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Sample records for curlew numenius americanus

  1. Helminths of shorebirds from the Texas Gulfcoast. I. Digenetic trematodes from the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus.

    PubMed

    Dronen, N O; Badley, J E

    1979-08-01

    Trematodes found in 10 Numenius americanus from the Galveston area included Pelmatostomum americanum sp. n. (Echinostomatidae) from the intestine; Paratrema numenii gen. et sp. n. (Philophthalmidae) from the Bursa Fabricii and lower intestine; and the following previously known species, all representing new host records: Maritrema arenaria and Probolocorphye glandulosa (Microphallidae); Lyperosomum oswaldoi and L. sinuosum (Dicrocoeliidae); Cyclocoelum obscurum (Cyclocoelidae); Himasthla rhigedana (Echinostomatidae); and Parorchis acanthus (Philophthalmidae). New taxa are diagnosed and H. rhigedana is redescribed. PMID:512758

  2. Coelomic implantation of satellite transmitters in the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and the bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahitiensis) using propofol, bupivacaine, and lidocaine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gartrell, Brett D.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous propofol was used as a general anesthetic with a 2∶1 (mg∶mg) adjunctive mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine as local anesthetics infiltrated into the surgical sites for implantation of satellite transmitters into the right abdominal air sac of 39 female and 4 male bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri and Limosa lapponica menzbeiri) and 11 female and 12 male bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis). The birds were captured on nesting grounds in Alaska, USA, and on overwintering areas in New Zealand and Australia from 2005 through 2008. As it was developed, the mass of the transmitter used changed yearly from a low of 22.4 ± 0.2 g to a high of 27.1 ± 0.2 g and weighed 25.1 ± 0.2 g in the final year. The mean load ratios ranged from 5.2% to 7.7% for godwits and from 5.7% to 7.5% for curlews and exceeded 5% for all years, locations, and genders of both species. The maximum load ratio was 8.3% for a female bar-tailed godwit implanted in Australia in 2008. Three godwits and no curlews died during surgery. Most birds were hyperthermic upon induction but improved during surgery. Two godwits (one in New Zealand and one in Australia) could not stand upon release, likely due to capture myopathy. These birds failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. The implanted transmitters were used to follow godwits through their southern and northern migrations, and curlews were followed on their southern migration.

  3. 1993 study of long-billed curlews on the Yakima Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, K.D.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1994-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study for the US Department of the Army on long-billed curlews (Numenius americanus) on the Yakima Training Center (YTC) in the spring and summer of 1993. Long-billed curlews are a Class IIIc federal candidate species and are listed as a ``species of special concern`` by the Washington Department of Wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1) locate major nesting areas, (2) locate brood rearing areas, (3) evaluate habitat requirements, (4) determine diet, (5) evaluate response to troop activities, (6) estimate population size, (7) estimate recruitment rates, and (8) establish a relative abundance survey method.

  4. Long-billed curlews on the Yakima Training Center: Information for base realignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, K.D.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes and discusses the results obtained during 1992 from the study of long-billed curlews on the Yakima Training Center (YTC), which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Department of the Army. This study was initiated to provide basic ecological information on YTC long-billed curlews (Numenius americanus). The long-billed curlew is a relatively common spring and summer resident on the YTC. However, other than casual observations, very little is known about the distribution, density, reproductive success, and habitat requirements for this species on the YTC. Until recently the long-billed curlew was a US Fish and Wildlife Service candidate for listing as threatened or endangered; however, on November 21, 1991 it was down-listed to Class IIIc. The Washington Department of Wildlife lists the long-billed curlew as a ``species of special concern.`` Specific objectives of this study were to (1) locate nesting areas, (2) locate brood-rearing areas, (3) evaluate habitat requirements, (4) determine diet, (5) evaluate response to troop activities, (6) evaluate the impact of livestock grazing, (7) estimate the population size, and (8) estimate recruitment rates. Six curlews (four females and two males) were captured and fitted with radio transmitters. These birds were relocated to obtain nesting, habitat use, and feeding information. Road surveys conducted over most of the YTC provided information on the bird`s general distribution, habitat requirements, and nesting and brood-rearing areas.

  5. Annual migratory patterns of long-billed curlews in the American west

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Gary W.; Warnock, Nils; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Jorgensen, Dennis; Hartman, C. Alex; Stenzel, Lynne E.

    2014-01-01

    Effective conservation of migratory species requires comprehensive knowledge of annual movement patterns. Such information is sparse for the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus), a North American endemic shorebird of conservation concern. To test hypotheses about individual and area differences in migratory patterns across western North America, we tagged 29 curlews with satellite transmitters at breeding sites in Oregon, Nevada, and Montana. Transmissions from 28 birds for up to 4 years demonstrated that all wintered within the species’ known winter range, including 9 from Oregon tracked to agricultural areas of California’s Central Valley; 5 from Nevada tracked to the Central Valley, northern Gulf of California, or west coast of Baja California, Mexico; and 14 from Montana that wintered inland, from the Texas Panhandle south to the Mexican Plateau, or near the Gulf of Mexico. Montana breeders migrated east of the Rocky Mountains and traveled more than twice the distance of Oregon and Nevada breeders. Montana birds also stopped more often and longer during most passages. As a group, curlews arrived on their Oregon breeding grounds earlier than in Montana, while males preceded females in Montana and possibly Oregon. No consistent pattern emerged between sexes in departure from breeding areas, although within pairs males departed later than their mates. Individuals exhibited strong fidelity to breeding and wintering sites, and many birds showed a strong propensity for agricultural regions during winter. Our results underscore the importance of studying

  6. Long-Billed Curlew Breeding Success on Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges, South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocking, Jessica; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Holcomb, Neil; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) reproductive success was evaluated on the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. Additionally, we assisted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in collecting information on distribution, abundance, and brood habitat for this shorebird species of conservation concern. A total of 32 breeding pairs were located on the refuges in 2007 and 35 pairs were located in 2008. We monitored 17 nests in 2007 and 23 nests in 2008. Curlew pairs were most abundant on Hanford Reach National Monument in 2007 but more nests were located on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge in both years, with Columbia National Wildlife Refuge supporting few pairs. Nest success was 23.6 percent in 2007 and 32.9 percent in 2008 after taking into account exposure time and combining data for all the refuges. We were unable to detect any relationship between nest success and habitat type or habitat variables measured. However, our study was the first to document use of agricultural fields on the refuge as curlew nest habitat. We collected 39 and 28 brood locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively, and many observations were likely resightings of the same brood. Broods used a similar variety of habitats as nesting curlew and no clear habitat use pattern was detected.

  7. Curlew project: An elegant solution

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Curlew area development is approximately 137 miles east of Aberdeen. An exploratory well drilled in 1994 encountered a rich high-productivity gas and condensate reservoir, Curlew D, in the Fulmar sands. Curlew B, an undersaturated-oil reservoir was discovered in 1991. These two reservoirs are thought to share an aquifer, suggesting that they should be produced simultaneously to avoid loss of recovery. Before the discovery of Curlew D, development plans were long term, with Curlew B to be developed in 2005 with the Anasuria relocated from Teal/Guillemot. The Curlew D discovery presented an opportunity for near-term development. The adjacent Curlew A and C fields were also considered for development. Curlew A, discovered in 1977, comprises undersaturated oil in the Rogaland and Forties sands, with expected recovery of 15 million bbl of oil equivalent (BOE). Four producers and three water injectors would be required because of the highly faulted and compartmentalized nature of the reservoir, thereby rendering it uneconomical. The Curlew C field, discovered in 1993, is thought to have 90 million BOE in place; however, it is a chalk reservoir with a recovery factor of less than 10%. The paper describes reserves uncertainty, development options, key contract features, facilities, and project management.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Numenius phaeopus (Charadriiformes, Scolopacidae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Ge; Zhang, Huabin; Zhang, Daizhen

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA genome of Numenius phaeopus was determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The whole genome (17,091 bp in length) contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (D-loop), which was similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates. Almost all the PCGs in N. phaeopus were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes, which were encoded on the L-strand. PMID:25630727

  9. Lethocerus americanus, the "toe biter".

    PubMed

    Huntley, A

    1998-10-01

    Lethocerus americanus is a large water bug commonly found in ponds and slowly moving fresh water. Also known as the "toe biter" for its encounters with swimmers, it has the reputation of inflicting painful bites when carelessly handled. It normally feeds on other pond life: insects, tadpoles, salamander, small fish, and snails. These large tan or brown bugs may leave their habitat at night in search of mates or another pond. It is thought that the relative nearness of bright lights for a creature that evolved using celestial navigation, results in disorientation, spiral flight paths, and eventual death from exhaustion. This would account for the occasional find of several dead giant water bugs underneath street lamps. PMID:10328676

  10. 76 FR 36491 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Eskimo Curlew; Initiation of 5-Year Status Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). No... provided. The taxonomy, historical distribution, and ecology of Eskimo curlew is further summarized by Gill... biology, including but not limited to population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics,...

  11. Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yat T; Gao, Xin; Rosa, Bruce A; Abubucker, Sahar; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Heizer, Esley; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Minx, Patrick; Warren, Wesley C; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Sternberg, Paul W; Dougall, Annette; Gaze, Soraya Torres; Mulvenna, Jason; Sotillo, Javier; Ranganathan, Shoba; Rabelo, Elida M; Wilson, Richard K; Felgner, Philip L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hawdon, John M; Gasser, Robin B; Loukas, Alex; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-03-01

    The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron-deficiency anemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. We report sequencing and assembly of the N. americanus genome (244 Mb, 19,151 genes). Characterization of this first hookworm genome sequence identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential treatments against inflammatory diseases. We also used a protein microarray to demonstrate a postgenomic application of the hookworm genome sequence. This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts toward fundamental and applied postgenomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases. PMID:24441737

  12. Visual optics in toads (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Mathis, U; Schaeffel, F; Howland, H C

    1988-06-01

    Aspects of visual optics were investigated in the American toad (Bufo americanus). The development of the refractive state of the eye during metamorphosis was followed with IR photoretinoscopy. Frozen sections documented the changes in optical parameters before and after metamorphosis. There is a difference in light sensitivity between juvenile and adult toads. Binocular accommodation in adult toads was observed. 1. IR photoretinoscopic measurements showed that the refractive state of the eye changed very rapidly during metamorphosis, about 10 D/h while the animal entered the terrestrial habitat. 2. Frozen sections showed that the almost spherical lens in a tadpole eye had flattened in a just metamorphosed toad's eye while at the same time the distance of the lens to the retina had decreased. However, the morphological measurements were not sufficiently sensitive to record the relatively small changes in ocular dimensions that were responsible for the rapid changes in refractive state during metamorphosis. 3. Schematic eyes, with homogeneous and non homogeneous lenses, were constructed for tadpoles, juvenile toads, and adult toads. 4. Nonparaxial raytracing studies in schematic eyes suggested that the lenses of animals of the three developmental stages tadpole, juvenile toad, and adult are not homogeneous but have a refractive index gradient. The raytracing studies indicated that the refractive index gradient is different for the different developmental stages, being highest in the tadpole lens. 5. The observations of toads during feeding behavior at different light levels showed an increased light sensitivity in the adult nocturnal toads in contrast to the juvenile animals, which are diurnal. The increased light sensitivity could partly be explained with an increase in aperture and an increase in red rod outer segments. To fully explain the higher light sensitivity in adult toads, changes in neuronal parameters had to be assumed. 6. Retinoscopic measurements of

  13. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  14. Novel Insights into the Map Stage of True Navigation in Nonmigratory Wild Birds (Stone Curlews, Burhinus oedicnemus).

    PubMed

    Orchan, Yotam; Ovaskainen, Otso; Bouten, Willem; Nathan, Ran

    2016-06-01

    In the map-and-compass model of true navigation, animals at unfamiliar sites determine their position relative to a destination site (the map stage) before progressing toward it (the compass stage). A major challenge in animal navigation research is to understand the still cryptic map stage in general and the map stage for free-ranging wild animals in particular. To address this challenge, we experimentally translocated wild, nonmigratory birds (stone curlews [Burhinus oedicnemus]) far from their nests and GPS-tracked their subsequent movements at high resolution and for long durations. Homing success was high and cannot be explained by random chance or landmark navigation, implying true navigation. Although highly motivated to return home, the homing trajectories of translocated birds exhibited a distinct, two-phase pattern resembling the map and compass stages: a long, tortuous wandering phase without consistent approach home, followed by a short and direct return phase. Birds retranslocated to the same site initially repeated the original wandering path but switched to the return phase earlier and after covering a smaller area; they returned home via a different path but with similar movement properties. We thus propose the map learning hypothesis, asserting that birds resolve the map by acquiring, potentially through learning, the relevant navigation cues during the wandering phase. PMID:27172601

  15. Cretinism in a North American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robert B; Jones, Jeryl C; Moll, H David; Moon, Martha M; Blodgett, Dennis J; Vaughan, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    Congenital hyperplastic goiter and cretinism were documented in a 16 month-old male North American black bear (Ursus americanus). The cub was captured at approximately 8 months of age and maintained for an additional 8 months in captivity. Clinical signs included growth retardation, clumsiness, and facial dysmorphism. Hypothyroidism was documented by determining serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. Lysosomal storage disease was ruled out by measuring various lysosomal enzyme activities. Serologic, radiographic, computed tomographic, necropsy, and histopathologic findings were consistent with congenital hypothyroidism and cretinism. PMID:11866041

  16. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction. PMID:27468040

  17. Tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from the black bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanderlin, J.S.; Faircloth, B.C.; Shamblin, B.; Conroy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction conditions to amplify 21 tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in black bears (Ursus americanus). We tested primers using individuals from two populations, one each in Georgia and Florida. Among individuals from Georgia (n = 29), primer pairs yielded an average of 2.9 alleles (range, one to four) and an average observed heterozygosity (HO) of 0.50 (range, 0.00 to 0.79). Among individuals from Florida (n = 19), primer pairs yielded an average of 5.7 alleles (range, one to 14) and an HO of 0.55 (range, 0.00 to 1.00). A comparison of previously developed markers with individuals from Georgia suggests that bear populations in Georgia and Florida have reduced allelic diversity relative to other populations. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  18. Induction of pseudopregnancy in the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Schulz, Laura Clamon; Nelson, Ralph A; Pyter, Leah M; Bahr, Janice M

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) can experience a pseudopregnancy of the same duration as pregnancy. To do this, we treated three nonmated, captive female bears with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during one breeding season, and saline during another. Progesterone concentrations were measured in monthly blood samples to determine whether pseudopregnancy had occurred. Elevated progesterone concentrations were observed in two out of three bears treated with hCG. We conclude that 1) Elevated progesterone concentrations can be induced in black bears by injection of 35 U/kg hCG during the mating season. 2) Bears can experience a pseudopregnancy, identical in length to pregnancy, in which progesterone profiles are indistinguishable from those of pregnancy. PMID:12884278

  19. Spatial memory in captive American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays. PMID:22545764

  20. Predator prey size relationship between Pseudopleuronectes americanus and Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, E. A.; Howell, W. H.

    2000-10-01

    Young-of-year flatfish grow through a series of critical periods in which they are vulnerable to different predators, including decapod crustaceans. The purpose of this study was to determine if winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were vulnerable to one such decapod, the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and to determine if vulnerability differed between wild and cultured fish. To examine the predator-prey size relationship, an experiment was conducted in which six cultured and three wild winter flounder size class treatments were tested against six crab size class treatments. Flounder of all size classes were preyed on by all size classes of green crabs; however, mortality was highest when the largest crabs were matched with the smallest flounder. The number of flounder killed per day was significantly higher (31%) in winter flounder <20 mm compared to all other larger fish size classes (4-8%). Additionally, these fish were attacked at a faster rate than any other fish size class. For the 31-60 mm fish size classes tested, more wild fish (11%) were killed per day by crabs than cultured fish (6.3%). These results suggest that in a winter flounder stock enhancement program, only fish >20 mm should be released to promote post-release survival.

  1. The complete genome sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with Citrus huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Nelson A; Zhang, Shujian; Setubal, João C; Almeida, Nalvo F; Martins, Elaine C; Harakava, Ricardo; Kumar, Dibyendu; Rangel, Luiz Thiberio; Foissac, Xavier; Bové, Joseph M; Gabriel, Dean W

    2014-02-01

    Liberibacter spp. form a Rhizobiaceae clade of phloem-limited pathogens of limited host range. Two obligately parasitic species have been sequenced: 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', which causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB) worldwide, and 'Ca. L. solanacearum', which causes potato "zebra chip" disease. A third (proposed) species, Liberibacter crescens, was isolated from mountain papaya, grown in axenic culture, and sequenced. In an effort to identify common host determinants, the complete genomic DNA sequence of a second HLB species, 'Ca. L. americanus' strain 'São Paulo' was determined. The circular genome of 1,195,201 bp had an average 31.12% GC content and 983 predicted protein encoding genes, 800 (81.4%) of which had a predicted function. There were 658 genes common to all sequenced Liberibacter spp. and only 8 genes common to 'Ca. L. americanus' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' but not found in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. Surprisingly, most of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes were missing from the 'Ca. L. americanus' genome, as well as OmpA and a key regulator of flagellin, all indicating a 'Ca. L. americanus' strategy of avoiding production of major pathogen-associated molecular patterns present in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. As with 'Ca. L. asiaticus', one of two 'Ca. L. americanus' prophages replicated as an excision plasmid and carried potential lysogenic conversion genes that appeared fragmentary or degenerated in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. PMID:24200077

  2. Taxonomic recovery of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus albicinctus from M. americanus (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae).

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takashi; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Myrmecophilus americanus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus are typical myrmecophilous insects living inside ant nests. These species are ecologically important due to the obligate association with tramp ant species, including harmful invasive ant species. However, the taxonomy of these "white-banded ant crickets" is quite confused owing to a scarcity of useful external morphological characteristics. Recently, Myrmecophilus albicinctus was synonymized with Myrmecophilus americanus regardless of the apparent host use difference. To clarify taxonomical relationship between Myrmecophilus albicinctus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus, we reexamined morphological characteristics of both species mainly in the viewpoint of anatomy. Observation of genitalia parts, together with a few external body parts, revealed that Myrmecophilus albicinctus showed different tendency from them of Myrmecophilus americanus. Therefore, we recover Myrmecophilus albicinctus as a distinct species on the basis of the morphology. PMID:27408536

  3. Taxonomic recovery of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus albicinctus from M. americanus (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takashi; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myrmecophilus americanus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus are typical myrmecophilous insects living inside ant nests. These species are ecologically important due to the obligate association with tramp ant species, including harmful invasive ant species. However, the taxonomy of these “white-banded ant crickets” is quite confused owing to a scarcity of useful external morphological characteristics. Recently, Myrmecophilus albicinctus was synonymized with Myrmecophilus americanus regardless of the apparent host use difference. To clarify taxonomical relationship between Myrmecophilus albicinctus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus, we reexamined morphological characteristics of both species mainly in the viewpoint of anatomy. Observation of genitalia parts, together with a few external body parts, revealed that Myrmecophilus albicinctus showed different tendency from them of Myrmecophilus americanus. Therefore, we recover Myrmecophilus albicinctus as a distinct species on the basis of the morphology. PMID:27408536

  4. Neuropeptidergic Signaling in the American Lobster Homarus americanus: New Insights from High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan; Lameyer, Tess J; Pascual, Micah G; Shea, Devlin N; Stanhope, Meredith E; Schulz, David J; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are the largest and most diverse class of molecules used for neurochemical communication, playing key roles in the control of essentially all aspects of physiology and behavior. The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a crustacean of commercial and biomedical importance; lobster growth and reproduction are under neuropeptidergic control, and portions of the lobster nervous system serve as models for understanding the general principles underlying rhythmic motor behavior (including peptidergic neuromodulation). While a number of neuropeptides have been identified from H. americanus, and the effects of some have been investigated at the cellular/systems levels, little is currently known about the molecular components of neuropeptidergic signaling in the lobster. Here, a H. americanus neural transcriptome was generated and mined for sequences encoding putative peptide precursors and receptors; 35 precursor- and 41 receptor-encoding transcripts were identified. We predicted 194 distinct neuropeptides from the deduced precursor proteins, including members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known H. americanus isoforms, most are novel identifications, more than doubling the extant lobster neuropeptidome. The deduced receptor proteins are the first descriptions of H. americanus neuropeptide receptors, and include ones for most of the peptide groups mentioned earlier, as well as those for ecdysis-triggering hormone, red pigment concentrating hormone

  5. Characterization and functional classification of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser

    2014-11-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most important commercially exploited marine species in Canada. Very little is known about the H. americanus molecular humoral immune response or how to determine if a seemingly healthy lobster is infected with a pathogen. The goal of this work is to characterize several important H. americanus immune genes as well as highlight and classify hundreds of others into functional immune groups. The protein sequence of H. americanus acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was found to be similar to that of vertebrate SAA, and is likely a good clinical marker for immune activation in lobsters and some crustaceans. Additionally, only one gene, Trypsin 1b, was found to be differentially regulated during bacterial, microparasitic and viral challenges in lobster and is likely critical for the activation of the H. americanus immune response. Bioinformatic analysis was used to functionally annotate, 263 H. americanus immune genes and identify the few shared patterns of differential gene expression in lobsters in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral challenge. Many of the described immune genes are biomarker candidates which could be used as clinical indicators for lobster health and disease. Biomarkers can facilitate early detection of pathogens, or anthropomorphic stressors, so that mitigation strategies can be developed in order to prevent the devastating economic losses that have occurred in Southern New England, USA. This work is contributes to further our understanding of how the lobster immune system works and how it can be used to maintain the health and sustainability of the overall American lobster fishery. PMID:24981290

  6. Neuropeptidergic Signaling in the American Lobster Homarus americanus: New Insights from High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Chi, Megan; Lameyer, Tess J.; Pascual, Micah G.; Shea, Devlin N.; Stanhope, Meredith E.; Schulz, David J.; Dickinson, Patsy S.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are the largest and most diverse class of molecules used for neurochemical communication, playing key roles in the control of essentially all aspects of physiology and behavior. The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a crustacean of commercial and biomedical importance; lobster growth and reproduction are under neuropeptidergic control, and portions of the lobster nervous system serve as models for understanding the general principles underlying rhythmic motor behavior (including peptidergic neuromodulation). While a number of neuropeptides have been identified from H. americanus, and the effects of some have been investigated at the cellular/systems levels, little is currently known about the molecular components of neuropeptidergic signaling in the lobster. Here, a H. americanus neural transcriptome was generated and mined for sequences encoding putative peptide precursors and receptors; 35 precursor- and 41 receptor-encoding transcripts were identified. We predicted 194 distinct neuropeptides from the deduced precursor proteins, including members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known H. americanus isoforms, most are novel identifications, more than doubling the extant lobster neuropeptidome. The deduced receptor proteins are the first descriptions of H. americanus neuropeptide receptors, and include ones for most of the peptide groups mentioned earlier, as well as those for ecdysis-triggering hormone, red pigment concentrating hormone

  7. Potential Vertical Transmission of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) from Moose (Alces americanus) Dams to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Severud, William J; DelGiudice, Glenn D

    2016-01-01

    North American moose (Alces americanus) frequently become infested with winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus). During capture of neonatal moose in northeastern Minnesota, US, in May-June 2013 and 2014, we recovered adult ticks from neonates, presumably vertically transferred from dams, heretofore, not documented. Infestations on neonates may have population-level implications. PMID:26555113

  8. Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths Differentiate Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus) Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios were measured in otoliths of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from 18 nursery areas along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. Samples were obtained during June and July of 2002 from locations tha...

  9. SARCOCYSTIS URSUSI, N. SP (APICOMPLEXA; SARCOCYSTIDAE) FROM THE BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Sarcocystis species is common in hervibores but is rare in bears. Histological sections of 374 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Pennsylvania were examined for sarcocysts. A total of 3 sarcocysts were found in 3 bears, 1 sarcocyst per section. Sarcocysts from 2 bears were considered...

  10. COMPARISON OF A REFERENCE STRAIN AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA' AS FOOD FOR WINTER FLOUNDER (PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reference strain and four commercially available geographical strains of Artemia nauplii were each tested as a diet for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae. The Reference strain was provided by the Artemia Reference Center, Ghent, Belgium. The geographical st...

  11. Assessment of Dredge-induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  12. Assessment of Dredging-Induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  13. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male: a comparative study of Symbion pandora and S. americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; da Cunha, Marina Ribeiro; Funch, Peter; Wanninger, Andreas; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2010-09-01

    Cycliophora is a recently described phylum to which only two species have been assigned so far, Symbion pandora and S. americanus. The cycliophoran life cycle is complex and alternates between asexual and sexual stages. Although not recognized as an entirely independent free-swimming stage when the phylum was first described, the dwarf male has a remarkably complex bodyplan albeit its very small size (approx. 30-40 μm in length). Aiming to increase the knowledge on the gross morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male, specimens from S. pandora and S. americanus were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. In both species, anterior and ventral ciliated fields, as well as paired lateral sensorial organs, were identified, thus confirming previous observations. However, new details are described herein such as the penial pouch that encloses the penis. We compare our findings on both Symbion species with the data currently available on other metazoan dwarf males.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the American lobster, Homarus americanus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

    2011-06-01

    Although relatively a large number of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been determined from various decapod species (29 mtDNA sequences reported so far), the information for the infraorder Astacidea (including lobsters, crayfishes, and their relatives) is very limited and represented by only one complete sequence from the Australian freshwater crayfish species Cherax destructor. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Homarus americanus, the first representative of the family Nephropidae to be fully characterized. Comparison of the gene arrangement reveals that H. americanus mtDNA is identical to those of other pancrustacean species but differs from the other astacidean species (C. destructor). Based on these data, it can be assumed that an idiosyncratic gene order discovered in C. destructor mtDNA may be secondarily acquired from the ancestral lineage of the Astacidea. PMID:21740340

  15. Bioaccumulation of chlorobiphenyls and endrin from food by lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    McLeese, D.W.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Pezzack, D.S.

    1980-08-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine the rates of dietary accumulation and clearance of two chlorobiphenyls and endrin in lobsters (Homarus americanus) fed contaminated mussels (Mytilus edulis). The chlorobiphenyls, representing intermediate and high degrees of chlorination, were chosen as model compounds to simulate the accumulation of PCB's. Endrin has been used extensively in eastern Canada and therefore it is of interest to determine its potential for accumulation within the trophic chain.

  16. The Status of Heligmosomoides americanus, Representative of an American Clade of Vole-Infecting Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Harris, P D; Zaleśny, G; Hildebrand, J; Paziewska-Harris, A; Behnke, J M; Tkach, V; Hwang, Y-T; Kinsella, J M

    2015-06-01

    Heligmosomoides americanus is shown by molecular phylogenetic analysis of 3 nuclear (28S, ITS1, and ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b) loci to be a distinct species of heligmosomid nematode with a long-independent evolutionary history, and not a subspecies of Heligmosomoides polygyrus . Rather than being a recent arrival in North America, the species probably originated as a Beringian immigrant with the host vole Phenacomys, approximately 2 million years ago (MYA). PMID:25574753

  17. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  18. Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijeet P; Mittal, Smriti P K

    2016-09-30

    The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host. PMID:27259664

  19. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  20. Mediastinal teratoma in a free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Munk, Brandon A; Turner, J Chris; Keel, M Kevin

    2013-12-01

    A 2.75-yr-old female American black bear (Ursus americanus) was found emaciated and unable to rise. It was euthanized due to the perceived poor prognosis. An approximately 18 x 8 x 10-cm, multiloculated, well-demarcated mass that extended from the bifurcation of the trachea, laterally displacing the lung lobes and caudally displacing the heart. The mass contained fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, nervous tissue, smooth muscle, and a variety of epithelial structures. A mediastinal teratoma was diagnosed based on the microscopic features of the neoplasm. PMID:24450083

  1. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs. PMID:26056894

  2. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-06-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity.

  3. Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-10-01

    During October and November 1986, Sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington (USA). Sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. Mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). In an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (Canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four domestic cats, three bears (Ursus americanus), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two martens (Martes americana), two fishers (Martes pennanti), three skunks (Mephitis mephitis), five mink (Mustela vison), five ferrets (Mustela putorius), one pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Oocysts or sporocysts were not detected in the feces of any host for less than or equal to 20 days after ingestion of the infected meat. The definitive host for Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats was not identified. PMID:2509738

  4. Comparative tissue expression of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune genes during bacterial and scuticociliate challenge.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Wang, Haili; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2015-12-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery is the most economically significant fishery in Canada; although comparatively little is known about the lobsters' response to pathogenic challenge. This is the first study to investigate the expression of immune genes in tissues outside of the lobster hepatopancreas in response to challenges by the Gram-positive bacteria, Aerococcus viridans var. homari or the scuticociliate parasite, Anophryoides haemophila. The hepatopancreas has been regarded as the major humoral immune organ in crustaceans, but the contribution of other organs and tissues to the molecular immune response has largely been overlooked. This study used RT-qPCR to monitor the gene expression of several immune genes including three anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms (ALF) Homame ALF-B1, Homame ALF-C1 and ALFHa-1, acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), as well as thioredoxin and hexokinase, in antennal gland and gill tissues. Our findings indicate that the gene expression of the SAA and all ALF isoforms in the antennal gland and gill tissues increased in response to pathogenic challenge. However, there was differential expression of individual ALF isoforms that were dependent on both the tissue, and the pathogen used in the challenge. The gene expression changes of several immune genes were found to be higher in the antennal gland than have been previously reported for the hepatopancreas. This study demonstrates that increased immune gene expression from the gill and antennal gland over the course of pathogen induced disease contributes to the immune response of H. americanus. PMID:26551049

  5. A novel isothermal microcalorimetry tool to assess drug effects on Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Dayana; Panic, Gordana; Braissant, Olivier; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths, which affect the poorest communities, worldwide cause a range of symptoms and morbidity, yet few treatment options are available and drug resistance is a concern. To improve and accelerate anthelminthic drug discovery, novel drug screening tools such as isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) have been tested with great potential. In this study, we used a novel microcalorimeter, the calScreener™, to study the viability on the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum as well as the whipworm Trichuris muris. Significant heat flow signals could be obtained with already one adult worm per channel for all three species. High-amplitude oscillations were observed for the hookworms; however, adult T. muris showed a twofold heat flow decrease during the first 24 h. Antinematodal effects of ivermectin and levamisole at 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml were evaluated on adult N. americanus and A. ceylanicum. Levamisole-treated hookworms showed a decline in heat flow and oscillation amplitude in a dose-response manner. Heat flow for ivermectin-treated hookworms increased proportionally with increased concentrations of ivermectin, though the wavelet analysis showed an opposite trend as observed by flatter wavelets. In conclusion, the calScreener™ is an excellent tool to study drug effects on intestinal hookworms at the adult worm stage as it offers a lower detection limit than other IMC devices and the possibility to monitor worm viability online. PMID:26519051

  6. CHANGES IN NUCLEIC ACIDS OVER THE MOLT CYCLE IN RELATION TO FOOD AVAILABILITY AND TEMPERATURE IN HOMARUS AMERICANUS POSTLARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Postlarval lobsters Homarus americanus Milne Edwards hatched from three females collected in 1989 fr m Block Island Sound, Rhode Island were reared individually in the laboratory under nine treatment combinations of temperature (15, 18 and 200C) and feeding(starved, low ration, a...

  7. Isolation and characterization of new genetic types of toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of trichinella murrelli from black bear (Ursus americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are hosts for two important zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. and bears are hunted for human consumption in the USA. Little is known of the genetic diversity of T. gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii we...

