2003-03-01

    The Curitiba Basin, Paraná, lies parallel to the west side of the Serra do Mar range and is part of a continental rift near the Atlantic coast of southeastern Brazil. It bears unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediments divided in two formations: the lower Guabirotuba Formation and the overlying Tinguis Formation, both developed over Precambrian basement. Field observations, water well drill cores, and interpretations of satellite images lead to the inference that regional tectonic processes were responsible for the origin of the Basin in the continental rift context and for morphotecatonic evolution through block tilting, dissection, and erosion. The structural framework of the sediments and the basement is characterized by NE-SW-trending normal faults (extensional tectonic D 1 event) reactivated by NE-SW-trending strike-slip and reverse oblique faults (younger transtensional tectonic D 2' to transpressional tectonic D 2″ event). This tectonic event, which started in the Paleogene and controlled the basin geometry, began as a halfgraben and was later reactivated as a pull-apart basin. D 2 is a neotectonic event that controls the current morphostructures. The Basin is connected to the structural rearrangement of the South American platform, which underwent a generalized extensional or trantensional process and, in late Oligocene, changed to a compressional to transpressional regime.

  5. Noise impact caused by electrical energy substations in Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    This survey is intended to characterize the noise impact due to electrical energy substations in the city of Curitiba over the population living in their vicinity. This impact has been studied with the aid of a computational tool capable of mapping the acoustical field of substations and their vicinity. Several factors have been considered in this survey: sound power of the transformers; vehicle flow on the surrounding roads; positioning of the firewalls, of the buildings and of the walls; terrain topography. Four substations have been analyzed, and an acoustical map has been traced for each of them. With these maps it was possible to visualize what was the incident noise level on the building facades. The predicted noise levels have been compared to the environmental legislation of the noise emissions in effect in the city.

  6. Lessons from Curitiba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William S.

    1999-01-01

    Examines Curitiba's (Brazil) public education system, comparing it to those in the United States, how Curitiba promotes education, and the partnership between education and the city's sustainable goals. The lessons learned from this examination as to their applicability in educational design in the United States are discussed. (GR)

  7. [Evaluation of noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Szeremetta, Bani

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured at 21 points throughout the park, and interviews were conducted with park visitors. Some 47.6% of the measurement sites presented Leq levels over 65dB(A), considered by preventive medicine as the maximum tolerable exposure level without risk of health impairment, and 90.5% of the sites failed to comply with Municipal Ordinance 8,583, setting 55dB(A) as the maximum noise emission level for green areas. The results of interviews with visitors showed that 78% visit the park at least twice a week and that 96% come for physical activity. During their activities in the Botanical Garden, 24% of interviewees identified noise pollution as a source of annoyance, as compared to 22% who complained of insufficient park security. PMID:12764486

  8. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  9. Comparative analysis of the urban noise between two different areas in the city of Curitiba, PR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Elaine C.; Ferreira, Andressa C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the urban noise perception comparatively in the inhabitants of a residential area (neighborhood) and a mixed area (center), in the city of Curitiba, PR, in order to characterize two different situations: (1) acoustically ideal urban environment; and (2) acoustically polluted urban environment. For that, subjective and objective evaluations were accomplished, where an aleatory sample of each area was submitted to a survey. In the objective evaluation, the medium equivalent sound levels calculated were 53.50 dB(A) and 72.90 dB(A) for the neighborhood and center, respectively. The parameters used for comparison of the calculated medium equivalent sound levels where the values of 55.00 dB(A) (Municipal Law No. 10.625) and 65.00 dB(A) (WHO), in the period of the day for residential areas. The interpretation of the subjective results verified that the central zone inhabitants have an annoyance perception bigger than the residential zone inhabitants. The interpretation of the objective results classified the neighborhood and center areas as acoustically control zone and acoustically polluted zone, respectively, according to the adopted parameters. Starting from the comparison between these two areas, it was defined that both can be classified as reference factor for other evaluations.

  10. Evaluation of the noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Paz, Elaine C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2001-05-01

    This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no. 10,625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas. The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people used to visit the park every day and that 75% out of them seek for the realization of a physical activity. During the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of the interviewed people pointed to the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 28% out of them pointed the local security. In this sense, it has been verified that half of the analyzed parks were inserted in acoustically polluted areas, which incurs a real state depreciation in their vicinities.

  11. Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; França, Alana C.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    Considering that 222Rn activity concentration in well water can contribute to indoor radon concentration levels, which represent a radiation risk for the public, measurements of 226Ra and 222Rn activity in well water in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil were performed. Each water sample was submitted to four measurements for radon concentration over an interval of three days. After two months, the same samples were submitted again to 222Rn concentration measurements with the objective of indirectly evaluating the amount of 226Ra in them. The 222Rn concentration measurements were performed with an AlphaGUARD radon monitor (SAPHYMO), and the 226Ra concentration was evaluated with the decay curves of 222Rn. Within a few hours after extraction, about 70% of water samples from monitored wells presented 222Rn concentration values above the limit of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the EPA of the United States. The obtained activity values varied between 1.6 Bq/L and 215 Bq/L for radon concentration, and radium concentrations deviated within an interval of 0.50 Bq/L and 6.8 Bq/L. The results reveal that the biggest part of 222Rn found in water samples originated not from soluble 226Ra compounds but from gas exhalation by the soil and rocks adjacent to the well. The results point to the necessity of mitigation procedure development for better control of global alpha radioactivity in drinking water.

  12. [Perceived distance to recreational facilities and the association with physical activity and exercise among adolescents in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Alex Vieira; Fermino, Rogério César; Oliveira, Marcelo Ponestki; Rodriguez Añez, Ciro Romelio; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the association between perceived distance to recreational facilities (parks, gyms, sports courts, and bike lanes) for physical activity and exercise among adolescents in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 1,474 adolescents (14-18 years) enrolled in public schools. There was an inverse association between distance (> 31 minutes) to gyms and sports courts and physical activity among boys (PR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.69-0.88 and PR = 0.79; 95%CI: 0.66-0.95, respectively). The number of facilities near home was positively associated with physical activity in boys (PR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.04-1.34). Among girls, distance (> 31 minutes) to sports courts was inversely associated with strength training (PR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87-0.99). The findings suggest that distance from home and number of recreational facilities in the neighborhood may affect patterns of physical activity among adolescents and that the association differs between boys and girls. PMID:24005917

  13. Stereoscopic photographs, ground and aerial, of trees used in the arborization of Curitiba (PR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Attilio Antonio; Roderjan, Carlos Vellozo

    This paper deals with the acquisition of 35 mm ground stereo photographs using one camera. The usual trees in the arborization of Curitiba were photographed in two different seasons of the year. Technical and practical aspects related with the acquisition and stereo observation are discussed. The ground stereo-pairs and aerial stereo-pairs, recently acquired from a photogrammetry survey, were introduced in the practical classes of Forest Photointerpretation and Dendrology and the reactions of the students were extremely favorable.

  14. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  15. Copper speciation in Iguaçu river basin, at Curitiba's metropolitan region, Brazil, by ligand competition using DPASV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeu Grassi, M.; Sodré, F. F.

    2003-05-01

    Copper concentrations and speciation in two different sites located in the Iguaçu River Basin, Brazil, were evaluated during a 10-months period, in this work. Results showed a seasonal influence on copper levels with a major contribution of non-point sources during the rainy season, when concentrations of copper were similar in both Irai and Iguaçu Rivers. During the dry season the discharge of raw sewage was the primary source of copper for the sampling point located downstream the city of Curitiba, in the Iguaçu River, which exhibited higher metal concentrations. Speciation results also showed different patterns. Higher copper contents were found in the particulate phase in Iguaçu River, whereas labile copper concentrations were relatively greater in Irai River waters.

  16. Indoor air quality of a museum in a subtropical climate: the Oscar Niemeyer museum in Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Carneiro, Barbara H B; Paralovo, Sarah L; Campos, Vania P; Tavares, Tania M; Evangelista, Heitor; Van Grieken, Rene; Godoi, Ana F L

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of damage to indoor cultural heritage, in particular by pollutants, is nowadays a major and growing concern for curators and conservators. Nevertheless, although many museums have been widely investigated in Europe, the effects of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in museums under tropical and subtropical climates and with different economic realities are still unclear. An important portion of the world's cultural heritage is currently in tropical countries where both human and financial resources for preserving museum collections are limited. Hence, our aim is to assess the damage that can be caused to the artwork by pollution in hot and humid environments, where air quality and microclimatic condition differences can cause deterioration. As a case study, particulate matter as well as gases were collected at the Oscar Niemeyer Museum (MON) in Curitiba, Brazil, where large modern and contemporary works of art are displayed. NO2, SO2, O3, Acetic Acid, Formic Acids and BTEX, in the ambient air, were sampled by means of passive diffusive sampling and their concentrations were determined by IC or GC-MS. The particulate matter was collected in bulk form and analyzed with the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and aethalometer. The chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis. The gaseous and particulate matter levels were then compared with the concentrations obtained for the same pollutants in other museums, located in places with different climates, and with some reference values provided by international cultural heritage conservation centers. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could contribute to the chemical reactions taking place on the surfaces of artifacts and which could potentially cause irreversible damage to the

  17. Translating evidence to policy: urban interventions and physical activity promotion in Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-06-01

    The growing evidence of the influence of urban environment on physical activity (PA) underscore the need for novel policy solutions to address the inequality, lack of space, and limited PA resources in rapidly growing Latin American cities. This study aims to better understand the PA policy process by conducting two case studies of Bogotá's Ciclovía and Curitiba's CuritibAtiva. Literature review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted. In the cases of Ciclovía and CuritibAtiva, most policies conducive to program development and sustainability were developed outside the health sector in sports and recreation, urban planning, environment, and transportation. Both programs were developed by governments as initiatives to overcome inequalities and provide quality of life. In both programs, multisectoral policies mainly from recreation and urban planning created a window of opportunity for the development and sustainability of the programs and environments supportive of PA. PMID:24073055

  18. Microbiological quality of water from the rivers of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil, and the susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs and pathogenicity of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Giowanella, Melissa; Bozza, Angela; do Rocio Dalzoto, Patricia; Dionísio, Jair Alves; Andraus, Sumaia; Guimarães, Edson Luiz Gomes; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2015-11-01

    Water safety is determined by several markers, and Escherichia coli is one of the most important indicators of water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological parameters in environmental samples of fresh water from rivers of Curitiba and its metropolitan area in Paraná State, Brazil. In addition, we evaluated the pathogenicity and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs in E. coli. These evaluations were performed by quantitative and qualitative methods employing selective media for isolating thermotolerant coliforms and biochemical tests for identifying E. coli. Pathogenic strains of E. coli were detected by PCR multiplex using specific primers. From the water samples, 494 thermotolerant coliforms were obtained, of which 96 (19.43%) isolates were characterized as E. coli. Three isolates were identified as enteroaggregative E. coli, one as enterotoxigenic E. coli, one as enteropathogenic E. coli, and two carried the Eae virulence gene. E. coli susceptibility to commonly employed antimicrobial drugs was analyzed by the disc diffusion method. The results showed 49 (51.04%) isolates resistant to all the drugs assayed, 16 (16.67%) with an intermediate resistance to all drugs, and 31 (32.29%) intermediately or fully resistant to one or more drugs tested. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline 30 μg, streptomycin 10 μg, and ceftazidime 30 μg. Detection of E. coli is associated with water contamination by fecal material from humans and warm-blooded animals. The occurrence of resistant strains can be the result of the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs and poor sanitation in the areas assayed. PMID:26439126

  19. PREMIUM ENERGY FOR LACTEC INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LACTEC R&D DPT. CURITIBA, STATE OF PARANA. BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Silvio Vedovatto

    2003-12-31

    On April 2002 a 200KW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Power Plant. was installed at LACTEC Institute For Technology Development, Research and Development facilities. The power plant installed at LACTEC site is the second of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Its presence, not only contributed to the creation of a Fuel Cell Stationary Power market for Brazil and the rest of the region, but increased the knowledge about fuel cell technology, and marked the point of entry as a reference for the education of a new generation of applied scientists. On its first year the power plant has operated 8,558 hours achieving an availability factor of 97% and supplying 730.50MWh of premium energy. As a second regional experience with fuel cell technology, we expect this report about LACTEC PACFC power plant performance, applications and cost-benefit evaluation will provide relevant information for future regional investments on this technology.

  20. Nutritional composition of school meals serving children from 7 to 36 months of age in municipal day-care centres in the metropolitan area of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Retondario, Anabelle; Silva, Débora Letícia Frizzi; Salgado, Silvana Magalhães; Alves, Márcia Aurelina de Oliveira; Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    The Brazilian National School Feeding Program (PNAE) seeks to meet student's nutritional needs during the period they remain in school. This study aimed to determine the nutritional composition of meals provided in municipal day-care centres serving children of 7-11 months (group A) and 12-36 months (group B) of age and to compare observed values with the PNAE's and dietary reference intakes' (DRI) recommendations. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 4 day-care centres in the metropolitan area of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, between June and November 2013. Food samples of six daily meals were collected during 20 non-consecutive days, totalling 120 samples. For each meal, average served and consumed portions were submitted for laboratory analysis of moisture, ash, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Na, Ca and Fe and compared with the PNAE's and DRI's values. No statistically significant difference was found between age groups (P=0·793) regarding portion sizes and nutritional composition. The same menu was offered to both groups in 95 % of the meals (n 114), although the groups' nutritional needs were different. For group A, served meals met PNAE's recommendations for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, Na and Ca content, and consumed portions provided 70 % of the nutritional needs for carbohydrates, proteins and Ca. For group B, served portions complied with the PNAE's values for proteins, Na and Ca. Proteins and Na reached 70 % of the nutritional needs when consumed food was evaluated. School feeding in day-care centres partially meet PNAE's guidelines and children's nutritional requirements, contradicting the primary objective established by the national programme. PMID:27122205

  1. Curitiba: Towards sustainable urban development

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, J.

    1995-12-31

    Curitiba is best known for its innovative public transport system based on buses but this is only one among many initiatives which have improved the environment and quality of life in the city, limited pollution and waste and reduced resource use. The public transport system has also been complemented by comprehensive initiatives in planning and land use management. This paper describes not only the development of the public transport system but also the planning and administrative framework that was needed to make it, and other initiatives taken in Curitiba, effective.

  2. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    PubMed Central

    Klas, Regina; Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male), with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15); all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%), school difficulties (39.6%), and midlevel hearing problems (32%). Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%). The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3%) to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%), as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%). A significant relationship (p = 0.0000) between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens. PMID:25992085

  3. [Banality of urbanism: the lesson of Curitiba].