  8. The hidden history of the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus: extensive mitochondrial DNA introgression inferred from multilocus genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Melo-Ferreira, José; Seixas, Fernando A; Cheng, Ellen; Mills, L Scott; Alves, Paulo C

    2014-09-01

    Hybridization drives the evolutionary trajectory of many species or local populations, and assessing the geographic extent and genetic impact of interspecific gene flow may provide invaluable clues to understand population divergence or the adaptive relevance of admixture. In North America, hares (Lepus spp.) are key species for ecosystem dynamics and their evolutionary history may have been affected by hybridization. Here we reconstructed the speciation history of the three most widespread hares in North America - the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the white-tailed jackrabbit (L. townsendii) and the black-tailed jackrabbit (L. californicus) - by analysing sequence variation at eight nuclear markers and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus (6240 bp; 94 specimens). A multilocus-multispecies coalescent-based phylogeny suggests that L. americanus diverged ~2.7 Ma and that L. californicus and L. townsendii split more recently (~1.2 Ma). Within L. americanus, a deep history of cryptic divergence (~2.0 Ma) was inferred, which coincides with major speciation events in other North American species. While the isolation-with-migration model suggested that nuclear gene flow was generally rare or absent among species or major genetic groups, coalescent simulations of mtDNA divergence revealed historical mtDNA introgression from L. californicus into the Pacific Northwest populations of L. americanus. This finding marks a history of past reticulation between these species, which may have affected other parts of the genome and influence the adaptive potential of hares during climate change. PMID:25113393

  9. 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva do Carmo; Saillard, Colette; Eveillard, Sandrine; Danet, Jean Luc; da Costa, Paulo Inácio; Ayres, Antonio Juliano; Bové, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    , were found to have identical or almost identical sequences. In contrast, the intergenic regions of the SPS-HLB liberibacter, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. africanus' had quite different sequences, with similarity between 66.0 and 79.5%. These results confirm that the SPS-HLB liberibacter is a novel species for which the name 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus' is proposed. Like the African and the Asian liberibacters, the 'American' liberibacter is restricted to the sieve tubes of the citrus host. The liberibacter could also be detected by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in Diaphorina citri, the psyllid vector of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', suggesting that this psyllid is also a vector of 'Ca. L. americanus' in SPS. 'Ca. L. americanus' was detected in 216 of 218 symptomatic leaf samples from 47 farms in 35 municipalities, while 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was detected in only 4 of the 218 samples, indicating that 'Ca. L. americanus' is the major cause of HLB in SPS. PMID:16166678

  10. Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, T; Garshelis, D L; Nelson, R A; Bahr, J M

    1999-01-01

    Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear. PMID:10027172

  11. Fatal disseminated blastomycosis in a free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Jaclyn A; Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Wünschmann, Arno

    2012-11-01

    An aged, free-ranging, female, radio-collared American black bear (Ursus americanus) died after an approximately 5 month long period of weight loss. Gross necropsy findings included severe diffuse pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, marked granulomatous lymphadenitis of tracheobronchial lymph nodes and multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes, chronic focal jejunal ulceration, and widespread alopecia. Histopathologic examination revealed abundant fungal organisms morphologically compatible with Blastomyces sp. within pyogranulomatous inflammatory lesions in the lungs, multiple lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, jejunum, and right adrenal gland. In addition, the haircoat had a mild infestation of chewing lice (Trichodectes pinguis euarctidos), and large numbers of rhabditid nematodes consistent with Pelodera sp. were histologically observed within hair follicles. PMID:23012379

  12. Sarcoptic mange and Pelodera dermatitis in an American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Cosgrove, Melinda K

    2008-06-01

    An adult female free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus) was presented in poor body condition, with advanced skin disease. Skin changes included hair loss, lichenification, crusting, and focal erosions. Skin scrapings and histopathology identified two distinct parasitic conditions that were contributing to this animal's dermatitis. Large numbers of larvae, nymphs, and adults of Sarcoptes scabiei were present in the superficial epidermis, and nematodes consistent with Pelodera strongyloides were abundant within the hair follicles. This appears to be the first reported case of Pelodera dermatitis in a bear species, adding a new differential agent to the list for dermatitis in bears. The sarcoptic mange and poor body condition of this bear may have been contributing factors to the development of the opportunistic Pelodera infestation. PMID:18634219

  13. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a North American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, David S; Govett, Pamela; Wolfe, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    A 10-yr-old female black bear (Ursus americanus) at the North Carolina Zoological Park presented with a 2-wk history of intermittent coughing and stertor. The animal was anesthetized for examination, and at intubation, a large mass associated with the tonsils and larynx was observed obstructing the airway. Cardiopulmonary collapse occurred during the procedure, and efforts at resuscitation were ineffective. At necropsy, an 8 cm times 6 cm times 5 cm mass was present in the larynx, infiltrating the epiglottis and obstructing the airway. Regional lymph nodes were mildly enlarged and contained tan inspissated substance. Histologically, the neoplasm was composed of nests of keratinizing squamous epithelial cells with evidence of lymphatic invasion and metastases to regional lymph nodes. PMID:17312782

  14. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  15. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  16. Analysis of gene expression in Homarus americanus larvae exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Megan; Greenwood, Spencer J; Clark, K Fraser; Jackman, Paula; Fairchild, Wayne

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural pesticide runoff has been suspected as the cause of numerous fish kills in rivers throughout Prince Edward Island but the impact on the surrounding marine environment is unknown. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is a potent neurotoxin and molt inhibitor used to combat the Colorado potato beetle however it has the potential to affect non-target organisms including the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Metamorphosis is a critical stage of development and the effects of contaminant exposure during this time are largely unknown in lobster. A 14day endosulfan exposure was performed to identify the effects on survival, development and gene expression in lobster larvae during metamorphosis; all of which were predicted to be negatively impacted. The higher endosulfan concentrations resulted in greater mortality and a significant increase in the number of days required to reach metamorphosis in surviving animals. A custom made H. americanus microarray was used for monitoring the changes in expression of 14,592 genes at the termination of the exposure. Genes with >1.5 fold change and identified as being significant at p<0.05 using one-way ANOVA were selected for further analysis. A total of 707 genes were identified as being significantly differentiated, however with only ~40% annotation of the array, the majority of these genes were unknown. Annotated genes of interest were involved in many processes: development, metabolism, immunity and oxidative stress response and gene regulation. Nine genes of interest (histone H1, farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase, cuticle protein, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, NADH dehydrogenase, ecdysone nuclear receptor Fushi tarazu F1 (FTZ-F1), ferritin and ecdysone inducible protein E75 (EIP-E75)) were selected for RT-qPCR validation of the microarray results. The RT-qPCR method was more sensitive than the microarray yet detected similar expression patterns. The two highest endosulfan concentrations resulted

  17. Purification and characterization of a digestive cysteine proteinase from the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Laycock, M V; Hirama, T; Hasnain, S; Watson, D; Storer, A C

    1989-10-15

    A new cysteine proteinase was isolated from the digestive juice of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The enzyme was purified by a combination of affinity and ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The cysteine proteinase accounted for 80% of the proteolytic activity in the lumen of the hepatopancreas. The most potent heavy-metal inhibitors were Hg, Cu, and Ag ions. Inhibition by organic proteinase inhibitors, including E-64 [L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] and activation of the enzyme by 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are characteristic of cysteine proteinases. Several similarities to papain are noted and include the N-terminal sequence, of which 22 of the first 28 amino acids are identical. Some notable differences are the higher Mr of 28,000 compared with 23,350 for papain, and the low isoelectric point (pI 4.5) of the lobster enzyme. The effects of pH and temperature on catalytic activity of the lobster proteinase were studied with benzyloxycarbonylalanine p-nitrophenyl ester as the substrate. The kcat./Km value was effectively temperature-independent between 10 and 60 degrees C. The pH-activity profile for the lobster enzyme revealed four apparent protonation states, of which only two are active. PMID:2597115

  18. Effects of silver on eggs and larvae of the winter flounder. [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-MacPhee, G.; Cardin, J.A.; Berry, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Embryos and yolk-sac larvae of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus were exposed to 0(control), 54, 92, 180, and 386 ..mu..g/liter silver (Ag/sup +/) during an 18-day flow-through bioassay. Percent hatch was signficantly reduced only at the 386-..mu..g/liter exposure level (24%). Embryos exposed to 180 and a 386 ..mu..g/liter hatched earlier than those exposed to lower concentrations, and many exhibited physical abnormalities. Larva mortality was significantly higher at 386, 180, and 92 ..mu..g/liter (100, 97, and 31%, respectively) than in the control (6%). The mean total lengths of larvae at hatch were significantly greater in control (3.56 mm) than in 386 ..mu..g/liter (1.98 mm) and 180 ..mu..g/liter (3.25 mm). At yolk-sac absorption, the mean total length of control larvae (4.27 mm) was significantly greater than that of larvae exposed to 180 ..mu..g/liter (4.15 mm). The highest concentration of silver not significantly reducing either survival or growth was 54 ..mu..g/liter.

  19. Sarcocystis oreamni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Van Wilpe, Erna; White, Kevin; Verma, Shiv K; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-11-01

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants, but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of three of seven mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; one had Sarcocystis cornagliai-like sarcocysts, previously named from the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) from Europe. Two other goats were infected with a new species, Sarcocystis oreamni. Sarcocystis oreamni sarcocysts were microscopic with 2 μm-thick sarcocyst wall. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had 1.7 μm-thick with unusual molar tooth-like villar protrusions (vp), type 29. The vp had an electron dense core and two disc-shaped plaques at the tip with fine microtubules. Bradyzoites were 8.6-9.1 μm long. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified in 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA loci of rDNA regions that suggested S. oreamni molecularly apart from related species. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA sequences suggested S. oreamni is related with Sarcocystis species that employ members of the Canidae family as their definitive host. PMID:26255900

  20. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  1. Liver lesions in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Jamaica Bay, New York: Indications of environmental degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Herman, R.L.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Liver sections of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from Jamaica Bay and Shinnecock Bay, New York, in 1989, were examined microscopically to determine the pervasiveness of liver lesions observed previously in Jamaica Bay winter flounder. Neoplastic lesions were not detected in fish from Jamaica Bay or the Shinnecock Bay reference site. Twenty-two percent of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined (n = 103) had unusual vacuolization of hepatocytes and biliary pre-ductal and ductal cells (referred to hereafter as the vacuolated cell lesion). The lesion, identical to that found in 25% of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined in 1988, has previously been identified in fishes taken from highly polluted regions of the Atlantic coast (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, and Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut). Prevalence of the vacuolated cell lesion in winter flounder from Jamaica Bay was significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than in 102 specimens collected from Shinnecock Bay. Current scientific literature indicates vacuolated hepatocytes and cholangiocytes are chronically injured and that the extent of their deformity is consistent with the action of a hepatotoxicant. The high prevalence of vacuolated hepatocytes in Jamaica Bay winter flounder and absence of the lesion in flounder from reference sites strongly supports the hypothesis that this impairment is a manifestation of a toxic condition in at least some portions of Jamaica Bay.

  2. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu )

    1990-02-26

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg{sup +2} precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl{sup {minus}} leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na{sup +} or tetramethylammonium{sup +} gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} < pH{sub i}) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} > pH{sub i}). {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/Cl{sup {minus}} exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K{sup +} diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K{sup +}/valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas.

  4. Behavior and substrate selection during larval settling in the lobster Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Botero, L.; Atema, J.

    1982-02-01

    During the molt from third- to fourth-stage, larvae of Homarus americanus metamorphose into their adult form and pigmentation. In the course of the fourth stage, their pelagic life changes to a benthic existence. Artificial substrate choice experiments and qualitative illumination experiments show that during the early fourth stage the phototactic response reverses from positive to negative. Together with positive thigmotaxis, this results in a choice of dark crevices. Among natural substrate choices, preferential settlement occurred on macroalgal-covered rocks, followed by rocks on sand, mud, and sand. Although mud was not a preferred substrate in choice tests, the animals that chose mud and those that were presented only with mud settled successfully and were immediately efficient in their burrowing behavior, constructing U-shaped tunnels even in the center of the aquarium without using a pebble or rock as a starting point. These laboratory test confirm field observations that lobsters can successfully exploit a variety of substrates. They show that a substrate with preformed crevices is preferred for settling, but other substrates can be manipulated to make suitable burrows.

  5. Electrogenic sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Cattey, M.A.; Gerencser, G.A.; Aheam, G.A. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville )

    1990-02-26

    Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were isolated from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas and purified by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. BLMV prepared in this fashion were osmotically reactive exhibiting linear dependence of vesicular {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} uptake to increasing external osmotic pressure with negligible non-specific isotope binding. Under short circuited conditions (valinomycin/K{sup +}) BLMV responded to either a HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} gradient directed out or equilibrated HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} (10 mM) by displaying short term accumulation of sulfate above that of equilibrium. Uptake of divalent anion was unaffected by an inwardly directed transmembrane Na{sup +} or tetramethylammonium{sup +} gradient. {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchange in the presence of valinomycin was stimulated by transient inside positive K{sup +} diffusion potentials and inhibited by transient inside negative K{sup +} diffusion potentials. The role of electrogenic anion exchange by hepatopancreas BLMV in transcellular sulfate transport is discussed.

  6. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle. PMID:25804485

  7. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  8. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. PMID:22503889

  9. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. PMID:26113220

  10. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Ellen; Spiker, Harry; Driscoll, Cindy P

    2014-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. From 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five Maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. A large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. Prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies virus and to infectious agents of carnivores including canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus were lower. Bears also had antibodies to vector-borne pathogens common to bears and humans such as West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Antibodies were detected to Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava. We did not detect antibodies to Brucella canis or Ehrlichia canis. Although this population of Maryland black bears demonstrated exposure to multiple pathogens of concern for humans and domesticated animals, the low levels of clinical disease in this and other free-ranging black bear populations indicate the black bear is likely a spillover host for the majority of pathogens studied. Nevertheless, bear populations living at the human-domestic-wildlife interface with increasing human and domestic animal exposure should continue to be monitored because this population likely serves as a useful sentinel of ecosystem health. PMID:25075540

  11. Bears "Count" Too: Quantity Estimation and Comparison in Black Bears (Ursus Americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Beran, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Studies of bear cognition are notably missing from the comparative record despite bears' large relative brain size and interesting status as generalist carnivores facing complex foraging challenges, but lacking complex social structures. We investigated the numerical abilities of three American black bears (Ursus Americanus) by presenting discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. One bear chose the larger of two arrays of dot stimuli, while two bears chose the smaller array of dots. On some trials the relative number of dots was congruent with the relative total area of the two arrays. On other trials number of dots was incongruent with area. All of the bears were above chance on trials of both types with static dots. Despite encountering greater difficulty with dots that moved within the arrays, one bear was able to discriminate numerically larger arrays of moving dots, and a subset of moving dots from within the larger array, even when area and number were incongruent. Thus, although the bears used area as a cue to guide responding, they were also able to use number as a cue. The pattern of performance was similar to that found previously with monkeys, and suggests that bears may also show other forms of sophisticated quantitative abilities. PMID:22822244

  12. The exoskeleton of the lobster Homarus americanus as an example of a smart anisotropic biological material.

    PubMed

    Romano, Patricia; Fabritius, Helge; Raabe, Dierk

    2007-05-01

    Many biological materials are composed of fibrils arranged according to well-ordered three-dimensional patterns. These materials often show a strong anisotropy in their properties. An essential characteristic of biological structures is their hierarchical organization from the nanometer to the millimeter scale. Lobster cuticle is a good example of this and a suitable model for studying these properties. In this study the structure of untreated as well as chemically and physically treated cuticle from the exoskeleton of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Fresh samples have been chemically decalcified and deproteinated and thermally treated to evaluate their resistance to degradation. Results showed that their structure is more complex than the commonly assumed model for arthropod cuticles. Stacked chitin-protein planes create the characteristic twisted plywood pattern found in arthropod cuticles. However, due to a well-developed pore canal system these planes are not simple arrays of parallel chitin-protein fibers. In lobster cuticle, interconnected fibers bend around the continuous lenticellate cavities of the pore canals to form a planar honeycomb-like structure. The chemically and thermally treated samples showed that the organic matrix retains its shape and structure despite the attack of chemical compounds or heat. It was also possible to study the distribution of the biominerals after the removal of the organic matrix. The observed residual structure gives a good impression of how the minerals (mainly calcite) are distributed inside the polymeric network. PMID:17208527

  13. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  14. Meteorological effects on the biting activity of Leptoconops americanus(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Strickman, D; Wirtz, R; Lawyer, P; Glick, J; Stockwell, S; Perich, M

    1995-03-01

    Collections of biting Leptoconops americanus were made at half-hour intervals throughout the daylight hours on Stansbury Island, UT, during 9 days in May, 1993. The most favorable conditions for biting (> or = 90 bites on the ears in 15 min) included temperatures higher than 15 degrees C, minimum wind (< 5 kph), minimum cloud cover, maximum sun, and no rain. Temperatures below 10 degrees C or the presence of rain prevented almost all biting. Higher winds and cloudiness decreased biting activity, but did not eliminate it if other conditions were favorable. Although not statistically significant, there was some suggestion from the data that higher temperatures (> 25 degrees C) reduced biting. The flies did not appear to be more numerous at any particular part of the day; the biting rate simply followed meteorological conditions at the time. Ambient light varied between 1 and 10,000 foot candles during the study, with high biting rates (76 and 99 bites per 15 min) observed at levels as low as 80-100 foot candles. PMID:7616184

  15. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  16. Microfibrils provide non-linear elastic behaviour in the abdominal artery of the lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, C J; DeMont, M E; Wright, G M

    1997-01-01

    1. Microfibrils are becoming increasingly recognized as an important component of the extra-cellular matrix. However, almost nothing is known about their mechanical role in the diversity of tissues in which they are found. 2. Microfibrils form the principal structural component in the wall of the abdominal artery of the lobster Homarus americanus. We have used previous estimates of the mechanical properties of these microfibrils, estimates of the fraction of the aorta wall volume occupied by the microfibrils, and their angular distribution as a function of strain in a numerical model that predicts the macroscopic mechanical properties of the whole tissue. 3. Microfibrils alone, when their reorientation and deformation are accounted for, characterize the stress-strain behaviour of the vessel. Evidence of the evolutionary conservation of fibrillin between medusans, echinoderms and vertebrates implies that the mechanical properties of lobster microfibrils may apply to microfibrillar function in other taxa. This will have profound implications on the perceived roles of microfibrils in development, physiology and disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9080378

  17. Necator americanus secretory acetylcholinesterase and its purification from excretory-secretory products by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Leggett, K V; Rogan, M T; McKean, P G; Brown, A

    1991-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) secretion by adult N. americanus was enhanced in vitro by incorporating insoluble collagen rafts into culture dishes. Enzyme produced in this way had preferential substrate specificity for acetylthiocholine iodide (ATC), and its activity was inhibited by eserine (1.1 x 10(-8) M). Ancylostoma ceylanicum, another hookworm species, failed to produce comparable amounts of AChE in culture. AChE was efficiently purified from culture medium by affinity chromatography on edrophonium sepharose; 81% of the AChE activity was retained by the affinity matrix, although this fraction contained only 4.3% of the protein loaded. Antisera raised against purified AChE in rabbits immunohistochemically stained the oesophageal glands of the parasite, and reacted with molecules of 32, 60, 80, 140 and 220 kDa in reduced adult ES products on Western blotting, although differential activity was observed against worm homogenates and earlier developmental stages. On IEF, purified AChE resolved predominantly with a pl of 3.55; proteins with a similar pl were recognized by rabbit anti-AChE. IgG preparations of this antiserum inhibited AChE activity in ES products, and inhibited AChE secretion by adult worms in culture. The availability of this immunological probe will allow definitive experiments to be conducted on the role of this enigmatic enzyme in the host-parasite relationship. PMID:2052405

  18. Seasonal variability of prey in the stomachs of Astropecten americanus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from off southern New England, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, David R.; Worley, E. K.

    1982-04-01

    The diet of Astropecten americanus from a location off Nantucket Shoals, Massachusetts, was determined by analysis of stomach contents in May and November. Molluscs, followed by crustaceans, dominated stomach contents. The proportion of molluscan species in the diet differed significantly from the benthos, Juvenile Arctica islandica dominated stomachs in May, but declined sharply in November, probably due in part to predation by Astropecten. Other molluscs, not prevalent in the benthos, were important in stomach contents. Frequency distributions of counts of prey species in a sample of seastar stomachs indicate that some seastars ingest unusually large numbers of certain prey species. A. americanus generally ingests small prey individuals (<4mm) although larger prey are consumed, especially in November. Relatively high selectivity, seasonal shifts in the diversity of stomach contents, and evidence for patch-specific foraging are characteristics of A. americanus which are consistent with general predictions of optimum diet models.

  19. 65Zn2+ transport by isolated gill epithelial cells of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Sá, M G; Ahearn, G A; Zanotto, F P

    2009-07-01

    Gills are the first site of impact by metal ions in contaminated waters. Work on whole gill cells and metal uptake has not been reported before in crustaceans. In this study, gill filaments of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, were dissociated in physiological saline and separated into several cell types on a 30, 40, 50, and 80% sucrose gradient. Cells from each sucrose solution were separately resuspended in physiological saline and incubated in 65Zn2+ in order to assess the nature of metal uptake by each cell type. Characteristics of zinc accumulation by each kind of cell were investigated in the presence and absence of 10 mM calcium, variable NaCl concentrations and pH values, and 100 muM verapamil, nifedipine, and the calcium ionophore A23187. 65Zn2+ influxes were hyperbolic functions of zinc concentration (1-1,000 microM) and followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Calcium reduced both apparent zinc binding affinity (K (m)) and maximal transport velocity (J (max)) for 30% sucrose cells, but doubled the apparent maximal transport velocity for 80% sucrose cells. Results suggest that calcium, sodium, and protons enter gill epithelial cells by an endogenous broad-specificity cation channel and trans-stimulate metal uptake by a plasma membrane carrier system. Differences in zinc transport observed between gill epithelial cell types appear related to apparent affinity differences of the transporters in each kind of cell. Low affinity cells from 30% sucrose were inhibited by calcium, while high affinity cells from 80% sucrose were stimulated. 65Zn2+ transport was also studied by isolated, intact, gill filament tips. These intact gill fragments generally displayed the same transport properties as did cells from 80% sucrose and provided support for metal uptake processes being an apical phenomenon. A working model for zinc transport by lobster gill cells is presented. PMID:19198852

  20. Oocyte recovery and maturation in the American black bear (Ursus americanus): a model for endangered ursids.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L A; Donoghue, A M; Igo, W; Simmons, L G; Wildt, D E; Rieffenberger, J

    1994-05-15

    A study was conducted to determine if meiotic maturation could be induced in ovarian oocytes of the American black bear (Ursus americanus), a model for gamete "rescue" techniques for endangered ursids. Ovaries obtained from 48 black bears yielded 2,403 oocytes (51.1 +/- 4.9/female), of which 777 (32.3%) were morphologically classified as excellent quality. More total oocytes were recovered from donors that were anestrous compared to luteal/pregnant (P < 0.05) at the time of ovarian excision. Delaying the recovery of oocytes from antral follicles within excised ovaries from 12-24 hr to 25-36 hr had no effect (P > 0.05) on the overall number of high quality oocytes recovered or subsequent maturational ability. The highest incidence of metaphase II was reached between 48 and 60 hr of in vitro incubation. Donor status (anestrous vs. luteal/pregnant) had no influence on the oocyte maturation rate by 24 or 48 hr, but by 60 hr, more (P < 0.05) oocytes recovered from anestrous females (43.9%) had achieved metaphase II compared to luteal/pregnant counterparts (23.1%). In preliminary trials involving endangered ursids, 54 ovarian oocytes were recovered from three aged sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), of which 72.2% were excellent quality and 15.4% matured in vitro to metaphase II. Similarly, 119 antral oocytes were recovered from two aged sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), of which 41.2% were excellent and 17.5% matured in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8207381

  1. Multidisciplinary assessment of pollution at three sites in Long Island Sound. [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Gronlund, W.D.; Sinlam Chan; McCain, B.B.; Clark, R.C. Jr.; Myers, M.S.; Stein, J.E.; Brown, D.W.; Landahl, J.T.; Krahn, M.M.; Varanasi, U. )

    1991-09-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were sampled from three sites located near Norwalk, New Haven, and Niantic, Connecticut, in Long Island Sound during February 1987, to evaluate the degree of chemical contamination and to determine possible effects of contaminant exposure. At each site, sediment ad infaunal invertebrates were also collected and analyzed for trace metals and organic chemicals. Specimens of liver and kidney from winter flounder were examined for histopathological conditions, including the presence of macrophage aggregates in liver tissue. Liver samples were also analyzed for DNA damage (i.e., the formation of adducts between DNA and chemical contaminants). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for erythrocyte micronuclei. The sampling site near New Haven was determined to be the most affected site, from the standpoints of greater chemical contamination and possible effects on winter flounder. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were highest in sediment from this site, and the highest prevalences of the histopathological changes and DNA alterations were also found in the livers of winter flounder from this site. No differences in the concentrations of contaminants in fish or in frequencies of erythrocyte micronuclei in fish blood were found between sites. None of the sites samples had contaminant levels or prevalences of lesions as high as previously found at other East Coast locations (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, Raritan Bay, New York). Overall, the results indicate moderate levels of pollution at two of the urban sites in Long Island Sound and provide a framework for expanded studies to better define the extent and impact of chemical pollution in Long Island Sound.

  2. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  3. Behavioral Thermoregulation and Trade-Offs in Juvenile Lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Travis V; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-02-01

    Water temperature influences the behavior and distribution patterns of both larval and adult American lobster Homarus americanus. However, very little is known about the responses of juvenile lobsters. The juvenile life stage is a critical period; high levels of mortality, combined with specific behavioral responses, can disconnect larval settlement from patterns of abundance of adults. We assessed behavioral thermoregulation in juvenile lobsters, and determined how thermal preferences can be altered by the presence of shelter and food. Juvenile lobsters avoided temperatures higher than 20 °C and lower than 8 °C, and had a mean temperature preference of 16.2 ± 1 °C. This preference was unaffected by prior acclimation, origin (laboratory-raised or wild), or size. When the animals were subjected to a temperature change (5-20 °C), activity rates peaked at 15 °C, and remained stable thereafter. Activity rates did not change when a shelter was added. The addition of food resulted in an increase in activity associated with food handling. When juvenile lobsters were offered a choice between temperature, shelter, and food, they always chose the environment with a shelter, even when it was in a thermally unfavorable temperature. Juveniles also spent more time in a thermally unfavorable environment when food was present; however, acquisition of a shelter was prioritized over food. Although juveniles had a similar thermal preference to adults, they are more vulnerable to predation; the innate shelter-seeking behavior of juveniles overrode their thermal preference. While temperature is an important environmental factor affecting the physiology, distribution, and growth of aquatic ectotherms, our findings suggest that trade-off behaviors occur in order to maintain optimal fitness and survival of the individual. PMID:26896176

  4. Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrus in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Himelright, Brendan M; Moore, Jenna M; Gonzales, Ramona L; Mendoza, Alejandra V; Dye, Penny S; Schuett, Randall J; Durrant, Barbara S; Read, Betsy A; Spady, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are seasonally polyoestrous and exhibit delayed implantation, which may allow equal and independent fertility of recurrent oestruses of a mating season. We postulated that the luteal inactivity during delayed implantation allows bears to have sequential ovulation during a polyoestrous mating season such that each oestrus of a polyoestrous female will have equivalent fertility, and pregnancy would not preclude subsequent ovulation and superfetation. Controlled mating experiments were conducted on semi-free-ranging female American black bears during three mating seasons, wherein females were bred by different male cohorts in each oestrus. Behavioural observation, vulva score ranking, genetic paternity analysis, gross morphology of ovaries and microscopic morphology of diapaused embryos were used to evaluate the fertility of each subsequent oestrus in polyoestrous females. Oestrus duration, number of successful mounts and median vulva scores were similar between first and subsequent oestruses of the season. Polyoestrus occurred in 81.3% of oestrous females, with a 9.7 ± 5.5 day (mean ± SD) inter-oestrous interval. Sequential ovulation was documented in three polyoestrous females, including one that possessed both a corpus haemorrhagicum and a developed corpus luteum. Among polyoestrous dams, four of nine embryos were conceived in the first oestrus and five of nine in the second oestrus. These results indicate that each oestrus of polyoestrous females is capable of fertility, even if the female is already pregnant from a prior oestrus. Although superfetation was not directly observed in the present study, our results strongly suggest the potential of superfetation in the American black bear and provide novel insight into the complex behavioural and physiological breeding mechanisms of bears. Given that most endangered bear species share similar reproductive traits with American black bears, captive breeding programmes

  5. Thyroid cystadenoma, colloid goiter, and hypothyroidism in an American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Storms, Timothy N; Beazley, Shelley L; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward C

    2004-03-01

    A 178-kg, 14-yr-old captive female American black bear (Ursus americanus) was examined because of lethargy, inappetance, obesity, and alopecia. Serum chemistry and complete blood count values were within normal limits. Based on serum levels for total thyroxine (T4), free T4 by equilibrium dialysis (fT4ED), and canine thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations, using assays validated for domestic dogs, hypothyroidism was diagnosed presumptively, and therapy with levothyroxine sodium (0.022 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) was initiated. Haircoat, body weight, appetite, and activity level improved within 30 days. The levothyroxine dose was decreased twice (to 0.018 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. and then to 0.011 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) during the course of treatment based on monitoring of serum T4 and fT4ED concentrations. After euthanasia for severe refractory lameness, postmortem examination revealed bilateral thyroid lobe enlargement and a fluid-filled cyst within the right lobe. Histologically, colloid goiter was present in both lobes, and a follicular cystadenoma had replaced one third of the cranial pole of the right lobe. The goiter and cystadenoma likely contributed to the hypothyroid condition in this bear and fT4ED was a more sensitive indicator of hypothyroidism than was T4. The recommended canine dosage of levothyroxine may be too high for the treatment of hypothyroidism in American black bears; 0.011 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. may be a more appropriate dosage. PMID:15193079

  6. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  7. Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrus in American black bears (Ursus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Himelright, Brendan M.; Moore, Jenna M.; Gonzales, Ramona L.; Mendoza, Alejandra V.; Dye, Penny S.; Schuett, Randall J.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Read, Betsy A.; Spady, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are seasonally polyoestrous and exhibit delayed implantation, which may allow equal and independent fertility of recurrent oestruses of a mating season. We postulated that the luteal inactivity during delayed implantation allows bears to have sequential ovulation during a polyoestrous mating season such that each oestrus of a polyoestrous female will have equivalent fertility, and pregnancy would not preclude subsequent ovulation and superfetation. Controlled mating experiments were conducted on semi-free-ranging female American black bears during three mating seasons, wherein females were bred by different male cohorts in each oestrus. Behavioural observation, vulva score ranking, genetic paternity analysis, gross morphology of ovaries and microscopic morphology of diapaused embryos were used to evaluate the fertility of each subsequent oestrus in polyoestrous females. Oestrus duration, number of successful mounts and median vulva scores were similar between first and subsequent oestruses of the season. Polyoestrus occurred in 81.3% of oestrous females, with a 9.7 ± 5.5 day (mean ± SD) inter-oestrous interval. Sequential ovulation was documented in three polyoestrous females, including one that possessed both a corpus haemorrhagicum and a developed corpus luteum. Among polyoestrous dams, four of nine embryos were conceived in the first oestrus and five of nine in the second oestrus. These results indicate that each oestrus of polyoestrous females is capable of fertility, even if the female is already pregnant from a prior oestrus. Although superfetation was not directly observed in the present study, our results strongly suggest the potential of superfetation in the American black bear and provide novel insight into the complex behavioural and physiological breeding mechanisms of bears. Given that most endangered bear species share similar reproductive traits with American black bears, captive breeding programmes

  8. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic). American lobster. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, C.; Moring, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This species profile is a literature summary of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). These species profiles are designed to assist in the preparation of environmental impact assessments. The American lobster is a valuable commercial shellfish. After spawning, lobsters undergo a series of molts; as adults they live in coastal and offshore waters. Lobsters are captured in baited traps and incidentally in trawls. About 5 to 6 million pounds were captured commercially in 1983, a downward trend from 1971. Major environmental factors affecting reproduction, growth, and survival are water temperature, oxygen concentration, salinity, and substrate. 82 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raithel, C.J.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Prospero, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was monitored on Block Island, RI, USA, from 1991-2003 using mark-recapture population estimates of adults collected in pitfall traps. Populations increased through time, especially after 1994 when a program was initiated that provided carrion for beetle production. Beetle captures increased with increasing temperature and dew point, and decreased with increasing wind speed. Short distance movement was not related to wind direction, while longer distance flights tended to be downwind. Although many individuals flew considerable distances along transects, most recaptures were in traps near the point of release. These behaviors probably have counterbalancing effects on population estimates.

  10. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  11. Application of a real-time PCR method for detecting and monitoring hookworm Necator americanus infections in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Xu; Pan, Cang-Sang; Cui, Li-Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative PCR method for detecting hookworm infection and quantification. Methods A real-time PCR method was designed based on the intergenic region II of ribosomal DNA of the hookworm Necator americanus. The detection limit of this method was compared with the microscopy-based Kato-Katz method. The real-time PCR method was used to conduct an epidemiological survey of hookworm infection in southern Fujian Province of China. Results The real-time PCR method was specific for detecting Necator americanus infection, and was more sensitive than conventional PCR or microscopy-based method. A preliminary survey for hookworm infection in villages of Fujian Province confirmed the high prevalence of hookworm infections in the resident populations. In addition, the infection rate in women was significantly higher than that of in men. Conclusions A real-time PCR method is designed, which has increased detection sensitivity for more accurate epidemiological studies of hookworm infections, especially when intensity of the infection needs to be considered. PMID:23593570

  12. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus): molecular characterization, distribution and effects of fasting.

    PubMed

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is primarily related to reproductive processes in vertebrates. However other physiological roles, including functions in food intake regulation and energy status, have been demonstrated for GnRH in animals. The ten amino acid active peptide is relatively conserved throughout chordates, more specifically in fish species. Teleosts generally have at least two variants of GnRH present in their genomes. GnRH2 (commonly termed chicken-GnRH) is common to all fish, whereas other prevalent forms include GnRH1 and/or GnRH3 (also known as salmon-GnRH). The mRNAs of all three forms were identified in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder GnRH1 appears to be ubiquitously and strongly expressed throughout the brain. GnRH2 mRNA is highly expressed in the optic tectum/thalamus. Finally, GnRH3 mRNA is expressed throughout the brain, but not in the pituitary, with apparent highest expression in the telencephalon/preoptic area. Flounder GnRH1 mRNA is found in most peripheral tissues examined, including the foregut, midgut and gonads. GnRH2 mRNA appears to be expressed throughout the periphery, with apparent highest transcript expression in male gonads. Finally, winter flounder GnRH3 transcript is found at low levels in the skin, heart, and gonads. The effect of fasting on the expression of each of the three isoforms was assessed. Fasting reduces GnRH2 and GnRH3 mRNA expression in the optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus, and telencephalon/preoptic area, respectively, compared with fed fish. GnRH1 mRNA expression does not appear to be altered by feeding status. GnRH mRNAs do not seem to regulate food intake peripherally through the gut based on our preliminary findings. Our preliminary results suggest that the GnRH system could play a central role in food intake regulation of winter flounder. PMID:23298570

  13. Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in

  14. Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in the male black bear Ursus americanus.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, T; Howell-Skalla, L; Nitta, H; Osawa, Y; Mason, J I; Meiers, P G; Nelson, R A; Bahr, J M

    1997-01-01

    American black bears, Ursus americanus, are seasonal breeders with a mating season in late spring to early summer. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and immunolocalization of testicular steroidogenic enzymes, and to correlate these changes with peripheral steroid concentrations. Three captive mature bears were maintained in open cages during the summer season and provided with chambers for denning during the winter. Testicular biopsies and blood samples were obtained from anaesthetized bears on 12 March, 15 June, 12 October and 15 January. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), human placental 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD), porcine testicular 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and human placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom). Spermatogenesis changed seasonally: spermatogonia and degenerating spermatocytes were observed in October; spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were present in January; spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round spermatids were present in March; and spermatogonia through spermatozoa were present in June. P450scc and P450c17 were immunolocalized in spermatids and Leydig cells in June, whereas in October these enzymes were present only in Leydig cells. 3 beta HSD was localized in Leydig cells in June and October with more intense staining in June. Localization of P450arom changed seasonally: no immunostaining in October; positive immunostaining in Sertoli cells in January; more extensive immunostaining in Sertoli cells, peritubular-myoid cells and round spermatids in March; and strong immunostaining in Sertoli cells and round and elongating spermatids in June. Serum testosterone and oestradiol concentrations changed seasonally: testosterone and oestrogen were low in October and January, slightly higher in March, and high in

  15. ISOLATION AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), CATS (FELIS DOMESTICUS), STRIPED SKUNK (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS), BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS), AND COUGAR (PUMA CONCOLOR) FROM CANADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats ( Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus ) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Geno...

  16. Negative density-dependent dispersal in the American black bear (Ursus americanus) revealed by noninvasive sampling and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Justin; Yannic, Glenn; Côté, Steeve D; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Although the dispersal of animals is influenced by a variety of factors, few studies have used a condition-dependent approach to assess it. The mechanisms underlying dispersal are thus poorly known in many species, especially in large mammals. We used 10 microsatellite loci to examine population density effects on sex-specific dispersal behavior in the American black bear, Ursus americanus. We tested whether dispersal increases with population density in both sexes. Fine-scale genetic structure was investigated in each of four sampling areas using Mantel tests and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Our results revealed male-biased dispersal pattern in low-density areas. As population density increased, females appeared to exhibit philopatry at smaller scales. Fine-scale genetic structure for males at higher densities may indicate reduced dispersal distances and delayed dispersal by subadults. PMID:22822432

  17. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  18. Investigation of American lobster, Homarus americanus, for the presence of chlorinated dibenzo-rho-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Taguchi, V.; Musial, C.J.; Uthe, J.F.

    1987-12-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) are a group of 75 compounds of current environmental concern. Most attention has been focused on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8,-TCDD) because of high toxicity exhibited in laboratory animal studies. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) comprise 135 compounds similar to the PCDD in structure and toxicity. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) is the most toxic of this group. Two principal sources of PCDD and PCDF in the environment are incineration and as by-products in the manufacture and use of pentachlorophenols. American lobsters (Homarus americanus) have not been previously investigated for the presence of PCDD and PCDF. Lobsters were examined in this study because of their proximity to possible sources of PCDD and PCDF and an ability to concentrate hydrophobic organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the digestive gland.

  19. Cadmium contamination in American lobster, Homarus americanus, near a coastal lead smelter: use of multiple linear regression for management

    SciTech Connect

    Uthe, J.F.; Scott, D.P.; Chou, C.L.

    1987-04-01

    In 1980 cadmium (Cd) concentrations in digestive gland from American Lobster (Homarus americanus), captured at Belledune Harbour, New Brunswick, Canada were found to range 47.6-372 mg/kg wet weight. Since the digestive gland is commonly eaten the harbor fishery was closed. The adjacent area was decreed a controlled fishery zone. The cadmium source was a lead smelter on the harbor shore. The company installed an aqueous effluent treatment plant and improved handling procedures within the plant area. Aqueous Cd discharges were subsequently reduced by more than 95%. Cadmium levels in lobsters have been monitored annually since 1980 by sampling in early spring, immediately after the lobsters emerged from their overwintering locations. The results from the 1981-1985 monitoring program were used to model the system, analyze the data and predict the years in which certain changes to the management plan might be implemented.

  20. Serologic Survey of Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) in the Greater Yellowstone Area for Brucellosis, Tularemia, and Snowshoe Hare Virus.

    PubMed

    Tyers, Dan; Zimmer, Jeremy; Lewandowski, Kristen; Hennager, Steve; Young, John; Pappert, Ryan; Panella, Amanda; Kosoy, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We examined sera from snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) livetrapped in the northern Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), US, for antibodies to Brucella abortus, Francisella tularensis, and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). Zero of 90, 0 of 67, and 40 of 100 samples were antibody positive for B. abortus, F. tularensis, and SSHV, respectively. Hares were trapped from 2009 to 2012, and of the six animals that were captured twice with at least 1 yr between captures, four developed antibody to SSHV, indicating active exposure to the agent. These findings suggest snowshoe hares in the GYA do not play a significant role as a reservoir of B. abortus, but do maintain the zoonotic, encephalitic SSHV in the population. PMID:26161724

  1. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species. PMID:25989983

  2. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  3. Bird-habitat relationships in interior Columbia Basin shrubsteppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, S.L.; Holmes, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation structure is considered an important habitat feature structuring avian communities. In the sagebrush biome, both remotely-sensed and field-acquired measures of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) cover have proven valuable in understanding avian abundance. Differences in structure between the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and native bunchgrasses are also expected to be important. We used avian abundance data from 318 point count stations, coupled with field vegetation measurements and a detailed vegetation map, to model abundance for four shrub- and four grassland-associated avian species in southeastern Washington shrubsteppe. Specifically, we ask whether species distinguish between bunchgrass and cheatgrass, and whether mapped, categorical cover types adequately explain species' abundance or whether fine-grained, field-measured differences in vegetation cover are also important. Results indicate that mapped cover types alone can be useful for predicting patterns of distribution and abundance within the sagebrush biome for several avian species (five of eight studied here). However, field-measured sagebrush cover was a strong positive predictor for Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli), the only sagebrush obligate in this study, and a strong negative predictor for two grassland associates, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Likewise, shrub associates did not differ in abundance in sagebrush with a cheatgrass vs. bunchgrass understory, but grassland associates were more common in either bunchgrass (Horned Lark and Grasshopper Sparrow) or cheatgrass grasslands (Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus), or tended to use sagebrush-cheatgrass less than sagebrush-bunchgrass (Horned Lark, Grasshopper Sparrow, and Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis).

  4. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Fernández, Alicia; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Lobo, Esther; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2002-02-01

    A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for the specific identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. Using two different reaction primers (S1 and L1), RAPD analysis produced clear fingerprints from which the three fish species could be easily identified. This approach is rapid and reliable and offers the potential to detect fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species in routine seafood authentication analysis. PMID:11848581

  5. Binding of Excreted and/or Secreted Products of Adult Hookworms to Human NK Cells in Necator americanus-Infected Individuals from Brazil▿

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Olive, Denise; Damsker, Jesse M.; Loukas, Alex; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Constant, Stephanie L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the interaction between excreted and/or secreted (ES) Necator americanus products and NK cells from Necator-infected individuals was analyzed. We investigated the binding of ES products to NK cells, the expression of NK cell receptors (CD56, CD159a/NKG2A, CD314/NKG2D, CD335/NKp46, and KLRF1/NKp80), the frequency of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing NK cells after whole-blood in vitro stimulation, and the capacity of N. americanus ES products to induce NK cell chemotaxis. In contrast to those from noninfected individuals, NK cells from Necator-infected individuals demonstrated no binding with N. americanus ES products. This phenomenon was not due to alterations in NK cell receptor expression in infected subjects and could not be reproduced with NK cells from uninfected individuals by incubation with immunoregulatory cytokines (interleukin-10/transforming growth factor β). Further, we found that a significantly greater percentage of NK cells from infected subjects than NK cells from uninfected individuals spontaneously produced IFN-γ upon ex vivo culture. Our findings support a model whereby NK cells from Necator-infected individuals may interact with ES products, making these cells refractory to binding with exogenous ES products. During N. americanus infection, human NK cells are attracted to the site of infection by chemotactic ES products produced by adult Necator worms in the gut mucosa. Binding of ES products causes the NK cells to become activated and secrete IFN-γ locally, thereby contributing to the adult hookworm's ability to evade host immune responses. PMID:18838519

  6. Necator americanus Infection: A Possible Cause of Altered Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Eosinophil Profile in Chronically Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Cançado, Guilherme G. L.; Freitas, Paula A.; Santiago, Helton C.; Massara, Cristiano Lara; dos Santos Carvalho, Omar; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Geiger, Stefan M.; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background Hookworms survive for several years (5 to 7 years) in the host lumen, inducing a robust but largely ineffective immune response. Among the most striking aspects of the immune response to hookworm (as with many other helminths) is the ablation of parasite-specific T cell proliferative response (hyporesponsiveness). While the role of the adaptive immune response in human helminth infection has been well investigated, the role of the innate immune responses (e.g., dendritic cells and eosinophils) has received less attention and remains to be clearly elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the differentiation/maturation of host dendritic cells in vitro and the eosinophil activation/function associated with human hookworm infection. Mature DCs (mDCs) from Necator americanus (Necator)–infected individuals showed an impaired differentiation process compared to the mDCs of non-infected individuals, as evidenced by the differential expression of CD11c and CD14. These same hookworm-infected individuals also presented significantly down-regulated expression of CD86, CD1a, HLA-ABC, and HLA-DR. The lower expression of co-stimulatory and antigen presentation molecules by hookworm-infected–derived mDCs was further evidenced by their reduced ability to induce cell proliferation. We also showed that this alternative DC differentiation is partially induced by excreted-secreted hookworm products. Conversely, eosinophils from the same individuals showed a highly activated status, with an upregulation of major cell surface markers. Antigen-pulsed eosinophils from N. americanus–infected individuals induced significant cell proliferation of autologous PBMCs, when compared to non-infected individuals. Conclusion Chronic N. americanus infection alters the host's innate immune response, resulting in a possible modulation of the maturation process of DCs, a functional change that may diminish their ability for antigen presentation and thus contribute to the

  7. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    PubMed

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis. PMID:19703606

  8. Copper-metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: potential role as Cu(I) donors to apohemocyanin

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, M.; Whaling, P.; Engel, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The physiological function of copper(I)-metallothionein is not well understood. The respiratory function of hemocyanin, a copper(I)-containing respiratory protein found in the hemolymph of many invertebrates, has been known a long time. However, the mechanism by which Cu(I) is inserted into the oxygen-binding site of apohemocyanin is completely unknown. This investigation tests that hypothesis that copper(I)-metallothionein may act as a Cu(I) donor to apohemocyanin. To this end, copper-binding proteins and hemocyanin were purified from the digestive gland and hemolymph of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In the presence of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol, the copper-binding proteins can be resolved into three components of DEAE-cellulose. The first two have been characterized as metallothioneins. The cysteine content of the third component is half of that of components I and II. The purified proteins are not capable of transferring Cu(I) to the active sites of completely copper-free apohemocyanin. They are capable, however, of transferring Cu(I) to active sites of hemocyanin containing reduced amounts of Cu(I), suggesting that the conformational state of hemocyanin is the determining factor in the Cu(I) transfer mechanism.

  9. 1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane disposition in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Little, P.J.; James, M.O.; Foureman, G.L.; Weatherby, R.P.; Bend, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane, a model compound for the non-volatile aliphatic hydrocarbon components of crude oil, was administered by intrapericardial injection to the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, and the clawed or American lobster, Homarus americanus. Experiments were conducted in Florida (spiny lobster) and Maine (American lobster). The animals were sacrificed at various times from 0.5 hr to 8 wks after administration of the dose. The tissues and fluids were analyzed for /sup 14/C content by digestion or catalytic oxidation and liquid scintillation counting. Selected tissues (hepatopancreas, tail muscle and hemolymph) were extracted with ethyl acetate to allow quantitation of the unmetabolized n-hexadecane by thin layer chromatography. n-Hexadecane-derived radioactivity was very persistent in both the spiny lobster (t1/2 = 4.6 wk) and the American lobster (t1/2 = 11.2 wk). In both lobsters, the hepatopancreas (HP) acquired the highest specific activity and the tail muscle had the longest half life for elimination from an individual tissue. Although hexadecane was metabolized more rapidly in the HP of the spiny lobster than in the HP of the American lobster, unmetabolized hexadecane persisted in the HPs of both species for at least 8 weeks after the dose (the longest time studied).

  10. Forces generated during stretch in the heart of the lobster Homarus americanus are anisotropic and are altered by neuromodulators.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, E S; Johnson, A S; Ellers, O; Dickinson, P S

    2016-04-15

    Mechanical and neurophysiological anisotropies mediate three-dimensional responses of the heart of ITALIC! Homarus americanus Although hearts ITALIC! in vivoare loaded multi-axially by pressure, studies of invertebrate cardiac function typically use uniaxial tests. To generate whole-heart length-tension curves, stretch pyramids at constant lengthening and shortening rates were imposed uniaxially and biaxially along longitudinal and transverse axes of the beating whole heart. To determine whether neuropeptides that are known to modulate cardiac activity in ITALIC! H. americanusaffect the active or passive components of these length-tension curves, we also performed these tests in the presence of SGRNFLRFamide (SGRN) and GYSNRNYLRFamide (GYS). In uniaxial and biaxial tests, both passive and active forces increased with stretch along both measurement axes. The increase in passive forces was anisotropic, with greater increases along the longitudinal axis. Passive forces showed hysteresis and active forces were higher during lengthening than shortening phases of the stretch pyramid. Active forces at a given length were increased by both neuropeptides. To exert these effects, neuropeptides might have acted indirectly on the muscle via their effects on the cardiac ganglion, directly on the neuromuscular junction, or directly on the muscles. Because increases in response to stretch were also seen in stimulated motor nerve-muscle preparations, at least some of the effects of the peptides are likely peripheral. Taken together, these findings suggest that flexibility in rhythmic cardiac contractions results from the amplified effects of neuropeptides interacting with the length-tension characteristics of the heart. PMID:26896540

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of intervertebral disc disease and myelomalacia in an American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Divers, Stephen J; Rech, Raquel; Platt, Simon R

    2012-06-01

    A 23-yr-old black bear (Ursus americanus) was examined because of paralysis of unknown duration. The precise onset of clinical signs was unknown as a result of seasonal torpor. The bear was immobilized and transported to a university veterinary teaching hospital for further evaluation and treatment. Radiography revealed increased mineral opacity and ventral bridging across vertebral segments T8-11. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated dorsal and ventral compression of the spinal cord at T8-9. Given the bear's advanced age, the unknown duration of spinal cord compression, unknown presence of deep pain perception, and thus an unknown prognosis for surgical success, euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination revealed severe spondylosis deformans from T7 to L3 and dorsal extradural extruded disc material in the area of T8-9. Histopathology demonstrated the dorsal horns of the spinal cord at T9 were replaced by foamy macrophages extending into the dorsal and lateral funiculi of the white matter compatible with focal, severe, chronic myelomalacia. This is the first report of intervertebral disc disease and myelomalacia diagnosed using MRI in a large carnivore. PMID:22779249

  12. The effects of hibernation and captivity on glucose metabolism and thyroid hormones in American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie; Ramsay, Ed; Kirk, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) have been shown to become transiently insulin resistant and hypothyroid during winter, but no studies have investigated these changes in long-term captive bears or in bears which remain awake year-round. Wild, captive hibernating, and captive nonhibernating bears were evaluated at times corresponding to three of their major physiologic stages: fall (hyperphagic stage), winter (hibernation stage), and summer (normal activity stage). Combined insulin and glucose tolerance tests and thyroid hormone profiles were performed on all bears during each stage. All three groups of bears had evidence of insulin resistance during the winter, as compared to the summer or fall, based on glucose tolerance curves. Analysis of thyroid hormone concentration varied and distinct patterns or similarities were not apparent. While obesity in captive American black bears is multifactorial, the finding that, regardless of their ability to hibernate, captive bears retain similar physiology to their wild counterparts indicates that captive bears' complex physiologic changes need to be addressed in their management. PMID:23805551

  13. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M

    2010-04-01

    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi. PMID:19916630

  14. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    PubMed

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  15. Spatial patterns in markers of contaminant exposure, glucose and glycogen metabolism, and immunological response in juvenile winter flounder (Pseudoplueronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    McElroy, A E; Hice, L A; Frisk, M G; Purcell, S L; Phillips, N C; Fast, M D

    2015-06-01

    Inshore winter flounder (Pseudoplueronectes americanus) populations in NY, USA have reached record low numbers in recent years, and recruitment into the fishery appears to be limited by survival of post-settlement juvenile fish. In order to identify cellular pathways associated with site-specific variation in condition and mortality, we examined differential mRNA expression in juvenile winter flounder collected from six different bays across a gradient in human population density and sewage inputs. Illumina sequencing of pooled samples of flounder from contrasting degraded sites and less impacted sites was used to guide our choice of targets for qPCR analysis. 253 transcripts of >100bp were differentially expressed, with 60% showing strong homology to mostly teleost sequences within the NCBI database. Based on these data, transcripts representing nine genes of interest associated with contaminant exposure, immune response and glucose and glycogen metabolism were examined by qPCR in individual flounder from each site. Statistically significant site-specific differences were observed in expression of all but one gene, although patterns in expression were complex with only one (vitellogenin), demonstrating a west to east gradient consistent with known loadings of municipal sewage effluent. Principal components analysis (PCA) identified relationships among the genes evaluated. Our data indicate that juvenile winter flounder are responding to estrogenic chemicals in more urbanized coastal bays, and suggests potential mechanistic links between immune response, contaminant exposure and energy metabolism. PMID:25946204

  16. Stress effect of different temperatures and air exposure during transport on physiological profiles in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, S; Giulianini, P G; Martinis, M; Ferrero, E A

    2007-05-01

    Homarus americanus is an important commercial species that can survive 2-3 days out of water if kept cool and humid. Once caught for commercial purpose and shipped around the world, a lobster is likely to be subjected to a number of stressors, including emersion and air exposure, hypoxia, temperature changes and handling. This study focused on the effect of transport stress and specifically at different animal body temperature (6 and 15 degrees C) and air exposure during commercial transport and recovery process in water. Animals were monitored, by hemolymph bleeding, at different times: 0 h (arrival time at plant) 3 h, 12 h, 24 h and 96 h after immersion in the stocking tank with a water temperature of 6.5+/-1.5 degrees C. We analysed the effects by testing some physiological variables of the hemolymph: glucose, cHH, lactate, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, chloride and calcium concentration, pH and density. All these variables appeared to be influenced negatively by high temperature both in average of alteration from the physiological value and in recovering time. Blood glucose, lactate, total protein, cholesterol were significantly higher in the group with high body temperature compared to those with low temperature until 96 h after immersion in the recovery tank. PMID:17293143

  17. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  18. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  19. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  20. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation.

    PubMed

    Iaizzo, Paul A; Laske, Timothy G; Harlow, Henry J; McClay, Carolyn B; Garshelis, David L

    2012-03-01

    Even mildly hypothermic body or limb temperatures can retard healing processes in mammals. Despite this, we observed that hibernating American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) elicit profound abilities in mounting inflammatory responses to infection and/or foreign bodies. In addition, they resolve injuries during hibernation while maintaining mildly hypothermic states (30-35 °C) and without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating. We describe experimental studies on free-ranging bears that document their abilities to completely resolve cutaneous cuts and punctures incurred during or prior to hibernation. We induced small, full-thickness cutaneous wounds (biopsies or incisions) during early denning, and re-biopsied sites 2-3 months later (near the end of denning). Routine histological methods were used to characterize these skin samples. All biopsied sites with respect to secondary intention (open circular biopsies) and primary intention (sutured sites) healed, with evidence of initial eschar (scab) formation, completeness of healed epidermis and dermal layers, dyskeratosis (inclusion cysts), and abilities to produce hair follicles. These healing abilities of hibernating black bears are a clear survival advantage to animals injured before or during denning. Bears are known to have elevated levels of hibernation induction trigger (delta-opioid receptor agonist) and ursodeoxycholic acid (major bile acid within plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine) during hibernation, which may relate to these wound-healing abilities. Further research as to the underlying mechanisms of wound healing during hibernation could have applications in human medicine. Unique approaches may be found to improve healing for malnourished, hypothermic, diabetic and elderly patients or to reduce scarring associated with burns and traumatic injuries. PMID:22405448

  1. Transfer of benzo(a)pyrene from two invertebrate prey species to the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitz, A.R.; Taghon, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Anthropogenic activities in and around the estuarine environment may introduce compounds with the ability to move through trophic levels, resulting in adverse effects to ecosystems and human health. In order to observe the potential for transfer of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its derivatives from prey organisms to a predator, a simplified benthic food chain was constructed. Winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, were fed via gavage either softshell clams, Mya arenaria, or sandworms, Neanthes virens, that had previously been exposed to {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene-contaminated sediments and contained 5.05 ng/g and 5.8 ng/g activity, respectively (wet weight). The fish received doses every 48 hours for a total of 192 hours after which time, all tissues except the gall bladder were examined for the presence of BaP using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC). The bile was extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LSC. The flounders that were fed worms demonstrated increased metabolism of the PAH relative to those fed clams, as shown by higher concentrations of polar metabolites in the bile. This corresponds with the higher concentration of metabolites recovered in the worm tissue; more than 95% of the recovered activity was in the form of polar derivatives whereas the activity in the clam tissue was almost completely parent benzo(a)pyrene. As was expected, the BaP metabolites formed by the fish were mediated by the differing abilities of the prey species to derivatize the PAH. Thus, macrofaunal interactions with sedimentary-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be important determinants in the fate and transport of these compounds in the benthos.

  2. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  3. Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  4. Windowpane flounder (Scophthalmus aquosus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) responses to cold temperature extremes in a Northwest Atlantic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine M.; Gallo, Jenine

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on flatfish includes not only the effects of warming on sensitive life history stages, but also impacts from more frequent or unseasonal extreme cold temperatures. Cold weather events can affect the overwintering capabilities of flatfish near their low temperature range limits. We examined the responses of two flatfish species, the thin-bodied windowpane (Scophthalmus aquosus) and cold-tolerant winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), to variable winter temperatures in a Northwest Atlantic estuary using abundance and size data collected during a monitoring study, the Aquatic Biological Survey, conducted from 2002 to 2010. Winter and spring abundances of small (50 to 120 mm total length) juvenile windowpane were positively correlated with adult densities (spawning stock) and fall temperatures (thermal conditions experienced during post-settlement development for the fall-spawned cohort) of the previous year. Windowpane abundances in the estuary were significantly reduced and the smallest size class was nearly absent after several consecutive years with cold (minimum temperatures < 1 °C) winters. Interannual variation in winter flounder abundances was unrelated to the severity of winter temperatures. A Paulik diagram illustrates strong positive correlations between annual abundances of sequential winter flounder life history stages (egg, larval, Age-1 juvenile, and adult male) within the estuary, reflecting residency within the estuary through their first year of life. Temperature variables representing conditions during winter flounder larval and post-settlement development were not significant factors in multiple regression models exploring factors that affect juvenile abundances. Likewise, densities of predators known to consume winter flounder eggs and/or post-settlement juveniles were not significantly related to interannual variation in winter flounder juvenile abundances. Colder estuarine temperatures through the

  5. Investigating the mechanism for maintaining eucalcemia despite immobility and anuria in the hibernating American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Seger, Rita L; Cross, Randal A; Rosen, Clifford J; Causey, Robert C; Gundberg, Caren M; Carpenter, Thomas O; Chen, Tai C; Halteman, William A; Holick, Michael F; Jakubas, Walter J; Keisler, Duane H; Seger, Richard M; Servello, Frederick A

    2011-12-01

    Ursine hibernation uniquely combines prolonged skeletal unloading, anuria, pregnancy, lactation, protein recycling, and lipolysis. This study presents a radiographic and biochemical picture of bone metabolism in free-ranging, female American black bears (Ursus americanus) that were active (spring bears and autumn bears) or hibernating (hibernating bears). Hibernating bears included lactating and non-lactating individuals. We measured serum calcium, albumin, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP), CTX, parathyroid hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-l), leptin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] and sclerostin from 35 to 50 tranquilized hibernating bears and 14 to 35 tranquilized spring bears. We compared metacarpal cortical indices (MCI), measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry, from 60 hunter-killed autumn bears and 79 tranquilized, hibernating bears. MCI was greater in autumn than winter in younger bears, but showed no seasonal difference in older bears. During hibernation eucalcemia was maintained, BSALP was suppressed, and CTX was in the range expected for anuria. During hibernation 1,25(OH)(2)D was produced despite anuria. 1,25(OH)(2)D and IGF-I were less in hibernating than spring bears. In a quarter of hibernating bears, sclerostin was elevated. Leptin was greater in hibernating than spring bears. In hibernating bears, leptin correlated positively with BSALP in non-lactating bears and with CTX in lactating bears. Taken together the biochemical and radiographic findings indicate that during hibernation, bone turnover was persistent, balanced, and suppressed; bone resorption was lower than expected for an unloaded skeleton; and there was no unloading-induced bone loss. The skeleton appears to perceive that it was loaded when it was actually unloaded during hibernation. However, at the level of sclerostin, the skeleton recognized that it was unloaded. During hibernation leptin

  6. Calicobenedenia Polyprioni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) from the external surfaces of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei: Polyprionidae), in the north Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, D C; Fennessy, C J

    1999-04-01

    Calicobenedenia polyprioni n. sp. (Capsalidae) is described from the external surfaces (skin and eye) of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Polyprionidae), from the north Atlantic Ocean. The monotypic Calicobenedenia n. gen. is proposed for this species and is characterized, in part, by its members possessing an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks and 1 pair of anchors, a common genital pore opening marginally immediately posterior to the left cephalic lobe, 2 testes juxtaposed near the body midlength, and by lacking cephalic suckers or adhesive discs, accessory haptoral sclerites, and a uterine valve. The new genus most closely resembles Entobdella, which differs from Calicobenedenia by having an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks, 2 pairs of anchors, and a pair of accessary sclerites. PMID:10219294

  7. Structural and mechanical properties of the arthropod cuticle: comparison between the fang of the spider Cupiennius salei and the carapace of American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Erko, Maxim; Hartmann, Markus A; Zlotnikov, Igor; Valverde Serrano, Clara; Fratzl, Peter; Politi, Yael

    2013-08-01

    Most biological materials are nanocomposites characterized by a multi-level structural hierarchy. Particularly, the arthropod cuticle is a chitin-based composite material where the mechanical properties strongly depend on both molecular chitin/protein properties, and the structural arrangement of chitin-fibrils within the protein matrix. Here materials properties and structural organization of two types of cuticle from distantly related arthropods, the wandering spider Cupiennius salei and American lobster Homarus americanus were studied using nanoindentation and X-ray diffraction. The structural analysis of the two types of cuticle including the packing and alignment of chitin-fibrils is supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental X-ray data, thereby regions of parallel and rotated fibril arrangement can be clearly distinguished. The tip of the spider fang which is used to inject venom into the prey was found to be considerably harder than the lobster carapace, while its stiffness is slightly lower. PMID:23765087

  8. Isolation, characterization and seasonal variations in the concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine isodipeptide in the blood plasma of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed Central

    Squires, E J; Feltham, L A

    1980-01-01

    A ninhydrin-positive compound was isolated from the plasma of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and identified as the isodipeptide N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine. Wide seasonal variations in plasma concentration of this compound are found in the male flounder, whereas it is present only in trace amounts in the plasma of the female flounder throughout the year. In the male flounder the plasma concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine rises from January to a peak in May and June. It is during these latter months that the flounder spawn. After spawning, the plasma concentration of the isodipeptide decreases to low basal values in October. These changes in plasma concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine may be related to changes in testes weight, spermatogenesis and spawning activity of the winter flounder. PMID:7387633

  9. Sequence conservation in the Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) from hookworm infected individuals in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ungcharoensuk, Charoenchai; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    The Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) was one of the promising vaccine candidates against the most prevalent human hookworm species as adverse vaccine reaction has compromised further human vaccine trials. To elucidate the gene structure and the extent of sequence diversity, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the Na-asp-2 gene of individual larvae from 32 infected subjects living in 3 different endemic areas of Thailand. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encoding Na-ASP-2 comprised 8 exons. Of 3 nucleotide substitutions in these exons, only one causes an amino acid change from leucine to methionine. A consensus conserved GT and AG at the 5' and the 3' boundaries of each intron was observed akin to those found in other eukaryotic genes. Introns of Na-asp-2 contained 23 nucleotide substitutions and 0-18 indels. The mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site (d) in introns was not significantly different from the mean number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (d(S)) in exons whereas d in introns was significantly exceeded d(N) (the mean number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in exons (p<0.05), suggesting that introns and synonymous sites in exons may evolve at a similar rate whereas functional constraints at the amino acid could limit amino acid substitutions in Na-ASP-2. A recombination site was identified in an intron near the 3' portion of the gene. The positions of introns and the intron phases in the Na-asp-2 gene comparing with those in other pathogenesis-related-1 proteins of Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Heterodera glycines, Caenorhabditis elegans and human were relatively conserved, suggesting evolutionary conservation of these genes. Sequence conservation in Na-ASP-2 may not compromise further vaccine design if adverse vaccine effects could be resolved whereas microheterogeneity in introns of this locus may be useful for population genetics analysis of N. americanus

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  11. Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Gabrielsen, Mads; Franchini, Gisela R.; Roe, Andrew J.; Griffiths, Kate; Zhan, Bin; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein–ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male. PMID:26318523

  12. Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Christie, A. E.; Stevens, J. S.; Bowers, M. R.; Chapline, M. C.; Jensen, D. A.; Schegg, K. M.; Goldwaser, J.; Kwiatkowski, M. A.; Pleasant, T. K.; Shoenfeld, L.; Tempest, L. K.; Williams, C. R.; Wiwatpanit, T.; Smith, C. M.; Beale, K. M.; Towle, D. W.; Schooley, D. A.; Dickinson, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    In insects, a family of peptides with sequence homology to the vertebrate calcitonins has been implicated in the control of diuresis, a process that includes mixing of the hemolymph. Here, we show that a member of the insect calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CLDH) family is present in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, serving, at least in part, as a powerful modulator of cardiac output. Specifically, during an ongoing EST project, a transcript encoding a putative H. americanus CLDH precursor was identified; a full-length cDNA was subsequently cloned. In silico analyses of the deduced prepro-hormone predicted the mature structure of the encoded CLDH to be GLDLGLGRGFSGSQAAKHLMGLAAANFAGGPamide (Homam-CLDH), which is identical to a known Tribolium castaneum peptide. RT-PCR tissue profiling suggests that Homam-CLDH is broadly distributed within the lobster nervous system, including the cardiac ganglion (CG), which controls the movement of the neurogenic heart. RT-PCR analysis conducted on pacemaker neuron- and motor neuron-specific cDNAs suggests that the motor neurons are the source of the CLDH message in the CG. Perfusion of Homam-CLDH through the isolated lobster heart produced dose-dependent increases in both contraction frequency and amplitude and a dose-dependent decrease in contraction duration, with threshold concentrations for all parameters in the range 10–11 to 10–10 mol l–1 or less, among the lowest for any peptide on this system. This report is the first documentation of a decapod CLDH, the first demonstration of CLDH bioactivity outside the Insecta, and the first detection of an intrinsic neuropeptide transcript in the crustacean CG. PMID:20008368

  13. Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Gabrielsen, Mads; Franchini, Gisela R; Roe, Andrew J; Griffiths, Kate; Zhan, Bin; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein-ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male. PMID:26318523

  14. Identification of a calcitonin-like diuretic hormone that functions as an intrinsic modulator of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, cardiac neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Christie, A E; Stevens, J S; Bowers, M R; Chapline, M C; Jensen, D A; Schegg, K M; Goldwaser, J; Kwiatkowski, M A; Pleasant, T K; Shoenfeld, L; Tempest, L K; Williams, C R; Wiwatpanit, T; Smith, C M; Beale, K M; Towle, D W; Schooley, D A; Dickinson, P S

    2010-01-01

    In insects, a family of peptides with sequence homology to the vertebrate calcitonins has been implicated in the control of diuresis, a process that includes mixing of the hemolymph. Here, we show that a member of the insect calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CLDH) family is present in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, serving, at least in part, as a powerful modulator of cardiac output. Specifically, during an ongoing EST project, a transcript encoding a putative H. americanus CLDH precursor was identified; a full-length cDNA was subsequently cloned. In silico analyses of the deduced prepro-hormone predicted the mature structure of the encoded CLDH to be GLDLGLGRGFSGSQAAKHLMGLAAANFAGGPamide (Homam-CLDH), which is identical to a known Tribolium castaneum peptide. RT-PCR tissue profiling suggests that Homam-CLDH is broadly distributed within the lobster nervous system, including the cardiac ganglion (CG), which controls the movement of the neurogenic heart. RT-PCR analysis conducted on pacemaker neuron- and motor neuron-specific cDNAs suggests that the motor neurons are the source of the CLDH message in the CG. Perfusion of Homam-CLDH through the isolated lobster heart produced dose-dependent increases in both contraction frequency and amplitude and a dose-dependent decrease in contraction duration, with threshold concentrations for all parameters in the range 10(-11) to 10(-10) mol l(-1) or less, among the lowest for any peptide on this system. This report is the first documentation of a decapod CLDH, the first demonstration of CLDH bioactivity outside the Insecta, and the first detection of an intrinsic neuropeptide transcript in the crustacean CG. PMID:20008368

  15. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  16. A comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on the induction of spermiation and amplexus in the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Captive breeding programs for endangered amphibian species often utilize exogenous hormones for species that are difficult to breed. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of two different hormones at various concentrations on sperm production, quantity and quality over time in order to optimize assisted breeding. Methods Male American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) were divided into three separate treatment groups, with animals in each group rotated through different concentrations of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRH; 0.1, 1.0, 4.0 and 32 micrograms/toad), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 50, 100, 200, and 300 IU), or the control over 24 hours. We evaluated the number of males that respond by producing spermic urine, the sperm concentration, percent motility, and quality of forward progression. We also evaluated the effects of hCG and LHRH on reproductive behavior as assessed by amplexus. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equations incorporating repeated measures over time and including the main effects of treatment and time, and the treatment by time interaction. Results The hormone hCG was significantly more effective at stimulating spermiation in male Anaxyrus americanus than LHRH and showed a dose-dependent response in the number of animals producing sperm. At the most effective hCG dose (300 IU), 100% of the male toads produced sperm, compared to only 35% for the best LHRH dose tested (4.0 micrograms). In addition to having a greater number of responders (P < 0.05), the 300 IU hCG treatment group had a much higher average sperm concentration (P < 0.05) than the treatment group receiving 4.0 micrograms LHRH. In contrast, these two treatments did not result in significant differences in sperm motility or quality of forward progressive motility. However, more males went into amplexus when treated with LHRH vs. hCG (90% vs. 75%) by nine hours post-administration. Conclusion There is a clear

  17. Structure of glutathione S-transferase 1 from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) in complex with glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Ceccarelli, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase 1 from Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) is a vaccine candidate for hookworm infection that has a high affinity for heme and metal porphyrins. As part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of heme detoxification by hookworm GSTs, co-crystallization and soaking studies of Na-GST-1 with the heme-like molecules protoporphyrin IX disodium salt, hematin and zinc protoporphyrin were undertaken. While these studies did not yield the structure of the complex of Na-GST-1 with any of these molecules, co-crystallization experiments resulted in the first structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with the substrate glutathione. The structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with glutathione were solved from pathological crystalline aggregates comprising more than one crystal form. These first structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with the substrate glutathione were solved by molecular replacement from data collected with a sealed-tube home source using the previously reported apo structure as the search model. PMID:25195885

  18. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears. PMID:24477675

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P21 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. PMID:16511050

  20. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  1. Bacterial communities associated with lesions of two forms of shell disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus, Milne Edwards) from Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert A; Cawthorn, Richard J; Summerfield, Rachael L; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2013-06-01

    Shell disease is a major threat to the American lobster (Homarus americanus, Milne Edwards) fishery. Here we describe the composition of microbial communities associated with lesions of 2 forms of shell disease in Atlantic Canada, (i) a trauma shell disease (TSD) characterized by massive lesions and (ii) an enzootic shell disease (EnSD) characterized by irregularly shaped lesions with a distinct orange to yellow color. The microbiology of the lesions was described by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA amplified from scrapings of the shell lesions and was compared with communities of unaffected carapaces and previously described forms of shell diseases. Both TSD and EnSD lesions were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, all commonly detected in other forms of shell disease; however, unique members of Epsilonproteobacteria were also present. Two Vibrio spp. and 2 Pseudoalteromonas spp. were dominant in lesions of TSD and a Tenacibaculum sp. and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum were dominant in lesions of EnSD. The TSD and EnSD in this study contained similar taxa as other shell disease forms; however, their microbiology is mostly different and neither resembles that of epizootic shell disease. PMID:23750952

  2. Black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) feeding damage across timber harvest edges in northern California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens[D. Don] Endl.) forests, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; Carnell, K.; McBride, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding damage to trees by black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) was recorded in proximity to timber harvest edges in harvested and old-growth stands of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) in northern California, USA. Bears exhibited distinct preference in their feeding patterns related to stand structure and composition and to distance from the timber-harvest edge. Most damage was recorded within regenerating stands. Regression analysis indicated that density of damaged trees was negatively correlated with distance from timber harvest edges within old-growth stands. A significant negative correlation was also found between the density of trees damaged by bears and habitat diversity (H') as measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition, bears exhibited preference for pole-size trees (dbh = 10-50 cm) over all other size classes, and coast redwood over other species. In general, damage by bears appeared to act as a natural thinning agent in even-aged stands. No damage was recorded in old-growth stands except in close proximity to the timber-harvest edge where subcanopy recruitment was high.