    PubMed

    Piccinato, G

    1996-01-01

    Curitiba, the capital of the predominantly agricultural Brazilian state of Parana, is described as a smoothly functioning city where daily life is pleasant, nature and architecture are in harmony, and public spaces are neither deserted nor congested. The events permitting its satisfactory development are described in this article. Since rapid growth began in the 1960s, Curitiba has become an important commercial and industrial center and node for transportation and transformation of agricultural products. A city plan proposed in 1942 established a system of specialized zones for commerce, industry, housing and agriculture, tied together by a system of roads. The plan was modified in the 1960s to incorporate a series of innovations and has remained in force since, with periodic adjustments. The plan replaced a nodal structure with a lineal one, with a close integration of land use and transportation systems. The plan was designed to decongest the central area, define physical limits of growth, provide economic aid for urban development, and distribute resources equitably. The plan is similar to many others; much of Curitiba's success as a city is due to the plan's actually having been followed. Coherent urban policies based on the plan were directed by the Institute of Research and Urban Planning of Curitiba. PMID:12348996

  4. Prevalence of the TP53 p.R337H Mutation in Breast Cancer Patients in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giacomazzi, Juliana; Graudenz, Marcia S.; Osorio, Cynthia A. B. T.; Koehler-Santos, Patricia; Palmero, Edenir I.; Zagonel-Oliveira, Marcelo; Michelli, Rodrigo A. D.; Neto, Cristovam Scapulatempo; Fernandes, Gabriela C.; Achatz, Maria Isabel W. S.; Martel-Planche, Ghyslaine; Soares, Fernando A.; Caleffi, Maira; Goldim, José Roberto; Hainaut, Pierre; Camey, Suzi A.; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Germline TP53 mutations predispose individuals to multiple cancers and are associated with Li-Fraumeni/Li-Fraumeni-Like Syndromes (LFS/LFL). The founder mutation TP53 p.R337H is detected in 0.3% of the general population in southern Brazil. This mutation is associated with an increased risk of childhood adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) but is also common in Brazilian LFS/LFL families. Breast Cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in TP53 mutation carriers. We have assessed the prevalence of p.R337H in two groups: (1) 59 BC affected women with a familial history (FH) suggestive of hereditary cancer syndrome but no LFS/LFL features; (2) 815 BC affected women unselected for cancer FH, diagnosed with BC at or before age 45 or at age 55 or older. Among group 1 and group 2 patients, 2/59 (3.4%, CI95%: 0.4%–11.7%) and 70/815 (8.6%, CI95%: 6.8%–10.7%), respectively, were p.R337H carriers in the germline. The prevalence of p.R337H was higher in women diagnosed with BC at or before age 45 (12.1%, CI95%: 9.1%–15.8%) than at age 55 or older (5.1%, CI95%: 3.2%–7.7%), p<0.001). The Brazilian founder p.R337H haplotype was detected in all carriers analysed. These results suggest that inheritance of p.R337H may significantly contribute to the high incidence of BC in Brazil, in addition to its recently demonstrated impact on the risk of childhood ACC. PMID:24936644

  5. Interior noise profile of buses in Curitiba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannin, Paulo H. T.; Giovanini, Clifton R.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose C.

    2002-11-01

    Evaluating the noise levels to which the bus drivers of Curitiba are exposed to during their working days is the main scope of this study. The city is served by an internationally known public transportation system featuring 1902 buses, which attend 1.9 million people per day. Two measurements have been taken inside each one of the 60 buses surveyed, one close to the driver and another one at the back of the bus. The results have showed that the dose levels the drivers are exposed to were below 50% in 92% out of the buses, but the normalized exposure levels were over 65 dB(A) in all cases. This level is considered as the threshold of comfort according to the Brazilian legislation on occupancy health NR-17--Ergonomics. The surveyed buses have been divided into three categories, according to their characteristics: feeder, rapid, and bi-articulated. A total of 20 buses within each category have been surveyed. Among the different categories, it has been found that the feeders have presented the highest noise levels. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  6. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

  7. The binomial work-health in the transit of Curitiba city.

    PubMed

    Tokars, Eunice; Moro, Antonio Renato Pereira; Cruz, Roberto Moraes

    2012-01-01

    The working activity in traffic of the big cities complex interacts with the environment is often in unsafe and unhealthy imbalance favoring the binomial work - health. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between work and health of taxi drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. This cross-sectional observational study with 206 individuals used a questionnaire on the organization's profile and perception of the environment and direct observation of work. It was found that the majority are male, aged between 26 and 49 years and has a high school degree. They are sedentary, like making a journey from 8 to 12 hours. They consider a stressful profession, related low back pain and are concerned about safety and accidents. 40% are smokers and consume alcoholic drink and 65% do not have or do not use devices of comfort. Risk factors present in the daily taxi constraints cause physical, cognitive and organizational and can affect your performance. It is concluded that the taxi drivers must change the unhealthy lifestyle, requiring a more efficient management of government authorities for this work is healthy and safe for all involved. PMID:22317175

  8. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozza, Rodrigo; de Campos, Wagner; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; da Silva, Michael Pereira; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population. PMID:27058256

  9. Evaluation of the health risks to garment workers in the city of Xambrê-PR, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Marco Antônio; Kovalechen, Fabrício

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the risks for cardiovascular disease and the life habits of garment industry workers in northwestern Paraná state, Brazil. The following parameters were assessed: body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, eating habits and physical activities by garment industry workers. Cardiovascular risk was observed in some of the studied subjects, in the form of high BMI and reduced maximal oxygen uptake. The development of a workplace quality-of-life program is suggested, aiming to stimulate the development of physical activities to improve the cardiovascular conditioning of workers. PMID:22317639

  10. Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandonadi, Leandro; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Zavattini, João Afonso

    2016-02-01

    This research was aimed at addressing aspects related to variation in the amount of precipitation during the period from 1986 to 2011 in the Paraná River Hydrographical Basin, Brazil, for 32 meteorological stations using 11 climate indices created by the ETCCDI (Expert Team, ET, on Climate Change Detection and Indices, ETCCDI). The daily rainfall data were organized in spreadsheets, which were subjected to an intense quality control and an accurate historical research. For each pluviometric index, we have estimated the trends and the statistical significant of the slopes have been calculated. The results confirm that an increase in total precipitation in almost all analyzed stations was registered, and the extreme precipitations were the main contributors to such additions. In fact, the significant increase in total annual rainfall in north-central sector of the basin are related to higher rates of heavy rain, mainly above 95th percentile, as well as to the highest event of rainfall above 10 mm. Instead the northern part of the region, showed declining trends of extreme rainfall, caused mainly by the reduction in the rainfall occurrences over 95th percentile. In order to evaluate the impact that the increasing extreme rainfall may cause in large urban centers, we have investigated the data of two municipalities (Curitiba, PR and Goiânia, GO-Brazil), where the positive trend can cause inconvenience to the population (floods and inundations) suggesting, at least, the need of implementation of more effective urban planning for the future.

  11. Brazil's urban laboratory takes the strain.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, C

    1996-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, in southern Brazil, has been known for its environmental-friendly urban planning. Its quality of life has encouraged the natural growth of the city, which has doubled its population to over 1.3 million in the last 20 years while retaining 52 m of green area per inhabitant. In this article, the city's efforts to retain its success in the face of a growing population are documented. An integrated transport system has been created, a main commercial street was turned into a pedestrian street, the building of the Wire Opera and the Free Environment University was created, and the decentralization of the country's health system, and the launching of a program of waste sorting. All these accomplishments subsequently generated tourism, bringing in an income of about 4% of the city's net income. In addition, they have helped the 300,000 inhabitants of the city's slums with their rubbish by selling them carts on a low installment price. Migratory flow has been curbed since the creation of the Return House, wherein social workers offer free tickets to potential migrants; and the Vila Rural (Rural Town), consisting of small rural properties where peasant farmers will be able to farm in between industrial jobs. In conclusion, if Curitiba's Institute of Urban Research and Planning team is successful in transposing to the State its achievements in the municipal administration, by the year 2000 Curitiba will have proved to be the seed of a revolution that will improve the development of the whole region. PMID:12295719

  12. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II in Brazil: reflection of a global expansion

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Natacha; Dalla-Costa, Libera; Uehara, Aline Almeida; Riley, Lee Woodland; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii international clones (IC) in Curitiba, Brazil, using multilocus sequence typing and trilocus PCR-based typing schemes. IC2 was the first emerging clone. This IC was detected in an isolate from 2003 of a PFGE type spread in at least two hospitals since 1999. Subsequently, IC2 waned while IC1 and clonal complex 15/104 prevailed. This is the first description of IC2 in Brazil and Latin America. PMID:24121023

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in certified and non-certified pig breeding farms in the Toledo microregion, PR, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piassa, Franciele Rossandra; de Araújo, Jacqueline Baptista; da Rosa, Ronaldo César; Mattei, Rodrigo José; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection has been diagnosed in pigs all over the world. Economical losses are generally related to reproductive disorders. Toxoplasma infection is also a matter of public health because tissue cysts of the parasite may remain in pork and pork products, and become sources of human infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection in certified and non-certified pig breeding farms in the Toledo microregion, in the State of Paraná, Brazil which includes the cities of Toledo, Nova Santa Rosa, Sao José das Palmeiras and Sao Pedro do Iguaçu. Relative frequency of infection was 13.4%, independently of the type of farm. Logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with infection: absence of workers exclusive for each area of the farm, access of other animals to feeders and drinkers, lack of lids in drinkers, lack of rodent control measures, mean piglet number and weight at weaning per female. PMID:20943018

  14. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2001-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  15. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  16. Rift to post-rift evolution of a ``passive'' continental margin: the Ponta Grossa Arch, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Magalhaes, A. O. B.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Saad, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology was applied at the Brazilian passive continental margin in order to understand and reconstruct the post-rift evolution since the break-up of southwestern Gondwana. Thermochronological data obtained from apatite fission-track analysis of Neoproterozoic metamorphic and Paleozoic to Mesozoic siliciclastic rocks as well as Mesozoic dikes and alkaline intrusions from the Ponta Grossa Arch provided ages between 66.2 (1.3) and 5.9 (0.8) Ma. These data clearly indicate a post-rift reactivation during Late Cretaceous and Paleogene times. Integrating the results of older thermochronological studies, the reactivation of the southeastern Brazilian margin could be described in three main phases related to the rift to post-rift evolution of SE Brazil. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of age data indicates the presence of two age groups: a NE age-group (NE of Curitiba), with ages around 20 Ma and a SW age-group (Curitiba and NW) with ages of around 50 Ma. The change of ages follows the NW-SE trending São Jerônimo-Curiúva fault zone that can be traced offshore into the southern end of the Santos basin. Within the Santos basin, this lineament ends up to the salt occurrence in the south and seams to play a major role in the structural evolution of the Santos basin and the Rio Grande Rise. Sedimentological studies in the Santos basin evidenced that the transport direction changed in Miocene from WNW to WNW/NNW. During the Oligocene and earlier, the sediments were transported mainly from southeastwards to the direction of the “Curitiba area” into the Santos basin. Within the Miocene, an additional transport direction from an area north of Curitiba developed.

  17. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario. PMID:25659588

  18. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Vogler, Ingridt Hildegard; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Bortoliero, André Luis; Matsuo, Tiemi; Yuahasi, Kátia Kioko; Cancian, Sanderson Júnior; Koguichi, Roberto Setsuo

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II), serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8%) were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6%) for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6%) for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6%) was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6%) for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%), 441 (0.5%), 189 (0.2%), 464 (0.6%), and 473 (0.6%) samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001) for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive values for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion. PMID:12751318

  19. Investigation Route of the Coronary Patient in the Public Health System in Curitiba, São Paulo and in Incor - IMPACT Study

    PubMed Central

    Cerci, Juliano J.; Trindade, Evelinda; Preto, Daniel; Cerci, Rodrigo Julio; Lemos, Pedro A.; Cesar, Luiz Antonio Machado; Preto, Luís; Stinghen, Luiz; Martinez, Cátia; Meneghetti, José Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The investigation of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and its treatment depend on risk stratification for decision-making on the need for cardiac catheterization and revascularization. Objective: To analyze the procedures used in the diagnosis and invasive treatment of patients with CAD, at the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the cities of Curitiba, São Paulo and at InCor-FMUSP. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of the diagnostic and therapeutic itineraries of the Brazilian public health care system patient, between groups submitted or not to prior noninvasive tests to invasive cardiac catheterization. Stress testing, stress echocardiography, perfusion scintigraphy, catheterization and percutaneous or surgical revascularization treatment procedures were quantified and the economic impact of the used strategies. Results: There are significant differences in the assessment of patients with suspected or known CAD in the metropolitan region in the three scenarios. Although functional testing procedures are most often used the direct costs of these procedures differ significantly (6.1% in Curitiba, 20% in São Paulo and 27% in InCor-FMUSP). Costs related to the procedures and invasive treatments represent 59.7% of the direct costs of SUS in São Paulo and 87.2% in Curitiba. In InCor-FMUSP, only 24.3% of patients with stable CAD submitted to CABG underwent a noninvasive test before the procedure. Conclusion: Although noninvasive functional tests are the ones most often requested for the assessment of patients with suspected or known CAD most of the costs are related to invasive procedures/treatments. In most revascularized patients, the documentation of ischemic burden was not performed by SUS. PMID:25076179

  20. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  1. The Rio Doce Orogeny, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, M. C. Campos; Figueiredo, M. C. H.

    1995-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic superposed orogenic system of Southeastern Brazil, which was active during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Cycle during the assembly of this sector of the Gondwana Supercontinent, includes distinct terranes such as the Guanhães, Curitiba, Apiaí-Guaxupé and Serra do Mar microplates and the Juiz de Fora Thrust Belt. These orogenic systems also affected the reworked border of the São Francisco Craton. The collisional or ocean plate subduction-controlled "Brasiliano I" Orogeny was responsible for the generation of fold belts along the southeastern border of the São Francisco Craton, the accretion of different microplates and the formation of a magmatic arc associated with the roots of a northwestward trending thrust belt. The "Brasiliano I" evolution occurred during the Neoproterozoic and by 600 Ma was already in a post-orogenic stage in the Apiaí-Guaxupé Microplate, with the intrusion of rapakivi-like granitoids. The Rio Doce Orogeny is best characterized in the Serra do Mar Microplate by a magmatic arc, active between 590 and 570 Ma, with batholithic calc-alkaline plutonism exhibiting subduction zone components and a chemical zonation indicative of northwestward subduction. The collisional stage (560-530 Ma) accounted for the accretion of the Serra do Mar Microplate to the former orogenic domains. Anatexis of mostly metasediments producing peraluminous migmatites and granites, began at the calc-alkaline magmatic arc stage and culminated during crustal thickening associated with the northwesterly piling-up of large thrust slices. The post-collisional plutonism (520-480 Ma) is characterized by plutons and dikes of mainly alkali-calcic granitoids enriched in incompatible elements.

  2. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Mariane Angélica; de Barros, Ivan Roque; Leutenegger, Christian; Estrada, Marko; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Langoni, Hélio; Kikuti, Mariana; Dornbush, Peterson Triches; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02) and flooding (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study. PMID:25351539

  3. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba – Parana State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Konell, K.; Gelinsk, M.A.; Benetti, T.M.; Abrahão, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection. PMID:25763066

  4. PR-PR: Cross-Platform Laboratory Automation System

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Goyal, G; Bi, CH; Poust, S; Sharma, M; Mutalik, V; Keasling, JD; Hillson, NJ

    2014-08-01

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  5. Radiation of powdered milk produced at Londrina, PR, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiades, F. L.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2001-06-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive activities in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, using a HPGe detector. Preliminary measurements were accomplished to define the kind of the system shield, the geometry of the sample recipient, the size of the sampling and the self absorption correction. It was possible to measure the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs and 208Tl. Tukey's average comparison test was used to check the repeatability of the measurements.

  6. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  7. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  8. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  9. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  10. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for men and transgender women who have sex with men in Brazil: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Valdilea G; Mesquita, Fabio; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recently released guidelines on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV infection among men and transgender women (TGW) who have sex with men based on results of randomized clinical trials. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the opportunities and challenges of incorporating PrEP into the Brazilian continuum of HIV care and prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM) and TGW. Discussion Key aspects of the AIDS epidemic among MSM and TGW in Brazil and the comprehensive Brazilian response to the epidemic are presented. The universal access to health care provided through the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and the range of prevention and care services already available countrywide to HIV-positive individuals and at-risk MSM and TGW are identified as the main facilitators for the implementation of PrEP. Limited PrEP awareness among MSM, TGW and health care providers, low HIV testing frequency and low HIV risk perception among MSM and TGW represent the core challenges to be addressed. Data generated by demonstration projects in Brazil will provide an important contribution to PrEP rollout in Brazil. Conclusions The implementation of PrEP in Brazil is feasible. A synergistic rollout of treatment as prevention and PrEP will maximize public health and individual benefits of the country's comprehensive response to the AIDS epidemic. PMID:26198347

  11. [Accidents and acts of violence in Brazil: I--Analysis of mortality data].