  3. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer A; Draheim, Hope M; Etter, Dwayne; Winterstein, Scott; Scribner, Kim T

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540) from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus) harvested in a large (47,739 km2), geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337). We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed) but a small proportion (21%) of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km) were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km). Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1) intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2) high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species. PMID:24621593

  4. The role of blood glucose in the restoration of muscle glycogen during recovery from exhaustive exercise in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    Pagnotta, A; Milligan, C L

    1991-11-01

    The role of blood-borne glucose in the restoration of white muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in the active, pelagic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the more sluggish, benthic winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were examined. During recovery from exhaustive exercise, the animals were injected with a bolus of universally labelled [14C]glucose via dorsal aortic (trout) or caudal artery (flounder) catheters. The bulk of the injected label (50-70%) remained as glucose in the extracellular fluid in both species. The major metabolic fates of the injected glucose were oxidation to CO2 (6-8%) and production of lactate (6-8%), the latter indicative of continued anaerobic metabolism post-exercise. Oxidation of labelled glucose could account for up to 40% and 15% of the post-exercise MO2 in trout and flounder, respectively. Exhaustive exercise resulted in a reduction of muscle glycogen stores and accumulation of muscle lactate. Glycogen restoration in trout began 2-4h after exercise, whereas in flounder, glycogen restoration began within 2h. Despite a significant labelling of the intramuscular glucose pool, less than 1% of the infused labelled glucose was incorporated into muscle glycogen. This suggests that blood-borne glucose does not contribute significantly to the restoration of muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in either trout or flounder and provides further evidence against a prominent role for the Cori cycle in these species. PMID:1757776

  5. Isotypic variation in antibody responses in a community in Papua New Guinea to larval and adult antigens during infection, and following reinfection, with the hookworm Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Walsh, E A; Quinell, R J; Raiko, A; Edmonds, P; Keymer, A E

    1992-11-01

    The natural infection of a community with the hookworm Necator americanus induces a vigorous humoral response to both larval and adult parasite antigens. This response occurs in all five human antibody isotypes, and data are presented to show that, at the population level, isotypes respond differently, following chemotherapy and during reinfection, to changes in antigen stimulation. The differential response probably reflects the fact that the parasite, during the course of its life cycle, presents different amounts of antigens at different anatomical locations. It is suggested that IgG and IgM responses against adult excretory-secretory (ES) products most accurately reflect the efficacy of chemotherapy, and the load of resident adult infection, while IgG responses against larval somatic antigens reflect continuous exposure to infection. These hypotheses should now be tested, at the level of the individual, in a longitudinal manner using more closely spaced sampling intervals. This repetitive sampling, and the inclusion of a measure of the exposure of the population to infective stages, will allow more definitive conclusions to be made about the role of the immune response in controlling worm burdens. PMID:1470481

  6. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas. PMID:24968666

  7. Influence of a thermal discharge on parasites of a cold-water flatfish, Pleuronectes americanus, as a bioindicator of subtle environmental change.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A; Hooper, R G

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to ascertain the influence of a thermal discharge on the health and parasites of a coastal cold-water flatfish, the winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), a species sensitive to environmental change. Flounder were sampled in spring 1998 and 1999 beneath the plume and at reference sites north and south up to 1 km from the discharge. Species diversity and estimates of abundance of macroscopic algae, invertebrates, and fish were also recorded. After capture by scuba divers, a comparison of condition factor, organ indices, blood values, histology, and parasites was made between groups of fish from the discharge and reference sites. Diversity and abundance of algae, invertebrates, and fish were considerably greater beneath the plume than at the reference sites. The thermal water had no apparent effect on flounder taken beneath the plume, but it affected both its ecto- and endoparasites. Prevalence and mean abundance of Cryptocotyle lingua metacercariae were significantly greater, whereas Trichodina jadranica and Gyrodactylus pleuronecti were less on the gills of fish sampled beneath the plume than at the reference sites. Four endoparasites, i.e., Ceratomyxa drepanopsettae, Steringophorus furciger, Macvicarius soleae, and Lecithaster gibbosus were significantly more abundant in the reference samples. These results suggest that environmental change affected transmission of the parasites of winter flounder exposed to the thermal effluent. PMID:18163365

  8. A comparison of the structure of American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobster cuticle with particular reference to shell disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kim, Anita; Wootton, Emma C; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Tlusty, Michael; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-03-01

    The integument of arthropods is an important first-line defence against the invasion of parasites and pathogens. Once damaged, this can be subject to colonisation by microbial agents from the surrounding environment, which in crustaceans can lead to a condition termed shell disease syndrome. This condition has been reported in several crustacean species, including crabs and lobsters. The syndrome is a progressive condition where the outer cuticle becomes pitted and eroded, and in extreme cases is compromised, leaving animals susceptible to septicaemia. This study examined the susceptibility of juvenile American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobsters to shell disease, as a result of mechanical damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method to identify differences in the cuticle structure and consequences of mechanical damage. Claw regions were aseptically punctured, whilst carapaces were abraded using sterile sandpaper, to mimic natural damage. After a period of between 10 and 12 weeks, lobsters were sacrificed, fixed and stored for later examination. The carapace and claws of juvenile American lobsters were shown to be thinner and more vulnerable to abrasion damage than their European counterparts. In addition, the number and distribution of setal pits and pore canal openings also differed between the two species of lobster. Mechanical damage resulted in the formation of shell disease lesions on the claw and carapace of both lobster species. However, American lobsters, unlike their European counterparts, had extensive bacterial colonisation on the margins of these lesions. Overall, it is concluded that the cuticle of the American lobster is more susceptible to damage and resulting microbial colonisation. This may have implications for susceptibility of both species of lobster to shell disease syndrome. PMID:24468664

  9. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mabel T.; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Master, Emma R.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36–0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25–50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  10. Pathology and epizootiology of Dirofilaria scapiceps (Leidy, 1886) (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen) and Lepus americanus erxleben.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, C M

    1984-07-01

    Dirofilaria scapiceps was found between the synovial sheath and tendons, i.e., within the tendon sheath, in the ankle region of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In cottontail rabbits, tendons and sheaths appeared normal and all worms were adults. Only one (4%) of 24 infected rabbits contained dead worms. All female worms were gravid in rabbits killed in late winter or early spring. Microfilaremias in rabbits were high (approximately 30-100 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) and of long duration (at least 8-28 mo), and rabbits were considered normal hosts of D. scapiceps. In some snowshoe hares, tendons and sheaths also appeared normal; however, in other hares a chronic proliferative tenosynovitis, characterized by fibrinous exudate, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the intima and inflammatory cell (predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells) infiltration of the intimal and fibrous layers of the synovial sheath led to encapsulation of worms. Dead subadult, dead adult, and live adult worms were found in the ankles of hares; 86 (46%) of 186 infected hares contained some or only dead worms. Fibrosis commonly occurred around dead worms. Dead subadults were also found in subcutaneous connective tissues over the trunk of the body. Degenerate embryos and amorphous material were observed in uteri of some female worms in hares killed in late winter or early spring. Few (1-5 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) or no microfilariae were observed in the peripheral blood of hares and microfilaremias were of short duration (less than 8 mo). Microfilariae in hares are probably trapped and destroyed in the chronic inflammatory lesions in the tendon sheaths since normal, degenerate, and calcified microfilariae were observed in the capsules around adult worms. Some microfilariae might also be destroyed in lymph nodes. Although D. scapiceps can be maintained within snowshoe hare populations, hares are considered abnormal hosts of D

  11. Role of Ih in differentiating the dynamics of the gastric and pyloric neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Selverston, Allen I; Ayers, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated inward cationic current (Ih) is known to regulate the rhythmicity, excitability, and synaptic transmission in heart cells and many types of neurons across a variety of species, including some pyloric and gastric mill neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) in Cancer borealis and Panulirus interruptus However, little is known about the role of Ih in regulating the gastric mill dynamics and its contribution to the dynamical bifurcation of the gastric mill and pyloric networks. We investigated the role of Ih in the rhythmic activity and cellular excitability of both the gastric mill neurons (medial gastric, gastric mill) and pyloric neurons (pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric) in Homarus americanus Through testing the burst period between 5 and 50 mM CsCl, and elimination of postinhibitory rebound and voltage sag, we found that 30 mM CsCl can sufficiently block Ih in both the pyloric and gastric mill neurons. Our results show that Ih maintains the excitability of both the pyloric and gastric mill neurons. However, Ih regulates slow oscillations of the pyloric and gastric mill neurons differently. Specifically, blocking Ih diminishes the difference between the pyloric and gastric mill burst periods by increasing the pyloric burst period and decreasing the gastric mill burst period. Moreover, the phase-plane analysis shows that blocking Ih causes the trajectory of slow oscillations of the gastric mill neurons to change toward the pyloric sinusoidal-like trajectories. In addition to regulating the pyloric rhythm, we found that Ih is also essential for the gastric mill rhythms and differentially regulates these two dynamics. PMID:26912595

  12. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence. PMID:25977167

  13. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Emily E.; Kristensen, Thea V.; Wilton, Clay M.; Lyda, Sara B.; Noyce, Karen V.; Holahan, Paula M.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.; Beringer, J.; Belant, Jerrold L.; White, D., Jr.; Eggert, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  14. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas. PMID:24712442

  15. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

    PubMed

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  16. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Black Bears (Ursus americanus), Bobcats (Lynx rufus), and Feral Cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cassinelli, Ana B; Kwok, Oliver C H; Van Why, Kyle; Su, Chunlei; Humphreys, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In the present study, we tested black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and feral cat (Felis catus) from the state of Pennsylvania for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 (84.2%) of 38 bears, both bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats tested by the modified agglutination test (cut off titer 1:25). Hearts from seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice, and viable T. gondii was isolated from 3 of 32 bears, 2 of 2 bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these isolates was characterized using multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Three genotypes were revealed, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 or #3 (Type II, 1 isolate), #5 (Type 12, 3 isolates), and #216 (3 isolates), adding to the evidence of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wildlife in Pennsylvania. Pathogenicity of 3 T. gondii isolates (all #216, 1 from bear, and 2 from feral cat) was determined in outbred Swiss Webster mice; all three were virulent causing 100% mortality. Results indicated that highly mouse pathogenic strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife, and these strains may pose risk to infect human through consuming of game meat. PMID:25393429

  17. Effects of climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the transmission of hookworm (Necator americanus) on two low-country plantations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2005-09-01

    The climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors influencing hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in Sri Lanka were explored between February 2000 and June 2001. In February 2000, a single stool sample was collected from each of the 477 subjects investigated, who were aged 2-74 years (median = 13 years) and lived on the 'lowcountry' Maliboda and Ayr plantations. The 'baseline' prevalence (28.5%) and intensity of hookworm infection (0- 4828.5 eggs/g faeces, with a mean of 128.4 eggs/g) were then determined by examining these initial samples, as Kato-Katz smears. Subsequently, each participant was treated with a single, 500-mg dose of mebendazole and then followed-up, at monthly intervals, for the next 15 months. Whenever a subject was found smear-positive for hookworm eggs at one of the monthly follow-ups, he or she was treated again with mebendazole. This approach allowed the monthly incidence of hookworm infection to be determined for each subject, assuming that subjects became smear-positive approximately 6 weeks post-infection. During the study period, rainfall and mean temperature were recorded daily and then converted to monthly values so that the relationship between the incidence of infection over each month and the rainfall and mean temperature over the same period could be explored. In addition, potentially relevant data on the socio-economic status and behaviour of each subject were collected, in questionnaire-based interviews with the adult subjects and the caregivers of the children investigated. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then calculated for each factor that might increase the risk of hookworm infection. The monthly incidence of hookworm infection showed three peaks -- in September 2000 (21.3%), January 2001 (20.8%) and May 2001 (17.5%) -- at Maliboda, and two peaks -- in September 2000 (25.0%) and February 2001 (29.2%) -- at Ayr. With the data for all subjects combined, incidence showed a statistically

  18. Expression, purification, and molecular analysis of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1): a production process developed for a lead candidate recombinant hookworm vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Goud, Gaddam Narsa; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Tsao, Eric I; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1) belongs to a unique Nu class of GSTs and is a lead candidate antigen in a bivalent human hookworm vaccine. Here we describe the expression of Na-GST-1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris at the 20 L manufacturing scale and its purification process performed by three chromatographic steps, comprised of a Q Sepharose XL anion exchange column, followed by a Butyl Sepharose HP hydrophobic affinity column and a Superdex 75 size-exclusion column. Approximately 1.5 g of recombinant protein was recovered at an overall process yield of 51%, with a purity grade of 98% and the absence of detectable host cell protein. By mass spectrometry the recombinant protein exhibits a mass of 23,676Da, which closely matches the predicted molecular mass of the protein. The expression and purification methods described here are suitable for further scale-up product development and for its use to design formulation processes suitable to generate a vaccine for clinical testing. PMID:22503665

  19. Shorebird community variations indicative of a general perturbation in the Mont-Saint-Michel bay (France).

    PubMed

    Eybert, Marie-Christine; Geslin, Thomas; Questiau, Sophie; Feunteun, Eric

    2003-08-01

    The Mont-Saint-Michel bay located on the East Atlantic Flyway is the first site in France for wintering shorebirds, with, on average, 53,000 individuals in January. Seven species represent 96% of that community: dunlin (Calidris alpina), knot (Calidris canutus), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), curlew (Numenius arquata), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). The international bird census organised by Wetlands International in mid-January gave us the opportunity to study, for a 23 years period, population variations in the bay. Despite a quite good carrying capacity, we showed that the decreasing proportion of 4 species in the bay relative to the other French populations may indicate a general perturbation of the bay. We discuss the different hypotheses to explain that observation. PMID:14558463

  20. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

  1. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  2. Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous system and the pericardial organs of the crab Cancer pagurus, the lobster Homarus americanus, and the crayfish Cherax destructor and Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Skiebe, P

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of allatostatin (AST)-like immunoreactivity was studied in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) and the neurosecretory pericardial organs (PO) of four decapod crustacean species by using wholemount immunocytochemical techniques and confocal microscopy. AST-like immunoreactivity was found within the STNS of all four species; its distribution in each was unique. In all four species, AST-like immunoreactivity was present in the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), in the esophageal ganglion (OG), in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), and in their connecting nerves. Within the CoGs, numerous cell bodies and neuropil were stained. In the OG, two cell bodies were immunoreactive, although their branching pattern varies between species. In the STG of C. pagurus and H. americanus, neuropil was stained extensively, but no labeled cell bodies were found. Surprisingly, in C. destructor and P. clarkii, cell bodies were stained in the STG, one brightly stained cell body in both species and an additional two to five weakly stained cell bodies in P. clarkii. In all four species, stained gastropyloric receptor cells were present. In contrast to the variable staining within the STNS, all four species have a similar pattern of AST-like immunoreactivity within the PO. Only in C. destructor, AST-immunoreactive varicosities occur on the surface of the circumesophageal connectives and on the postesophageal commissure and suggest another neurohaemal source for AST-like peptides in this species. The pattern of this staining suggests that AST-like peptides are likely utilized as both neurohormones and as neuromodulators in the STNS of decapod crustacea. PMID:10075445

  3. ¹H, ¹³C and ¹⁵N chemical shift assignments of Na-FAR-1, a helix-rich fatty acid and retinol binding protein of the parasitic nematode Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Ibañez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O

    2014-04-01

    The fatty acid and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are a family of unusual helix-rich lipid binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes, and are secreted by a range of parasites of humans, animals and plants. Na-FAR-1 is from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus, an intestinal blood-feeding parasite of humans. Sequence-specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments have been obtained for the recombinant 170 amino acid protein, using three-dimensional triple-resonance heteronuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Backbone assignments have been obtained for 99.3% of the non-proline HN/N pairs (146 out of 147). The amide resonance of T45 was not observed, probably due to rapid exchange with solvent water. A total of 96.9% of backbone resonances were identified, while 97.7% assignment of amino acid sidechain protons is complete. All Hα(166), Hβ(250) and Hγ(160) and 98.4% of the Hδ (126 out of 128) atoms were assigned. In addition, 99.4% Cα (154 out of 155) and 99.3% Cβ (143 out of 144) resonances have been assigned. No resonances were observed for the NH(n) groups of R93 NεHε, arginine, N(η1)H2, N(η2)H2, histidine N(δ1)H(δ1), N(ε1)H(ε1) and lysine N(ζ3)H3. Na-FAR-1 has a similar overall arrangement of α-helices to Ce-FAR-7 of the free-living Caeorhabditis elegans, but with an extra C-terminal helix. PMID:23179061

  4. Habitat change by the formation of alien Crassostrea-reefs in the Wadden Sea and its role as feeding sites for waterbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, Alexandra; Esser, Wiebke; Frank, Dietrich; Wehrmann, Achim; Exo, Klaus-Michael

    2013-10-01

    Non-indigenous Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have been invading the central Wadden Sea since 1998, predominantly settling on intertidal blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) beds which are increasingly transformed into Crassostrea-reefs. Pacific oysters are strong ecosystem engineers and the habitat change is considered to be a threat for waterbirds losing important feeding sites in the intertidal of the Wadden Sea. This study has increased our understanding of the use of foraging habitats by birds according to changing food resources. During the spring and autumn migration period in 2007, we recorded bird densities at two reef types varying in Pacific oyster density and at the adjacent sand flat as a reference site. We also recorded feeding behaviour, choice of prey and assessed peck and intake rate of three target species: Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata and European herring gull Larus argentatus. To evaluate the use of the Crassostrea-reef in the central Wadden Sea, we compared bird densities of the target species at different intertidal feeding habitats in various regions and compared the biomass intake of Eurasian oystercatcher feeding on different prey species. We show that Eurasian oystercatcher and Eurasian curlew have adapted to the new situation and learned to exploit the food supply offered by Crassostrea-reefs. While foraging mainly on Pacific oysters, Eurasian oystercatchers attained sustainable intake rates even though food resource at dense reef during autumn was very poor due to a lack in harvestable oysters. Consolidation of reefs limits the accessibility of prey for Eurasian oystercatchers whereas a successful recruitment of Pacific oysters enhances the suitability of the habitat. Eurasian curlew was promoted by the engineering effects of the Pacific oyster while feeding extensively on shore crabs at the reefs. In contrast, European herring gulls appear hampered in foraging during low tide and hereby

  5. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Long-billed Curlew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, Jill A.; Sondreal, Marriah L.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Rabie, Paul A.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1999-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The impact of management depends, in part, upon a species' nesting phenology and biology. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after nest failure or success, and the propensity to return to a previous breeding site. The duration and timing of breeding varies among regions and years. Species' response to management summarizes the current knowledge and major findings in the literature on the effects of different management practices on the species. The section on management recommendations complements the previous section and summarizes specific recommendations for habitat management provided in the literature. If management recommendations differ in different portions of the species' breeding range, recommendations are given separately by region. The literature cited contains references to published and unpublished literature on the management effects and habitat requirements of the species. This section is not meant to be a complete bibliography; for a searchable, annotated bibliography of published and unpublished papers dealing with habitat needs of grassland birds and their responses to habitat management, use the Grassland and Wetland Birds Bibliography on the home page of this resource.

  6. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    PubMed

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas. PMID:26161860

  7. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus

    PubMed Central

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A.; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Gunnarsson, Tómas G.

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas. PMID:26161860

  8. Impacts of man-made landscape features on numbers of estuarine waterbirds at low tide.

    PubMed

    Burton, Niall H K; Armitage, Michael J S; Musgrove, Andrew J; Rehfisch, Mark M

    2002-12-01

    The potential impact of human disturbance on wintering waterbirds using intertidal mudflats was considered by relating their numbers to the presence of nearby footpaths, roads, railroads, and towns. Data were obtained for six English estuaries from the Wetland Bird Survey Low Tide Count scheme. Counts were undertaken monthly from November to February, and data were available for an average of 2.8 years per estuary for the period 1992-1993 to 1999-2000. Count sections and the positions of man-made landscape features were mapped using a GIS. Generalized linear models tested whether bird numbers varied according to the estuary, month, area, whether or not the section bordered water, and the proportion of each section within a specified distance of each landscape feature. In addition, the proximity of sections to the nearest footpath access point was considered. Numbers of six of nine species, northern shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), red knot (Calidris canutus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and common redshank (Tringa totanus), were significantly lower where a footpath was close to a count section, while those of brant (Branta bernicla) were greater. Northern shelduck, black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), dunlin, and black-tailed godwit numbers were reduced close to railroads and those of common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), black-bellied plover, and Eurasian curlew close to roads. Common ringed plover numbers were greater close to towns. The relative distances to which species were affected by footpaths corresponded to published information concerning their flight distances in response to human disturbance. The study provided evidence that sustained disturbance associated with footpaths, roads, and railroads reduced local habitat quality for waterbirds and the carrying capacity of estuaries. PMID:12402099

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified through development and cross-species amplification within shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, I.; Guzzetti, B.M.; Gust, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed microsatellite loci for demographic assessments of shorebirds, a group with limited markers. First, we isolated five dinucleotide repeat microsatellite loci from the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopodidae: Haematopus bachmani), and three from the Bristle-thighed Curlew (Scolopacidae: Numenius tahitiensis); both species are of conservation concern. All eight loci were polymorphic in their respective target species. Hbaμ loci were characterized by two to three alleles with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.07 to 0.33, and two to nine alleles were detected for Nut loci with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. No linkage disequilibrium or departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The eight loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in 12 other species within Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, and the results demonstrated transferability across several genera. We further tested all 14 species at 12 additional microsatellite markers developed for other shorebirds: Dunlin (Calidris alpina; four loci) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax; eight loci). Two markers (Hbaμ4 and Ruff6) were polymorphic in 13 species, while two (Calp6 and Ruff9) were monomorphic. The remaining eight markers revealed polymorphism in one to nine species each. Our results provide further evidence that locus Ruff10 is sex-linked, contrary to the initial description. These markers can be used to enhance our understanding of shorebird biology by, for example, helping to determine migratory connectivity among breeding and wintering populations and detecting relatedness among individuals.

  10. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities. PMID:20662372

  11. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  12. Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.; White, M.

    1981-12-01

    A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

  13. Breeding behavior of the American black bear Ursus americanus.

    PubMed

    Boone, William R; Richardson, M Elaine; Greer, Jennifer A

    2003-07-01

    By means of videotape, we observed and timed courtship, mating, and refractoriness in the American black bear while confined in a semicaptive environment. Sixty-six courtships resulted in mating. During courtship, the male detected estrus and receptivity in the female. Courtship lasted 22.5+/-2.3s (mean+/-S.E.M.). We videotaped and reviewed 61 matings that included mounts, pelvic thrusts, and flutters. Mating lasted 51.6+/-4.2s. Within these 61 matings, there were 24 pelvic thrusts and 14 flutters observed. Pelvic thrusts averaged 2.3+/-0.3 times, while flutters averaged 11.1+/-2.9 times. Of the 61 courtship-mating segments, 28 segments depicted a male refractory period, while 27 segments depicted a female refractory period. The male refractory period lasted 44.9+/-6.1s during which the male sat and licked his genital region. The female walked, ran away, or turned and attacked the male during her 54.2+/-8.3s refractory period. This is the first time a large number of paired ursid matings has been described and timed. PMID:12749942

  14. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

  15. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: V. B. Fedorov, Inst. of Arctic Biology, Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (e-mail: fnvf@uaf.edu). The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. The article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Vadim B.; Goropashnaya, Anna V.; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C.; Gracey, Andrew Y.; Chang, Celia; Qin, Shizhen; Pertea, Geo; Quackenbush, John; Showe, Louise C.; Showe, Michael K.; Boyer, Bert B.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are mostly involved in protein biosynthesis, was induced during hibernation in both liver and muscle. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment analysis consistently showed a highly significant enrichment of the protein biosynthesis category by overexpressed genes in both liver and skeletal muscle during hibernation. Coordinated induction in transcriptional level of genes involved in protein biosynthesis is a distinctive feature of the transcriptome in hibernating black bears. This finding implies induction of translation and suggests an adaptive mechanism that contributes to a unique ability to reduce muscle atrophy over prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation. Comparing expression profiles in bears to small mammalian hibernators shows a general trend during hibernation of transcriptional changes that include induction of genes involved in lipid metabolism and carbohydrate synthesis as well as depression of genes involved in the urea cycle and detoxification function in liver. PMID:19240299

  16. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  17. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  18. CALCIUM UPTAKE BY MITOCHONDRIA OF ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS). (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. A Noninvasive Method For In situ Determination of Mating Success in Female American Lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jason S; Pugh, Tracy L; Dubofsky, Elizabeth A; Lavalli, Kari L; Clancy, Michael; Watson, Winsor H

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most productive fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic, much remains unknown about the natural reproductive dynamics of American lobsters. Recent work in exploited crustacean populations (crabs and lobsters) suggests that there are circumstances where mature females are unable to achieve their full reproductive potential due to sperm limitation. To examine this possibility in different regions of the American lobster fishery, a reliable and noninvasive method was developed for sampling large numbers of female lobsters at sea. This method involves inserting a blunt-tipped needle into the female's seminal receptacle to determine the presence or absence of a sperm plug and to withdraw a sample that can be examined for the presence of sperm. A series of control studies were conducted at the dock and in the laboratory to test the reliability of this technique. These efforts entailed sampling 294 female lobsters to confirm that the presence of a sperm plug was a reliable indicator of sperm within the receptacle and thus, mating. This paper details the methodology and the results obtained from a subset of the total females sampled. Of the 230 female lobsters sampled from George's Bank and Cape Ann, MA (size range = 71-145 mm in carapace length), 90.3% were positive for sperm. Potential explanations for the absence of sperm in some females include: immaturity (lack of physiological maturity), breakdown of the sperm plug after being used to fertilize a clutch of eggs, and lack of mating activity. The surveys indicate that this technique for examining the mating success of female lobsters is a reliable proxy that can be used in the field to document reproductive activity in natural populations. PMID:24561702

  20. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) NHE SODIUM/PROTON ANTIPORTER. (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, D.V.; Atema, J.

    1982-08-01

    Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules lost this ability, but did not show preferential turning toward the intact side. Unilateral medial antennule ablation did not affect orientation. Removal of all aesthetasc hairs from one lateral antennule caused loss of orientation ability less severe than unilateral ablation of the entire lateral antennule. Lobsters with unilaterally ablated lateral antennules and blocked walking leg receptors turned preferentially toward the side of the intact antennule. Thus, it appears that intact lobsters orient in odor space by tropotaxis principally using aesthetasc receptor input. Since loss of appendages is relatively common in lobsters, this partial overlap of organ function may serve the animal well in nature.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF CALCIUM AND HEAVY METALS IN HEPATOPANCREAS OF THE ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS). (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. HEPATOPANCREATIC CALCIUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) DETERMINED BY CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Population viability and connectivity of the Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of vital rate estimates from Model 1 of the CMR analysis, probability of persistence over 100 years for the TRB population was >0.999, 0.975, and 0.958 for process-only, 50-percent (%) credible interval (CI), and 95% CI projections, respectively. Similarly, the probability of persistence based on  Model 2 was >0.999, 0.982, and 0.958. For the UARB, probabilitie

  5. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility. PMID:20708230

  6. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills. PMID:24903598

  7. ENERGIZED CA2+ TRANSPORT BY HEPATOPANCREATIC BASOLATERAL PLASMA MEMBRANES OF HOMARUS AMERICANUS. (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. A noninvasive method for in situ determination of mating success in female American lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jason S; Pugh, Tracy L; Dubofsky, Elizabeth A; Lavalli, Kari L; Clancy, Michael; Watson, Winsor H

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most productive fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic, much remains unknown about the natural reproductive dynamics of American lobsters. Recent work in exploited crustacean populations (crabs and lobsters) suggests that there are circumstances where mature females are unable to achieve their full reproductive potential due to sperm limitation. To examine this possibility in different regions of the American lobster fishery, a reliable and noninvasive method was developed for sampling large numbers of female lobsters at sea. This method involves inserting a blunt-tipped needle into the female's seminal receptacle to determine the presence or absence of a sperm plug and to withdraw a sample that can be examined for the presence of sperm. A series of control studies were conducted at the dock and in the laboratory to test the reliability of this technique. These efforts entailed sampling 294 female lobsters to confirm that the presence of a sperm plug was a reliable indicator of sperm within the receptacle and thus, mating. This paper details the methodology and the results obtained from a subset of the total females sampled. Of the 230 female lobsters sampled from George's Bank and Cape Ann, MA (size range = 71-145 mm in carapace length), 90.3% were positive for sperm. Potential explanations for the absence of sperm in some females include: immaturity (lack of physiological maturity), breakdown of the sperm plug after being used to fertilize a clutch of eggs, and lack of mating activity. The surveys indicate that this technique for examining the mating success of female lobsters is a reliable proxy that can be used in the field to document reproductive activity in natural populations. PMID:24561702

  9. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  10. Cultivation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. L. americanus associated with Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new medium designated Liber A has been designed and used to successfully cultivate all three Candidatus Liberibacter species, the suspect causative agents of Huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. The medium containing citrus vein extract and a growth factor sustained growth of Ca. Liberibacter species fo...

  11. Evidence for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants, and there is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-ranging and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that ar...

  12. Sound detection and production in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: Sensitivity range and behavioral implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Heidi J.; Watson, Winsor H.

    2001-05-01

    Many crustaceans including spiny lobsters, some crabs, and a few shrimp are known to produce sounds for a variety of purposes. One brief report and several preliminary studies indicate that American lobsters also produce sounds, and may be capable of detecting acoustic signals. The focus of this study was to (1) quantify the frequency range over which lobsters are capable of detecting sounds and (2) characterize the sounds that lobsters produce. Twelve sexually immature and 11 mature lobsters were tested for their ability to detect frequencies in the range of 20-10000 Hz. Immature lobsters of both sexes detected sounds in the range of 20-1000 Hz (>50%), while sexually mature lobsters exhibited two distinct peaks in their acoustic sensitivity (20-300 Hz and 1000-5000 Hz). Lobsters of both sexes produced a buzzing vibration when grasped but larger lobsters (120-149 mm in carapace length) vibrated most consistently (>35% of surveyed lobsters). The greater tendency for sound production in large lobsters may indicate a role in mating behavior. Currently, we are characterizing the acoustical properties of produced sounds and investigating the possibility that the American lobster may produce sounds for more than one purpose. [Work supported by University of New Hampshire Center for Marine Biology.

  13. How well do food distributions predict spatial distributions of shorebirds with different degrees of self-organization?

    PubMed

    Folmer, Eelke O; Olff, Han; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-07-01

    1. Habitat selection models usually assume that the spatial distributions of animals depend positively on the distributions of resources and negatively on interference. However, the presence of conspecifics at a given location also signals safety and the availability of resources. This may induce followers to select contiguous patches and causes animals to cluster. Resource availability, interference and attraction therefore jointly lead to self-organized patterns in foraging animals. 2. We analyse the distribution of foraging shorebirds at landscape level on the basis of a resource-based model to establish, albeit indirectly, the importance of conspecific attraction and interference. 3. At 23 intertidal sites with a mean area of 170 ha spread out over the Dutch Wadden Sea, the spatial distribution of six abundant shorebird species was determined. The location of individuals and groups was mapped using a simple method based on projective geometry, enabling fast mapping of low-tide foraging shorebird distributions. We analysed the suitability of these 23 sites in terms of food availability and travel distances to high tide roosts. 4. We introduce an interference sensitivity scale which maps interference as a function of inter-individual distance. We thus obtain interference-insensitive species, which are only sensitive to interference at short inter-individual distances (and may thus pack densely) and interference-sensitive species which interfere over greater inter-individual distances (and thus form sparse flocks). 5. We found that interference-insensitive species like red knot (Calidris canutus) and dunlins (Calidris alpina) are more clustered than predicted by the spatial distribution of their food resources. This suggests that these species follow each other when selecting foraging patches. In contrast, curlew (Numenius arquata) and grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), known to be sensitive to interference, form sparse flocks. Hence, resource-based models have

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Elemental Signautres in Juvenile Winter Flounder (Psuedopleuronectes americanus): Implications for Natal Connectivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental signatures in otoliths (fish ear-stones) have become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, reconstructing environmental histories, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. Assessing connectivity between a...

  15. Annual changes in serum sex steroids in male and female black (Ursus americanus) and polar (Ursus maritimus) bears.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Nelson, R A; Ramsay, M A; Stirling, I; Bahr, J M

    1988-06-01

    The adaptation of black and polar bears to their environments is proportional to the severity of climate and food restriction. Both black and polar bears mate during the spring, despite differences in their recent metabolic state. Reproductive activity in black bears follows 4 mo of torpor, whereas reproduction in polar bears occurs prior to torpor. The goals of this study were to measure the annual changes in serum sex steroids in male and female black and polar bears, and to determine if changes in serum levels of these steroids were associated with metabolic condition or photoperiod. Serum testosterone (T) concentrations were elevated during spring in black and polar bears. Moreover, this increase in serum T in polar bears during spring was correlated with age and testis size. Serum progesterone (P4) concentrations increased in pregnant polar bears in fall coincident with the time of expected implantation. No increases in serum P4 were observed in nonpregnant black and polar bears. Serum estradiol (E2) was elevated in nonpregnant and pregnant polar bears 2 mo prior to the time of expected implantation. We found that serum sex steroids measured in black and polar bears change independent of torpor. Therefore, our results suggest that photoperiod may be a more important regulator of serum steroid levels and reproduction than metabolic condition. PMID:3408772

  16. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  17. The Effect of Elevated CO2 on the Growth and Food Consumption of Juvenile Winter Flounder Pseudopleuronectes Americanus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing changes in seawater chemistry in the world’s oceans. In estuarine waters, atmospheric CO2 exacerbates already declining pH due to high productivity and respiration caused by cultural eutrophication. These two sources o...

  18. PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  19. Related neuropeptides use different balances of unitary mechanisms to modulate the cardiac neuromuscular system in the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Calkins, Andrew; Stevens, Jake S

    2015-02-01

    To produce flexible outputs, neural networks controlling rhythmic motor behaviors can be modulated at multiple levels, including the pattern generator itself, sensory feedback, and the response of the muscle to a given pattern of motor output. We examined the role of two related neuropeptides, GYSDRNYLRFamide (GYS) and SGRNFLRFamide (SGRN), in modulating the neurogenic lobster heartbeat, which is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG). When perfused though an isolated whole heart at low concentrations, both peptides elicited increases in contraction amplitude and frequency. At higher concentrations, both peptides continued to elicit increases in contraction amplitude, but GYS caused a decrease in contraction frequency, while SGRN did not alter frequency. To determine the sites at which these peptides induce their effects, we examined the effects of the peptides on the periphery and on the isolated CG. When we removed the CG and stimulated the motor nerve with constant bursts of stimuli, both GYS and SGRN increased contraction amplitude, indicating that each peptide modulates the muscle or the neuromuscular junction. When applied to the isolated CG, neither peptide altered burst frequency at low peptide concentrations; at higher concentrations, SGRN decreased burst frequency, whereas GYS continued to have no effect on frequency. Together, these data suggest that the two peptides elicit some of their effects using different mechanisms; in particular, given the known feedback pathways within this system, the importance of the negative (nitric oxide) relative to the positive (stretch) feedback pathways may differ in the presence of the two peptides. PMID:25392168

  20. Aerococcus viridans var. homari: The presence of capsule and the relationship to virulence in American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Wadowska, Dorota; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between virulence and encapsulation of Aerococcus viridans var. homari was evaluated by growing virulent (Rabin's) and avirulent (ATCC 10400) strains under varying culture conditions, and during challenge trials. Changes in capsule thickness were monitored using a modified lysine-ruthenium red (LRR) fixation method and transmission electron microscopy. The virulent Rabin's strain possessed a prominent capsule of 0.252 μm±0.061 μm that was diminished by in vitro growth conditions to 0.206 μm±0.076 μm. The ATCC 10400 strain capsule thickness decreased from 0.157 μm±0.043 μm to 0.117 μm±0.043 μm after 10 in vitro passages. The virulent Rabin's strain capsule was significantly thicker than the avirulent ATCC 10400 strain under all growth conditions. Rabin's strain, regardless of pre-challenge growth conditions or dose (high dose 10(7) or low dose 10(2)), was able to kill lobsters in 7 days at 15°C. ATCC 10400 strain, regardless of pre-challenge growth conditions, killed lobster only at high doses (10(7)) with varying median time to death of ∼15 days, while at low doses (10(2)) all lobsters survived and no bacteria were present after 42 days. This work demonstrates the importance of the thickness of the A. viridans capsule to virulence in the American lobster. PMID:26598140

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF A BASOLATERAL ELECTRONEUTRAL NA+/H+ ANTIPORTER IN ATLANTIC LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) HEPATOPANCREATIC EPITHELIAL VESICLES. (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially purified pZP sequestered in controlled-release pellets. PMID:17601409

  3. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) estuarine habitat use and the association between spring temperature and subsequent year class strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Davis, David; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine J.; Gallo, Jenine

    2013-11-01

    Winter flounder habitat use in New York/New Jersey Harbor was examined through a long-term (2002-2010) bottom trawl sampling program (Aquatic Biological Survey) in which 5234 winter flounder were captured in 2069 samples collected at approximately 26 stations throughout the harbor. Interannual variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) primarily was attributable to fluctuations in Year-1 juvenile CPUE, which was positively correlated with total annual egg abundances from the previous year. Adult male CPUE during the spawning season was positively correlated with total egg abundances of the same year, whereas adult female CPUE was unrelated to annual egg abundances in the harbor. Annual variation in adult male densities in the harbor during the spawning season reflects the intensity of estuarine spawning activity, whereas adult female densities may include non-reproductive, foraging individuals. Seasonal fluctuations in condition indices reflected energy use during the spawning season, with relatively high condition in January, reduced levels in March and April, and elevated condition again in May. Adult CPUE peaked in April, coincident with the critical feeding period that follows spawning. Mean April water temperatures were positively correlated with egg abundances the following year and Year-1 juvenile CPUE two years later. A similar correlation between April temperatures and Year-1 juvenile abundances two years later was demonstrated using published data for winter flounder collected in Niantic Bay, CT. Higher April water temperatures may enhance benthic secondary production during the critical feeding period, and thus increase prey availability for foraging adults that need to restore energy reserves in order to reproduce the following year. A direct examination of benthic secondary production and variation in winter flounder estuarine foraging and subsequent spawning activity is needed to more fully understand this relationship.

  4. INFLUENCE OF DRILLING MUDS ON THE PRIMARY CHEMOSENSORY NEURONS IN WALKING LEGS OF THE LOBSTER, 'HOMARUS AMERICANUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of whole drilling muds on the normal activity of walking leg chemosensory neurons were examined using extracellular neurophysiological recording techniques. Exposure of legs for 3-5 min to 10-mg/L drilling mud suspended in sea water altered responses to food odors of ...

  5. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  6. ELEMENTAL AND ISOTPOIC FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER (PLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI (USA) AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study, we investigated whether elemental and isotopic sign...

  7. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites.

  8. COPPER TRANSPORT BY ISOLATED AND PURIFIED DISTINCT CELL POPULATIONS OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) HEPATOPANCREAS USING A FLUOROMETRIC DYE. (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Thallium, uranium, and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios in the digestive gland of American lobster (Homarus americanus) from an industrialized harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.L.; Uthe, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have concentrated on elements such as thallium (TI). Uranium (U) has been studied as a radionuclide of concern in food and the environment. Foodstuffs contain 10-100 ng U{center_dot}{sup -1} with vegetables and cereals contributing most heavily to the daily intake of ca 1.5 ug U. Between 10-30% of ingested U is absorbed, with most being stored in bone. Rainbow trout (onchorynchus mykiss) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) from a lake with naturally high radioactivity contained < 5 ng U{center_dot}g{sup -1} in the flesh. Trout bone contained 40 ng U{center_dot}g{sup -1}. Higher tissue U concentrations occurred in fish from areas receiving U mining wastes. Bioconcentration factors for bone and flesh were estimated to be low, 118 and 14.7, respectively. This paper describes the Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of Tl and U in digestive gland tissue from lobsters captured in the vicinity of Belledune Harbor, New Brunswick, Canada. The harbor is the site of a lead smelter, a fertilizer plant, and a coal-fired power station (the latter due to enter production in late 1993) and thus has the potential of adding significant amounts of Tl to the local marine environment. The accumulation of Tl from water by marine shellfish is low, at least for bivalves, and the accumulated Tl is eliminated in a number of days when the animals are transferred to clean water. Bioconcentration factors for U in finfish ranged from 0.4-17 for larger species. However, because of the high concentrations of various trace elements in lobster digestive gland, its desirability as a foodstuff, and its relatively large size (approximately 20% of the edible tissue yield), we have investigated Tl and U concentrations and {sup 235U}/{sup 238U} ratios in it. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. PHORBOL ESTER ACTIVATION OF AN NHE-LIKE ELECTRONEUTRAL NA+/H+ ANTIPORTER IN ISOLATED E-CELLS OF LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) HEPATOPANCREAS. (R823068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Effects of intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Sertich, Patricia L; Rives, William; Knobbe, Marc; Del Piero, Fabio; Stull, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Eight adult American black bears were used to evaluate the effects of chemical castration by intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion. Treatment did not affect testicular dimensions and did not result in decreased resting or GnRH-stimulated testosterone secretion. Multifocal hyperchoic areas in the testicular parenchyma were observed on ultrasound examination, and white foci were observed on gross pathology examination after zinc gluconate treatment. Histologically, there were normal seminiferous tubules containing either round or elongated spermatids, along with abnormal tubules in all bears after treatment. Vacuolation of the seminiferous epithelium, sloughing of germ cells into the tubules' lumen, presence of multinuclear giant cells, and reduced height of the seminiferous epithelium with missing generations of germ cells were commonly observed. The most severe testicular changes were multifocal and included fibrosis, complete degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium with shrinkage of the tubule, and sperm stasis. Epididymal sperm reserve was 982.74 ± 654.16 × 10(6) sperm (mean ± SEM) and motile sperm were observed in the epididymis of all but one of the bears. In conclusion, although intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment in black bears resulted in testicular degenerative changes detected by ultrasound and histology examinations, sperm production was not completely ablated. We inferred that normal fertility might have been compromised, but treatment unlikely resulted in sterility. PMID:21356548

  12. Seasonal regulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Stanley; Morgan-Boyd, Rebecca; Nelson, Ralph; Garshelis, David L; Turyk, Mary E; Unterman, Terry

    2011-10-01

    The American black bear maintains lean body mass for months without food during winter denning. We asked whether changes in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis may contribute to this remarkable adaptation to starvation. Serum IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were analyzed by ligand blotting. Initial studies in bears living in the wild showed that IGF-I levels are highest in summer and lowest in early winter denning. Detailed studies in captive bears showed that IGF-I levels decline in autumn when bears are hyperphagic, continue to decline in early denning, and later rise above predenning levels despite continued starvation in the den. IGFBP-2 increased and IGFBP-3 decreased in early denning, and these changes were also reversed in later denning. Treatment with GH (0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) × 6 days) during early denning increased serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lowered levels of IGFBP-2, indicating that denning bears remain responsive to GH. GH treatment lowered blood urea nitrogen levels, reflecting effects on protein metabolism. GH also accelerated weight loss and markedly increased serum levels of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, resulting in a ketoacidosis (bicarbonate decreased to 15 meq/l), which was reversed when GH was withdrawn. These results demonstrate seasonal regulation of GH/IGF-I axis activity in black bears. Diminished GH activity may promote fat storage in autumn in preparation for denning and prevent excessive mobilization and premature exhaustion of fat stores in early denning, whereas restoration of GH/IGF activity in later denning may prepare the bear for normal activity outside the den. PMID:21730258

  13. Computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and cross-sectional anatomic features of the manus in a normal American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Ober, C P; Freeman, L E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus of a black bear cadaver and correlate anatomic findings with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. CT, MR imaging, and transverse sectioning were performed on the thoracic limb of a cadaver female black bear which had no evidence of lameness or thoracic limb abnormality prior to death. Features in CT and MR images corresponding to clinically important anatomic structures in anatomic sections were identified. Most of the structures identified in transverse anatomic sections were also identified using CT and MR imaging. Bones, muscles and tendons were generally easily identified with both imaging modalities, although divisions between adjacent muscles were rarely visible with CT and only visible sometimes with MR imaging. Vascular structures could not be identified with either imaging modality. PMID:20500743

  14. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

  15. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  16. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from black bears (Ursus americanus), bobcats (Felis rufus), and feral cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase u...

  17. An outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza in a mixed-species aviculture unit in Dubai in 2005.

    PubMed

    Kent, Jo; Bailey, Tom; Silvanose, Christu-Das; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Joerg; Manvell, Ruth

    2006-09-01

    This case describes an outbreak of low pathogenic hemagglutinin 9 neuraminidase 2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in two white-bellied bustards (Eupodotis senegalensis), one stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemius), and a blacksmith plover (Antibyx armatus) in a private zoologic collection in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The four birds showed signs of respiratory disease, and all died as a result of disease or euthanasia. Attention has been paid to the diagnostic process and common differential diagnosis for upper respiratory tract disease in bustards, curlews, and plovers. To the knowledge of the authors, AIV has not been previously described in these species. PMID:16931369

  18. 76 FR 41454 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... giganteus, Christmas tree worm Sabellastarte magnifica, Magnificent duster Sabellastarte spp., Tube worms... arrow crab Spondylus americanus, Atlantic thorny oyster Spinosella plicifera, Iridescent tube...

  19. Geology of oil-shale deposits within the Narrows Graben, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Henstridge, D.A.; Missen, D.D.

    1982-06-01

    The Narrows Beds are a Tertiary sedimentary sequence containing oil shale seams, which were deposited in a narrow north-northwest-trending graben. The graben is about 24 mi (38 km) long by 3 mi (5 km) wide and is located adjacent to the central Queensland coast. Two similar oil-shale deposits, Rundle and Stuart containing 5.1 billion bbl of shale oil have been defined within the graben. The Tertiary sedimentary rocks, which were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine environment, are more than 3280 ft (1000 m) thick and dip gently westward. They consist of the Worthington beds and the Rundle and Curlew Formations. The Worthington beds range from conglomerate through sandstone to claystone. The Rundle Formation consists of six kerogenous seams and a claystone unit. The sedimentary rocks are consistent throughout the graben. The Curlew Formation is an interbedded sequence of claystone and minor carbonaceous shale. The Worthington beds and the Rundle Formation have been intruded by olivine dolerite, which is not extensive. Quaternary overburden blankets most of the area. Paleontologic studies indicate an early to late eocene age for the Rundle and Curlew Formations. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Larval digenetic trematodes in tadpoles of six amphibian species from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I; González, C E

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a survey of metacercariae found in tadpoles of 6 amphibian species collected near the city of Corrientes, Corrientes Province, Argentina. Larval digenetic trematodes of the following species were found: (1) Travtrema aff. stenocotyle Cohn, 1902 (Plagiorchiidae) from Physalaemus santafecinus, Physalaemus albonotatus, Odontophrynus americanus, Elachistocleis bicolor, Scinax nasicus, and Leptodactylus latinasus; (2) Styphlodora sp. (Plagiorchiidae) from O. americanus and E. bicolor; (3) Opisthogonimus sp. (Opisthogonimidae) from O. americanus and P. santafecinus; (4) Lophosicyadiplostomum aff. nephrocystis (Lutz, 1928) (Diplostomidae) from S. nasicus; (5) Bursotrema tetracotyloides Szidat, 1960 (Diplostomidae) from P. santafecinus and S. nasicus; and (6) an unknown echinostomatid species from O. americanus and S. nasicus. Metacercariae of these species are reported for the first time in tadpoles of the 6 amphibian species examined. All species are described and illustrated, and their life cycles are briefly discussed. These larvae were found infecting different body parts of tadpoles, but no relationship was observed between the metacercariae and amphibian malformations. PMID:19045934

  1. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... in getting the disease is walking barefoot on ground where there are feces of people who have ...

  2. EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION OF PELAGIC LARVAE OF CRUSTACEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larvae of six species, Cancer irroratus, C. borealis and Homarus americanus of coastal waters (high salinity), and Palaemonetes pugio, Pagurus longicarpus and Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the estuarine region (variable salinity) were studied. Larvae were cultured at various com...

  3. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  4. RESPONSES OF ZOOPLANKTON AND CHAOBORUS TO TEMEPHOS IN A NATURAL POND AND IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of the organophosphorus insecticide temephos to a natural pond in central Minnesota was followed by reduction within 24 hr in all cladocerans, in Diaptomus leptopus and in Chaoborus americanus, and increases in cyclopoid copepods, copepod nauplii and rotifer Keratella...

  5. Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): a widespread, multi-host lungworm of wild North American ungulates, with an emended diagnosis for the genus and explorations of biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. is established for a recently discovered protostrongylid nematode found in caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and moose (Alces americanus), hosts that collectively occupy an extensive geographic range across northern North America. Descripti...

  6. Optimizing a 16S rRNA-based double stranded DNA bindng Q-PCR method for detection of Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with plants and psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Candidatus Liberibacter species (asiaticus, africanus, americanus, and psyllaurous) are phloem-limited bacteria associated with severe plant diseases. Psyllaurous is linked to psyllids yellowing in solanaceous plants while the other three species are associated with citrus greening or Huanglong...

  7. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  8. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  9. Clues into the metagenome of huanglongbing infected citrus by analysis of ancillary sequences from Ion Torrent whole genome Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a globally devastating disease of citrus. Presently, three etiological agents are associated with HLB and include; Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), Candidatus Liberibacter americanus; and Candidatus Liberibacter africanus. Attempts to determine alternate (non-Liberi...

  10. [Sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and phylogenetic relationships among twelve species of Charadriiformes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Qian; Li, Yu-Xiang; Guo, Yu-Mei; Li, Qing-Wei

    2003-05-01

    Studies of the phylogenetic relationships of the Charadriiformes have been largely based on conservative morphological characters. During the past 10 years, many studies on the evolutionary biology of birds adopted phylogenetic information obtained from mitochondrial DNA, but few work on the Charadriiformes has been reported to date. Therefore, phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Charadriiformes remains controversial. In this study, we try to shed light on these relationships via DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene in 12 species of Charadriiformes. It was a preliminary study of the origin and evolution of the species by using nucleotide sequence data. Using the well-known PCR techniques, the complete mitochondrial Cyt b gene sequences were amplified and sequenced respectively from Charadrius mongolus, Charadrius alexandrinus, Numenius madagascariensis, Numenius arquat, Numenius phaeopus, Tringa totanus, Tringa glareola, Xenus cineres, Arenaria interpres, Calidris tenuirostris, Recurvirostra avosetts and Haematopus ostralensis. The 1143 bp long DNA sequences of the gene from these species were obtained, in which 381 variable sites were identified without insertions or deletions. The nucleic acid sequence variation of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene was 5.16%-16.01% among these species. Phylogenetic trees constructed using the NJ method, MP method and ML method with Ciconia ciconia as the outgroup indicate that the 12 species of Charadriiformes examined in this study are clustered in two major clades. The first clade includes T. totanus, T. glareola, A. interpres, C. tenuirostris, X. cineres, N. madagascariensis, N. arquata and N. phaeopus. The second one includes C. mongolus, C. alexandrinus, R. avosetts and H. ostralensis. Our molecular data show that the phylogenetic relationships among species of Scolopacidae are consistent with the classification based on morphological studies; R. avosetts and H. ostralensis are relatively closer

  11. Identification and phylogenetic relationships of microsporidia by riboprinting.

    PubMed

    Pomport-Castillon, C; Romestand, B; De Jonckheere, J F

    1997-01-01

    The SSUrDNA and the ITS of different microsporidia from eight fishes, four insects and a shrimp were amplified and digested with restriction enzymes. The generated riboprints suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Glugea americanus and Spraguea lophii suggesting that Glugea americanus should be renamed Spraguea americanus and that the tissue infected and host origin should be considered of greater taxonomic importance for defining a genus than previously considered. Phylogenetic analysis of the riboprints demonstrates an unidentified microsporidium from a bumper fish (Chloroscombrus chrysurus) is related although not identical to Microgemma ovoidea, a parasite from red band fish. We were also able to distinguish between Glugea anomala and Glugea atherinae and Glugea stephani but were not able to differenciate among the latter two. Insects isolates, Nosema costelytrae, N. bombycis, N. trichoplusiae, Nosema sp. and a shrimp isolate, Agmasoma penaei, are not related to the fish isolates. PMID:9435126

  12. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES TO ASSSESS HABITAT QUALITY IN RHODE ISLAND'S COASTAL LAGOONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used growth rates of juvenile winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, to assess habitat quality in 3 of Rhode Island's coastal salt ponds that had differing levels of nutrients and human development. In each pond, 1 m2 cages were placed in vegetated and unvegetated habi...

  13. ASSESSING HABITAT QUALITY OF MOUNT HOPE BAY AND NARRAGANSETT BAY USING GROWTH, RNA:DNA, AND FEDDING HABITS OF CAGED JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatic growth rates, RNA:DNA, and feeding habits of juvenile Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Winter Flounder) were used to asses small-scale spatio-temporal variations in the habitat quality of Mount Hope Bay and Narragan-sett Bay, RI. Three successive caging experiments (14–16 d...

  14. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening”, caused by the fastidious a-proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus (Lam) and Ca. L. africanus, is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide (1). Las was first detected in South Florida in 2005, and has spread throu...

  15. Variability of direction of tree-to-tree spread of HLB over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus are two bacterial species that cause huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus-growing regions of Brazil. A concentrated sampling plan of a grove in Matao, Brazil was initiated to evaluate the spatial and temporal spread of these b...

  16. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  17. A unique disease phenotype -‘yellow shoot without blotchy mottle’ was associated with a low titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter: Ca. L. asiaticus, Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanus. Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), first detected in Florida in 2005, has been d...

  18. Feeding patterns of migratory and non-migratory fourth instar larvae of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake: Importance of prey ingestion rate in predicting metal bioaccumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Hare, L.; Marcoux, P.

    2003-01-01

    We studied diel variations in the feeding habits and migratory behaviors of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake (Lake Turcotte, QC, Canada). We found that although the zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers, both Chaoborus species fed mostly on chironomids and crustaceans despite the relatively low abundance of these prey types in the lake plankton. Chaoborus americanus larvae fed on those of Chaoborus punctipennis, but not vice versa. The non-migratory species (C. americanus) fed throughout the day and night whereas the migratory species (C. punctipennis) fed only at night while in the water column. The larger-bodied C. americanus consumed more prey and had a more diverse diet than did the smaller-bodied C. punctipennis. Differences in feeding habits between the Chaoborus species inhabiting Lake Turcotte (prey biomass, prey types) likely explain in part their ability to coexist. Attempts to predict Cd in the Chaoborus species using our measurements of Cd in their prey and their prey ingestion rates met with mixed success; although we correctly predicted higher Cd concentrations for C. americanus larvae than for C. punctipennis larvae, we under-predicted absolute Cd concentrations. We suggest that studies such as ours that are based on analyses of gut contents of larvae collected at intervals of 4h or longer likely underestimate prey ingestion rates.

  19. Psyllids as A Tool in Evaluating the Efficiency of Different Management Practices for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease, was found in Brazil in 2004. Two species of bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. L. americanus, have been identified in Brazil. The disease has not been effectively managed anywhere in the world so far. This is probably because of long ...

  20. 50 CFR 648.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affecting § 648.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...—Aequipecten irradians. Blood arc clam—Anadara ovalis. Blood worm—Glycera dibranchiata. Blue crab—Callinectes... americanus. Monkfish gillnets means gillnet gear with mesh size no smaller than 10-inches (25.4 cm)...

  1. TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF ENDRIN AND METHOXYCHLOR IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stoneflies, caddis-flies, isopods, snails and bullheads were exposed to endrin or methoxychlor in a flowing-water test system for 28 days. Endrin was more toxic than methoxychlor. Behavior changes in the caddis-fly Brachycentrus americanus and in the stonefly Pteronarcys dorsata ...

  2. Archaeal rhizosphere communities differ between the native and invasive lines of the wetland plant Phragmites australis (common reed) in a Chesapeake Bay subestuary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phragmites australis, a common wetland plant species worldwide, is best known in North America as persistent invasive species. Only in recent decades was a native line, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus, confirmed in North American wetlands. This study investigated whether the two lines suppo...

  3. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Massachusetts Lobstermen's Association on behalf of American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishermen who catch and market their lobster in Massachusetts. The FAS Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of American lobster contributed importantly to a greater than...

  4. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: American lobster or lobster means Homarus americanus. Approved TED means any approved TED as defined at... the species Acipenser oxyrhynchus. Berried female means a female American lobster bearing eggs... shell of the American lobster. Certified BRD means any BRD, as defined in part 622, Appendix D of...

  5. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: American lobster or lobster means Homarus americanus. Approved TED means any approved TED as defined at... the species Acipenser oxyrhynchus. Berried female means a female American lobster bearing eggs... shell of the American lobster. Certified BRD means any BRD, as defined in part 622, Appendix D of...

  6. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: American lobster or lobster means Homarus americanus. Approved TED means any approved TED as defined at... the species Acipenser oxyrhynchus. Berried female means a female American lobster bearing eggs... shell of the American lobster. Certified BRD means any BRD, as defined in part 622, Appendix D of...

  7. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Association on behalf of U.S. fishermen who catch and market live lobsters (Homarus americanus). The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of live lobsters (Homarus... lobsters compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If a determination is affirmative,...

  8. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: American lobster or lobster means Homarus americanus. Approved TED means any approved TED as defined at... the species Acipenser oxyrhynchus. Berried female means a female American lobster bearing eggs... shell of the American lobster. Certified BRD means any BRD, as defined in part 622, Appendix D of...

  9. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Maine Lobstermen's Association on behalf of American lobster (Homarus ] americanus) fishermen who catch and market their lobster in Maine. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of American lobster contributed importantly to a greater than 15-percent decrease in...

  10. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Hampshire Commercial Fishermen's Association on behalf of American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishermen who catch and market their lobster in New Hampshire. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of American lobster contributed importantly to a greater than...

  11. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: American lobster or lobster means Homarus americanus. Approved TED means any approved TED as defined at... the species Acipenser oxyrhynchus. Berried female means a female American lobster bearing eggs... shell of the American lobster. Certified BRD means any BRD, as defined in part 622, Appendix D of...

  12. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... the University of Rhode Island on behalf of American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishermen who catch and market their lobster in Rhode Island. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of American lobster contributed importantly to a greater than...

  13. Genome sequence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the casual agent of citrus huanglongbing (greening)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter: Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanus. We first detected and identified Las bacterium from HLB-infected...

  14. Archaeal rhizosphere communities differ between the native and invasive lines of the wetland plant phragmites australis (common reed) in a Chesapeake Bay subestuary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phragmites australis, a common wetland plant species worldwide, is best known in North America as persistent invasive species. Only in recent decades was a native line, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus, confirmed in North American wetlands. This study investigated whether the two lines suppo...

  15. Nested PCR is essential for the detection of extremely low titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from citrus and its vector psyllid Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), transmitted by the psyllids Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae, is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter: Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanu...

  16. 77 FR 40375 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... (Nicrophorus americanus) for the purpose of scientific study and species recovery efforts. These activities... Fish and Wildlife Service Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits AGENCY: Fish and... public to comment on the following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered...

  17. Development of high density SNP-based linkage map in pearl millet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is a gluten free grain crop which is additionally gaining importance in the USA due to the increased demand for pearl millet flour by many ethnic groups. As a result, efforts are underway in the Southeast to develop high grain yielding adapted pearl mi...

  18. An improved method of DNA extraction from Diaphorina citri for HLB detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus that is transmitted by two citrus psyllids. Diaphorina citri transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Ca. L. americanus (Lam), and Trioza erytreae transmits Ca. L. africanus (Laf). Ca. Liberibacter species can be detected in DNA ex...

  19. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  20. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  1. DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

  2. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  3. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

  4. IMPACT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF WINTER FLOUNDER LARVAE: A MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) is a dominant commercial fish in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and yet factors controlling its recruitment remain unclear. An experiment was conducted with six 13-m3 land-based mesocosms (5 m deep) from February to April 1997 to a...

  5. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  6. Overcoming Misinterpretation and Irrationality: Doing Ethics at the Intersection of Social Justice, Liberation, and Civil/Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Rosetta E.

    2012-01-01

    Historian of religions Charles Long uses the term "American cultural language" to identify discursive challenges to democracy and social justice in the Unites States. The American cultural language, Long says, is the "misinterpretation" of humanness and freedom conveyed when the term "American"--used to signify citizens of the United States--is…

  7. NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER SITES IN TWO RHODE ISLAND COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water sites in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...

  8. Geographic variation in the yellow-billed cuckoo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Populations of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coocyzus americanus, west of the Rocky Mountains have average wing lengths slightly greater than those of eastern North America, but the difference is not sufficient for taxonomic recognition. There is no geographically oriented variation in bill size or color, and the species is best considered monotypic.

  9. 77 FR 39670 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... states, as discussed below. On February 15, 1983 (48 FR 6752), the Service included the black bear in... (55 FR 25341) to list the Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) as threatened in Louisiana... similarity of appearance. On January 7, 1992, a final rule was published in the Federal Register (57 FR...

  10. Metazoan parasite infracommunities of Menticirrhus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae): an amphi-oceanic approximation.