    PubMed

    Jorge, M H; Gawryszewski, V P; Latorre, M do R

    1997-08-01

    accidents are a major problem in Vitória, Goiânia, Macapá, the Distrito Federal and Curitiba. Homicides have increased greatly in Porto Velho, Rio Branco, Recife, S. Luís, Vitória, S. Paulo, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Cuiabá and the Distrito Federal. The mortality due to external causes in Brazil has become a major public health problem, especially because of homicides. It is important to emphasize that the quality of the mortality data on external causes is not the same for all capitals, because it is a question very closely related to the quality of legal information. PMID:9595755

  12. Leprosy in a University Hospital in Southern Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Adma Silva; Pinto, Karin Cristine; Bona, Míryan Priscilla Santos; de Mattos, Suelen Mayara Lopes; Hoffmann, Marina Portiolli; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Ottoboni, Vanessa Cristhine Dallolmo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infectious disease that may lead to irreversible nerve damage, compromising patient's quality of life and leading to loss of working years. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients followed at a University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective observational study, based on a review of medical records. We studied the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with leprosy monitored at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2005 and January 2010. RESULTS The mean age was 47.51, while 35.94% of patients were aged 41-60. The male:female rate was 1.8:1. The most prevalent occupations were: retired, students or rural workers. Patients came mainly from Curitiba or nearby areas, but there were also patients from the countryside. The mean diagnostic delay was 24.57 months. Multibacillary forms prevailed, with the lepromatous variety being the most common, closely followed by the borderline type. Neural enlargement was found in more than 50% of the patients and 48.44% of them developed reactional states. Hemolysis was the most commonly detected drug side effect. Initial functional evaluation was possible in 70% of patients, 55% of whom had disabilities upon diagnosis. The most prevalent associated disease was hypertension. CONCLUSIONS This study showed an important diagnostic delay and a high rate of sequelae in this specific population. Brazil is one of the few remaining countries that has not yet eradicated leprosy and it is important to improve health policies in order to prevent sequelae and achieve eradication. PMID:26560210

  13. The PR Officer's Survival Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrum, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A former corporate public relations (PR) professional shares strategies for communicating and cooperating with the chief executive officer, and particularly for coping with differences in perceptions of the public relations officer's role. Basic attributes of a successful PR professional are outlined: good communication skills, an analytical…

  14. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazière, D.

    2002-04-01

    Faisant suite aux deux précédents colloques "Matériaux pour les machines thermiques" et "Matériaux pour le nucléaire" , le colloque 2001 de l'INSTN intitulé "Matériaux pour les énergies propres" s'est focalisé sur les problèmes de matériaux encore à résoudre dans ce secteur industriel. Le colloque de métallurgie est traditionnellement organisé par des ense ignants du DEA Métallurgie et Matériaux et un comité scientifique choisi chaq ue année en liaison avec le thème traité. Les étudiants de ce DEA, qui est hab ilité entre Paris XI, Paris VI, l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, l'Ecole Centrale de Pari s et l'INSTN, sont invités à participer à ce colloque et aux débats scientifiques qui s'y déroulent. Des conférences invitées à caractère péda gogique permettent d'introduire les différents thèmes abordés qui sont ensuite développés dans des présentations plus novatrices. Cette manifestation a pour ambition de favoriser la rencontre de scientifiques d'horizons divers venant de milieux académiques ou industriels entre eux et avec les étudiants et thésards. Cette 44e édition, dont les comptes rendus sont publiés ici, a fait le point sur les problèmes de matériaux rencontrés lors de la production, du stockage et de la conversion des énergies dites propres en englobant lesprogrès constants des industriels de l'automobile. Ce colloque a réuni, du 26 au 28 juin 2001, 63 participants provenant d'universités ou grandes écoles (18), du CEA (17), du CNRS (10) et de l'industrie ou de centres de recherche associés. L'ensemble des problèmes de matériaux de ce secteur ont été examinés au cours des six sessions ci-dessous : dépollution des gaz d'échappement ; combustion catalytique en production thermique ; nouvelles batteries ; piles à combustibles ; production et stockage d'hydrogène ; production et stockage d'énergie solaire. Vingt huit communications dont vingt deux orales ont illustré les dével oppements en cours. Dix

  15. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa huitième édition à Toulouse, du 3 au 5 septembre 2004, sur le campus de I'INSA. Comme il est de tradition tous les quatre ans, COLOQ était couplé avec Horizons de l'optique, avec en particulier une journée commune dont le programme avait été préparé en concertation par les deux comités scientifiques. Depuis sa création, COLOQ a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les chercheurs des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur les lasers et l'optique quantique au sens large. C'est un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Ces derniers y trouvent l'occasion de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 230 chercheurs et d'une vingtaine d'exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ et de son audience dans les laboratoires et chez les industriels de l'optique. Le programme de COLOQ 8 comportait d'une vingtaine de conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international, et des séances de communications par affiches, occasions privilégiées de rencontres et d'échanges. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international, avec un accent sur des thèmes importants pour la région toulousaine : contrôle cohérent, optique et nanosciences, optique et astronomie, sans oublier la traditionnelle rubrique phénomènes fondamentaux, éclectique pour ne pas dire hétéroclite, mais si représentative d'une des ambitions de COLOQ qui est d'offrir à ses participants une

  16. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  17. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  18. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    Le premier colloque Rayons X et Matière (Rx 95) s'est tenu à Strasbourg en 1995. Il était destiné à célébrer le centenaire de la découverte des rayons X par ROENTGEN et a alors réuni plus de cent trente chercheurs et industriels concernés par les rayons X et les matériaux. Parmi eux se trouvaient les Professeurs André GUINIER et Hans NEFF ainsi que Monsieur Michel BRUNEL qui hélas ne sont plus parmi nous à ce jour. La qualité et la convivialité des échanges entre les participants lors de cette première réunion ne pouvaient que nous inciter à la reconduire et nous avons pris rendez vous pour 1997, puis 1999, puis 2001 et enfin pour 2003, soient cinq colloques, un tous les deux ans pendant dix ans. Au cours des années, nous avons essayé d'adapter les thèmes abordés à l'évolution de la recherche et des techniques. Ces thèmes se sont naturellement ajoutés aux thèmes classiques comme la diffraction et la fluorescence. Les nanomatériaux, les microfaisceaux en sont des exemples. A de très rares exceptions les communications présentées étaient de très bon niveau et nous avons toujours eu beaucoup de plaisir à les publier. Ces colloques ont bien fonctionné en raison de la participation des industriels qui, dans leur grande majorité, nous ont accompagnés régulièrement. Ces colloques présentent l'avantage, par rapport à des colloques spécialisés, de couvrir (presque) tout le champ des applications des rayons X et seulement ce domaine. Toutefois il est clair que les données économiques évoluent et que la situation est chaque aimée plus difficile pour tout le monde, chercheurs et industriels. Temps et moyens sont comptés et maintenant chacun doit faire de plus en plus de choix, rentabilité oblige ! Le maintien du colloque Rayons X et Matière passera obligatoirement par une réflexion globale : redéfinition des objectifs, augmentation de l'ouverture européenne, recherche d'autres formes de participation associant mieux les

  19. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, Tayssir

    2005-05-01

    Né simultanément à Mulhouse et à Beyrouth en 1996 dans le cadre d'une collaboraiion franco-libanaise sur une initiative personnelle de Monsieur Tayssir HAMIEH. le Colloque Franco-Libanais sur la Science des Matériaux (CSM), qui s'inscrit dans le cadre des relations étroites entre la France et le Liban, est très vite devenu une occasion très importante de rencontre entre scientifiques de haut niveau, non seulement, du contour méditerranéen mais également des pays européens, américains et arabes. La quatrieme édition CSM4 est une véritable réussite grâce à la participation des chercheurs confirmés dans tous les domaines des sciences de matériaux et venant de plusieurs pays tels que la France, I'Algérie, Le Liban, la Syrie, le Maroc, la Tunisie, l'Italie, l'Espagne, le Portugal, le Royaume Uni, les États-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne, le Japon et I'Inde ; pour présenter plus de 350 communications orales et par affiche et couvrant presque toutes les disciplines des systèmes des matériaux. Le choix des diffèrents thèmes du colloque sur la science des matériaux a été dicté par l'importance capitale de cette discipline dans notre civilisation moderne. En fait, les matériaux utilisés pour la fabrication artisanale ou industrielle d'objets, de produits et de systèmes ainsi que pour la réalisation de constructions et d'équipements ont de tout temps défini le niveau de notre civilisation technique. La réalisation des objectifs communs de notre monde en plein développement, pour ne pas dire en pleine mutation, est en grande partie tributaire de la mise au point de nouveaux matériaux et de procédés de transformation et d'assemblages nouveaux, présentant des performances et des qualités améliorées. Le colloque a illustré et traduit, de manière remarquables, l'excellente collaboration entre chercheurs libanais et français. Le partenariat est exemplaire par la qualité des laboratoires impliqués et par le niveau scientifique des r

  20. Chronic low back pain among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo D; Fassa, Anaclaudia G; Faria, Neice M X; Fiori, Nadia S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite tobacco farming involving intensive manual labor, chronic low back pain (CLBP) prevalence and associated factors are unknown among this occupational group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in southern Brazil. A random sample of tobacco farmers was interviewed. Socioeconomic and individual characteristics, occupational tasks, workloads, and comorbidities were investigated. Chronic low back pain prevalence was described in relation to independent variables, and associations were examined with Poisson regression. Results: Chronic low back pain prevalence was 8·4%. Increasing age, rearing two or more species of livestock (PR 1·65), exposure to tasks that require heavy physical exertion (PR 2·00), working in awkward postures (PR 1·36), green tobacco sickness (GTS) (PR 1·63), pesticide poisoning (PR 2·37), and minor psychiatric disorders (PR 2·55) were associated with CLBP. Conclusions: This study found that CLBP is a relevant health problem among tobacco farmers and highlights understudied risk factors such as pesticide poisoning and GTS. Policies to minimize exposure to physiological and chemical workloads in tobacco planting to prevent CLBP are needed. Health professionals should be trained to diagnose and prevent acute low back pain episodes and thus prevent/minimize limitations and disabilities due to CLBP. PMID:25633930

  1. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  2. Occurrence of Neuroblastoma among TP53 p.R337H Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Mastellaro, Maria José; Cardinalli, Izilda Aparecida; Zambaldi, Lilian Girotto; Aguiar, Simone Santos; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of adrenocortical tumors and choroid plexus carcinoma in children from South and Southeastern regions of Brazil is associated with the germline p.R337H mutation of TP53 gene. The concomitant occurrence of neuroblastoma and adrenocortical tumors in pediatric patients harboring the p.R337H mutation at our institution prompted us to investigate the putative association between p.R337H and pediatric neuroblastoma. Genomic DNA samples from 83 neuroblastoma patients referred to a single institution during the period of 2000–2014 were screened for the p.R337H mutation. Available samples from carriers were investigated for both nuclear p53 accumulation and loss of heterozigosity in tumor. Clinical data were obtained from medical records in order to assess the impact of 337H allele on manifestation of the disease. Seven out 83 neuroblastoma patients (8.4%) were carriers of the TP53 p.R337H mutation in our cohort. Immunohistochemical analysis of p.R337H-positive tumors revealed nuclear p53 accumulation. Loss of heterozigosity was not found among available samples. The presence of 337H allele was associated with increased proportion of stage I tumors. Our data indicate that in addition to adrenocortical tumors, choroid plexus carcinoma, breast cancer and osteosarcoma, genetic counseling and clinical surveillance should consider neuroblastoma as a potential neoplasia affecting p.R337H carriers. PMID:26452166

  3. Initial Application of the MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ System for Simulating Air Quality in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Souza, L. S.; Adelman, Z.; Moraes, N. O.; Da Silva, R. M.; Landau, L.; Pimentel, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the recent air quality modeling studies in Brazil have been focused on the main Metropolitan Areas (MAs) located in the south-central region of the country. Studies over Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are the most frequent and are usually focused on ozone and its precursors. Other MAs that have been the subject of air quality studies include Porto Alegre and Curitiba in the south and Belo Horizonte and Vitoria in the southeast. According to the last official figures from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE - www.ibge.gov.br), Brazil has 36 metropolitan areas with more than 250,000 inhabitants and less than 30% of them have publically-accessible air quality management programs. In this study we examine ozone and its precursors on a national level using a modeling system composed of MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ. The goal of this study is to identify areas with emissions and ozone concentrations that may require air quality management programs. MM5 provided hourly meteorological estimates. SMOKE was used to process global emission data from EDGAR version 3.2 for anthropogenic sources and GFED for biomass burning sources. MEGAN was used to estimate biogenic emissions. The modeling system was run on a 37x37 km grid with 32 vertical levels for august 2005 for a domain that covers all of Brazil. The model period was selected to identify air pollution over the Amazonian area during one of the most intense dry seasons of the past 40 years. Analysis was conducted on the air quality predictions over Amazonia and in the northeast of Brazil to study the influence of different inventory sectors in MAs in these regions. The global emission inventories were assimilated to provide a national emission profile that was able to reproduce important air quality trends, such as peak concentrations in Sao Paulo for almost all pollutants and high ozone for Rio de Janeiro. In northern Brazil, both emissions and ozone peaks were simulated in the region known as the "arch

  4. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörgen Stevefelt, Henri Bachau Et

    2003-06-01

    UVX 2002, sixième édition du “Colloque sur les Sources Cohérentes et Incohérentes UV, VUV, et X : Applications et Développements Récents" s'est tenu du 11 au 14 juin 2002 au Centre CAES du CNRS “La Vieille, Perrotine", à Saint-Pierre d'Oléron. Le colloque a réunni une centaine de chercheurs et d'industriels et a permis de faire le point sur la production, la caractérisation et l'utilisation de rayonnement dans un domaine spectral s'étendant de l'ultraviolet aux rayons X. Les participants ont pu assister a trente conférences et une table ronde autour des problèmes locaux de pollution, une cinquantaine d'affiches ont été présentées au travers de deux sessions. Une douzaine d'industriels ont exposé leurs produits durant les séances d'affiches.Conformément aux éditions précédentes, les domaines couverts par le colloque UVX 2002 sont très variés et il est impossible de les résumer en quelques lignes. Parmi les activités en développement rapide on notera les lasers femtosecondes dont les applications se multiplient dans les laboratoires (propriétés des molécules, agrégats et solides), dans l'industrie (usinage, ablation...) et en médecine. L'absence de thermalisation ou de diffusion thermique ouvre aussi des perspectives pour la réalisation de films minces par ablation laser, un domaine où les lasers excimères sont traditionnellement utilisés, avec des applications importantes dans le secteur des télécommunications. Dans le domaine de l'extrème UV, des progrès significatifs ont été réalisés par plusieurs groupes dans la gamme de longueur d'onde de 5 à 20 nm, ouvrant ainsi la voie au développement industriel de la lithographie EUV. On note les progrès dans la réalisation des sources UV et X (laser X, génération d'harmoniques, laser a électrons libres) et la nécessité de développer des optiques adaptées. Une perspective intéressante, ouverte par la génération d'harmoniques, est la production d

  5. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  6. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncorgé, R.