    PubMed

    Luque, J L; Oliva, M E

    1999-04-01

    Metazoan infracommunities of Menticirrhus ophicephalus from the south Pacific Ocean and M. americanus from the south Atlantic Ocean were analyzed and compared. The metazoan parasite infracommunities of M. ophicephalus showed higher values of total number of parasite individuals/host and parasite species richness than that of M americanus, but M. americanus showed higher values of parasite species diversity. The infracommunities of ectoparasites showed higher values of total number of parasite individuals/host, richness, and frequency of dominance in M. ophicephalus; in contrast, endoparasites showed higher values of these infracommunity descriptors in M. americanus. Ecological analysis of the marine fish parasite infracommunities using the total number of components (ecto- and endoparasites) could hide some patterns of the community structure; thus, a separate analysis of only ecto- or endoparasites is recommended. Additional studies monitoring the influence of the "upwelling ecosystem" and the El Niño-Southern oscillation event on the fish parasite communities are necessary to determine the real influence of these ecological disturbances on the structure of fish parasite communities in South America. PMID:10219326

  11. Efficacy of agar-plate culture in detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, T; Iwanaga, M; Kinjo, F; Saito, A; Asato, R; Ikeshiro, T

    1990-06-01

    Agar-plate culture of feces using a modified petri dish proved to be highly efficient in the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Furrows left by S. stercoralis on the agar plate were distinguished readily in size from those left by Necator americanus. PMID:2352073

  12. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there.

  13. Shell chooses floating units for central N. Sea projects

    SciTech Connect

    Weener, R.

    1996-08-19

    As new fields awaiting development tend to become smaller, as oil prices remain flat, and as reserves are exploited in ever more-remote and deep waters, so interest in floating production systems is growing. The Shell Group has long experience of floating production, storage, and offtake (FPSO) facilities, subsea development equipment, and other related technologies such as flexible risers. The first Shell FPSO was installed in Castellon field in the Mediterranean Sea in 1977. Since then FPSO systems have been installed in many areas of the world and have evolved as safe and environmentally sound installations which can confidently be employed in ever more-demanding areas. The paper describes FPSO evaluation, North Sea status, FPSOs in Shell Exploration and Production, Curlew field plans, further developments, FPSO market, and future trends.

  14. New explorations along the northern shores of Lake Bonneville

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    This field trip begins in Salt Lake City and makes a clockwise circuit of Great Salt Lake, with primary objectives to observe stratigraphie and geomorphic records of Lake Bonneville. Stops include Stansbury Island, Puddle Valley, gravel pits at Lakeside and the south end of the Hogup Mountains, several stops in Curlew Valley and Hansel Valley, and a final stop at the north end of Great Salt Lake east of the Promontory Mountains. Stratigraphie observations at gravel-pit and natural exposures will be linked to interpretations of lake-level change, which were caused by climate change. Evidence of paleoseismic and volcanic activity will be discussed at several sites, and will be tied to the lacustrine stratigraphic record. The trip provides an overview of the history of Lake Bonneville and introduces participants to some new localities with excellent examples of Lake Bonneville landforms and stratigraphy.

  15. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus). PMID:20806654

  16. [Advantages and limitations of interspecies associations in northern migratory sandpipers (Charadrii, Aves)].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Investigations were carried out at two stations of Ornithological Unit, IBPN FEB RAS, located in Nizhnekolymsk District, Yakutia, starting from May 15-20 in 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1990; at the northern coast of Pukhovoy Bay, Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya starting from June 1 in 1994; at Cape Beliy Nos, the Yugorsky Peninsula, starting from June 1 in 1995-1997. Classic associations are detected in interspecies flocks of sandpipers between the following species: the Pacific golden plover and the curlew sandpiper, the pectoral sandpiper and the long-billed dowitcher, the pectoral sandpiper and the dunlin, the grey plover and the dunlin. However, total amount of birds that form associations is not large. In species of group "A" (the grey plover, the Pacific golden plover, the pectoral sandpiper), no difference has been observed in migratory birds behavior within inter- or conspecific flocks. Species of group "B" (the dunlin, the curlew sandpiper, the long-billed dowitcher), on the contrary, change their behavior sharply depending on whether they belong to an association or not. Species of group "A" do not get any advantages when forming an association. Unlike them, species of group "B" profit from associating: a part of time spent in foraging substantially increases; more time is spent on rest and less time is spent on reconnaissance and vigilance (readiness for actions); safety of birds is enhanced. On the other hand, in species of group "B" there are also disadvantages related with associating: i.e., interspecies competition for food; foraging in suboptimal habitats which, in turn, may lead to notable increase of time spent by birds in foraging. An assumption is put forward that in species of group "B" advantages and limitations of associating cancel each other to a certain extent, and this explains rather small number of birds forming associations. PMID:25771678

  17. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  18. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  19. Beta-endorphin levels in blood from selected Alaskan mammals.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, A W; Flynn, A; Schwartz, C C; Calkins, D G; Nichols, L

    1981-10-01

    Blood samples were analyzed for beta-endorphin from 43 non-torpid black bear (Ursus americanus), 8 torpid black bear, 3 non-torpid brown bear (Ursus arctos), 14 moose (Alces alces), 6 mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) and 30 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Beta-endorphin levels were detected in all species sampled and there were no significant differences in levels among non-torpid black bear, brown bear and sea lions. Also, no differences were detected between moose and mountain goats, but all other comparisons were significantly different (P less than 0.001). Torpid black bear had higher levels than all other groups. Moose and mountain goats had the lowest levels. The possibility of beta-endorphin influencing behavior and physiology of mammals is discussed. PMID:6279890

  20. Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication. PMID:22556084

  1. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length. PMID:26106718

  2. Ascorbic acid and L-gulonolactone oxidase in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Jenness, R; Birney, E C; Ayaz, K L

    1978-01-01

    1. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.8) in the liver of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is about 10-fold greater in winter than in summer. 2. L-gulonolactone oxidase activity is low and tissue ascorbate high during all seasons in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). 3. Liver contents of ascorbate fall to low levels in L. americanus fed on rabbit chow in the laboratory. 4. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase in liver of Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus is depressed by feeding high levels of L-ascorbic acid. 5. The New Zealand White breed of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has considerably higher levels of L-gulonolactone oxidase and liver ascorbate than does the Dutch breed. 6. In a wild population of Oryctolagus sampled in Australia L-gulonolactone oxidase levels were intermediate between those of the two domestic breeds and more variable than either. PMID:318384

  3. The tadpole of Odontophrynus monachus Caramaschi & Napoli, 2012 (Amphibia, Anura: Odontophrynidae).

    PubMed

    Menegucci, Rafael C; Santos, Marcus Thadeu T; Magalhães, Rafael F De; Machado, Ibere F; Garcia, Paulo C A; Pezzuti, Tiago L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus Reinhardt & Lütken comprises 11 species distributed throughout South and East of South America (Frost 2016) clustered in three phenetic groups: O. americanus, O. cultripes, and O. occidentalis (Savage & Cei 1965; Cei 1987; Caramaschi & Napoli 2012). Only the O. occidentalis group is recovered as monophyletic in the most recent phylogenetic hypotheses (Pyron & Wiens 2011; Pyron 2014). In these analyses, the O. cultripes group is not recovered and the monophyly of O. americanus group was not tested, since only one species of the group was included (Pyron & Wiens 2011; Pyron 2014). Therefore, the relationships within the genus are still inconclusive due to low support values and limited taxon sampling. PMID:27615949

  4. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    PubMed Central

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p < 0.05), bill size and prey size (R = −0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging. PMID:26345324

  5. Nereidid polychaetes as the major diet of migratory shorebirds on the estuarine tidal flats at Fujimae-higata in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Akiko; Sato, Masanori

    2007-07-01

    The dietary items of five migratory shorebirds, Dunlin (Calidris alpina), Red-necked Stint (C. ruficollis), Grey Plover (Pluvialis squatarola), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), were examined by analyses of fecal droppings during the birds' migration or wintering and by surveys of macrobenthic fauna around their foraging sites on the tidal flats of Fujimae-higata, Nagoya, central Japan. Body parts of nereidid, capitellid, and spionid polychaetes and crustaceans were found in fecal droppings from all of these shorebirds. Two nereidid species (Hediste diadroma and Neanthes succinea) with relatively large body sizes seemed to be the majority dietary items. At one site, H. diadroma was dominant in terms of biomass (40-370 g/m(2)) throughout year except, for less than 1 g/m(2) in March and May (within or just after reproduction of this species). Monthly changes in the occurrence of food items in fecal droppings of C. alpina were examined in 1999 and 2000. Most (85-100%) of the fecal droppings contained nereidid body parts, including Hediste-specific simple chaetae from November to April, whereas only 23% of the droppings contained them in May. Chaetae of capitellid or spionid polychaetes were frequently found from January to April (38-86% of droppings). Crustacean body parts, including amphipod appendages, were frequently found from March to May (86-100% of droppings). The relationship between foraging habits of the shorebirds and the life history of their major prey nereidid species is discussed. PMID:17824775

  6. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats.

    PubMed

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p < 0.05), bill size and prey size (R = -0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging. PMID:26345324

  7. Differential effects of malathion and nitrate exposure on American Toad and Wood Frog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey R; Krishnamurthy, S V; Burger, Anthony C; Mills, Leonard B

    2011-02-01

    Organisms living in aquatic ecosystems are increasingly likely to be exposed to multiple pollutants at the same time due to the simultaneous use of several pesticides and fertilizers. We examined the single and interactive effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of nitrate and malathion on two species of tadpoles common in agricultural regions of the United States-the American Toad (Bufo americanus) and the Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)-using a fully factorial mesocosm experiment that crossed four concentrations of malathion ranging from 0 to 1000 μg/l and two concentrations of nitrate (0 or 8 mg/l). In both B. americanus and R. sylvatica, malathion delayed metamorphosis compared to controls, even at the lowest concentration of malathion. Malathion did not affect survivorship in either species. B. americanus metamorphs were smaller in malathion treatments, whereas R. sylvatica were larger in malathion treatments. Nitrate did not affect survivorship or metamorph size in either species, but did accelerate time to metamorphosis in R. sylvatica. The interaction between nitrate and malathion had no effects in B. americanus and had no effect on R. sylvatica survivorship or metamorph size. However, in the 250 μg/l and 500 μg/l malathion treatments, nitrate reduced the negative effect of malathion on time to metamorphosis in R. sylvatica such that there was little if any delay in metamorphosis compared to the controls in these treatment combinations. This observation suggests that the presence of nitrate might ameliorate the effects of malathion on R. sylvatica. Our results suggest that malathion could have significant effects on anuran populations and communities and that nitrate might potentially mediate such effects in some species. PMID:20556601

  8. Human Exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Multiple Animal Species in a Metropolitan Zoo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Peter; Granich, Reuben; Scott, Jim; Sun, Ben; Joseph, Michael; Stringfield, Cynthia; Thisdell, Susan; Staley, Jothan; Workman-Malcolm, Donna; Borenstein, Lee; Lehnkering, Eleanor; Ryan, Patrick; Soukup, Jeanne; Nitta, Annette

    2002-01-01

    From 1997 to 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and one black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the Los Angeles Zoo. DNA fingerprint patterns suggested recent transmission. An investigation found no active cases of tuberculosis in humans; however, tuberculin skin-test conversions in humans were associated with training elephants and attending an elephant necropsy. PMID:12453358

  9. Arkansas black bear hunter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pharris, Larry D.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters in Arkansas following the 1980-84 bear seasons to determine participation, hunter success, and number of bears observed by hunters. Man-days of hunting to harvest a bear ranged from 148 to 671 and hunter success ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%. With the exception of 1980, number of permits issued, man-days of bear hunting, and bears harvested appear affected by hunting permit cost. 

  10. Mortality in fledgling great horned owls from black fly hematophaga and leucocytozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D B; Rohner, C; Currie, D C

    1997-07-01

    Black fly feeding alone and in concert with Leucocytozoon spp. infection caused mortality in fledgling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in the Yukon, Canada 1990 to 1991. These mortalities occurred during a year of food shortage corresponding with a decline in the population of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the main prey for great horned owls. We hypothesize an interaction between food availability and the consequences of host-parasite interactions. PMID:9249694

  11. Senile plaques and other senile changes in the brain of an aged American black bear.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Yoshino, T; Yamaguchi, R; Tateyama, S; Kimoto, Y; Nakayama, H; Goto, N

    1995-07-01

    A female American black bear (Euarctos ursus americanus) over 20 years old had shown epileptiform neurologic signs starting in March 1992 and was found dead unexpectedly 8 months later. At necropsy, pulmonary and intrabronchial hemorrhage was noted. In the brain, the leptomeninges exhibited slight thickening, and petechiae were evident in the hippocampus. Histopathologic examination of the brain revealed several senile changes: numerous senile plaques, amyloid deposition in cerebromeningeal arterioles, mineral deposition in the pallidum, and numerous corpora amylacea in the cerebellum. PMID:7483216

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Snowshoe Hare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carreker, Raymond G.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black Bear, Upper Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black bear (Ursus americanus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Blood parasites of amphibians from Algonquin Park, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Barta, J R; Desser, S S

    1984-07-01

    During a 5 wk period beginning May 25, 1983, 329 amphibians, which included specimens of Rana catesbeiana Shaw, Rana clamitans Latreille, Rana septentrionalis Baird, Rana sylvatica LeConte, Hyla crucifer Wied, Bufo americanus Holbrook, and Plethodon cinereus Green, from Lake Sasajewun, Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada were examined for blood parasites. The prevalences of species of Trypanosoma, Haemogregarina, Lankesterella, Babesiasoma, and Thrombocytozoons in these amphibians were determined. Two species of microfilaria (probably Foleyella spp.) and two intraerythrocytic forms, inclusions of an icosahedral cytoplasmic DNA virus (ICDV) and groups of rickettsial organisms, were also observed. The following are new host records: Trypanosoma ranarum (Lankester, 1871) in B. americanus; Trypanosoma ranarum (Lankester, 1871) in R. sylvatica; Trypanosoma pipientis Diamond, 1950, Babesiasoma stableri Schmittner and McGhee, 1961 and Thrombocytozoons ranarum Tchacarof, 1963 in R. septentrionalis. The aquatic frogs generally showed a much higher prevalence of infection with blood parasites than the terrestrial frogs, toads and salamanders, which is suggestive of an aquatic vector. The leech Batracobdella picta Verrill, 1872, which was found on many of the aquatic frogs, is the most likely vector in the study area. Also, an increasing prevalence of parasites was noted with increasing sizes (ages) of Rana clamitans and R. catesbeiana suggesting that longer exposure to water makes these species more likely to acquire blood parasites. The presence of Trypanosoma ranarum in B. americanus appeared to coincide with their attainment of sexual maturity. PMID:6492319

  15. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Maxwell, W. Desmond; Cifelli, Richard L.; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2014-01-01

    The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle–late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old) of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids) suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous. PMID:25494182

  16. Vertebrate herbivory in managed coastal wetlands: A manipulative experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, L.A.; Foote, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Structural marsh management and nutria herbivory are both believed to strongly influence plant production in the brackish, deltaic marshes of coastal Louisiana, USA. Previous studies have tested the effects of structural management on aboveground biomass after implementing management, but very few studies have collected data before and after management. Thus, to test the effects of structural marsh management on Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. and Scirpus americanus Pers., the aboveground biomass of both species was estimated before and after the construction of shallow, leveed impoundments. The water level in each impoundment was managed with a single flap-gated culvert fitted with a variable crest weir. Additionally, the influence of nutria grazing on aboveground biomass was measured by nondestructively sampling fenced (ungrazed) and unfenced (grazed) plots in both managed and unmanaged areas. While there was no significant difference in S. patens production between managed and unmanaged areas, marsh management negatively affected Sc. americanus production the two species also differed in their responses to grazing. Grazing dramatically reduced the sedge, Sc. americanus, while the grass, S. patens, remained at similar biomass levels in grazed and ungrazed plant stands. These findings support the belief that herbivory has a strong influence on plant production, but do not support the claim that management increases plant production in the deltaic marshes of Louisiana.

  17. High Rates of Self-Fertilization in a Marine Ribbon Worm (Nemertea).

    PubMed

    Caplins, Serena A; Turbeville, James M

    2015-12-01

    Organisms capable of self-fertilization ("selfing") typically exhibit two evolutionary syndromes: uniting high inbreeding depression with low levels of selfing, or low inbreeding depression with high levels of selfing. We examined the effect of inbreeding on fecundity and time to first reproduction in an apparently self-compatible, simultaneously hermaphroditic marine nemertean worm Prosorhochmus americanus. Adult and juvenile worms were raised in isolation or in pairs. Isolated worms produced significantly more offspring than paired worms (in the adult experiment), and did not exhibit inbreeding avoidance (in the juvenile experiment). The selfing rate of six natural populations was evaluated using 17 species-specific, microsatellite markers, and was consistent with preferential selfing (mean: 0.843, SD: 0.027). Our results showed that P. americanus exhibited an interesting suite of life-history traits, uniting high colonization potential through self-fertilization and high fecundity, with no dispersive larval stage, and with moderate levels of gene flow. We believe that P. americanus is an ideal model system for studies of mating system evolution, inbreeding, and sex allocation. PMID:26695824

  18. Human Helminth Co-Infection: Analysis of Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Community

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Geiger, Stefan M.; Cundill, Bonnie; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Brooker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. Methodology Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. Principal Findings The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1%) and/or S. mansoni (50.3%) infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk

  19. The natural history of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands. Part I. History, physiography, botany, and isle descriptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    conclusion: Lushly wooded Caroline Atoll, with the majority of its 39 islets (399 ha of land) either in near-pristine condition or having recovered remarkably from past disturbance, is one of the least spoiled atolls in the Pacific. Uninhabited, it harbors plant ecosystems and breeding seabirds (Pt. II) of national and international importance. Its marine and terrestrial ecosystems are prime outdoor ecological laboratories for research on geological processes including ground water, sea level changes, the dynamics of motu formation, fish poisoning, and numerous facets of ecology including plant succession and Pisonia growth rates. Caroline boasts prime coral reefs thickly studded with Tridacna clams, substantial numbers of coconut crabs, breeding sites for green turtles, wintering grounds for shorebirds including the rare Bristle-thighed Curlew, ancient Tuamotuan marae, and a crystalline, unpolluted lagoon. The variety, abundance, and quality of its flora and fauna qualify it for status as an officially recognized international preserve (Pt. II, Sect. G). Efforts toward its conservation have thus far been unsuccessful: in 1992 it was leased to a private French businessman who is currently fishing the reefs for commercial profit, as well as disturbing seabird, turtle and coconut crab populations.

  20. The natural history of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands. Part II. Seabirds, other terrestrial animals, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, C.B.; Kepler, A.K.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    conclusion: Lushly wooded Caroline Atoll, with the majority of its 39 islets (399 ha of land) either in near-pristine condition or having recovered remarkably from past disturbance, is one of the least spoiled atolls in the Pacific. Uninhabited, it harbors plant ecosystems and breeding seabirds (Pt. II) of national and international importance. Its marine and terrestrial ecosystems are prime outdoor ecological laboratories for research on geological processes including ground water, sea level changes, the dynamics of motu formation, fish poisoning, and numerous facets of ecology including plant succession and Pisonia growth rates. Caroline boasts prime coral reefs thickly studded with Tridacna clams, substantial numbers of coconut crabs, breeding sites for green turtles, wintering grounds for shorebirds including the rare Bristle-thighed Curlew, ancient Tuamotuan marae, and a crystalline, unpolluted lagoon. The variety, abundance, and quality of its flora and fauna qualify it for status as an officially recognized international preserve (Pt. II, Sect. G). Efforts toward its conservation have thus far been unsuccessful: in 1992 it was leased to a private French businessman who is currently fishing the reefs for commercial profit, as well as disturbing seabird, turtle and coconut crab populations.

  1. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why?

    PubMed

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-10-22

    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is evaluated on the basis of a survey of preen wax composition in 19 sandpiper species. All of these species showed the same shift observed in the high-Arctic breeding red knots. As the shift also occurred in temperate breeding species, it is not specific to tundra-breeding sandpipers. Both sexes produced the diester waxes during the incubation period until hatching, in addition to the short period of courtship, indicating that diesters' functions extend beyond that of a sexually selected 'make-up'. The few non-incubating birds examined (males of curlew sandpipers (C. ferruginea) and ruffs (Philomachus pugnax)) had the lowest likelihood of secreting diesters, indicating a functional role for diester preen waxes during incubation. We propose that diester preen waxes enhance olfactory crypticism at the nest. PMID:12396488

  2. The unexpected survival of an ancient lineage of anseriform birds into the Neogene of Australia: the youngest record of Presbyornithidae.

    PubMed

    De Pietri, Vanesa L; Scofield, R Paul; Zelenkov, Nikita; Boles, Walter E; Worthy, Trevor H

    2016-02-01

    Presbyornithids were the dominant birds in Palaeogene lacustrine assemblages, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, but are thought to have disappeared worldwide by the mid-Eocene. Now classified within Anseriformes (screamers, ducks, swans and geese), their relationships have long been obscured by their strange wader-like skeletal morphology. Reassessment of the late Oligocene South Australian material attributed to Wilaru tedfordi, long considered to be of a stone-curlew (Burhinidae, Charadriiformes), reveals that this taxon represents the first record of a presbyornithid in Australia. We also describe the larger Wilaru prideauxi sp. nov. from the early Miocene of South Australia, showing that presbyornithids survived in Australia at least until ca 22 Ma. Unlike on other continents, where presbyornithids were replaced by aquatic crown-group anatids (ducks, swans and geese), species of Wilaru lived alongside these waterfowl in Australia. The morphology of the tarsometatarsus of these species indicates that, contrary to other presbyornithids, they were predominantly terrestrial birds, which probably contributed to their long-term survival in Australia. The morphological similarity between species of Wilaru and the Eocene South American presbyornithid Telmabates antiquus supports our hypothesis of a Gondwanan radiation during the evolutionary history of the Presbyornithidae. Teviornis gobiensis from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia is here also reassessed and confirmed as a presbyornithid. These findings underscore the temporal continuance of Australia's vertebrates and provide a new context in which the phylogeny and evolutionary history of presbyornithids can be examined. PMID:26998335

  3. How do macrobenthic resources concentrate foraging waders in large megatidal sandflats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsero, Alain; Sturbois, Anthony; Desroy, Nicolas; Le Mao, Patrick; Jones, Auriane; Fournier, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between foraging shorebirds, macrobenthos and sedimentary parameters has been widely studied across Western Europe. Megatidal areas have large zones uncovered when the water retreats. Consequently, in such cases, the tide also influences foraging activities. This paper examines the use of an intertidal space by waders to define how macrobenthic resource concentrates foraging activity of birds in a large megatidal sandflat. This approach combines accurate spatial distribution of waders (Oystercatcher, Eurasian curlew, Bar-tailed Godwit and Redknot) according to their activity with ecological/biological parameters. A differential exploitation of the flat is clearly shown, with macrobenthic biomass appearing as one of the main explanatory factor for the four species considered on the western part of the bay and altitude (shore elevation) in the eastern part. The novelty of this study relates to the large area, also presumed to be a functional unit, while considering at the same time the singularities of the different parts of the flat. This multi-scale approach identifies important factors influencing the differential distribution patterns observed. The different selected parameters present an important variability in their contribution, underlining the complexity of explaining the distribution of foraging birds. Consequently, the study of such complex phenomena needs to consider additional variables to improve the relevance of explanatory models.

  4. Role of livestock and black-tailed jackrabbits in changing abundance of Kochia americana

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.R.; Wagner, F.H.

    1984-10-31

    Historical accounts and matched photographs indicate sharp decline of once-abundant Kochia americana in eastern Great Basin vegetation since the early 1900s, most of the decline by the late 1950s. Exclosure data show further decline from 1957 to 1973, then some increase between 1970 and 1973 and 1976 and 1981. Utah sheep numbers, at maximum from 1925 to 1940 and declining steadily to the 1970s, may have induced the long-term changes. Black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus), could not have induced vegetation decline, but could have added to livestock pressure and abetted the trend. In 1972, rabbits near a cyclic high were indirectly estimated to completely utilize K. americana in Curlew Valley, northwestern Utah. In 1976-1977 at rabbit low, direct measurements show 4%-18% of plants browsed by late summer, about 30%-50% of herbage removed from browsed plants. The latter rose to 45%-82% by end of winter. Late-summer percent browsed may have risen slightly (11%-21%) in 1980-1981 at next rabbit high. Increase in K. americana density from 1973 to 1976, then a slight decrease from 1976 to 1980, suggests fluctuating K. americana abundance induced by rabbit browsing, superimposed on long-term K. americana decline and recovery. 41 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. The unexpected survival of an ancient lineage of anseriform birds into the Neogene of Australia: the youngest record of Presbyornithidae

    PubMed Central

    Zelenkov, Nikita; Boles, Walter E.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2016-01-01

    Presbyornithids were the dominant birds in Palaeogene lacustrine assemblages, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, but are thought to have disappeared worldwide by the mid-Eocene. Now classified within Anseriformes (screamers, ducks, swans and geese), their relationships have long been obscured by their strange wader-like skeletal morphology. Reassessment of the late Oligocene South Australian material attributed to Wilaru tedfordi, long considered to be of a stone-curlew (Burhinidae, Charadriiformes), reveals that this taxon represents the first record of a presbyornithid in Australia. We also describe the larger Wilaru prideauxi sp. nov. from the early Miocene of South Australia, showing that presbyornithids survived in Australia at least until ca 22 Ma. Unlike on other continents, where presbyornithids were replaced by aquatic crown-group anatids (ducks, swans and geese), species of Wilaru lived alongside these waterfowl in Australia. The morphology of the tarsometatarsus of these species indicates that, contrary to other presbyornithids, they were predominantly terrestrial birds, which probably contributed to their long-term survival in Australia. The morphological similarity between species of Wilaru and the Eocene South American presbyornithid Telmabates antiquus supports our hypothesis of a Gondwanan radiation during the evolutionary history of the Presbyornithidae. Teviornis gobiensis from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia is here also reassessed and confirmed as a presbyornithid. These findings underscore the temporal continuance of Australia’s vertebrates and provide a new context in which the phylogeny and evolutionary history of presbyornithids can be examined. PMID:26998335

  7. Late Pleistocene Hansel Valley basaltic ash, northern Lake Bonneville, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.M.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Nash, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Hansel Valley ash bed lies within 5 cm of the base of deposits of Lake Bonneville (???28 ka) in the vicinity of Great Salt Lake and provides a useful stratigraphic marker for this area of the lake basin. However, it has not been matched to an eruptive edifice, presumably because such an edifice was eroded by waves of Lake Bonneville. We present data for the chemical composition of the tephra and for possible matching lavas and tephras of the region, as well as grain size data for the tephra in an attempt to identify the location of the eruption. Matches with other tephras are negative, but lavas near the coarsest ash deposits match well with the distinctive high values of TiO2 and P2O5 of the ash. Neither chemistry nor grain size data points uniquely to a source area, but an area near the northwest shore of Great Salt Lake and within Curlew Valley is most likely. The Hansel Valley ash is an example of an ash that has no direct numerical date from proximal deposits, despite considerable study, yet nonetheless is useful for stratigraphic studies by virtue of its known stratigraphic position and approximate age. Basaltic tephras commonly are not as widespread as their rhyolitic counterparts, and in some cases apparently are produced by eruptive sources that are short lived and whose edifices are not persistent. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  8. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates. PMID:17717813

  9. Nursery use of shallow habitats by epibenthic fishes in Maine nearshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Sherman, S.; Kanwit, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    Species richness and abundance of epibenthic fishes were quantified with daytime beam trawl tows in shallow water habitats during April-November 2000 of three mid-coast Maine estuaries: Casco Bay, Muscongus Bay and the Weskeag River. Five shallow (<10 m) habitats were sampled, Zostera marina, Laminaria longicruris, Phyllophora sp., Microciona prolifera and unvegetated sandy areas. Thirty-two species of fishes were collected. Species richness per tow was greater in Casco Bay followed by the Weskeag River and Muscongus Bay. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fishes was greater in Casco Bay than in the Weskeag River or Muscongus Bay. Species richness and faunal abundances were positively associated with vegetation, particularly Zostera, at all sampling locations. CPUEs of fishes were higher in Zostera primarily due to the abundance of Gasterosteus aculeatus, Apeltes quadracus, Pungitius pungitius, Myoxocephalus aenaeus, and Cylcopterus lumpus. The fish community of mid-coast estuaries was dominated by young-of-the-year (YOY) and juvenile fishes and all of the habitat types function as nursery areas. Twelve species (38%) of commercial and recreational importance were collected in the three estuaries, but the percentage was higher in Casco Bay (44%) and the Weskeag River (46%). These species included Anguilla rostrata, Clupea harengus, Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis regia, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Macrozoarces americanus, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pleuronectes americanus. Four species, G. morhua, M. tomcod, P. virens, and U. tenuis were more common in spring than summer or autumn. P. americanus was most abundant in summer followed by spring and autumn. This study documents the importance of shallow estuarine areas in Maine as nurseries for these species.

  10. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming. PMID:26963395

  11. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013–2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). Conclusions/Significance In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir. PMID:27486798

  12. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming. PMID:26963395

  13. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical

  14. Identification of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide: a broadly conserved crustacean C-type allatostatin-like peptide with both neuromodulatory and cardioactive properties

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Gabranski, Emily R.; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Stevens, Jake S.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The allatostatins comprise three structurally distinct peptide families that regulate juvenile hormone production by the insect corpora allata. A-type family members contain the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide and have been found in species from numerous arthropod taxa. Members of the B-type family exhibit a –WX6Wamide C-terminus and, like the A-type peptides, appear to be broadly conserved within the Arthropoda. By contrast, members of the C-type family, typified by the unblocked C-terminus –PISCF, a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues, have only been found in holometabolous insects, i.e. lepidopterans and dipterans. Here, using transcriptomics, we have identified SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (disulfide bridging predicted between the two Cys residues), a known honeybee and water flea C-type-like peptide, from the American lobster Homarus americanus (infraorder Astacidea). Using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), a mass corresponding to that of SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected in the H. americanus brain, supporting the existence of this peptide and its theorized structure. Furthermore, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide was detected by MALDI-FTMS in neural tissues from five additional astacideans as well as 19 members of four other decapod infraorders (i.e. Achelata, Anomura, Brachyura and Thalassinidea), suggesting that it is a broadly conserved decapod peptide. In H. americanus, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide is capable of modulating the output of both the pyloric circuit of the stomatogastric nervous system and the heart. This is the first demonstration of bioactivity for this peptide in any species. PMID:19423507

  15. Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.

    1994-01-01

    While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

  16. Multiple isoforms of myofibrillar proteins in crustacean muscle: evidence for two slow fiber types

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Four distinct patterns of myofibrillar proteins, extracted from fast and slow muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus, are distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. Multiple isoforms of troponin-T, -I, and -C, paramyosin, and myosin light chains occur in six muscles of the claws and abdomen. Analysis of glycerinated fibers from the claws of lobster and land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, show that more than one isoform is expressed in a single fiber, forming unique assemblages by which subgroups can be discriminated within the broader categories of fast and slow fibers. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in Ontario wildlife.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P J; Ramsden, R O; Johnston, D H

    1976-10-01

    Sera from seven species of wild animals in Ontario were examined for antibody to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (Canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (Ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. Antibody to T. gondii was present in sera from wild animals captured throughout southern Ontario. A positive linear correlation between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and age of fox pups was calculated (p < 0.005). PMID:16502687

  18. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  19. Use of dissociative anesthetics for the immobilization of captive bears: blood gas, hematology and biochemistry values.