    2006-12-01

    Cette nouvelle édition du Colloque UVX avait pour objectifs de : - réunir les chercheurs et les industriels intéressés par les applications et les développements les plus récents obtenus sur les sources UV, VUV et X, cohérentes ou incohérentes, et les optiques et matériaux associés ; - dresser un bilan des sources de photons à haute énergie et de leurs applications courantes et futures ; - susciter de nouvelles collaborations ; - ouvrir de nouveaux champs disciplinaires. Elle a été organisée par le laboratoire CIRIL au VVF de Colleville-sur-Mer, dans le département du Calvados, du 6 au 9 juin 2006, la journée du 5 juin ayant été consacrée à une réunion de travail du GDR CNRS SAXO, ce GDR regroupant une majorité de scientifiques concernés par le Colloque UVX. La manifestation a réuni ainsi une centaine de participants dont une dizaine d'exposants industriels. Parmi ces participants, trente étaient invités à donner une conférence orale. Une sélection a été faite également parmi les meilleures communications soumises par affiches pour qu'elles soient présentées oralement. Une trentaine de ces communications ont été préparées sous la forme d'articles de 6 à 12 pages et font l'objet de cet ouvrage. De nombreux travaux récents ont été exposés tant au niveau des sources que des techniques de caractérisation et des applications, ceci dans des domaines très divers allant de la physique des lasers et de la mise en forme spatiale et temporelle des faisceaux au domaine de l'imagerie médicale et biologiques en passant par les techniques de fabrication des cristaux, fibres et films minces organiques et inorganiques. Plusieurs résultats marquants en sont ressortis. Dans le domaine des sources, la mise en forme spatiale du faisceau laser utilisé pour la production d'harmoniques d'ordre élevé dans les gaz, ceci à l'aide de lames de phase peu onéreuses et simples d'utilisation, semble être une bonne solution pour accroître les

  7. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  8. Directives préalables

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Établir la prévalence de patients dotés de directives préalables dans une pratique familiale et décrire les points de vue des patients quant au rôle du médecin de famille dans l’amorce de discussions à propos des directives préalables. Conception Un questionnaire auquel les patients ont répondu eux-mêmes. Contexte Une clinique d’enseignement en médecine familiale achalandée en milieu urbain, à Hamilton, en Ontario. Participants Un échantillon de commodité formé de patients adultes qui se sont présentés à la clinique durant une semaine de travail typique. Principaux paramètres à l’étude La prévalence des directives préalables dans une population de patients a été déterminée et les attentes à l’endroit du rôle de leur médecin de famille ont été sollicitées. Résultats Les répondants au sondage étaient au nombre de 800 (un taux de réponse de 72,5 %) et leurs groupes d’âges étaient bien répartis; 19,7 % d’entre eux avaient rédigé des directives préalables et 43,8 % avaient déjà discuté du sujet des directives préalables, mais seulement 4,3 % de ces discussions avaient eu lieu avec un médecin de famille. Dans 5,7 % des cas, un médecin de famille avait soulevé la question; 72,3 % des répondants croyaient que les patients devraient amorcer la discussion. Les patients qui considéraient les directives préalables d’une importance extrême étaient considérablement plus enclins à vouloir que leur médecin de famille commence la conversation (rapport de cotes de 3,98; p < ,05). Conclusion Les directives préalables n’étaient pas systématiquement abordées dans la pratique familiale. La plupart des patients préféraient amorcer la discussion des directives préalables. Toutefois, les patients qui considéraient le sujet d’une extrême importance voulaient que leur médecin de famille commence la discussion.

  9. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    The main Precambrian terrains recognized in Brazil comprise the Amazonian, São Francisco and Rio de la Plata cratons, surrounded by Neoproterozoic Brasiliano fold belts, making up the Borborema, Mantiqueira and Tocantins provinces. The Amazonian craton comprises an Archean core, surrounded by Paleoproterozoic terrains (Maroni-Itacaiunas, Ventuari-Tapajós, Rio Negro-Juruena), which southwestwards give way to the Mesoproterozoic Rondoniano-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts, the latter thought to be related to the Grenville belt of North America. The São Francisco craton comprises several Archean blocks (Gavião, Serrinha, Jequié) amalgamated by the Paleoproterozoic high-grade Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá orogen. The Rio de la Plata craton, largely covered by Phanerozoic strata, is made of Paleoproterozoic basement gneiss and several Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts. Other cratonic blocks are hidden below large Phanerozoic basins, like the Paranapanema and Parnaíba blocks below the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, respectively. Several smaller Archean/Paleoproterozoic blocks appear within the Brasiliano provinces: some were strongly reworked during the Neoproterozoic orogenic events (São José do Campestre, Pernambuco-Alagoas, Goiás, Guanhães, Juiz de Fora, Curitiba), others were only marginally affected (São Luiz, Rio Apa, Luís Alves). The Brasiliano provinces are the result of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic orogenic events within the framework of West Gondwana amalgamation. The Mantiqueira Province extends from eastern Brazil to southern Uruguay and includes the Araçuaí, Ribeira and Dom Feliciano fold belts, bordering the São Francisco, Paranapanema and Rio de la Plata cratons and surrounding the Luís Alves craton. The Tocantins province in central Brazil includes the Araguaia, Paraguay and Brasília fold belts, the former bordering the Amazonian craton, the second bordering both the southern Amazonian craton and the Rio Apa block, and the last established on

  10. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  11. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  12. Brazil in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fabiola

    1993-10-01

    Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE) was born out of the desire of a number of Brazilians to see their country participating in the conquest of space. On 3 August 1961, President Janio Quadros signed a decree, creating the Organising Group for the National Space Commission (GOCNAE) as a part of the National Research Council (CNPq). CNAE, as the institution became known later gave birth to INPE. The present activities of INPE - concentrated in the areas of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation, and Space Technology - and showing that space science and technology can exert an important influence on the quality of life of the general population, and on Brazil's future national development.

  13. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable. PMID:27355570

  14. Effect of Pr Valence State on Interfacial Structure and Electrical Properties of Pr Oxide/PrON/Ge Gate Stack Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kimihiko; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Kondo, Hiroki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the valence state and chemical bonding state of Pr in a Pr oxide/PrON/Ge structure. We clarified the relationship between the valence state of Pr and the Pr oxide/Ge interfacial reaction using Pr oxide/Ge and Pr oxide/PrON/Ge samples. We found the formation of three Pr oxide phases in Pr oxide films; hexagonal Pr2O3 (h-Pr2O3) (Pr3+), cubic Pr2O3 (c-Pr2O3) (Pr3+), and c-PrO2 (Pr4+). We also investigated the effect of a nitride interlayer on the interfacial reaction in Pr oxide/Ge gate stacks. In a sample with a nitride interlayer (Pr oxide/PrON/Ge), metallic Pr-Pr bonds are also formed in the c-Pr2O3 film. After annealing in H2 ambient, the diffusion of Ge into Pr oxide is not observed in this sample. Pr-Pr bonds probably prevent the interfacial reaction and Ge oxide formation, considering that the oxygen chemical potential of this film is lower than that of a GeO2/Ge system. On the other hand, the rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) treatment terminates the O vacancies and defects in c-Pr2O3. As a result, c-PrO2 with tetravalent Pr is formed in the Pr oxide/PrON/Ge sample with RTO. In this sample, the leakage current density is effectively decreased in comparison with the sample without RTO. Hydrogen termination works effectively in Pr oxide/PrON/Ge samples with and without RTO, and we can achieve an interface state density of as low as 4 ×1011 eV-1·cm-2.

  15. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  16. ESO PR Highlights in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, ESO and its staff are facing the future with confidence. The four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) are in great shape and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) will soon have "first fringes". The intercontinental ALMA project is progressing well and concepts for extremely large optical/infrared telescopes are being studied. They can also look back at a fruitful and rewarding past year. Perhaps the most important, single development has been the rapid transition of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). From being a "high-tech project under construction" it has now become a highly proficient, world-class astronomical observatory. This trend is clearly reflected in ESO's Press Releases , as more and more front-line scientific results emerge from rich data obtained at this very efficient facility. There were also exciting news from several of the instruments at La Silla. At the same time, the ESO community may soon grow, as steps towards membership are being taken by various European countries. Throughout 2000, a total of 54 PR communications were made, with a large number of Press Photos and Video Clips, cf. the 2000 PR Index. Some of the ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image on the present page. ESO PR Photo 01/01 is also available in a larger (non-clickable) version [ JPEG: 566 x 566 pix - 112k]. It may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  17. Human Pythiosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Araújo, João Pessoa; Candeias, João Manuel Grisi; Fabiano de Franco, Marcello; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Mendoza, Leonel; Pires de Camargo, Rosangela; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing. PMID:15890126

  18. Leprosy situation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane

    2006-09-01

    We present the situation of leprosy in Brazil, reporting about epidemiology, clinical criteria for classification, multidrugtherapy and special situations, as co-infection. This material was presented in the 79th Annual Meeting of Japanese Hansen's Disease Association in May 2006, during a discussion about the Japanese Guidelines for leprosy treatment. PMID:17037380

  19. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  20. Finding oil in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

  1. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  2. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  3. Teacher Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines

    1999-01-01

    Discusses elementary teacher education in Brazil, examining problems teacher educators face (e.g., lack of direct communication between theoretical studies and the practical world and lack of inclusion of practical knowledge and expertise developed by successful teachers). Current educational policies are discussed, looking at: implementation of a…

  4. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  5. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  6. Impact of human metapneumovirus infection on in and outpatients for the years 2006-2008 in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Debur, Maria C; Vidal, Luine Rr; Stroparo, Elenice; Nogueira, Meri B; Almeida, Sérgio M; Takahashi, Gislene A; Rotta, Indianara; Pereira, Luciane A; Silveira, Clyete S; Delfraro, Adriana; Nakatani, Sueli M; Skraba, Irene; Raboni, Sonia M

    2010-12-01

    The human metapneumovirus (hMPV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family, has been reported as an important agent involved with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The aim of this study is to identify hMPV as the etiological agent of ARIs on in and outpatients in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, and describe clinical data of hMPV subtyping. A retrospective study was performed in 1,572 respiratory samples over a period of three years. hMPV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtyping was performed by nucleotide sequencing. hMPV was present in 61 (3.9%) samples and subtypes A1, A2a, B1 and B2 were detected. The incidence of hMPV was higher in outpatients (5.9%), whose mean age was 19.7 years (range 6 months-75 years old), than in inpatients (3%), whose mean age was 7.6 months (range 1 month-26 years old). The outpatients had upper respiratory tract infections with flu-like symptoms and all hospitalized children had lower respiratory tract infections. A pediatric patient died from complications associated with hMPV A2a infection. hMPV has been reported as a respiratory pathogen in all age groups. No correlation was observed between viral subtype and disease severity in the samples of this study. PMID:21225198

  7. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  8. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI--a case study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L; Rossi, Francine A; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions. PMID:21604151

  9. Transverse wobbling in ^{135}pr.

    PubMed

    Matta, J T; Garg, U; Li, W; Frauendorf, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Patel, D; Schlax, K W; Palit, R; Saha, S; Sethi, J; Trivedi, T; Ghugre, S S; Raut, R; Sinha, A K; Janssens, R V F; Zhu, S; Carpenter, M P; Lauritsen, T; Seweryniak, D; Chiara, C J; Kondev, F G; Hartley, D J; Petrache, C M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Lakshmi, D Vijaya; Raju, M Kumar; Madhusudhana Rao, P V; Tandel, S K; Ray, S; Dönau, F

    2015-02-27

    A pair of transverse wobbling bands is observed in the nucleus ^{135}Pr. The wobbling is characterized by ΔI=1, E2 transitions between the bands, and a decrease in the wobbling energy confirms its transverse nature. Additionally, a transition from transverse wobbling to a three-quasiparticle band comprised of strong magnetic dipole transitions is observed. These observations conform well to results from calculations with the tilted axis cranking model and the quasiparticle rotor model. PMID:25768759

  10. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  11. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  12. Spiders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the principal venomous spiders in Brazil, of the genera Phoneutria, Loxosceles, Latrodectus and Scaptocosa, are given, together with a list of species and their geographical distribution. Detailed information on their habitat, behaviour and venom quantity, symptomatology of human accidents and epidemiology is given and recommendations are made for the prevention of accidents. General observations are made on the most common mygalomorph spiders. PMID:3059583

  13. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  14. Level of asthma control and its impact on activities of daily living in asthma patients in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Jardim, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma on activities of daily living and on health status in patients with controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled asthma in Brazil. METHODS: We used data related to 400 patients in four Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Curitiba), obtained in a survey conducted throughout Latin America in 2011. All study subjects were > 12 years of age and completed a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. The questions addressed asthma control, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. The level of asthma control was determined in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. RESULTS: Among the 400 respondents, asthma was controlled in 37 (9.3%), partially controlled in 226 (56.5%), and uncontrolled in 137 (34.2%). The numbers of patients with uncontrolled or partially controlled asthma who visited the emergency room, who were hospitalized, and who missed school/work were higher than were those of patients with controlled asthma (p = 0.001, p = 0.05, and p = 0.01, respectively). Among those with uncontrolled asthma, the impact of the disease on activities of daily living, sleep, social activities, and normal physical exertion was greater than it was among those with controlled or partially controlled asthma (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, asthma treatment should be monitored more closely in order to increase treatment adherence and, consequently, the level of asthma control, which can improve patient quality of life and minimize the negative impact of the disease. PMID:24310625

  15. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  16. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  17. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  18. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  19. The PR status of the originating cell of ER/PR-negative mouse mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Dong, J; Zhao, W; Shi, A; Toneff, M; Lydon, J; So, D; Li, Y

    2016-08-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) is usually co-localized with estrogen receptor (ER) in normal mammary cells. It is not known whether ER/PR-negative human breast cancer arises from an ER/PR-negative cell or from an ER/PR-positive cell that later lost ER/PR. Using intraductal injection of a lentivirus to deliver both an oncogene (ErbB2) and a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in PR(Cre/+)mice, whose Cre gene is under the control of the PR promoter, we were able to trace the PR status of the infected cells as they progressed to cancer. We found that the resulting early lesions stained negative for PR in most of the cells and usually retained GFP. The resulting tumors lacked ER and PR, and 75% (15/20) of them retained the GFP signal in all tumor cells, suggesting PR was never expressed throughout the evolution of a majority of these tumors. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ErbB2-initiated ER/PR-negative mammary tumors primarily originate from the subset of the mammary epithelium that is negative for PR and probably ER as well. These findings also provide an explanation for why antihormonal therapy fails to prevent ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:26640140

  20. ESO PR Highlights in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    great research possibilities at these sites. And this year will also see further development of Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, a most powerful research tool of the future. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases , most with Press Photos and several also with PR Video Clips , cf. the 2001 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image on the present page.

  1. ESO PR Highlights in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Among the many astronomical highlights of 2003, the Transit of Mercury certainly attracted great attention as shown by the record number of hits the ESO web page received on that day. But this was a mere rehearsal of an even bigger event we will enjoy in 2004: the Venus Transit. ESO, in partnership with several institutions, is organising a major educational event in connection with it. During 2003, the ESO Educational Office was also involved in various other programmes. They included the web-based "Catch a Star!" and the "Physics and Life" projects, organised with EC sponsorship in connection with the 2003 European Science and Technology Week. The ALMA project, an European-North American collaboration to build an array of 64 12-m submillimetre antennas, moved forward with the signature of the agreement between ESO and the NSF and with the Ground-breaking at Chajnantor. Conceptual studies of a 100-m optical/infrared telescope (OWL) also proceeded well. Several new instruments were installed at ESO telescopes, e.g. HARPS . And the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) received a powerful Adaptive Optics System and made the first detection through infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object. A rapidly increasing number of new scientific results were obtained on the basis of data from ESO telescopes, some of which were highlighted in ESO Press Releases. A number of beautiful images were published. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases, most with Press Photos, cf. the 2003 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image above.

  2. Male Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Association With Condom Use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Repp, Kimberly K.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Fu, Rongwei; Schafer, Sean; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Reported associations of condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been inconsistent. We investigated self-reported frequency of condom use and detection of genital HPV among men. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in men aged 18–70 years from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Men completed questionnaires on sexual history, condom use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among 2621 men reporting recent vaginal sex, prevalence of any HPV, any oncogenic type, and nononcogenic types only was estimated by frequency of condom use (“always” or “not always”). Multivariable models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for HPV according to frequency of condom use. Results. The prevalence of any HPV was 70.5%; any oncogenic type, 34%, and nononcogenic types only, 22.2%. The adjusted PR for always vs not always using condoms was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77–.97) for all countries combined. The association was stronger in the United States (PR, 0.70; CI, .55–.90) than in Brazil (PR, 0.84; CI, .71–1.01) or Mexico (PR, 1.05; CI, .89–1.25) (P for interaction = .025). Conclusions. HPV prevalence was high even among those who reported always using condoms, and its associations with always using condoms varied among countries. PMID:22396601

  3. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  4. Space activities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  5. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  6. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  7. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  8. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  9. Superconducting behaviours in reduction-treated mixtures of fine Pr124 and Pr123 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, K.; Nakashima, R.; Magishi, K.; Saito, T.; Shima, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    2011-09-01

    Superconducting behaviours in reduction-treated mixtures of fine Pr124 and Pr123 ceramics synthesized using citrate pyrolysis precursor method are examined by electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements. With increasing the ratio of Pr123, the temperature dependence of ρ(T) changes to be semiconductor-like behaviour hugely, and there exist no broad maximum for as-sintered Pr124/Pr123 (1:1.5) and (1:2) samples contrary with the case of (1:1). By reduction treatment, the ρ(T) curve shows the maximum according to the increase of carrier concentration in the CuO double chain in Pr 124 grains. By subtracting the Pr3+ paramagnetic contribution from the temperature dependence of magnetization, the remnant magnetization shows weak diamagnetism below ~17 K, indicating small Meissner effect. The diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of magnetic field in the measured field range below 20 Oe.

  10. Geographic differences in the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the distribution of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer based on immunohistochemical profile in the five major geographic regions of Brazil, a country of continental dimension, with a wide racial variation of people. Methods The study was retrospective observational. We classified 5,687 invasive breast cancers by molecular subtype based on immunohistochemical expression of estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 proliferation index. Cases were classified as luminal A (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 negative, Ki-67 < 14%), luminal B (ER and/or PR positive, HER2 negative, and Ki-67 > 14%), triple-positive (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 positive), HER2-enriched (ER and PR negative, and HER2- positive), and triple-negative (TN) (ER negative, PR negative, and HER2- negative). Comparisons of the ages of patients and molecular subtypes between different geographic regions were performed. Results South and Southeast regions with a higher percentage of European ancestry and higher socioeconomic status presented with the highest proportion of luminal tumors. The North region presented with more aggressive subtypes (HER2-enriched and triple-negative), while the Central-West region predominated triple-positive carcinomas. The Northeast—a region with a high African influence—presented intermediate frequency of the different molecular subtypes. The differences persisted in subgroups of patients under and over 50 years. Conclusions The geographic regions differ according to the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer. However, other differences, beside those related to African ancestry, such as socioeconomic, climatic, nutritional, and geographic, have to be considered to explain our results. The knowledge of the differences in breast cancer characteristics among the geographic regions may help to organize healthcare programs in large countries

  11. Chiral Properties in ^134Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Chiara, C. J.; Fossan, D. B.; Koike, T.; Beausang, C. W.; Hecht, A. A.; Boston, A. J.; Chantler, H. J.; Paul, E. S.; Scraggs, H. C.; Simons, A.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R. M.

    2001-04-01

    The πh_11/2νh_11/2 doublet bands in ^134Pr, which represent the best evidence to date for chiral symmetry breaking in odd-odd nuclei [1], were investigated with the GAMMASPHERE array using the ^116Cd(^23Na,5n) reaction at 115 MeV. From thin-target data, the nearly degenerate ΔI=1 side band was extended from a 9^+ bandhead up to a spin of 24^+ with E2 crossovers, a total of 15 units of spin, while the main yrast band was observed from an 8^+ bandhead to 24^+. Measured γ-ray intensities suggest a staggering of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios in the main band with the ratio smaller for even-spin initial states; these compare well with those of other N=75 isotones. Relative transition rates for γ-rays linking the doublet bands have also been extracted. Analysis of backed-target data aimed at absolute transition rates is underway. The results will be compared to calculations with particle-hole triaxial-rotor and 3-D TAC models. [1mm] [1] C.M.Petrache, et al., Nucl.Phys.A597(1996)106; V.I.Dimitrov, et al., PRL 84(2000)5732; K. Starosta, et al., PRL 86(2001).

  12. [Functions of prion protein PrPc].

    PubMed

    Cazaubon, Sylvie; Viegas, Pedro; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It is now well established that both normal and pathological (or scrapie) isoforms of prion protein, PrPc and PrPsc respectively, are involved in the development and progression of various forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human, collectively known as prion diseases. The protein PrPc is highly expressed in the central nervous system in neurons and glial cells, and also present in non-brain cells, such as immune cells or epithelial and endothelial cells. Identification of the physiological functions of PrPc in these different cell types thus appears crucial for understanding the progression of prion diseases. Recent studies highlighted several major roles for PrPc that may be considered in two major domains : (1) cell survival (protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis) and (2) cell adhesion. In association with cell adhesion, distinct functions of PrPc were observed, depending on cell types : neuronal differentiation, epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity, transendothelial migration of monocytes, T cell activation. These observations suggest that PrPc functions may be particularly relevant to cellular stress, as well as inflammatory or infectious situations. PMID:17875293

  13. Making red emitting phosphors with Pr 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinaud, Philippe; Pinel, Eric; Oubaha, Mohamed; Mahiou, Rachid; Cavalli, Enrico; Bettinelli, Marco

    2006-01-01

    UV-excited red-emitting phosphors are obtained using Pr 3+ as the luminescent activator and host lattices containing closed-shell transition metal ions (especially titanates, vanadates and niobates). In these oxidant lattices, the quenching of the otherwise greenish-blue emitting 3P 0 level is induced by a low-lying Pr-to-metal intervalence charge transfer state (IVCT). A simple criterion based on the optical electronegativities of the d 0 lattice cations (M n+) and average Pr 3+ - M n+ distances is proposed to predict 3P 0 quenching in these lattices.

  14. ESO PR Highlights in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    new interesting scientific results on the basis of data from ESO telescopes, including several results from the unmatched interferometer mode of the VLT, the VLTI, some of which were highlighted in ESO Press Releases. Certainly worth noting is the possible first ever bona-fide image of an exoplanet and the discovery of the lightest known exoplanet . At the beginning of the year, Paranal welcomed the first Auxiliary Telescope, while on the instrument side as well, 2004 was a good year: we saw the arrival of SINFONI on the VLT, of AMBER on the VLTI, and the installation at the NACO Adaptive Optics instrument of the " Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI)" to detect exoplanets. And the first prototype of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory was able to provide unprecedented results on the existence of Type-2 quasars by discovering an entire population of obscured, powerful supermassive black holes. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases, most with Press Photos, cf. the 2004 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image above.

  15. Trance surgery in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Don, N S; Moura, G

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results of fieldwork in Brazil on healer-mediums who perform crude forms of surgery, often employing sharp instruments. We found that these healer-mediums were in a hyperaroused brain state while they were engaged in behaviors commonly described in the anthropology literature as "possession trance"; therefore, this practice is termed "trance surgery" in this report. The research was conducted at widely scattered sites throughout Brazil. We observed several thousand patients being treated by 9 trance surgeons and videotaped several hundred of these cases. In addition to background information and our own observational material, this paper includes 2 medical case reports, physiological data gathered from healers and patients, and results of a pathologist's examination of a surgically excised tumor. Topographic brain mapping revealed increased brain activity (36-44 Hz) when healer-mediums were engaged in trance behaviors, compared to resting baseline conditions at midline scalp locations (Cz, P < .009 and Pz, P < .004; both matched t tests). These results suggest the presence of a hyperaroused brain state associated with the trance behaviors of the healers. We believe that such a state is required for this unusual practice, but other factors may also be involved. In contrast, a small sample of patients monitored during possession trance surgical procedures revealed no high-frequency brain activity; instead, there were indications of cortical quieting, suggesting relaxation, despite the absence of anesthesia. Pathohistological examination of a tumor excised from a patient in our presence revealed a human fibroadenoma. We conclude that these practices are usually benign and that pain is often absent, despite the lack of sterile procedures and anesthesia. Although during the period of our investigation we were informed anecdotally of 3 cases involving serious complications or death, we personally observed no cases of shock, hemorrhage, or death

  16. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  17. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  18. Noise labeling in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, Marco A. N.; Massarani, Paulo M.; de Azevedo, Jose A. J.; Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2002-11-01

    The Brazilian Silence Program, created in 1990 by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment, advocates the production and use of equipment with lower noise level. The subcommittee of Noise Labeling of the Brazilian Committee of Certification is composed of INMETRO acoustic specialists to organize and implement the Brazilian Labeling Program. This subcommittee elaborated the label form and test procedure. The noise-labeling program will first concentrate on the following household devices, both manufactured in Brazil or imported from abroad; mixers, blenders, hairdryers, refrigerators, and vacuum cleaners. The label should contain the sound-power level in dBA. INMETRO or other credited laboratories are responsible for the measurements. The ISO 4871, 3740 (1 to 5), ISO 8960, and IEC 704 (1 to 4) and also the equivalent Brazilian standards are used for the measurements, such as ABNT NBR 13910-1. The main objective of the label is to inform the consumer about the emitted noise level. The label offers the noise parameter to be used by the consumer when comparing devices, considering price, performance, and now also noise. No restriction for noise level was established.

  19. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:12288109

  20. Photoheterotrophic growth of Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.H.; Stevens, S.E. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 grows in the presence of light on agar containing 10 ..mu..M 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 1 to 30 mM glycerol. A derivative strain, PR-6G2, was tolerant of 100 mM glycerol. Photoheterotrophic growth conditions had little effect on transformation competence but did decrease the viability of single cells plated onto agar, particularly cells of the parent strain.

  1. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A F; Galvao, Tais F; Pereira, Mauricio G; Silva, Marcus T

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18-65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%-11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19-2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17-3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66-6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11-2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15-2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21-2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  2. [Use of medication by the elderly in urban and rural areas in southern Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Dal Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Pons, Emilia da Silva; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measure use of medication and polypharmacy among the elderly in Carlos Barbosa, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and to compare socio-demographic, economic, and health characteristics in relation to area of residence (urban versus rural) in a random sample of 811 persons 60 year of age or older. Interviews were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic illnesses, and self-reported use of medications. The association between area of residence and medication or polypharmacy was adjusted for confounders using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence rates for use of medication and polypharmacy were higher among older persons living in the urban area. Living in the urban area was positively and independently associated with use of medication (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02-1.20) and polypharmacy (PR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.27-2.65) in this group of elderly in southern Brazil. PMID:22267070

  3. Hydrological Forecasting Practices in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Paiva, Rodrigo; Collischonn, Walter; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work brings a review on current hydrological and flood forecasting practices in Brazil, including the main forecasts applications, the different kinds of techniques that are currently being employed and the institutions involved on forecasts generation. A brief overview of Brazil is provided, including aspects related to its geography, climate, hydrology and flood hazards. A general discussion about the Brazilian practices on hydrological short and medium range forecasting is presented. Detailed examples of some hydrological forecasting systems that are operational or in a research/pre-operational phase using the large scale hydrological model MGB-IPH are also presented. Finally, some suggestions are given about how the forecasting practices in Brazil can be understood nowadays, and what are the perspectives for the future.

  4. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  5. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  6. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  7. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  8. PrP Conformational Transitions Alter Species Preference of a PrP-specific Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wen-Quan; Langeveld, Jan; Xiao, Xiangzhu; Chen, Shugui; McGeer, Patrick L.; Yuan, Jue; Payne, Michael C.; Kang, Hae-Eun; McGeehan, John; Sy, Man-Sun; Greenspan, Neil S.; Kaplan, David; Wang, Gong-Xian; Parchi, Piero; Hoover, Edward; Kneale, Geoff; Telling, Glenn; Surewicz, Witold K.; Kong, Qingzhong; Guo, Jian-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The epitope of the 3F4 antibody most commonly used in human prion disease diagnosis is believed to consist of residues Met-Lys-His-Met (MKHM) corresponding to human PrP-(109–112). This assumption is based mainly on the observation that 3F4 reacts with human and hamster PrP but not with PrP from mouse, sheep, and cervids, in which Met at residue 112 is replaced by Val. Here we report that, by brain histoblotting, 3F4 did not react with PrP of uninfected transgenic mice expressing elk PrP; however, it did show distinct immunoreactivity in transgenic mice infected with chronic wasting disease. Compared with human PrP, the 3F4 reactivity with the recombinant elk PrP was 2 orders of magnitude weaker, as indicated by both Western blotting and surface plasmon resonance. To investigate the molecular basis of these species- and conformer-dependent preferences of 3F4, the epitope was probed by peptide membrane array and antigen competition experiments. Remarkably, the 3F4 antibody did not react with MKHM but reacted strongly with KTNMK (corresponding to human PrP-(106–110)), a sequence that is also present in cervids, sheep, and cattle. 3F4 also reacted with elk PrP peptides containing KTNMKHV. We concluded that the minimal sequence for the 3F4 epitope consists of residues KTNMK, and the species- and conformer-dependent preferences of 3F4 arise largely from the interactions between Met112 (human PrP) or Val115 (cervid PrP) and adjacent residues. PMID:20194495

  9. Paecilomyces niveus Stolk & Samson, 1971 (Ascomycota: Thermoascaceae) as a pathogen of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley, 1841) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadneak, M A C; Pimentel, I C; Robl, D; Dalzoto, P; Vicente, V; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Porsani, M; Cuquel, F L

    2015-11-01

    Nasonovia ribisnigri is a key pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Brazil that requires alternative control methods to synthetic pesticides. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Paecilomyces niveus as an entomopathogen of the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of mummified aphids were collected from lettuce crops. The fungus P. niveus (PaePR) was isolated from the insect bodies and identified by macro and micromorphology. The species was confirmed by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA. We obtained a sequence of 528 bp (accession number HQ441751), which aligned with Byssochlamys nivea strains (100% identities). In a bioassay, 120 h after inoculation of N. ribisnigri with pathogenic P. niveus had an average mortality of 74%. The presence of P. niveus as a natural pathogen of N. ribisnigri in Brazil suggests that it may be possible to employ P. niveus to minimize the use of chemical insecticides. PMID:26602345

  10. Nitration is exclusive to defense-related PR-1, PR-3 and PR-5 proteins in tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Misa; Shigeto, Jun; Izumi, Shunsuke; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is an important post-translational modification. A variety of nitrated proteins are reported in Arabidopsis leaves and seedlings, sunflower hypocotyls, and pea roots. The identities of nitrated proteins are species-/organ-specific, and chloroplast proteins are most nitratable in leaves. However, precise mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated nitroproteome in tobacco leaves following exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Proteins were extracted, electrophoresed and immunoblotted using an anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody. Mass spectrometry and FASTA search identified for the first time an exclusive nitration of pathogenesis-related proteins, PR-1, PR-3 and PR-5, which are reportedly located in the apoplast or the vacuole. Furthermore, Tyr(36) of thaumatin-like protein E2 was identfied as a nitration site. The underlying mechanism and physiological relevance are discussed. PMID:27301959

  11. Small molecules and antibodies: a means of distinguishing between PrPC and PrPSc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PrPSc and PrPC are isoforms, since they possess identical covalent structures and identical post-translational modifications. The same amino acid may react differently with the same chemical reagent in an isoform-dependent manner. The site of covalent modification can be identified by mass spectrom...

  12. Distinguishing between PrPC and PrPSc using small molecule reagents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. The structural difference between PrPSc and PrPC is entirely conformational: they are isoforms. Both isoforms possess identical covalent structures and identical post-translational modifications. This means that the same amino acid can react differently with the same chemic...

  13. Distinguishing between PrPC and PrPSc using small molecule reagents(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. The structural difference between PrPSc and PrPC is entirely conformational: they are isoforms. Both isoforms possess identical covalent structures and identical post-translational modifications. This means that the same amino acid can react differently with the same chemica...