    PubMed

    Bush, M; Custer, R S; Smith, E E

    1980-10-01

    Nineteen bears, representing five species (Helarctos malayanus, Ursus americanus, Ursus arctos, Tremarctos ornatus, Melursus ursinus) were immobilized a total of 52 times using either phencyclidine-promazine or tiletamine-zolazepam. Blood gas, hematology, and serum biochemistry values were determined during the immobilizations. Immobilizations conducted with tiletamine-zolazepam were characterized by rapid induction and recovery times, good muscle relaxation, and relative freedom from convulsions. Bears immobilized with phencyclidine-promazine had longer induction and recovery times and showed convulsive activity in 29% of the trials with that combination. PMID:7463600

  20. A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pamba, H O; Bwibo, N O; Chunge, C N; Estambale, B B

    1989-03-01

    One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index. PMID:2591328

  1. Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M

    1997-01-23

    In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features. PMID:9037486

  2. Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Olwyn C; Roth, James D

    2016-09-01

    Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators' parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ(13) C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long-term consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and potentially affect food web dynamics. PMID:27155132

  3. Was the giant short-faced bear a hyper-scavenger? A new approach to the dietary study of ursids using dental microwear textures.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shelly L; DeSantis, Larisa R G; Schubert, Blaine W; Ungar, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic environmental changes associated with global cooling since the late Miocene, and the onset of glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene served as a backdrop to the evolutionary radiation of modern bears (family Ursidae). These environmental changes likely prompted changes in food availability, and triggered dietary adaptations that served as motive forces in ursid evolution. Here, we assess correspondence of dental microwear textures of first and second lower molars with diet in extant ursids. We use the resulting baseline data to evaluate the hypothesis that the Pleistocene giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, was a bone consumer and hyper-scavenger at Rancho La Brea, California, USA. Significant variation along the tooth row is consistent with functional differentiation, with the second molar serving as a better dietary recorder than the first. Results evince significant variation among species: carnivorous and omnivorous ursids (Ursus maritimus, U. americanus) have significantly higher and more variable complexity (Asfc) than more herbivorous ones (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Tremarctos ornatus, U. malayanus), and A. melanoleuca is differentiated from U. maritimus and U. americanus by significantly higher and more variable anisotropy (epLsar) values. Arctodus simus from Rancho La Brea exhibits wear attributes most comparable to its closest living relative (T. ornatus), which is inconsistent with hard-object (e.g., bone) consumption, and the hypothesis that short-faced bears were bone consuming hyper-scavengers across their range. PMID:24204860

  4. Was the Giant Short-Faced Bear a Hyper-Scavenger? A New Approach to the Dietary Study of Ursids Using Dental Microwear Textures

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Shelly L.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schubert, Blaine W.; Ungar, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic environmental changes associated with global cooling since the late Miocene, and the onset of glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene served as a backdrop to the evolutionary radiation of modern bears (family Ursidae). These environmental changes likely prompted changes in food availability, and triggered dietary adaptations that served as motive forces in ursid evolution. Here, we assess correspondence of dental microwear textures of first and second lower molars with diet in extant ursids. We use the resulting baseline data to evaluate the hypothesis that the Pleistocene giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, was a bone consumer and hyper-scavenger at Rancho La Brea, California, USA. Significant variation along the tooth row is consistent with functional differentiation, with the second molar serving as a better dietary recorder than the first. Results evince significant variation among species: carnivorous and omnivorous ursids (Ursus maritimus, U. americanus) have significantly higher and more variable complexity (Asfc) than more herbivorous ones (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Tremarctos ornatus, U. malayanus), and A. melanoleuca is differentiated from U. maritimus and U. americanus by significantly higher and more variable anisotropy (epLsar) values. Arctodus simus from Rancho La Brea exhibits wear attributes most comparable to its closest living relative (T. ornatus), which is inconsistent with hard-object (e.g., bone) consumption, and the hypothesis that short-faced bears were bone consuming hyper-scavengers across their range. PMID:24204860

  5. Drug efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in school children in Mwea Division, Central Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Muhoho, N; Njomo, D; Mwobobia, I K; Josyline, K; Mitsui, Y; Awazawa, T; Amano, T; Mwandawiro, C

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this research was to assess drug efficacy in school children after mass chemotherapy with praziquantel and albendazole conducted in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga District, Central Kenya in 2004. In total 2300 children aged between 4 and 18 years in five primary schools were selected for the study. Before mass chemotherapy, prevalence of infection was 47.4% for Schistosoma mansoni, 16.7% for Necator americanus, 1.6% for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 0.8% for Trichuris trichiura. Post-treatment stool examination was carried out 8 weeks later, and a total of 1942 stool samples were collected. Prevalence decreased to 8.6% for S. mansoni, 0.2% for N. americunus, 0 for A. lumbricoides, and 0.6% for T. trichiura. Efficacy was good for S. mansoni and N. americanus (92.6% and 95.0%, respectively). Results of the first round of treatment of school-age children in Mwea indicate a good reduction in parasite burden. PMID:17572368

  6. A microsporidian parasite of the genus Spraguea in the nervous tissues of the Japanese anglerfish Lophius litulon.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mark A; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, a high percentage of Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902), contained a microsporidian infection of the nervous tissues. Xenomas were removed and prepared for standard wax histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DNA extractions were performed on parasite spores and used in PCR and sequencing reactions. Fresh spores measured 3.4 x 1.8 microm and were uniform in size with no dimorphism observed. TEM confirmed that only a single developmental cycle and a single spore form were present. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were >99.5% similar to those of Spraguea lophii (Doflein, 1898) and Glugea americanus (Takvorian et Cali, 1986) from the European and American Lophius spp. respectively. The microsporidian from the nervous tissue of L. litulon undoubtedly belongs in the genus Spraguea Sprague et Vivra, 1976 and the authors suggest a revision to the generic description of Spraguea to include monomorphic forms and the transfer of Glugea americanus to Spraguea americana comb. n. Since no major differences in ultrastructure or SSU rDNA sequence data exist between Spraguea americana and the microsporidian from the Japanese anglerfish, they evidently belong to the same species. This report of Spraguea americana is the first report of a Spraguea species from L. litulon and indeed from the Pacific water mass. PMID:15357394

  7. Parasite adaptation to extreme conditions in a desert environment.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, R C

    1999-01-01

    Deserts represent universally recognized extreme environments for animal life. This paper documents the highly specialized adaptations of Pseudodiplorchis americanus, a monogenean parasite of the desert toad, Scaphiopus couchii. Building on a long-term record of parasite population ecology (continuing since the early 1980s), field studies focus on the effects of severe drought in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona, in the mid 1990s. This provides a test of the ability of the host-parasite system to tolerate exceptional perturbation. The analysis provides new insight into parasite infection dynamics in a natural wildlife system through integration of host and parasite population age structure. The environmental check interrupted host recruitment in 1993-95 and parasite recruitment in 1995-97. This produced an imprint in age structure and infection levels recognizable over several years: parasite recruitment failure reduced transmission 2-3 years later. The host (maximum life span 17 years) tolerated the disruption but the impact was more serious for the parasite (life span 3 years) leading to extinction of some previously stable populations. Despite this demonstration of a rare event exacerbating external environmental constraints, experimental studies suggest that the internal (host) environment normally creates the most severe conditions affecting P. americanus. Only about 3% of parasites survive from invasion until first reproduction. Post-invasion factors including host immunity, characteristic of most parasite life cycles, constitute a greater constraint upon survival than external conditions, even in a desert environment. PMID:11254147

  8. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen. PMID:26613762

  9. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  10. Factors affecting methylmercury biomagnification by a widespread aquatic invertebrate predator, the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Bourdiol, Floriane; Aldamman, Lama; Perron, Tania; Amyot, Marc; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette

    2012-06-01

    MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic development. In the lake inhabited by fish, all instars of Chaoborus punctipennis displayed a marked migratory behavior and were unable to biomagnify MeHg, whereas in the fishless lake, Chaoborus americanus and Chaoborus trivittatus biomagnified MeHg. Reduced biomagnification capacity of C. trivittatus, the coexisting species living with C. americanus, was also ascribed to a progressive vertical segregation with age. Growth dilution, amount and type of prey items or trophic position could not explain the different patterns of biomagnification. Our findings demonstrate that the most common invertebrate predator of temperate planktonic food webs can biomagnify mercury, contrarily to previous reports. PMID:22420993

  11. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM. PMID:26559133

  12. The pattern of parasitic infection in human gut at the Specialist Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiamiwe, B A

    1977-03-01

    In a survey of 6213 persons conducted between January 1973 to December 1974, at the Specialist Hospital, Benin City, the most common helminths were Necator americanus (16.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (19l5%) and Trichuris trichiur (5-9%). Dicrocoelium hospes (0-06%) was also recorded and this may become an important liver parasite of man in Nigeria. Its snail vectors are believed to be species of Limicolaria and Achatina which are widely dispersed in Nigeria. Entamoeba coli and E. histolytica showed peaks during the "fly seasons", indicating that the housefly, as well as water, may be an important source of contamination. Trichomonas hominis showed peaks in the rainy seasons, and this suggests that in Benin City transmission is chiefly via contaminated domestic water-supply. The incidence of A. lumbricoides and N. americanus was high throughout the rainy and dry seasons, indicating poor disposal of human excreta and a continuous pattern of infection. The type of food and method of cooking prevented or reduced the incidence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, Diphyllobothrium latum and Fasciola gigantica. PMID:849017

  13. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  14. Sidescan sonar as a tool for detection of demersal fish habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Able, Kenneth W.; Twichell, David C.; Grimes, Churchill B.; Jones, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Sidescan sonar can be an effective tool for the determination of the habitat distribution of commercially important species.  This technique has the advantage of rapidly mapping large areas of the seafloor.  Sidescan images (sonographs) may also help to identify appropriate fishing gears for different types of seafloor or areas to be avoided with certain types of gears.  During the early stages of exploration, verification of sidescan sonar sonographs is critical to successful identification of important habitats.  Tilefishes (Lopholatilus and Caulolatilus) are especially good target species because the construct large burrows in the seafloor or live around boulders, both of which are easily detectable on sonographs.  In some special circumstances the estimates of tilefish burrow densities from sonographs can be used to estimate standing stock. In many localities the burrow and boulder habitats of tilefish are shared with other commercially important species such as American lobsters, Homarus americanus; cusk, Brosme brosme; and ocean pout, Macrozoarces americanus.

  15. Lipopeptide Nanoparticles: Development of Vaccines against Hookworm Parasite.

    PubMed

    Fuaad, Abdullah A H Ahmad; Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; Becker, Luke; Zhao, Guangzu; Loukas, Alex C; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2015-10-01

    Necator americanus (hookworm) infects over half a billion people worldwide. Anthelminthic drugs are commonly used to treat the infection; however, vaccination is a more favorable strategy to combat this parasite. We designed new B-cell peptide epitopes based on the aspartic protease of N. americanus (Na-APR-1). The peptides were conjugated to self-adjuvanting lipid core peptide (LCP) systems via stepwise solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and copper catalyst azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions. The LCP vaccine candidates were able to self-assemble into nanoparticles, were administered to mice without the use of additional adjuvant, and generated antibodies that recognized the parent epitope. However, only one LCP derivative was able to produce a high titer of antibodies specific to Na-APR-1; circular dichroism analyses of this compound showed a β-sheet conformation for the incorporated epitope. This study provides important insight in epitope and delivery system design for the development of a vaccine against hookworm infections. PMID:26269385

  16. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there. PMID:12537633

  17. Salinity as a constraint on growth of oligohaline marsh macrophytes. II. Salt pulses and recovery potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of common oligohaline marsh macrophytes of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to recover from pulses of increased salinity was investigated in a greenhouse experiment with Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus monocultures. Components of salinity pulses applied were final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo). After each exposure period, we placed plants into freshwater until the end of the 120-d experiment to determine recovery potential. The four species varied in their ability to recover from the salinity pulses. Within a species, recovery varied with final salinity level and duration of exposure, and to a lesser extent with salinity influx rate. Scirpus americanus, growth of which was stimulated by <3 mo of exposure to 6 g/L, was able to recover even under the most extreme conditions of exposure to 12 g/L salinity for 3 mo. Ability to recover decreased with increased salinity and increased duration of exposure for the remaining three species. Recovery of specific aspects of growth was also suppressed in these species by a rapid salinity influx rate compared to a slow influx rate. The complex variations in recovery patterns displayed by the different species may lead to changes in species dominance following the short-term salinity pulses that can occur during storm events, which in turn may affect marsh plant community composition and structure.

  18. Salinity as a constraint on growth of oligohaline marsh macrophytes. I. Species variation in stress tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of increased salinity on plant growth were examined in a greenhouse experiment with four species common to oligohaline marshes of the northern Gulf of Mexico: Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus. Effects of final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo) were investigated. Sagittaria lancifolia was the first species to show visible signs of stress, with browning and curling of older leaf edges. The salt effect was delayed for 6-8 wk in P. hemitomon, but this species had the highest aboveground tissue mortality rate at 12 g/L as exposure continued. Final salt concentration affected all species to a greater degree than did salinity influx rate. No aboveground mortality occurred at 6 g/L, but growth suppression was apparent and varied with species. The magnitude of growth suppression in response to salinity increased for all species as the duration of exposure increased. Overall, we ranked the species as follows, in order from least to most salt tolerant: Panicum hemitomon < Sagittaria lancifolia < Eleocharis palustris < Scirpus americanus. This ranking reflects the field occurrence of these species along a gradient of increasing salinity in northern Gulf of Mexico coastal habitats from freshwater wetlands through oligohaline areas to mesohaline wetlands.

  19. Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

  20. Trophic resource partitioning within a shorebird community feeding on intertidal mudflat habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, Pierrick; Robin, Frédéric; Kojadinovic, Jessica; Delaporte, Philippe; Rousseau, Pierre; Dupuy, Christine; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    In ecological systems, it is necessary to describe the trophic niches of species and their segregation or overlap to understand the distribution of species in the community. In oceanic systems, the community structure of top predators such as seabird communities has been well documented with many studies in several biogeographical areas. But for coastal habitats, very few investigations on the trophic structure have been carried out in avian communities. In this study, the trophic resource partitioning was investigated on eight of the most abundant species of a shorebird community on the central Atlantic coast of France. Our work comprised a comprehensive sample of birds with different ecomorphogical patterns and data on their main prey to encompass potential sources of overlap and segregation in this community. We examined the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of blood to investigate the trophic structure (1) on a temporal scale by comparing migration and wintering periods; (2) on a spatial scale through inter-site comparisons; and (3) on the community level within groups of phylogenetically related species. Diets appeared different in several cases between periods, between sites and between juveniles and adults for the same sites. A clear trophic partitioning was established with four functional groups of predators in winter inside the community. The Grey Plover, the Bar-tailed Godwit, the Curlew and a majority of the dunlins were worm-eaters mainly feeding on Nereis diversicolor or Nephtys hombergii. Two species were predominantly deposit-suspensivorous mollusc-eaters, including the Red Knot and the Black-tailed Godwit feeding mainly on Macoma balthica. The Oystercatcher fed mainly on suspensivorous molluscs like Cerastodrema edule and two species including the Redshank and some dunlins adopted opportunistic behaviours feeding on mudflat and/or in marshes.

  1. Blanket Biological Review for General Maintenance Activities within Active Burial Grounds, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR No. 99-200-042

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Charles A.

    1999-04-30

    No plant and animal species protected under the Endangered Species Act, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The stalked pod and crouching milkvetchs are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, a nd 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). If vegetation removal is required prior to August 1999 or after 1 April 2000, please contact the ECAP staff for an additional analysis to ensure compliance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

  2. The use of distal rhynchokinesis by birds feeding in water.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Sora M; Masero, José A

    2007-11-01

    The use of distal rhynchokinesis, which consists of the movement of the distal part of the upper jaw with respect to the cranium, is well documented in long-billed shorebirds (Scolopacidae), commonly being associated with the deep probing feeding method. However, the functional and evolutionary significance of distal rhynchokinesis and other cranial kinesis is unclear. We report for the first time the use and occurrence of distal rhynchokinesis in wild long-billed shorebirds feeding on small prey items suspended in water. We tested whether prey size in captive dunlins Calidris alpina influences the occurrence of distal rhynchokinesis during feeding and also whether its use affects foraging efficiency. We found that wild dunlin, curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, sanderling Calidris alba and little stint Calidris minuta commonly use distal rhynchokinesis to strike, capture and transport small prey items. Prey size influenced the occurrence of distal rhynchokinesis during the transport phase, with this type of cranial kinesis being more frequently used with larger prey. The rhynchokinesis protraction angle (a measure of bill tip elevation) during prey strike and transport was affected by prey size, and bill gape was modulated through the use of distal rhynchokinesis in relation to prey size. Finally, the use of distal rhynchokinesis throughout intra-oral prey transport was related to shorter transport times, which improved foraging efficiency. We conclude that distal rhynchokinesis is a mechanism that could contribute to the flexible feeding behaviour of long-distance migratory shorebirds, enhancing small prey profitability and so improving foraging efficiency, and may have played a role in the evolutionary radiation of Scolopacidae (Charadrii). PMID:17951416

  3. Bird associations with shrubsteppe plant communities at the proposed reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides information on te seasonal use of shrubsteppe vegetation by bird species at the RRL. Bird abundance and distribution were studied at the RRL to ensure that the DOE monitored migratory bird species pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and to assess potential impacts of site characterization activities on bird populations. Birds were counted on two transects that together sampled an areas of 1.39 km/sup 2/. The relative abundance of birds, species richness, seasonal distribution, and the association of breeding shrubsteppe birds with major vegetation types were determined from Janurary through December 1987. Only 38 species were counted during 82 surveys. Total bird density during the nesting season (March-June) was 42.96 birdskm/sup 2/ and the density for the entire year was 26.74 birdskm/sup 2/. The characteristic nesting birds in shrubsteppe habitats were western meadowlark, sage sparrow, burrowing owl, mourning dove, horned lark, long-billed curlew, lark sparrow, and loggerhead shrike. Western meadowlark and sage sparrows were the most abundant breeding birds with an average density of 11.25 and 7.76 birdskm/sup 2/, respectively. Seasonal distribution of birds varied with species, but most species were present from March to September. Distribution and abunandance of nesting birds were correlated with habitat type. About 63% of the habitat surveyed was sagebrush, 26% was cheatgrass, and 11% was spiny hopsage. Sagebrush habitat supproted a greeater total bird density than cheatgrass or hopsage habitats. Sage sparrows were closely associated with sagebrush habitats, while western meadowlarks showed no strong habitat affinities. 22 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Changes in lagoonal marsh morphology at selected northeastern Atlantic coast sites of significance to migratory waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Five lagoonal salt marsh areas, ranging from 220 ha to 3,670 ha, were selected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to the southern DelMarVa peninsula, Virginia, USA to examine the degree to which Spartina marsh area and microhabitats had changed from the early or mid- 1900s to recent periods. We chose areas based on their importance to migratory bird populations, agency concerns about marsh loss and sea-level rise, and availability of historic imagery. We georeferenced and processed aerial photographs from a variety of sources ranging from 1932 to 1994. Of particular interest were changes in total salt marsh area, tidal creeks, tidal flats, tidal and non-tidal ponds, and open water habitats. Nauset Marsh, within Cape Cod National Seashore, experienced an annual marsh loss of 0.40% (19% from 1947 to 1994) with most loss attributed to sand overwash and conversion to open water. At Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge in southern New Jersey, annual loss was 0.27% (17% from 1932 to 1995), with nearly equal attribution of loss to open water and tidal pond expansion. At Curlew Bay, Virginia, annual loss was 0.20% (9% from 1949 to 1994) and almost entirely due to perimeter erosion to open water. At Gull Marsh, Virginia, a site chosen because of known erosional losses, we recorded the highest annual loss rate, 0.67% per annum, again almost entirely due to erosional, perimeter loss. In contrast, at the southernmost site, Mockhorn Island Wildlife Management Area, Virginia, there was a net gain of 0.09% per annum (4% from 1949 to 1994), with tidal flats becoming increasingly vegetated. Habitat. implications for waterbirds are considerable; salt marsh specialists such as laughing gulls (Larus atricilla), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), black rail, (Laterallus jamaicensis), seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus), and saltmarsh sharp-tailed sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) are particularly at risk if these trends continue, and all but the laughing gull are species of concern to state

  5. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  6. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  7. Structure and composition of oligohaline marsh plant communities exposed to salinity pulses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    The response of two oligohaline marsh macrophyte communities to pulses of increased salinity was studied over a single growing season in a greenhouse experiment. The plant communities were allowed a recovery period in freshwater following the pulse events. The experimental treatments included: (1) salinity influx rate (rate of salinity increase from 0 to 12 gl-1); (2) duration of exposure to elevated salinity; and (3) water depth. The communities both included Sagittaria lancifolia L.; the codominant species were Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roemer and J.A. Schultes in community 1 and Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volk. ex Schinz and R. Keller in community 2. Effects of the treatments on sediment chemical characteristics (salinity, pH, redox potential, and sulfide and ammonium concentrations) and plant community attributes (aboveground and belowground biomass, stem density, leaf tissue nutrients, and species richness) were examined. The treatment effects often interacted to influence sediment and plant communities characteristics following recovery in fresh water. Salinity influx rate per se, however, had little effect on the abiotic or biotic response variables; significant influx effects were found when the 0 gl-1 (zero influx) treatment was compared to the 12 gl-1 treatments, regardless of the rate salinity was raised. A salinity level of 12 gl-1 had negative effects on plant community structure and composition; these effects were usually associated with 3 months of salinity exposure. Water depth often interacted with exposure duration, but increased water depth did independently decrease the values of some community response measures. Community 1 was affected more than community 2 in the most extreme salinity treatment (3 months exposure/15-cm water depth). Although species richness in both communities was reduced, structural changes were more dramatic in community 1. Biomass and stem density were reduced in community 1 overall and in both dominant species

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2011-31 January 2012.

    PubMed

    Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili

    2012-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. PMID:22448966

  9. Penetration of Action Potentials During Collision in the Median and Lateral Giant Axons of Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Budvytyte, Rima; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Nissen, Søren; Heimburg, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The collisions of two simultaneously generated impulses in the giant axons of both earthworms and lobsters propagating in orthodromic and antidromic direction are investigated. The experiments have been performed on the extracted ventral cords of Lumbricus terrestris and the abdominal ventral cord of a lobster, Homarus americanus, by using external stimulation and recording. The collision of two nerve impulses of orthodromic and antidromic propagation did not result in the annihilation of the two signals, contrary to the common notion that is based on the existence of a refractory period in the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley theory. However, the results are in agreement with the electromechanical soliton theory for nerve-pulse propagation, as suggested by Heimburg and Jackson [On Soliton Propagation in Biomembranes and Nerves, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9790 (2005).].

  10. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara J; Russell, Ronald W

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC(50)) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. PMID:18684543

  11. Climatic amplification of the numerical response of a predator population to its prey.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Berlinda; Krebs, Charles; O'Donoghue, Mark; Hone, Jim

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated evidence of an effect of climate on the numerical response of a coyote (Canis latrans) population to their keystone prey, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), in a Canadian boreal forest. Six a priori hypotheses of the coyote numerical response were developed that postulated linear, nonlinear, additive, and interactive effects of prey and climate. Model selection procedures showed the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had the strongest effect on the coyote numerical response via its interaction with snowshoe hare density, while other large-scale climate indices had very weak effects. For a given snowshoe hare density, a negative value of the NAO amplified the abundance of coyote and a positive NAO decreased coyote abundance. We hypothesize that the coyote numerical response is ultimately determined by the coyote functional response influenced by winter conditions determined by the NAO. PMID:25000747

  12. Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, E.C.; Bales, S.L.; Gregory, M.S.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Clark, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Regional wildlife–habitat models are commonly developed but rarely tested with truly independent data. We tested a published habitat model for black bears (Ursus americanus) with new data collected in a different site in the same ecological region (i.e., Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA). We used a Mahalanobis distance model developed from relocations of black bears in Arkansas to produce a map layer of Mahalanobis distances on a study area in neighboring Oklahoma. We tested this modeled map layer with relocations of black bears on the Oklahoma area. The distributions of relocations of female black bears were consistent with model predictions. We conclude that this modeling approach can be used to predict regional suitability for a species of interest.

  13. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

  14. Black bear habitat use in relation to food availability in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Clapp, Daniel L.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Ederington, Belinda

    1994-01-01

    A black bear (Ursus americanus) food value index (FVI) was developed and calculated for forest cover type classifications on Ozark Mountain (White Rock) and Ouachita Mountain (Dry Creek) study areas in western Arkansas. FVIs are estimates of bear food production capabilities of the major forest cover types and were calculated using percent cover, mean fruit production scorings, and the dietary percentage of each major plant food species as variables. Goodness-of-fit analyses were used to determine use of forest cover types by 23 radio-collared female bears. Habitat selection by forest cover type was not detected on White Rock but was detected on Dry Creek. Use of habitats on Dry Creek appeared to be related to food production with the exception of regeneration areas, which were used less than expected but had a high FVI ranking. In general, pine cover types had low FVI rankings and were used less than expected by bears. Forest management implications are discussed. 

  15. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Sphindidae, Erotylidae, Monotomidae, and Cryptophagidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Sphindidae, Odontosphindus denticollis LeConteand Sphindus trinifer Casey, are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Another species, Sphindus near americanus LeConte is reported from the province but may be an undescribed species, pending further study. Five species of Erotylidae are newly recorded for the province, including Tritoma humeralis Fabricius and Tritoma sanguinipennis (Say), which are new to the Maritime provinces. Three species of Monotomidae are added to the New Brunswick faunal list, including Pycnotomina cavicollis (Horn), which is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Six additional species of Cryptophagidae are reported for the province and the presence of Antherophagus convexulus LeContein New Brunswick is confirmed. Cryptophagus pilosus Gyllenhal and Myrmedophila americana (LeConte) are newly reported to the Maritime provinces. PMID:22539893

  16. Conservation of cytoplasmic organization in the cystidia of Suillus species.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Thomas S; Celio, Gail J; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Meyer, Michelle L; McLaughlin, David J

    2008-01-01

    Cystidia of Suillus americanus and S. granulatus (Boletales) were examined cytochemically and ultrastructurally with cells prepared by freeze substitution. We present the first study showing ultrastructural details and cytological functions of the cystidium to be conserved in two closely related species. The results are presented for inclusion in the AFTOL Structural and Biochemical Database to aid in the application of morphological characters to phylogenetic studies. The cystidia of these Suillus species appear to be united by a series of conserved characters, including specialized secretion mechanisms, smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum and abundant free ribosomes. The conservation of these subcellular traits among members of this genus suggests that ultrastructural details of cystidia may provide a suite of phylogenetically informative characters. Inclusion of such characters in phylogenetic analyses might resolve or provide support for monophyletic groups at the level of family or genus. PMID:18833747

  17. High pressure stability of protein complexes studied by static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    The high pressure dissociation of hemocyanin prepared from the lobster Homarus americanus and casein micelles from cow milk were observed by in situ light scattering. The hemocyanin dodecamer dissociated via a hexamer into monomers in a two-step three-species reaction. The influence of ligands and the effector l-lactate on the dissociation behavior was investigated. While no effect by carbon monoxide after exchanging the ligand oxygen was observed, the addition of the effector l-lactate led to a decrease in the pressure stability. Due to a trimer intermediate which was found to be stabilized by l-lactate, the dissociation reaction in the presence of the effector was analyzed by a three-step four-species reaction. In the case of casein micelles, a two-step dissociation mechanism was found. The stabilizing interactions of casein micelles were identified and separated.

  18. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Stasko, Judi; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-04-01

    Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

  19. Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.

    PubMed

    Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Herrera, Steven; Kisailus, David

    2014-08-27

    Over millions of years, the crustacean exoskeleton has evolved into a rigid, tough, and complex cuticle that is used for structural support, mobility, protection of vital organs, and defense against predation. The crustacean cuticle is characterized by a hierarchically arranged chitin fiber scaffold, mineralized predominately by calcium carbonate and/or calcium phosphate. The structural organization of the mineral and organic within the cuticle occurs over multiple length scales, resulting in a strong and tough biological composite. Here, the ultrastructural details observed in three species of crustacean are reviewed: the American lobster (Homarus americanus), the edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle. PMID:24833136

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mysid shrimp, Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida).

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sanghee; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the mitogenome sequence of Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida), which is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the order Mysida. The mitogenome of N. japonica is 17,652 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region (CR). Mitogenome analysis of N. japonica revealed a novel gene order that included inversions in three PCGs and five tRNAs, compared with H. americanus, the ancestral pancrustacean ground pattern. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Malacostraca. As seen from the phylogenetic tree, N. japonica belongs to the order Mysida within Malacostraca. PMID:26114317

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS. PMID:26284348

  2. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David Charles; Hathcock, Charles Dean

    2015-11-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2015 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, updates some descriptive information, and adds the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) and Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) which were federally listed in 2014 (Keller 2015: USFWS consultation number 02ENNM00- 2015-I-0538).

  3. Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Lachman, G.B.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew; Langtimm, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nondetection of a species at a site does not imply that the species is absent unless the probability of detection is 1. We propose a model and likelihood-based method for estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are 0.3). We estimated site occupancy rates for two anuran species at 32 wetland sites in Maryland, USA, from data collected during 2000 as part of an amphibian monitoring program, Frogwatch USA. Site occupancy rates were estimated as 0.49 for American toads (Bufo americanus), a 44% increase over the proportion of sites at which they were actually observed, and as 0.85 for spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), slightly above the observed proportion of 0.83.

  4. [Geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites. PMID:26980233

  5. Den-site characteristics of black bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    We compared historic (1985-1992) and contemporary (2003-2006) black bear (Ursus americanus) den locations in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, for habitat and physiographic attributes of den sites and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which factors were most influential in predicting den-site locations. We observed variability in the relationship between den locations and distance to trails and elevation over rime. Locations of historic den sites were most associated with slope, elevation, and covertype, whereas contemporary sites were associated with slope, distance to roads, aspect, and canopy height. Although relationships to covariates differed between historic and contemporary periods, preferred den-site characteristics consistently included steep slopes and factors associated with greater snow depth. Distribution of den locations shifted toward areas closer to human developments, indicating little negative influence of this factor on den-site selection by black bears in RMNP.

  6. Molecular Taxonomical Re-classification of the Genus Suillus Micheli ex S. F. Gray in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J.; Seok, Soon Ja; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    The fungal genus Suillus Micheli ex S. F. Gray plays important roles in the survival and growth of plant seedlings. Humans have utilized these ectomycorrhizal fungi to enhance the nutrient uptake and defense systems of plants, particularly in the reforestation of coniferous forests. The genus Suillus is easily distinguishable by its distinctive morphological features, although the morphology of the fruiting body does not facilitate reliable interspecies discrimination. On the basis of micro-morphological features and internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, we found that 51 of 117 Korean Suillus specimens had initially been misidentified. The list of the 12 Suillus species previously recorded in Korea was re-evaluated and revised to only eight distinct species: S. americanus, S. bovinus, S. granulatus, S. grevillei, S. luteus, S. pictus, S. placidus, and S. viscidus. We provide taxonomical descriptions for six of these species from the sample specimens. PMID:25346598

  7. New Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) records with new collection data from New Brunswick and an addition to the fauna of Quebec: Staphylininae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Smetana, Aleš; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Forty-four species of Staphylininae are newly reported from New Brunswick, bringing the total number of species known from the province to 126. Quedius criddlei (Casey) is reported for the first time from Quebec. Bisnius cephalotes (Gravenhorst) is removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick due to a lack of supporting voucher specimens. Additional locality data are presented for seven species either recently recorded from the province or with few previous records and little habitat data. We provide the first documented records of Atrecus americanus (Casey), Quedius erythrogaster Mannerheim, Quedius labradorensis labradorensis Smetana, Quedius plagiatus (Mannerheim), and Neobisnius terminalis (LeConte) from New Brunswick. Collection and habitat data are presented and discussed for all species. PMID:22577325

  8. The complete mitogenome of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene. PMID:25648918

  9. Impact of experimental hookworm infection on the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Giacomin, Paul; Croese, John; Zakrzewski, Martha; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Nolan, Matthew J; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The interactions between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and commensal bacteria are likely to play a pivotal role in the establishment of host-parasite cross-talk, ultimately shaping the development of the intestinal immune system. However, little information is available on the impact of infections by gastrointestinal helminths on the bacterial communities inhabiting the human gut. We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the differences in composition and relative abundance of fecal microbial communities in human subjects prior to and following experimental infection with the blood-feeding intestinal hookworm, Necator americanus. Our data show that, although hookworm infection leads to a minor increase in microbial species richness, no detectable effect is observed on community structure, diversity or relative abundance of individual bacterial species. PMID:24795483

  10. Impact of Experimental Hookworm Infection on the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Giacomin, Paul; Croese, John; Zakrzewski, Martha; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Nolan, Matthew J.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and commensal bacteria are likely to play a pivotal role in the establishment of host-parasite cross-talk, ultimately shaping the development of the intestinal immune system. However, little information is available on the impact of infections by gastrointestinal helminths on the bacterial communities inhabiting the human gut. We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the differences in composition and relative abundance of fecal microbial communities in human subjects prior to and following experimental infection with the blood-feeding intestinal hookworm, Necator americanus. Our data show that, although hookworm infection leads to a minor increase in microbial species richness, no detectable effect is observed on community structure, diversity or relative abundance of individual bacterial species. PMID:24795483

  11. Review of the Capitellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific region, with notes on selected species

    PubMed Central

    García-Garza, María Elena; León-González, Jesús Angel De

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of this work is to contribute to the taxonomic knowledge of the species of Capitellidae reported for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. This catalogue includes the original name of each species, new names, synonymies, type localities, the museum or institution where the type material is deposited, revision of the material reported for the region by different authors, new examined material, previous reports from other regions of the world, and comments on systematics and distributions. The catalogue lists 43 species in 19 genera. Of these, 6 species were erroneously recorded for the region (Decamastus gracilis Hartman, 1963; Decamastus nudus Thomassin, 1970; Mastobranchus variabilis Edwing, 1984; Notomastus aberans Day, 1957; Notomastus americanus Day, 1973; Notomastus latericeus Sars, 1851) and 5 species are found here to be questionable records for the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780); Dasybranchus glabrus Moore, 1909; Decamastus lumbricoides Grube, 1878; Notomastus lineatus Claparède, 1870 and Notomastus tenuis Moore, 1909). PMID:22368451

  12. Measuring Late Quaternary Ursid Diminution in the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Steve; Lyman, R. Lee

    1998-05-01

    Paleobiologists generally agree that within the past 10,000 yr North American black bears ( Ursus americanus) have decreased in body and tooth size. Some researchers infer that diminution was gradual and continuous; thus, one might infer that a specimen is old if it is larger than an average-size modern bear. Ursid remains recovered in the 1950s from Lawson Cave, Missouri, that are larger than some modern bears have been reported to date to the late Pleistocene, but association with modern taxa, taphonomic considerations, and a radiocarbon date of 200 yr B.P. indicate that they are modern. Modern specimens from Lawson Cave and other parts of the American Midwest are relatively large compared to modern North American black bears from other areas, suggesting that many supposed late Pleistocene bears from the area might be modern also.