  14. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  15. ESO PR Highlights in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Another great year went by for ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. From 1 January 2007, with the official joining of the Czech Republic, ESO has 13 member states, and since September, ESO has a new Director General, Tim de Zeeuw (ESO 03/07 and 38/07). Many scientific discoveries were made possible with ESO's telescopes. Arguably, the most important is the discovery of the first Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a low-mass red dwarf (ESO 22/07). If there is water on this planet, then it should be liquid! ESO PR Highlights 2007 This is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2007. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2007 page. In our own Solar System also, astronomers made stunning breakthroughs with ESO's telescopes, observing the effect of the light from the Sun on an asteroid's rotation (ESO 11/07), describing in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope (ESO 18/07), peering at the rings of Uranus (ESO 37/07), discovering a warm south pole on Neptune (ESO 41/07), showing a widespread and persistent morning drizzle of methane over the western foothills of Titan's major continent (ESO 47/07), and studying in the greatest details the wonderful Comet McNaught (ESO 05/07 and 07/07). In the study of objects slightly more massive than planets, the VLT found that brown dwarfs form in a similar manner to normal stars (ESO 24/07). The VLT made it also possible to measure the age of a fossil star that was clearly born at the dawn of time (ESO 23/07). Other discoveries included reconstructing the site of a flare on a solar-like star (ESO 53/07), catching a star smoking (ESO 34/07), revealing a reservoir of dust around an elderly star (ESO 43/07), uncovering a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula (ESO 42/07), finding material around a star before it exploded (ESO 31/07), fingerprinting the Milky Way (ESO 15/07), revealing a rich

  16. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  17. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  18. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  19. Brazil's best university seeks fame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, John

    1994-10-01

    The University of São Paulo believes it should be making a more prominent mark on the world outside Brazil, but the difficulties of doing so from within a still-developing country are greater and less tangible than may be thought.

  20. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Angel

    1995-01-01

    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  1. The population question in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  2. Prion protein (PrP) synthetic peptides induce cellular PrP to acquire properties of the scrapie isoform.

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, K; Peretz, D; Pan, K M; Blochberger, T C; Wille, H; Gabizon, R; Griffith, O H; Cohen, F E; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B

    1995-01-01

    Conversion of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC) into the scrapie isoform (PrPSc) involves an increase in the beta-sheet content, diminished solubility, and resistance to proteolytic digestion. Transgenetic studies argue that PrPC and PrPSc form a complex during PrPSc formation; thus, synthetic PrP peptides, which mimic the conformational pluralism of PrP, were mixed with PrPC to determine whether its properties were altered. Peptides encompassing two alpha-helical domains of PrP when mixed with PrPC produced a complex that displayed many properties of PrPSc. The PrPC-peptide complex formed fibrous aggregates and up to 65% of complexed PrPC sedimented at 100,000 x g for 1 h, whereas PrPC alone did not. These complexes were resistant to proteolytic digestion and displayed a high beta-sheet content. Unexpectedly, the peptide in a beta-sheet conformation did not form the complex, whereas the random coil did. Addition of 2% Sarkosyl disrupted the complex and rendered PrPC sensitive to protease digestion. While the pathogenic A117V mutation increased the efficacy of complex formation, anti-PrP monoclonal antibody prevented interaction between PrPC and peptides. Our findings in concert with transgenetic investigations argue that PrPC interacts with PrPSc through a domain that contains the first two putative alpha-helices. Whether PrPC-peptide complexes possess prion infectivity as determined by bioassays remains to be established. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479957

  3. Quadrupole scattering in PrAl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, M. J.; Pureur, P.; Creuzet, G.; Fert, A.; Levy, P. M.

    1983-10-01

    We derive the spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity of the ferromagnetic compound PrAl2 from magnetoresistance measurements on a single crystal of PrAl2. We ascribe this spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity to scattering of the conduction electrons by the thermal quadrupole disorder and we account for our experimental results by using the theoretical model previously developed by us. We find that quadrupole scattering gives a very important contribution to the total magnetic disorder (spin and quadrupole) resistivity but that only a small part of this quadrupole contribution is anisotropic.

  4. Crystallization ages of the A-type magmatism of the Graciosa Province (Southern Brazil): Constraints from zircon U-Pb (ID-TIMS) dating of coeval K-rich gabbro-dioritic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlach, Silvio R. F.; Siga, Oswaldo; Harara, Ossama M. M.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Vilalva, Frederico C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Zircon U-Pb (ID-TIMS) ages for gabbro-dioritic rocks and for a monzogranite from the Graciosa Province of A-type granites and syenites, southern Brazil, are presented. Two gabbro-dioritic samples gave concordant ages (580 ± 2, 583 ± 3 Ma), while less precise upper intercept ages were obtained for another one (584 ± 8 Ma) and the monzogranite (585 ± 12 Ma). The best results indicate crystallization ages of the basic-intermediate magmas around 580-583 Ma. Micro-structural evidences and structural relationships between the mafic-intermediate rocks and the much more abundant granites and syenites demonstrate that magmas mingled and partially mixed with one another during emplacement and crystallization. Therefore, the results are representative of the overall magmatism. The extensional A-type magmatism occurred ca. 10-30 Ma after (1) emplacement and crystallization of the high-K calc-alkaline syn- to late-collisional batholiths, (2) peak regional metamorphism, and (3) final amalgamation of the Luis Alves, Curitiba, and Paranaguá terrains. It is suggested that the whole magmatism occurred in a short time interval and there is no evidence of spatial or temporal migration of the magmatic foci. ID-TIMS zircon dating of coeval basic-intermediate rocks may yield better emplacement and crystallization ages than direct dating of granitic and syenitic rocks, which are more susceptible to inheritance and/or late- to post-magmatic disturbances.

  5. Occupational health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  6. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau. PMID:19488509

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Cd-Pr Phase Diagram

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Thomas L.; Effenberger, Herta S.; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The complete Cd-Pr equilibrium phase diagram was investigated with a combination of powder-XRD, SEM and DTA. All intermetallic compounds within this system, already reported in literature, could be confirmed: CdPr, Cd2Pr, Cd3Pr, Cd45Pr11, Cd58Pr13, Cd6Pr and Cd11Pr. The corresponding phase boundaries were determined at distinct temperatures. The homogeneity range of the high-temperature allotropic modification of Pr could be determined precisely and a limited solubility of 22.1 at.% Cd was derived. Additionally, single-crystal X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate structural details of Cd2Pr; it is isotypic to the AlB2-type structure with a z value of the Cd site of 0.5. DTA results of alloys located in the adjacent two-phase fields of Cd2Pr suggested a phase transformation between 893 and 930°C. For the phase Cd3Pr it was found that the lattice parameter a changes linearly with increasing Cd content, following Vegard’s rule. The corresponding defect mechanism could be evaluated from structural data collected with single-crystal XRD. Introduction of a significant amount of vacancies on the Pr site and the reduction in symmetry of one Cd position (8c to 32f) resulted in a noticeable decrease of all R-values. PMID:24718502

  8. Experimental investigation of the Cd-Pr phase diagram.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Thomas L; Effenberger, Herta S; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The complete Cd-Pr equilibrium phase diagram was investigated with a combination of powder-XRD, SEM and DTA. All intermetallic compounds within this system, already reported in literature, could be confirmed: CdPr, Cd2Pr, Cd3Pr, Cd45Pr11, Cd58Pr13, Cd6Pr and Cd11Pr. The corresponding phase boundaries were determined at distinct temperatures. The homogeneity range of the high-temperature allotropic modification of Pr could be determined precisely and a limited solubility of 22.1 at.% Cd was derived. Additionally, single-crystal X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate structural details of Cd2Pr; it is isotypic to the AlB2-type structure with a z value of the Cd site of 0.5. DTA results of alloys located in the adjacent two-phase fields of Cd2Pr suggested a phase transformation between 893 and 930°C. For the phase Cd3Pr it was found that the lattice parameter a changes linearly with increasing Cd content, following Vegard's rule. The corresponding defect mechanism could be evaluated from structural data collected with single-crystal XRD. Introduction of a significant amount of vacancies on the Pr site and the reduction in symmetry of one Cd position (8c to 32f) resulted in a noticeable decrease of all R-values. PMID:24718502

  9. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  10. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  11. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  12. Brazil-Africa geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  13. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aquinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-01-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the UpperParaguayRiver (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR floodpulsedynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  14. [Inadequacy of the content of prenatal care and associated factors in a cohort in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Goudard, Marivanda Julia Furtado; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Souza; Alves, Maria Tereza Seabra Soares de Brito E; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Martins, Marília da Glória; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Nathasje, Ian Favero

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the content of prenatal care in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, and the factors associated with its inadequacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the birth cohort of São Luís in 2010. The content of prenatal care was defined as inadequate when it did not meet the criteria of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal and Delivery Care, which establishes early initiation of prenatal care, minimum number of medical consultations, basic laboratory tests, tetanus vaccination and obstetric procedures. Poisson regression was used to observe associations of the variables with the outcome. The inadequacy rate was high (60.2%). The variables associated with inadequacy were: class C socioeconomic status (PR = 1.39; CI = 1.26-1.55); class D/E socioeconomic status (PR = 1.60; CI = 1.43-1.79); unqualified/unemployed mother (PR = 1.24; CI = 1.11-1.37); 5-8 years of schooling (PR = 1.12; CI = 1.06-1.19); 0-4 years of schooling (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.01-1.26); not being religious (PR = 1.10; CI = 1.04-1.17); alcohol use during pregnancy (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.06-1.20), and being attended by the public service (PR = 1.75; CI = 1.54-2.00). The results showed inadequacy and inequality of prenatal care, revealing that women of lower socioeconomic status received lower quality care. PMID:27076021

  15. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Tezuka, Keitaro; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tetravalent praseodymium ions doped in the cubic perovskite compound BaHfO{sub 3} have been measured at 4.2 K. A very large hyperfine interaction with the {sup 141}Pr nucleus was observed in the spectrum of Pr{sup 4+}/ BaHfO{sub 3}. The results were analyzed based on the weak field approximation, and the g value (|g|=0.619) and a hyperfine coupling constant (A=0.0589 cm{sup {minus}1}) were obtained. The measured g value is much smaller than |-10/7|, which indicates that the crystal field effect on the behavior of a 4f electron is large. These g and A values were compared with the EPR results for other f{sup 1} ions in an octahedral crystal field.

  16. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.

  17. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  18. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  19. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  20. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  1. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  2. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  3. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  4. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  5. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  6. The ethanol program in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldemberg, José

    2006-10-01

    The number of automobiles in the world has been growing fast and today requires one quarter of the global petroleum consumption. This problem requires adequate solutions, one of which Brazil has achieved with the Sugarcane Ethanol Program. This paper presents the history of this program, from its launch in the 1970s to the today's condition of full competitiveness in a free market. It also shows how it can be replicated to other countries, in order to replace 10 per cent of the world's gasoline consumption.

  7. Observation of Pr magnetic order in PrBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skanthakumar, S.; Lynn, J. W.; Rosov, N.; Cao, G.; Crow, J. E.

    1997-02-01

    Neutron-diffraction experiments have been carried out to investigate the magnetic order in PrBa2Cu3O7. Our neutron data indicate that the Cu spins order above 300 K. This ordering is not significantly affected at low temperatures, where new magnetic Bragg peaks develop below 17 K that must be associated with the antiferromagnetic ordering of Pr spins, with an ordered moment of 0.79(5)μB. This rules out the possibility recently proposed by Nehrke and Pieper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1936 (1996)] that the new magnetic Bragg peaks arise from a spin reorientation of the Cu spins and that the Pr carries essentially no moment.

  8. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F

    1985-01-01

    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  9. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  10. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A. F.; Galvao, Tais F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.; Silva, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18–65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%–11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17–3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66–6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21–2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  11. Risk of Dengue for Tourists and Teams during the World Cup 2014 in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuis, Willem G.; Hyun, Sangwon; Blaney, Kayleigh; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Siqueira, João Bosco; Tibshirani, Ryan; da Silva, Jarbas B.; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This year, Brazil will host about 600,000 foreign visitors during the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The concern of possible dengue transmission during this event has been raised given the high transmission rates reported in the past by this country. Methodology/Principal Findings We used dengue incidence rates reported by each host city during previous years (2001–2013) to estimate the risk of dengue during the World Cup for tourists and teams. Two statistical models were used: a percentile rank (PR) and an Empirical Bayes (EB) model. Expected IR's during the games were generally low (<10/100,000) but predictions varied across locations and between models. Based on current ticket allocations, the mean number of expected symptomatic dengue cases ranged from 26 (PR, 10th–100th percentile: 5–334 cases) to 59 (EB, 95% credible interval: 30–77 cases) among foreign tourists but none are expected among teams. These numbers will highly depend on actual travel schedules and dengue immunity among visitors. Sensitivity analysis for both models indicated that the expected number of cases could be as low as 4 or 5 with 100,000 visitors and as high as 38 or 70 with 800,000 visitors (PR and EB, respectively). Conclusion/Significance The risk of dengue among tourists during the World Cup is expected to be small due to immunity among the Brazil host population provided by last year's epidemic with the same DENV serotypes. Quantitative risk estimates by different groups and methodologies should be made routinely for mass gathering events. PMID:25079960

  12. Proposed hydrologic analyses of streamflow for Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Henry Chiles

    1974-01-01

    Streamflow records are evaluated for the Rio Jacui basin in the state of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, in reference to data reliability, length of record, and density of areal coverage. Availability of water is a factor in the development of a country, and surface water is of especial importance in Brazil. This report is intended as a reference for further investigation of the flow characteristic of the basin to provide (1) information for utilization of streamflow and (2) information to improve the data collection and analytic procedures. In addition the evaluation study can serve as a pilot for other developing river basins in Brazil. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Pr16Mo21O56

    PubMed Central

    Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The structure of hexa­deca­praseodymium henicosa­molybden­um hexa­penta­contaoxide, Pr16Mo21O56, is isotypic with other rare earth representatives of formula type RE 16Mo21O56 (RE = La, Ce, Nd). It is characterized by Mo10O18 iO8 a units (where i = inner and a = apical O atoms) containing biocta­hedral Mo10 clusters and octa­hedral MoO6 units that share some of their O atoms to form the Mo–O framework. The two independent Mo10 cluster units are centred at Wyckoff positions 2b and 2c and have point-group symmetry . The Mo atom of the MoO6 unit is likewise situated at an inversion centre (2d). The eight crystallographically different Pr3+ cations occupy irregular voids in the framework with coordination numbers to the O atoms varying between 8 and 11. PMID:21754260

  14. Charge Neutralization of the Central Lysine Cluster in Prion Protein (PrP) Promotes PrPSc-like Folding of Recombinant PrP Amyloids*

    PubMed Central

    Groveman, Bradley R.; Kraus, Allison; Raymond, Lynne D.; Dolan, Michael A.; Anson, Kelsie J.; Dorward, David W.; Caughey, Byron

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the infectious form of prion protein, PrPSc, remains unclear. Most pure recombinant prion protein (PrP) amyloids generated in vitro are not infectious and lack the extent of the protease-resistant core and solvent exclusion of infectious PrPSc, especially within residues ∼90–160. Polyanionic cofactors can enhance infectivity and PrPSc-like characteristics of such fibrils, but the mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. In considering structural models of PrPSc multimers, we identified an obstacle to tight packing that might be overcome with polyanionic cofactors, namely, electrostatic repulsion between four closely spaced cationic lysines within a central lysine cluster of residues 101–110. For example, in our parallel in-register intermolecular β-sheet model of PrPSc, not only would these lysines be clustered within the 101–110 region of the primary sequence, but they would have intermolecular spacings of only ∼4.8 Å between stacked β-strands. We have now performed molecular dynamics simulations predicting that neutralization of the charges on these lysine residues would allow more stable parallel in-register packing in this region. We also show empirically that substitution of these clustered lysine residues with alanines or asparagines results in recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils with extended proteinase-K resistant β-sheet cores and infrared spectra that are more reminiscent of bona fide PrPSc. These findings indicate that charge neutralization at the central lysine cluster is critical for the folding and tight packing of N-proximal residues within PrP amyloid fibrils. This charge neutralization may be a key aspect of the mechanism by which anionic cofactors promote PrPSc formation. PMID:25416779

  15. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  16. Salvinorin A analogues PR-37 and PR-38 attenuate compound 48/80-induced itch responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Salaga, M; Polepally, P R; Zielinska, M; Marynowski, M; Fabisiak, A; Murawska, N; Sobczak, K; Sacharczuk, M; Do Rego, J C; Roth, B L; Zjawiony, J K; Fichna, J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The opioid system plays a crucial role in several physiological processes in the CNS and in the periphery. It has also been shown that selective opioid receptor agonists exert potent inhibitory action on pruritus and pain. In this study we examined whether two analogues of Salvinorin A, PR-37 and PR-38, exhibit antipruritic properties in mice. Experimental Approach To examine the antiscratch effect of PR-37 and PR-38 we used a mouse model of compound 48/80-induced pruritus. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of tested compounds, specific antagonists of opioid and cannabinoid receptors were used. The effect of PR-37 on the CNS was assessed by measuring motor parameters and exploratory behaviours in mice. Key Results PR-37 and PR-38, jnjected s.c., significantly reduced the number of compound 48/80-induced scratching behaviours in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PR-38 was also active when orally administered. The antiscratch activity of PR-37 was blocked by the selective κ opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine, and that of PR-38 by the selective μ opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, a novel framework for the development of new antipruritic drugs derived from salvinorin A has been validated. PMID:26040667

  17. Prion protein (PrP) gene-knockout cell lines: insight into functions of the PrP

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of prion protein (PrP) functions is crucial to fully understand prion diseases. A major approach to studying PrP functions is the use of PrP gene-knockout (Prnp−/−) mice. So far, six types of Prnp−/− mice have been generated, demonstrating the promiscuous functions of PrP. Recently, other PrP family members, such as Doppel and Shadoo, have been found. However, information obtained from comparative studies of structural and functional analyses of these PrP family proteins do not fully reveal PrP functions. Recently, varieties of Prnp−/− cell lines established from Prnp−/− mice have contributed to the analysis of PrP functions. In this mini-review, we focus on Prnp−/− cell lines and summarize currently available Prnp−/− cell lines and their characterizations. In addition, we introduce the recent advances in the methodology of cell line generation with knockout or knockdown of the PrP gene. We also discuss how these cell lines have provided valuable insights into PrP functions and show future perspectives. PMID:25642423

  18. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate

  19. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection. PMID:21248032

  20. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  1. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  2. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  3. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  4. Brazil comes in from the cold

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Brazil is well on its way to rolling back its nuclear program from the brink of developing nuclear explosives. The reason for this dramatic reversal can be traced to international diplomatic pressure on Brazil to accept full-scope safeguards and implement the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and to the growth of democracy in Brazil, which has provided an opportunity for groups such as the Brazilian Physics Society to work politically to end their country's effort to build nuclear weapons. The recent developments in Brazil underscore the importance of responsible civilian control of the nuclear program, and the role of domestic and international inspections of nuclear facilities to verify that weapons-related activities are not taking place. More importantly, these developments show that knowledgeable and dedicated people and groups opposed to nuclear weapons production can make a significant contribution to stopping their country from going nuclear.

  5. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Riva P.; Mafra, Claudio L.; Chamone, Chequer B.; Calic, Simone B.; Silva, Sergio U.; Walker, David H.

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, suspected cases of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) occurred in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pooled fleas collected near two fatal cases contained rickettsial DNA. The nucleotide sequence alignment of the 391-bp segment of the 17-kDa protein gene showed that the products were identical to each other and to the R. felis 17-kDa gene, confirming circulation of R. felis in Brazil. PMID:11927031

  6. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  7. Transfer of Excitation Energy from Pr3+ to Gd3+ in YF3:Pr3+,Gd3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hisashi; Sakuragi, Shiro; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Ohno, Nobuhito

    2007-02-01

    Luminescence and excitation spectra for YF3:Gd3+, YF3:Pr3+, and YF3:Pr3+,Gd3+ have been studied in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region at room temperature. In YF3:Gd3+, Gd3+ ions absorb VUV light ranging from 150 to 200 nm due to 4 f-4 f transitions, yielding an ultraviolet (UV) luminescence line at 311 nm originating from the 4 f-4 f transition (6P7/2→8S7/2 state). In YF3:Pr3+,Gd3+, Pr3+ ions absorb the VUV light (150-200 nm) due to 4 f-5d transitions, and the absorption gives rise to the UV luminescence of Gd3+ ions that is much stronger than that of YF3:Gd3+. In this paper, we discuss the energy transfer process from Pr3+ to Gd3+ ions in YF3:Pr3+,Gd3+ excited by VUV light.

  8. [Factors associated with geographic access to health services by TB patients in three State capitals in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Márcia São Pedro Leal; Aquino, Rosana; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Natividade, Marcio; Ximenes, Ricardo; Souza, Wayner; Dantas, Odimariles Maria; Braga, José Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with geographic access to health services by tuberculosis patients in three State capitals in Northeast Brazil. The sample consisted of new tuberculosis cases reported in 2007. The study used data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases and the National Registry of Healthcare Organizations. Addresses of households and health services were geocoded, and difficult access was defined as a distance greater than 800 meters from the household to the health service. Crude prevalence ratios were estimated, as well as adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression. After adjusting the study variables, the only variable that remained associated with difficult access was primary healthcare units in Salvador, Bahia State (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.720-0.794) and in Recife, Pernambuco State (PR = 0.402; 95%CI: 0.318-0.508). The study concluded that decentralization of primary care can help improve access to health services. PMID:25715296

  9. Thermochronological evidence for polyphase post-rift reactivation in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogné, N.; Gallagher, K.; Cobbold, P. R.; Riccomini, C.

    2012-04-01

    area cooled and uplifted during the Neogene. The synchronicity of the cooling phases with tectonic pulses in the Andes and in NE Brazil, as well as the tectonic setting of the Tertiary basins (Cogné et al., submitted) lead us to attribute these phases to a plate-wide compressive stress, which reactivated inherited structures during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. The relief of the margin is therefore due, more to polyphase post-rift reactivation and uplift, than to rifting itself. - Cobbold, P.R., Meisling, K.E., Mount, V.S., 2001. Reactivation of an obliquely rifted margin, Campos and Santos Basins, Southeastern Brazil. AAPG Bulletin 85, 1925-1944. - Cogné, N., Gallagher, K., Cobbold, P.R., 2011. Post-rift reactivation of the onshore margin of southeast Brazil: Evidence from apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 309, 118-130. - Cogné, N., Cobbold, P.R., Riccomini, C., Gallagher, K. Tectonic setting of the Taubaté basin (southeastern Brazil): insights from regional seismic profiles and outcrop data. Submitted to Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

  10. Self-reported Recent PrEP Dosing and Drug Detection in an Open Label PrEP Study.

    PubMed

    Amico, K Rivet; Mehrotra, Megha; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; McMahan, Vanessa; Veloso, Valdilea G; Anderson, Peter; Guanira, Juan; Grant, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is part of the recommended package for PrEP prescribing, yet ongoing concerns about how to do so confidently are exacerbated by gross discrepancies in reported and actual use in clinical trials. We evaluated concordance between reports of recent PrEP dosing collected via neutral interviewing and drug quantitation in the iPrEx open-label extension, where participants (n = 1172) had the choice to receive or not receive PrEP. Self-report of recent dosing (at least one PrEP dose in the past 3-day) was the most common report (84 % of participants), and among these 83 % did have quantifiable levels of drug. The vast majority of those reporting no doses in the past 3-day (16 % of the sample) did not have quantifiable levels of drug (82 %). Predictors of over-report of dosing included younger age and lower educational attainment. Monitoring recent PrEP use through neutral interviewing may be a productive approach for clinicians to consider in implementation of real-world PrEP. Strategies to capture longer term or prevention-effective PrEP use, particularly for younger cohorts, are needed. PMID:26992393

  11. PR65A Phosphorylation Regulates PP2A Complex Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kotlo, Kumar; Xing, Yongna; Lather, Sonia; Grillon, Jean Michel; Johnson, Keven; Skidgel, Randal A.; Solaro, R. John; Danziger, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Serine-threonine Protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A), a member of the PPP family of phosphatases, regulates a variety of essential cellular processes, including cell-cycling, DNA replication, transcription, translation, and secondary signaling pathways. In the heart, increased PP2A activity/signaling has been linked to cardiac remodeling, contractile dysfunction and, in failure, arrythmogenicity. The core PP2A complex is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme consisting of a 36 kDa catalytic subunit (PP2Ac); a regulatory scaffold subunit of 65 kDa (PR65A or PP2Aa); and one of at least 18 associated variable regulatory proteins (B subunits) classified into 3 families. In the present study, three in vivo sites of phosphorylation in cardiac PR65A are identified (S303, T268, S314). Using HEK cells transfected with recombinant forms of PR65A with phosphomimetic (P-PR65A) and non-phosphorylated (N-PR65A) amino acid substitutions at these sites, these phosphorylations were shown to inhibit the interaction of PR65A with PP2Ac and PP2A holoenzyme signaling. Forty-seven phospho-proteins were increased in abundance in HEK cells transfected with P-PR65A versus N-PR65A by phospho-protein profiling using 2D-DIGE analysis on phospho-enriched whole cell protein extracts. Among these proteins were elongation factor 1α (EF1A), elongation factor 2, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), NADPH-dehydrogenase 1 alpha sub complex, annexin A, and PR65A. Compared to controls, failing hearts from the Dahl rat had less phosphorylated PR65A protein abundance and increased PP2A activity. Thus, PR65A phosphorylation is an in vivo mechanism for regulation of the PP2A signaling complex and increased PP2A activity in heart failure. PMID:24465463

  12. Deformed rotational bands in the doubly odd nuclei [sup 134]Pr and [sup 132]Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R.M.; Hibbert, I.M. ); Beausang, C.W.; Forbes, S.A.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Wilson, J.N. ); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D. ); Simpson, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The nuclei [sup 132,134]Pr have been investigated using the [sup 100]Mo([sup 37]Cl,[ital xn]) reactions at a beam energy of 155 MeV. Gamma rays were detected with the Eurogam array. Analysis of the data has revealed the presence of two new weakly populated decoupled bands in [sup 134]Pr. One of these bands has been linked into the normal-deformed states and is thought to be built on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 2][direct product][nu]([ital f][sub 7/2],[ital h][sub 9/2]) configuration. The second band has been interpreted as being based on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 3][direct product][nu][ital i][sub 13/2] intruder configuration within the second [beta][sub 2][congruent]0.3 prolate minimum. The known decoupled band in [sup 132]Pr (5[ital n] reaction channel) and the highly deformed band in [sup 130]La A([alpha]3[ital n]) have also been extended. The structure of all of these bands is discussed together with similar bands in nieghboring odd-odd nuclei.

  13. TP53 p.R337H is a conditional cancer-predisposing mutation: further evidence from a homozygous patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most common childhood cancers occurring in infants affected with the Li-Fraumeni and Li- Fraumeni-like (LFS/LFL) syndromes, which are caused by dominant germline mutations in the TP53 gene. In Brazil, a particular mutation, occurring in the tetramerisation domain of the gene, p.R337H, is exceedingly common due to a founder effect and is strongly associated with ACC. In this report, we describe the phenotype and long-term clinical follow-up of a female child diagnosed with ACC and homozygous for the TP53 p.R337H founder mutation. Case presentation At age 11 months, the patient was diagnosed with a virilising anaplastic adrenal cortical tumour, which was completely excised without disturbing the adrenal capsule. Family history was consistent with an LFL tumour pattern, and genotyping identified the TP53 p.R337H mutation in both alleles in genomic DNA from lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Haplotype analysis confirmed the occurrence of the mutation in the same founder haplotype previously described in other Brazilian patients. No other germline or somatic TP53 mutations or rearrangements were identified. At age 9 years, the child was asymptomatic and had no evidence of endocrine derangements. Full body and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to detect any suspicious proliferative lesions, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing results were within the normal reference for the child’s age, ruling out a major exercise capacity deficiency. Conclusion This is the first clinical and aerobic functional capacity documentation of a patient who carries two mutant TP53 alleles and no wild-type allele. Our results support the hypothesis that TP53 p.R337H, the most common TP53 mutation ever described in any population, is a conditional mutant. Furthermore, our observations over a long period of clinical follow-up suggest that TP53 p.R337H homozygotes do not have a more severe disease phenotype than do heterozygote

  14. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... negative and have taken PrEP for up to 5 years, no significant health effects have been seen. Learn more about how to protect yourself and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool (BETA). Can you start PrEP after you have ...

  15. Case Studies in e-RPL and e-PR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn; Miller, Allison

    2014-01-01

    The use of ePortfolios for recognition of prior learning (e-RPL) and for professional recognition (e-PR) is slowly gaining in popularity in the VET sector however their use is sporadic across educational sectors, disciplines, educational institutions and professions. Added to this is an array of purposes and types of e-RPL and e-PR models and…

  16. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Floats for marking anchors in place will be allowed; stakes or mooring piles are prohibited. 33 CFR Ch. I... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  17. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Floats for marking anchors in place will be allowed; stakes or mooring piles are prohibited. 33 CFR Ch. I... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  18. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Activities of PR-39 Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Schneider, Viktoria A. F.; Agustiandari, Herfita; van Dijk, Albert; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L. M.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2014-01-01

    The porcine cathelicidin PR-39 is a host defence peptide that plays a pivotal role in the innate immune defence of the pig against infections. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, it is involved in immunomodulation, wound healing and several other biological processes. In this study, the antimicrobial- and immunomodulatory activity of PR-39, and N- and C-terminal derivatives of PR-39 were tested. PR-39 exhibited an unexpected broad antimicrobial spectrum including several Gram positive strains such as Bacillus globigii and Enterococcus faecalis. Of organisms tested, only Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to PR-39. Truncation of PR-39 down to 15 (N-terminal) amino acids did not lead to major loss of activity, while peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of PR-39 were hampered in their antimicrobial activity. However, shorter peptides were all much more sensitive to inhibition by salt. Active peptides induced ATP leakage and loss of membrane potential in Bacillus globigii and Escherichia coli, indicating a lytic mechanism of action for these peptides. Finally, only the mature peptide was able to induce IL-8 production in porcine macrophages, but some shorter peptides also had an effect on TNF-α production showing differential regulation of cytokine induction by PR-39 derived peptides. None of the active peptides showed high cytotoxicity highlighting the potential of these peptides for use as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:24755622

  19. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  20. HIV PrEP Trials: The Road to Success

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Melanie R; Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela DM

    2013-01-01

    Summary The global HIV epidemic cannot be controlled by current treatment or prevention strategies. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretrovirals is a promising approach to curbing the spread of HIV transmission. Recently, four clinical trials demonstrated favorable results when antiretroviral PrEP was administered topically or orally. However, two additional trials were unable to demonstrate a benefit, indicating that further study is required to define the populations and conditions under which PrEP will be effective. Adherence is highly correlated with protection, yet the exact level of adherence required is unknown. Future studies may require increased drug exposure testing and more objective methods to monitor adherence in real-time. Although the development of drug resistance in the PrEP trials has been low, it remains a concern, as therapeutic options could be compromised for those who seroconvert while on PrEP. PMID:24409341

  1. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty. PMID:25088506

  2. Tetracycline affects abnormal properties of synthetic PrP peptides and PrP(Sc) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tagliavini, F; Forloni, G; Colombo, L; Rossi, G; Girola, L; Canciani, B; Angeretti, N; Giampaolo, L; Peressini, E; Awan, T; De Gioia, L; Ragg, E; Bugiani, O; Salmona, M

    2000-07-28

    Prion diseases are characterized by the accumulation of altered forms of the prion protein (termed PrP(Sc)) in the brain. Unlike the normal protein, PrP(Sc) isoforms have a high content of beta-sheet secondary structure, are protease-resistant, and form insoluble aggregates and amyloid fibrils. Evidence indicates that they are responsible for neuropathological changes (i.e. nerve cell degeneration and glial cell activation) and transmissibility of the disease process. Here, we show that the antibiotic tetracycline: (i) binds to amyloid fibrils generated by synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 106-126 and 82-146 of human PrP; (ii) hinders assembly of these peptides into amyloid fibrils; (iii) reverts the protease resistance of PrP peptide aggregates and PrP(Sc) extracted from brain tissue of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; (iv) prevents neuronal death and astrocyte proliferation induced by PrP peptides in vitro. NMR spectroscopy revealed several through-space interactions between aromatic protons of tetracycline and side-chain protons of Ala(117-119), Val(121-122) and Leu(125) of PrP 106-126. These properties make tetracycline a prototype of compounds with the potential of inactivating the pathogenic forms of PrP. PMID:10903871

  3. PrP N-terminal domain triggers PrP{sup Sc}-like aggregation of Dpl

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, Paul; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Lemaire-Vieille, Catherine; Curt, Aurelie; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Schoehn, Guy; Jamin, Marc; Gagnon, Jean

    2008-01-18

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative disorders thought to be transmitted by self-perpetuating conformational conversion of a neuronal membrane glycoprotein (PrP{sup C}, for 'cellular prion protein') into an abnormal state (PrP{sup Sc}, for 'scrapie prion protein'). Doppel (Dpl) is a protein that shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrP{sup C}. In contrast to its homologue PrP{sup C}, Dpl is unable to participate in prion disease progression or to achieve an abnormal PrP{sup Sc}-like state. We have constructed a chimeric mouse protein, composed of the N-terminal domain of PrP{sup C} (residues 23-125) and the C-terminal part of Dpl (residues 58-157). This chimeric protein displays PrP-like biochemical and structural features; when incubated in presence of NaCl, the {alpha}-helical monomer forms soluble {beta}-sheet-rich oligomers which acquire partial resistance to pepsin proteolysis in vitro, as do PrP oligomers. Moreover, the presence of aggregates akin to protofibrils is observed in soluble oligomeric species by electron microscopy.

  4. PK-sensitive PrPSc is infectious and shares basic structural features with PK-resistant PrPSc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the main characteristics of the transmissible isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) is its partial resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. Diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon immunodetection of PK-digested PrPSc following Western blot or ELISA. More recently, researchers determ...

  5. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. METHODS. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). RESULTS. The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented. PMID:1836110

  6. Modulated magnetism in PrPtAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Jabbar, Gino; Sokolov, Dmitry A.; O'Neill, Christopher D.; Stock, Christopher; Wermeille, Didier; Demmel, Franz; Krüger, Frank; Green, Andrew G.; Lévy-Bertrand, Florence; Grenier, Béatrice; Huxley, Andrew D.

    2015-04-01

    The transition between paramagnetism and ferromagnetism is the paradigm for a continuous phase transition at finite temperature. When such a transition is tuned to zero temperature in clean materials, the growth of low-energy zero-point fluctuations potentially drives an array of phenomena, including the formation of novel states such as non-conventional superconductivity. Experimentally, the growth of the fluctuations, however, is curtailed and the transition becomes discontinuous as its temperature is reduced. This is understood to arise from non-analytic corrections to the free energy that always occur. In a recent theory, changes of the excitation spectrum are self-consistently considered alongside the ground state. This analysis reveals that a transition to a new state may be an alternative outcome. As the excitation spectrum (the `disorder’) is pivotal to promoting the new `order’ this mechanism is referred to as `order by disorder’. Here, we report the discovery of modulated order in PrPtAl, consistent with complex spirals, at the boundary between paramagnetism and ferromagnetism, giving the first clear experimental realization of such a state.

  7. 20. SAME VIEW AS PR27A19 WITH MAIN SHAFT AND SPROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SAME VIEW AS PR-27-A-19 WITH MAIN SHAFT AND SPROCKET AREA SPECIALLY LIT TO SHOW DETAILS - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  8. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  9. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  10. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  11. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  12. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil. PMID:26413514

  13. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups. PMID:24052666

  14. Air-driven Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M.; Swift, Michael; King, P.

    2003-07-01

    A large heavy object may rise to the top of a bed of smaller particles under the influence of vertical vibration, the “Brazil nut effect.” Recently it has been noted that interstitial air can influence the Brazil nut rise time. Here we report that the air movement induced by vertical vibration produces a very strong Brazil nut effect for fine granular beds. We use a porous-bottomed box to investigate the mechanism responsible for this effect and to demonstrate that it is related to the piling of fine beds, first reported by Chladni and studied by Faraday. Both effects are due to the strong interaction of the fine particles with the air, as it is forced through the bed by the vibration.

  15. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  16. A proportion of proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) only react with PR3 after cleavage of its N-terminal activation dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Fass, D N; Viss, M A; Hummel, A M; Tang, H; Homburger, H A; Specks, U

    1998-01-01

    ANCA directed against PR3 are highly specific for Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis, and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of small vessel vasculitis. Most PR3-ANCA are directed against conformational epitopes on PR3. This study was designed to determine whether the cleavage of the N-terminal activation dipeptide of PR3 is required for the binding of PR3-ANCA. Recombinant PR3 (rPR3) variants were expressed in the epithelial cell line, 293. As confirmed by radiosequencing, the rPR3 secreted into the 293 cell culture supernatant is N-terminally unprocessed. Two enzymatically inactive rPR3 mutants were expressed in 293 cells: rPR3-S176A and δ-rPR3-S176A. rPR3-S176A contains the N-propetide Ala-2-Glu-1, δ-rPR3-S176A does not. Culture supernatants of rPR3-S176A and δ-rPR3-S176A expressing 293 cells were used as sources of target antigen for PR3-ANCA testing by capture ELISA. Forty unselected consecutive PR3-ANCA+ sera were tested. With δ-rPR3-S176A as antigen all 40 were recognized, compared with only 34 of 40 when rPR3-S176A served as target antigen. The majority of the serum samples contained a mixture of antibodies reacting with epitopes accessible on the mature and on the proform of PR3. In conclusion, the cleavage of the N-terminal activation dipeptide of PR3 is not an absolute requirement for recognition by all PR3-ANCA. However, a substantial proportion of PR3-ANCA recognize (a) target antigen(s) exposed only after the conformational change of PR3 associated with the N-terminal processing. In 15% of sera this PR3-ANCA subset occurred exclusively. PR3-ANCA subtypes can be differentiated using specifically designed rPR3 variants as target antigens, and non-haematopoietic mammalian cells without regulated secretory pathway can be used for their expression. PMID:9822293

  17. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  18. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  19. Enthalpies of formation of Cd–Pr intermetallic compounds and thermodynamic assessment of the Cd–Pr system

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Thomas L.; Richter, Klaus W.; Delsante, Simona; Borzone, Gabriella; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In the present study standard enthalpies of formation were measured by reaction and solution calorimetry at stoichiometric compositions of Cd2Pr, Cd3Pr, Cd58Pr13 and Cd6Pr. The corresponding values were determined to be −46.0, −38.8, −35.2 and −24.7 kJ/mol(at), respectively. These data together with thermodynamic data and phase diagram information from literature served as input data for a CALPHAD-type optimization of the Cd–Pr phase diagram. The complete composition range could be described precisely with the present models, both with respect to phase equilibria as well as to thermodynamic input data. The thermodynamic parameters of all intermetallic compounds were modelled following Neumann–Kopp rule. Temperature dependent contributions to the individual Gibbs energies were used for all compounds. Extended solid solubilities are well described for the low- and high-temperature modifications of Pr and also for the intermetallic compound CdPr. A quite good agreement with all viable data available from literature was found and is presented. PMID:25540475

  20. Infectivity-associated PrPSc and disease duration-associated PrPSc of mouse BSE prions

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disease-related prion protein (PrPSc), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrPSc in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrPSc in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrPSc was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrPSc. Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrPSc may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrPSc may contribute to determining prion disease duration. PMID:26555211

  1. Clinician Attitudes Toward CDC Interim Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Guidance and Operationalizing PrEP for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prior to issuing formal HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical practice guidelines in 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had released interim guidance for oral PrEP use among adults. Because oral PrEP may be used off-label for youth and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents, we examined the potential adoption of the interim guidance among clinicians who care for HIV-infected and at-risk youth. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 US clinicians who were recruited through an adolescent HIV research network. The theory-driven interview guide, consisting primarily of open-ended questions, assessed demographics, familiarity with the guidance, attitudes toward the guidance, and attitudes toward the use of the guidance for adult and adolescent patients. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Most clinicians (11/15) reported that the guidance was compatible with their practice, although several reported that some aspects, particularly frequency of follow-up visits, needed to be tailored to meet their patients' needs. We found variability in clinician reported characteristics of appropriate PrEP candidates (e.g., youth with substance use and mental health issues were noted to be both suitable and unsuitable PrEP candidates) and PrEP use in serodiscordant couples (e.g., whether PrEP would be recommended to a patient whose HIV-infected partner is virally suppressed). Clinician reported steps for initiation, monitoring, and discontinuing PrEP were largely consistent with the guidance. The observed variability in clinician practice with regard to oral PrEP may be reduced through interventions to educate clinicians about the content and rationale for guideline recommendations. PMID:25692683

  2. Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí-Parana, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey, carried out in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 279 girls) from 6th to 9th grade, aged 10 to 14 years, from public and private schools of Paranavaí - PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity through a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis, the U Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise for body composition control and weight reduction. PMID:25623726

  3. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system frommore » 298 K to melting.« less

  4. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system from 298 K to melting.

  5. Genome Sequencing and Annotation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PR08 strain.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Mohammad Maaruf; Halim, Mohd Zakihalani A; Ismail, Mohamad Izwan; Shien, Lee Lian; Kek, Teh Lay; Fong, Ngeow Yun; Nor, Norazmi Mohd; Zainuddin, Zainul Fadziruddin; Hock, Tang Thean; Najimudin, Mohd Nazalan Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an acid fast bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Here, we report the genomic features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient diagnosed with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The isolated strain was identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis PR08 (MTB PR08). Genomic DNA of the MTB PR08 strain was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using MiSeq (Illumina, CA,USA). The draft genome size of MTB PR08 strain is 4,292,364 bp with a G + C content of 65.2%. This strain was annotated to have 4723 genes and 48 RNAs. This whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number CP010895. PMID:26981383

  6. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Meng, F. Q.; McCallum, R. W.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitled ''Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W.''

  7. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S.H.; Kramer, M.J.; Meng, F.Q.; McCallum, R.W.; Ott, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W. PMID:26900594

  8. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S H; Kramer, M J; Meng, F Q; McCallum, R W; Ott, R T

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W. PMID:26900594

  9. Membranotropic regions of the dengue virus prM protein.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, Henrique; Villalaín, José

    2014-08-19

    The Dengue virus (DENV) prM protein consists of two moieties, the pr and M domains. Apart from preventing the premature fusion activity of the DENV E protein, prM has several other unknown biological roles, displaying both protein-protein and membrane-protein interactions. Although the prM protein is an essential component of the DENV viral cycle, little is known about its biological functions and what regions of this protein are responsible for said functions. By performing an exhaustive study of membrane rupture induced by a prM peptide library on simple and complex model membranes as well as their ability to modulate the phospholipid phase transitions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-glycerol], we identified six membranotropic regions on the prM protein. Apart from the previously identified two transmembrane segments of the protein, one of these regions probably interacts with the fusion E protein and another one, the stem segment, would interact with the membrane modulating its structure. These data will help us understand the molecular mechanism of viral entry and morphogenesis, allow the identification of new targets for the treatment of Dengue virus infection, and make possible the future development of DENV entry inhibitors. PMID:25076193

  10. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Adalberto Pérez de León, all USDA-ARS, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cança...

  11. Special Libraries and Information Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Eduardo J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a survey of 192 special library and information center managers in Brazil that examined managerial activities and factors accounting for variation in managerial jobs. The results are discussed in terms of personal and organizational characteristics, perceived importance of managerial roles, and perceived preparedness to perform…

  12. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  13. Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from Field to Gene

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Lenildo; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Wada, Marcelo Y.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Tuboi, Suely H.; Carmo, Eduardo H.; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Camargo, Natal J.; Trevisan, Ronaldo; Graça, Regina M.T.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Moura, Iaci; Dubey, J.P.; Garrett, Denise O.

    2006-01-01

    Water was the suspected vehicle of Toxoplasma gondii dissemination in a toxoplasmosis outbreak in Brazil. A case-control study and geographic mapping of cases were performed. T. gondii was isolated directly from the implicated water and genotyped as SAG 2 type I. PMID:16494765

  14. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  15. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  16. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  17. Counseling in Brazil: Need, Resources, Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedinger, Edward A.

    This report examines the needs and resources of educational counseling centers in Brazil that advise individuals about opportunities for undergraduate and graduate education in the United States. A survey of nine counseling offices run by the U.S. International Communication Agency (USICA), U.S. consulates, and American-Brazilian binational…

  18. Virtual Learning Environments Designed in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Marcelo L.; Goncalves, Mario R.; da Silva, Flavia O. M.; Junges, Fernando; Del Pino, Jose C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses instructional design for computerized pedagogic materials and emphasizes the elements of activity and discovery in creating effective learning experiences. Describes a virtual learning environment designed in Brazil that is open to different forms of use so teachers and students can decide on the best ways of using it. (LRW)

  19. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  20. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  1. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements. PMID:21767370

  2. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  3. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  4. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  5. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  6. Maternal-child health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, C A

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the social and economic climates and the healthcare delivery systems of Brazil is presented. The Brazilian healthcare system is discussed, with particular attention directed to the status of nursing and to the perinatal health-care delivery system. Examples of Brazilian perinatal health-care practices are provided. PMID:3650322

  7. 78 FR 47051 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 943, 943-PR, 943-A, and 943A-PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., Employer's Annual Tax Return for Agricultural Employees, 943-PR, Planilla Para La Declarcion Anual De La... Para La Declarcion Anual De La Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas (Form...

  8. 75 FR 44847 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 943, 943-PR, 943-A, and 943A-PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ..., Employer's Annual Tax Return for Agricultural Employees, 943-PR, Planilla Para La Declarcion Anual De La... Employees (Form 943), Planilla Para La Declarcion Anual De La Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De...

  9. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  10. Establishment of procedures for studying mPR-interacting agents and physiological roles of mPR.

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Hossain, Md Babul; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    More than 10years have passed since the discovery of membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). Although the identification of mPR genes in various organisms and mPR expression patterns have been described since then, the precise physiological roles of mPRs are still unclear, except their function as a receptor for maturation-inducing steroid in fish. The wide distribution of mPRs suggests variable actions for progestins through mPRs in the tissues. Information about the physiological roles of mPRs, such as roles in the progression of breast cancer and T-cell proliferation, has gradually accumulated recently. These results suggest that mPRs are possible targets for new pharmaceuticals. We established a cell line that was transformed with cDNAs for mPRα and a recombinant luciferase gene named GloSensor. The cells can be used for monitoring the effects of ligands on mPRα based on intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Studies using these cell lines indicated that the cAMP concentration is decreased by ligands for mPRα. The results provide support for previous results suggesting that mPRα is coupled to inhibitory G protein (Gi). We also established screening methods that make it possible to screen ligands for mPR. Recently, we succeeded in expressing and purifying recombinant mPR protein in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Relatively large amounts of mPR protein with hormonal binding activity can be purified by our method. The recombinant protein will be applicable to establishing a molecular probe to detect mPR-interacting agents. To obtain decisive evidence for the roles of mPRs, we are establishing strains of medaka fish that are deficient in mPRs. In medaka, four subtypes of mPR genes (α, β, γ, and α2) have been identified. By reverse genetic screening, we have selected three to four strains in which a point mutation has been induced in the coding sequence of the mPR subtypes. However, homozygous mutants of each mPR gene showed no phenotype. The