  13. Intestinal parasites of man in Bukidnon, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; de Veyra, V U; Cala, E M; Cross, J H

    1981-03-01

    A total of 831 fecal specimens from Malay-balay, Mindanao, Philippines were examined for schistosomiasis and common intestinal parasites. Schistosoma japonicum eggs were found in 16% of the samples. Infections were more common in males (20%) than in females (12%). Age-wise, infections were infrequently diagnosed in children less than 10 years and infections in older age groups varied from 12-27%. Hookworm, chiefly Necator americanus, was the most common parasite found (44%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (32%) Trichuris trichiura was found in only 12%. Enterobius vermicularis and eggs of Taenia sp., echinostome, heterophyid and dicrocoelid trematodes were identified in less than 1% of the samples. Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichomonas hominis and Chilomastix mesnili were also found to parasitize man in this region of Mindanao. PMID:7256354

  14. Intestinal parasites of man in Northern Bohol, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; Banzon, T; De Veyra, V; Daña, E; Cross, J H

    1980-12-01

    A survey for intestinal parasites with emphasis on Oriental schistosomiasis was conducted in the townships of Trinidad and Talibon, Bohol Province, Philippines and approximately 1,700 stool samples were examined. Schistosoma japonicum is still endemic to these areas of northern Bohol but infection rates were much lower than expected, 5% rather than 30%. Soil-transmitted helminths were the most common parasitic infections. Hookworms were found in 71% of the samples tested, most infections were due to Necator americanus 97% and Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for only 3%. Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were diagnosed in 58% and 45% respectively of the fecal samples examined. Other helminths and protozoan parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis, Stronglyoides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili. PMID:7221688

  15. Modeling multi-scale resource selection for bear rub trees in northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan Henderson, Matthew J.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stetz, Jeffrey B.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Carlson, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    Both black (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos) are known to rub on trees and other objects, producing a network of repeatedly used and identifiable rub sites. In 2012, we used a resource selection function to evaluate hypothesized relationships between locations of 887 bear rubs in northwestern Montana, USA, and elevation, slope angle, density of open roads and distance from areas of heightened plant-productivity likely containing forage for bears. Slope and density of open roads were negatively correlated with rub presence. No other covariates were supported as explanatory variables. We also hypothesized that bear rubs would be more strongly associated with closed roads and developed trails than with game trails. The frequencies of bear rubs on 30 paired segments of developed tracks and game trails were not different. Our results suggest bear rubs may be associated with bear travel routes, and support their use as “random” sampling devices for non-invasive spatial capture–recapture population monitoring.

  16. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera

    PubMed Central

    Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

  17. Experimental infections by Brucella suis type 4 in Alaskan rodents.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G; Neiland, K A

    1980-10-01

    The susceptibility of nine species of rodents and one species of lagomorph to Brucella suis type 4 was studied experimentally. The rodent species included: guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Scandinavian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), brown lemming (L. sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilis), varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx stevensoni and D. rubricatus), yellow-cheeked vole (Microtus xanthognathus), flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and ground squirrel (Citellus parryii). The lagomorph, Lepus americanus (varying hare), was also studied. All of these species were readily infected by intraperitoneal inoculations of brucellae. Pathologic responses were not marked in most of these species. However, both species of varying lemmings responded dramatically to infections initiated by about as few as two cfu. All individuals of both species that were not killed eventually died from the infection. PMID:7463596

  18. Powassan Virus: Vernal Spread During 1965

    PubMed Central

    McLean, D. M.; Smith, Patricia A.; Livingstone, Sandra E.; Wilson, W. E.; Wilson, A. G.

    1966-01-01

    Powassan virus was isolated from seven pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from groundhogs (Marmota monax) collected near North Bay, Ontario, between May and August 1965, including five pools obtained during spring. Tick pools, each comprising one to nine ticks, contained 2.0 to 5.5 log10 TCD50 of virus upon titration in monolayer cultures of primary swine kidney cells. Powassan virus neutralizing antibody prevalence in sera of the current season's groundhogs increased steadily from zero during May to 25% during August but remained relatively unchanged (42% to 58%) in the previous season's groundhogs, thereby confirming that active infection had occurred particularly amongst juvenile groundhogs mainly during spring 1965. Isolation of one strain of Silverwater virus from Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks and detection of neutralizing antibody in three of nine snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) confirmed the active spread of this agent during 1965. PMID:5904925

  19. Powassan virus: vernal spread during 1965.

    PubMed

    McLean, D M; Smith, P A; Livingstone, S E; Wilson, W E; Wilson, A G

    1966-03-12

    Powassan virus was isolated from seven pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from groundhogs (Marmota monax) collected near North Bay, Ontario, between May and August 1965, including five pools obtained during spring. Tick pools, each comprising one to nine ticks, contained 2.0 to 5.5 log(10) TCD(50) of virus upon titration in monolayer cultures of primary swine kidney cells. Powassan virus neutralizing antibody prevalence in sera of the current season's groundhogs increased steadily from zero during May to 25% during August but remained relatively unchanged (42% to 58%) in the previous season's groundhogs, thereby confirming that active infection had occurred particularly amongst juvenile groundhogs mainly during spring 1965. Isolation of one strain of Silverwater virus from Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks and detection of neutralizing antibody in three of nine snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) confirmed the active spread of this agent during 1965. PMID:5904925

  20. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

  1. Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

  2. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil. PMID:26982558

  3. [A molecular phylogeny of Shennongjia white bear based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Zhong-Lai; Xiong, Guo-Mei

    2006-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of Shennongjia white bear has been an open question. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced from hair and feces of Shennongjia white bear. Based on the partial Cyt b gene sequence obtained from the samples, the authors aligned them using the Clustal W software program. The MEGA software was used to analyze the divergences and base substitutions of the partial Cyt b gene among the 11 species: Shennongjia white bear, Selenarctos thibetanus, Euarctos americanus, Helarctos malayanus, Ursus arctos, Thalarctos maritimus, Melursus ursinus, Procyon lotor, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Ailurus fulgens and Tremarctos ornatus. The phylogenetic trees constructed by multiple methods (NJ and MP) supported nearly the same topology. Our molecular results show that the sequence divergence between Shennongjia white bear and Asiatic black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) is lower than that between other species. PMID:17035181

  4. Molecular and Biological Diagnostic Tests for Monitoring Benzimidazole Resistance in Human Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M.; Kaplan, Ray M.; Prichard, Roger K.

    2013-01-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates. PMID:23458960

  5. Molecular Taxonomical Re-classification of the Genus Suillus Micheli ex S. F. Gray in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Seok, Soon Ja; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-09-01

    The fungal genus Suillus Micheli ex S. F. Gray plays important roles in the survival and growth of plant seedlings. Humans have utilized these ectomycorrhizal fungi to enhance the nutrient uptake and defense systems of plants, particularly in the reforestation of coniferous forests. The genus Suillus is easily distinguishable by its distinctive morphological features, although the morphology of the fruiting body does not facilitate reliable interspecies discrimination. On the basis of micro-morphological features and internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, we found that 51 of 117 Korean Suillus specimens had initially been misidentified. The list of the 12 Suillus species previously recorded in Korea was re-evaluated and revised to only eight distinct species: S. americanus, S. bovinus, S. granulatus, S. grevillei, S. luteus, S. pictus, S. placidus, and S. viscidus. We provide taxonomical descriptions for six of these species from the sample specimens. PMID:25346598

  6. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2011-03-01

    In this second of a two-part series analyzing the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed. Several live organisms are used as treatments: leeches for plastic surgery and osteoarthritis and the helminths Trichuris suis and Necator americanus for inflammatory bowel disease. Leech saliva is the source of a number of anticoagulants, including the antithrombin agent hirudin and its synthetic analogues, which have been approved for human use. Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom. A synthetic analogue of a snail venom peptide, ziconotide, has been approved for human use and is used as an alternative to opioids in severe pain cases. Arthropods, such as ticks, have venom that contains anticoagulants and centipede venom has a protein that corrects abnormalities in lipid metabolism. PMID:21438646

  7. Discovery of a honeycomb structure in the twisted plywood patterns of fibrous biological nanocomposite tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, D.; Romano, P.; Sachs, C.; Al-Sawalmih, A.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Yi, S.-B.; Servos, G.; Hartwig, H. G.

    2005-09-01

    Electron microscopy and synchrotron Bragg diffraction were used for the investigation of the structure of the exoskeleton of the lobster Homarus americanus. The study reveals a pronounced microstructure hierarchy and a strong crystallographic and topological texture of the α-chitin-protein network underlying the twisted plywood (Bouligand) structure. The results suggest that the classical picture of such structures must be refined. Instead of a smoothly misoriented stacking sequence of its constitutive nanofibrous chitin-protein planes, two major and two minor orientation branches of the fibers perpendicular to a common <0 2 0> crystallographic axis pointing towards the surface of the cuticle were found. This crystallographic texture confirms the microscopical observation that the chitin-protein arrays which form the structural subunits of plywood patterns assume the form of planar honeycombs.

  8. Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nair, Meera G; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein. PMID:26928141

  9. Rapid amyloid fibril formation by a winter flounder antifreeze protein requires specific interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Dubé, André; Leggiadro, Cindy; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya

    2016-05-01

    A typically α-helical antifreeze protein (wflAFP-6) from winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, forms amyloid fibrils during freezing. In this study, the effects of distinct components of the freezing process were examined. Freezing of wflAFP-6 in the presence of template ice was shown to be necessary for rapid conversion to an amyloid conformation. Neither subfreezing temperature nor phase change was sufficient. Thus, specific interaction with the ice surface was essential. The ice-induced formation of amyloid appeared to be unique to this helical antifreeze, it required high concentrations of protein and it occurred over a range of pH values. These results define a method for rapid formation of amyloid by wflAFP-6 on demand under physiological conditions. PMID:27086686

  10. Molecular and biological diagnostic tests for monitoring benzimidazole resistance in human soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M; Kaplan, Ray M; Prichard, Roger K

    2013-06-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates. PMID:23458960

  11. Habitat use and food habits of snowshoe hares associated with a reclaimed strip mine in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.

    1998-12-31

    The value of reclaimed coal stripmine spoils as snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) habitat in interior Alaska was examined. Hare density in 3 cover types (tall shrub, conifer forest, revegetated lands) was determined using the pellet plot method. Hare food habits were determined via microhistological examination of fecal material. Snowshoe hares used the tall shrub cover type more than any other habitat examined. Hare density in the shrub zone was 10/ha in winter and 18/ha in summer. Shrubs (mainly willow species) comprised the major portion of the summer diet (69%), while spruce made up 51% of the winter diet. Based on dietary data and habitat use, the long-term loss of coniferous forests and tall shrubs due to mining, and the lack of emphasis on the re-establishment of woody vegetation in present reclamation procedures; will greatly reduce and possibly eliminate snowshoe hare populations on large-scale surface coal mines in the northern boreal regions.

  12. Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Bennett, Katarina R; Bryan, Lorraine; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes disease in a wide variety of mammals including rabbits and hares. We describe naturally acquired metritis and septicemic listeriosis in wild female hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. Between April 2012 and July 2013, two white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada with nonspecific neurologic signs. The hares were euthanized and autopsied. Necrotizing fibrinosuppurative metritis was present in all. Additional findings in individual hares included fetal maceration, multifocal necrotizing myocarditis, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from multiple tissues in each hare. Although listeriosis in pregnant domestic rabbits has been studied, this is the first detailed description in wild North American hares. The epidemiology of listeriosis, including prevalence and the role of environmental sources and coprophagy in transmission among hares, requires further investigation. PMID:25647601

  13. Ectoparasite Community Structure of Two Bats (Myotis lucifugus and M. septentrionalis) from the Maritimes of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Czenze, Zenon J.; Broders, Hugh G.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of bat ectoparasites on sympatric Myotis lucifugus and M. septentrionalis was quantitatively characterized in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick by making systematic collections at swarming sites. Six species of ectoparasite were recorded, including Myodopsylla insignis, Spinturnix americanus, Cimex adjunctus, Macronyssu scrosbyi, Androlaelap scasalis, and an unknown species of the genus Acanthophthirius. Male M. lucifugus and M. septentrionalis had similar prevalence of any ectoparasite (22% and 23%, resp.). Female M. lucifugus and M. septentrionalis had 2-3 times higher prevalence than did conspecific males (68% and 44%, resp.). Prevalence of infection of both genders of young of the year was not different from one another and the highest prevalence of any ectoparasite (M. lucifugus 64%, M. septentrionalis 72%) among all bat groups. Ectoparasite prevalence and intensity varied positively with roost group size and negatively with grooming efficacy and energy budgets, suggesting that these variables may be important in ectoparasite community structure. PMID:22028951

  14. A pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of four species of soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Basuni, Madihah; Muhi, Jamail; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Verweij, Jaco J; Ahmad, Maimunah; Miswan, Noorizan; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Noordin, Rahmah

    2011-02-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections remain a major public health burden in low- and middle-income countries. The traditional diagnosis by microscopic examination of fecal samples is insensitive and time-consuming. In this study, a pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of Ancylostoma, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The results were compared with those obtained by conventional parasitological diagnostic methods. Real-time PCR was positive in 48 of 77 samples (62.3%) and microscopic examination was positive in six samples (7.8%) only (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay described in this study provides a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of these four helminth species in epidemiological studies and monitoring of treatment programs. PMID:21292911

  15. Copro-molecular identification of infections with hookworm eggs in rural Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sato, Megumi; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Keomoungkhoun, Malaythong; Phimmayoi, Inthava; Boupa, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of hookworm eggs in fecal samples, by modified cellophane thick-smear technique, was found to be 30.0% (61/203 samples) in Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. The hookworm eggs were morphologically heterogeneous, so that identification was confirmed by copro-PCR with specific primers for hookworms and Trichostrongylus spp.; 12 samples were positive for Necator americanus, 19 for Ancylostoma spp., with one mixed infection of both. Sequencing of the Ancylostoma spp. copro-PCR products found A. duodenale, and also the animal hookworms, A. caninum and A. ceylanicum. Moreover, Trichostrongylus spp.-specific copro-PCR revealed a significant rate of infection (43/203; 21.2%). Sequencing confirmed the zoonotic species, T. colubriformis. PCR/sequencing is useful for differentiating parasite species. The positives by the Kato-Katz method, and by the combined hookworm/Trichostrongylus specific-PCR, were comparable, although the agreement between the two methodologies was only 50%. PMID:20673938

  16. [Hypotheses on the origin of certain parasites on the Latin American continent].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    The South American continent has been connected to Africa over millions of centuries. In prehistorical time, the filling of the Bering strait allowed passage on firm ground between Asia and North America. South American peopling has thus occurred from North America, through the Pacific sea and, from the 15th century A.C., through the Atlantic. Necator americanus was present in South America prior to the arrival of black slaves and its African origin is probably related to contacts between Africa and South America; the same applies to Leishmania donovani and Biom-Phalaria glabrata. Ankylostoma duodenale originates from Asia as well as Plasmodium falciparum which was brought by man at time of his migration. To the contrary, muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis stem (or have a South American origin) from South America. Finally, it is difficult to understand for which reasons Loa loa has not established itself in South America as did Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:3928184

  17. Primary structures of decapod crustacean metallothioneins with special emphasis on freshwater and semi-terrestrial species.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, S N; Pedersen, K L; Højrup, P; Depledge, M H; Knudsen, J

    1996-01-01

    Cadmium injections induced only a single form of metallothionein (MT) in the midgut gland of Potamon potamios, whereas the same treatment induced two isoforms in Astacus astacus. The only difference between the two latter isoforms was that one had an extra N-terminal methionine residue. MT from P. potamios showed structural differences from other decapod crustacean MTs. It contained a Gly-Thr motif at positions 8 and 8a, which had previously been found only in certain vertebrate and molluscan MTs. Furthermore P. potamios MT contained two to three times as many glutamic acid residues as normally found in decapod crustacean MT. The primary structure of MT from the freshwater crayfish A. astacus showed a high degree of sequence identity with MT from other decapod crustaceans, especially the marine astacidean Homarus americanus, although two valine residues were unexpectedly found at positions 8 and 21, where lysine residues are normally found. PMID:8921011

  18. Phylogenetic position of the pentastomida and [pan]crustacean relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda, however the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete, or nearly complete, mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus), and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans likely related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacos tracans and insects.

  19. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  20. Use of submerged aquatic vegetation as habitat by young-of-the-year epibenthic fishes in shallow Maine nearshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Stone, B. Z.

    2006-09-01

    Epibenthic fishes were collected with daytime beam trawl tows ( n = 1713) in three shallow (<10 m) habitats of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Zostera marina (eelgrass), Laminaria longicruris (kelp), Phyllophora sp. (algae), and unvegetated sandy/mud areas. We divided the Maine coast into three broad zones based upon geological features and sampled over five consecutive years; during April-November 2000 in the mid coast, in 2001 and 2002 along the south coast and in 2003 and 2004 along the eastern Maine coast. We quantified habitat use by eight economically important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and 10 other common epibenthic species ( n = 18 571). We identified the physical and biological variables most important in discriminating between habitats with and without individual fish species. Logistic regression models based on nearshore habitat characteristics were developed to predict the distribution of these species along the three zones representing broad geological regions of the Maine coast. Logistic regression models correctly classified individual fish species 58.7-97.1% of the time based on the temporal and physical habitat variables (month, temperature, salinity, and depth) and the presence-absence of submerged aquatic vegetation ( Zostera, Laminaria, or Phyllophora). Overall fish presence and economically important fish presence were correctly classified 61.1-79.8% and 66.0-73.6% of the time, respectively. The Maine shallow water fish community was composed primarily of young-of-the-year and juvenile fishes with all habitats functioning as facultative nursery areas. Presence of most fish species was positively associated with Zostera, Laminaria, and to a lesser extent, Phyllophora. This study provides direct evidence of shallow waters of the Gulf of Maine as critical facultative nursery habitat for

  1. A comparison of acoustic montoring methods for common anurans of the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brauer, Corinne; Donovan, Therese; Mickey, Ruth M.; Katz, Jonathan; Mitchell, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Many anuran monitoring programs now include autonomous recording units (ARUs). These devices collect audio data for extended periods of time with little maintenance and at sites where traditional call surveys might be difficult. Additionally, computer software programs have grown increasingly accurate at automatically identifying the calls of species. However, increased automation may cause increased error. We collected 435 min of audio data with 2 types of ARUs at 10 wetland sites in Vermont and New York, USA, from 1 May to 1 July 2010. For each minute, we determined presence or absence of 4 anuran species (Hyla versicolor, Pseudacris crucifer, Anaxyrus americanus, and Lithobates clamitans) using 1) traditional human identification versus 2) computer-mediated identification with software package, Song Scope® (Wildlife Acoustics, Concord, MA). Detections were compared with a data set consisting of verified calls in order to quantify false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative rates. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed a strong (P < 0.001) 3-way interaction between the ARU recorder type, identification method, and focal species, as well as a trend in the main effect of rain (P = 0.059). Overall, human surveyors had the lowest total error rate (<2%) compared with 18–31% total errors with automated methods. Total error rates varied by species, ranging from 4% for A. americanus to 26% for L. clamitans. The presence of rain may reduce false negative rates. For survey minutes where anurans were known to be calling, the odds of a false negative were increased when fewer individuals of the same species were calling.

  2. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. PMID:25910624

  3. Activity of Oxantel Pamoate Monotherapy and Combination Chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and Hookworms: Revival of an Old Drug

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Jennifer; Tritten, Lucienne; Silbereisen, Angelika; Speich, Benjamin; Adelfio, Roberto; Vargas, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. Methodology We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. Principal Findings We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI) = 2.53). Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively). A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15) was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg) lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. Conclusion/Significance Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be launched. PMID:23556013

  4. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific. PMID:26206360

  5. Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20

  6. Comparing Deep-Sea Fish Fauna between Coral and Non-Coral “Megahabitats” in the Santa Maria di Leuca Cold-Water Coral Province (Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia; Carlucci, Roberto; Capezzuto, Francesca; Carluccio, Angela; Tursi, Angelo; Sion, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Two experimental longline surveys were carried out in the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea) during May–June and September–October 2010 to investigate the effect of corals on fish assemblages. Two types of “megahabitat” characterized by the virtual absence of fishing were explored. One was characterized by complex topography including mesohabitats with carbonate mounds and corals. The other type of megahabitat, although characterized by complex topographic features, lacks carbonate mounds and corals. The fishing vessel was equipped with a 3,000 m monofilament longline with 500 hooks and snoods of 2.5 m in length. A total of 9 hauls, using about 4,500 hooks, were carried out both in the coral megahabitat and in the non-coral megahabitat during each survey. The fish Leucoraja fullonica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea represent new records for the SML coral province. The coral by-catch was only obtained in the coral megahabitat in about 55% of the stations investigated in both surveys. The total catches and the abundance indices of several species were comparable between the two habitat typologies. The species contributing most to the dissimilarity between the two megahabitat fish assemblages were Pagellus bogaraveo, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax and Helicolenus dactylopterus for density and P. bogaraveo, Conger conger, Polyprion americanus and G. melastomus for biomass. P. bogaraveo was exclusively collected in the coral megahabitat, whereas C. conger, H. dactylopterus and P. americanus were found with greater abundance in the coral than in the non-coral megahabitat. Differences in the sizes between the two megahabitats were detected in E. spinax, G. melastomus, C. conger and H. dactylopterus. Although these differences most probably related to the presence-absence of corals, both megahabitats investigated play the role of attraction-refuge for deep-sea fish fauna, confirming the important role of the whole SML coral

  7. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific. PMID:26206360

  8. Spectroscopic properties and stability of hemocyanins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, Rumijana; Dolashka, Pavlina; Stoeva, Stanka; Voelter, Wolfgang; Salvato, Benedetto; Genov, Nicolay

    1997-03-01

    The stability towards thermal and chemical (guanidine hydrochloride) denaturation of oxy- and apo-hemocyanins from the arthropodan organisms Homarus americanus, Maia squinado, Palinurus vulgaris and Carcinus maenas as well as from the molluscs Rapana thomasiana and Viviparus ater have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The H. americanus hemocyanin showed an extreme thermostability in comparison to the other investigated hemocyanins. The critical temperature of deviation from linearity ( Tc) of the Arrhenius plot, ln( Q-1 - 1) vs. 1/T, where Q is the protein quantum yield of fluorescence, was calculated to be 87°C for this respiratory protein. The Tc-values for the other hemocyanins range between 63 and 76°C. The respective activation energies for the radiationless thermal deactivation of the excited indole chromophores were calculated to be 37.0-50.5 kJ mol -1. Guanidine hydrochloride is an efficient denaturant for hemocyanins. The protein unfolding was monitored by circular dichroism. The free energy of stabilization in water, Δ GDH 2O , at 25°C and pH 7.5, was calculated to be in the range 8.0-21.6 kJ mol -1. The highest Δ GDH 2O -values were calculated for the Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin. Upon excitation at 295 or 280 nm the fluorescence emission of the investigated hemocyanins is dominated by 'buried' tryptophyl chromophores. The removal of the copper-dioxygen system from the active site led to 3.8-7.9-fold increase of the protein fluorescence quantum yield and to a red shift of the emission maximum position. Evidently, the tryptophyl fluorescence is significantly quenched in the oxy-hemocyanins.

  9. Simulated Sea-Level Rise Effects on the Above and Below-Ground Growth of Two Tidal Marsh Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schile, L. M.; Callaway, J. C.; Kelly, M.

    2011-12-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise between 55 and 140 cm in the next century and is likely to have significant effects on the distribution and maintenance of tidal wetlands; however, little is known about the effects of increased sea level on Pacific coast tidal marsh vegetation. We initiated a field experiment in March 2011 to examine how increased depth and duration of inundation affect above and below-ground growth of two tidal wetland plant species: Schoenoplectus acutus and S. americanus. PVC planters, referred to as marsh organs, were installed at fixed elevations in channels at two ancient marshes in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: Browns Island and Rush Ranch. Each marsh organ structure is comprised of five rows of three six-inch PVC pipes, with each row 15cm lower than the row above, and was filled with surrounding mudflat sediment. Elevations span 60 cm and were chosen to be lower than the average current elevations of both species at each marsh to reflect projected increases in sea level. Rhizomes were collected from Browns Island, the less-saline site, and were cut to uniform sizes before planting. In every row, each species was grown individually and together. On a monthly basis, plant heights were recorded and pore-water sulfide concentration, salinity, and soil oxidation-reduction potential were measured. Schoenoplectus americanus growth and density significantly decreased with increased inundation at both sites. Schoenoplectus acutus growth was impacted more significantly at lower elevations at Rush Ranch but had little variation in density and growth across elevations at Browns Island. Salinity and sulfide concentrations varied little across elevations within a site but differed between sites. Above and belowground biomass will be collected in September 2011 to measure total annual productivity. The experiment provides basic yet crucial information on the impacts of increased inundation on tidal wetland vegetation and insight into potential changes in

  10. Humans and Great Apes Cohabiting the Forest Ecosystem in Central African Republic Harbour the Same Hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Todd, Angelique; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms are important pathogens of humans. To date, Necator americanus is the sole, known species of the genus Necator infecting humans. In contrast, several Necator species have been described in African great apes and other primates. It has not yet been determined whether primate-originating Necator species are also parasitic in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings The infective larvae of Necator spp. were developed using modified Harada-Mori filter-paper cultures from faeces of humans and great apes inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of mtDNA obtained from the hookworm larvae were sequenced and compared. Three sequence types (I–III) were recognized in the ITS region, and 34 cox1 haplotypes represented three phylogenetic groups (A–C). The combinations determined were I-A, II-B, II-C, III-B and III-C. Combination I-A, corresponding to N. americanus, was demonstrated in humans and western lowland gorillas; II-B and II-C were observed in humans, western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; III-B and III-C were found only in humans. Pairwise nucleotide difference in the cox1 haplotypes between the groups was more than 8%, while the difference within each group was less than 2.1%. Conclusions/Significance The distinctness of ITS sequence variants and high number of pairwise nucleotide differences among cox1 variants indicate the possible presence of several species of Necator in both humans and great apes. We conclude that Necator hookworms are shared by humans and great apes co-habiting the same tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:24651493

  11. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in

  12. BLANKET BIOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR GENERAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WITHIN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUNDS, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR #2000-200-013

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2002-04-04

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds. This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) staff should consulted prior to the initiation of major work activities within areas where this species has been identified (218-E-12, 218-E-10). The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). This blanket review does not apply to the portions of 218-W-4C, and 218-W-6 previously described.

  13. BLANKET BIOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR GENERAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WITHIN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUNDS, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR No.2001-200-048

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2002-05-08

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds. This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) staff should consulted prior to the initiation of major work activities within areas where this species has been identified (218-E-12, 218-E-10). The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). This blanket review does not apply to the portions of 218-W-4C, and 218-W-6 previously described.

  14. Blanket Biological Review for General Maintenance Activities Within Active Burial Grounds, 200 East and 200 West Areas, ECR No.2003-200-035

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2003-08-25

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds (218-E-12, 218-E-10). This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch, Watch List species, are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for plant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground and the entire 218-E-10 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadowlarks, horned larks, and curlews may nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). If vegetation removal is required prior to August 2003 or after 1 April 2004, please contact the ECAP staff for an additional analysis to ensure compliance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Workers should be advised to watch for nesting birds within the burial grounds, if any are encountered, please contact the ECAP

  15. BLANKET BIOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR GENERAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WITHIN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUNDS, 200 E and 200 W Areas, ECR No. 2002-200-034

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2003-06-26

    No plant and animal species protected under the ESA, candidates for such protection, or species listed by the Washington state government were observed in the vicinity of the proposed sites. Piper's daisy may still occur in some of the burial grounds. This is a Washington State Sensitive plant species, and as such is a Level III resource under the Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan. Compensatory mitigation is appropriate for this species when adverse impacts cannot be avoided. The Ecological Compliance Assessment Project (ECAP) staff should consulted prior to the initiation of major work activities within areas where this species has been identified (218-E-12, 218-E-10). The stalked-pod and crouching milkvetch are relatively common throughout 200 West area, therefore even if the few individuals within the active burial grounds are disturbed, it is not likely that the overall local population will be adversely affected. The Watch List is the lowest level of listing for pl ant species of concern in the State of Washington. No adverse impacts to species or habitats of concern are expected to occur from routine maintenance within the active portions of the 218-W-4C, 218-W-4B, 218-W-3, 218-W-3A, and 218-W-5 burial grounds, as well as the portion of 218-E-12B currently used for storage of retired submarine reactor cores. The remaining portions of the 218-E-12B burial ground, the entire 218-E-10 burial ground, and the 218-W-6 burial ground currently have extensive vegetative cover and it is highly likely that migratory birds, such as meadow larks, horned larks, and curlews will nest in these areas. Therefore, it is recommended that if removal of the existing vegetation is required for burial ground operations, such removal only occur during the August through March time period (i.e. when the birds are not actively nesting). This blanket review does not apply to the portions of 218-W-4C, and 218-W-6 previously described.

  16. Incorporating grazing into an eco-hydrologic model: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting

  17. Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2003-10-01

    Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of beach in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy beach in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of beach habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October

  18. Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larter, N C; Macdonald, C R; Elkin, B T; Wang, X; Harms, N J; Gamberg, M; Muir, D C G

    2016-10-01

    Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011mg/kg ww). (134)Cs (t½=2.1 y) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. (137)Cs (t½=30.2 y) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney

  19. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  20. Epidemiological and Genetic Data Supporting the Transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among Human and Domestic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0–11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2–71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53–8.00; p = 0.003), walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91–10.73; p<0.001) and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19–7.15; p = 0.009) were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. Conclusion This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations. PMID:22347515

  1. You can hide but you can’t run: apparent competition, predator responses and the decline of Arctic ground squirrels in boreal forests of the southwest Yukon

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Elizabeth A.; Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of North America’s boreal forest, the cyclical fluctuations of snowshoe hare populations (Lepus americanus) may cause other herbivores to become entrained in similar cycles. Alternating apparent competition via prey switching followed by positive indirect effects are the mechanisms behind this interaction. Our purpose is to document a change in the role of indirect interactions between sympatric populations of hares and arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii plesius), and to emphasize the influence of predation for controlling ground squirrel numbers. We used mark-recapture to estimate the population densities of both species over a 25-year period that covered two snowshoe hare cycles. We analysed the strength of association between snowshoe hare and ground squirrel numbers, and the changes to the seasonal and annual population growth rates of ground squirrels over time. A hyperbolic curve best describes the per capita rate of increase of ground squirrels relative to their population size, with a single stable equilibrium and a lower critical threshold below which populations drift to extinction. The crossing of this unstable boundary resulted in the subsequent uncoupling of ground squirrel and hare populations following the decline phase of their cycles in 1998. The implications are that this sustained Type II predator response led to the local extinction of ground squirrels. When few individuals are left in a colony, arctic ground squirrels may also have exhibited an Allee effect caused by the disruption of social signalling of approaching predators.

  2. Systematics of testudacarine torrent mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) with descriptions of 13 new species from North America

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Joseph C.; Fisher, J. Ray; Nelson, Whitney A.; Skvarla, Micheal J.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen new species of North American Testudacarus (Torrenticolidae: Testudacarinae) are described: Testudacarus deceptivus O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus hitchensi O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus harrisi O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus dennetti O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus dawkinsi O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus radwellae O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus kirkwoodae O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus hyporhynchus O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus smithi O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus rollerae O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus elongatus O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., Testudacarus rectangulatus O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n., and Testudacarus oblongatus O’Neill & Dowling, sp. n. Testudacarus vulgaris Habeeb, 1954 is resurrected from synonymy with Testudacarus minimus and redescribed. Debsacarus (Habeeb, 1961), Testudacarus americanus Marshall, 1943, and Testudacarus minimus Marshall, 1943 are redescribed. All redescriptions are from original types. Species delimination was accomplished through examination of morphology, biogeography, and molecular phylogenetics of the barcoding region of COI. Other species are addressed and a key to world species is presented. For Testudacarinae, this represents the first published: 1) descriptions from multiple specimens (i.e. intraspecific variation); 2) colored photographs; 3) explicit illustrations and discussion of sexual dimorphism within the subfamily; 4) genetic data. A comprehensive testudacarine reference list is also included. PMID:27199586

  3. Structural characterization of peptides derived from prosomatostatins I and II isolated from the pancreatic islets of two species of teleostean fish: the daddy sculpin and the flounder.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1987-11-01

    The primary structures of three peptides from extracts from the pancreatic islets of the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius) and three analogous peptides from the islets of the flounder (Platichthys flesus), two species of teleostean fish, have been determined by automated Edman degradation. The structures of the flounder peptides were confirmed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptides show strong homology to residues (49-60), (63-96) and (98-125) of the predicted sequence of preprosomatostatin II from the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). The amino acid sequences of the peptides suggest that, in the sculpin, prosomatostatin II is cleaved at a dibasic amino acid residue processing site (corresponding to Lys61-Arg62 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). The resulting fragments are further cleaved at monobasic residue processing sites (corresponding to Arg48 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). In the flounder the same dibasic residue processing site is utilised but cleavage at different monobasic sites takes place (corresponding to Arg50 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). A peptide identical to mammalian somatostatin-14 was also isolated from the islets of both species and is presumed to represent a cleavage product of prosomatostatin I. PMID:2889597

  4. Demographics of an experimentally released population of elk in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murrow, Jennifer L.; Clark, Joseph D.; Delozier, E. Kim

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the potential for reestablishing elk (Cervus elaphus) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), USA, by estimating vital rates of experimentally released animals from 2001 to 2006. Annual survival rates for calves ranged from 0.333 to 1.0 and averaged 0.592. Annual survival for subadult and adult elk (i.e., ≥1 yr of age) ranged from 0.690 to 0.933, depending on age and sex. We used those and other vital rates to model projected population growth and viability using a stochastic individual-based model. The annual growth rate (λ) of the modeled population over a 25-year period averaged 0.996 and declined from 1.059 the first year to 0.990 at year 25. The modeled population failed to attain a positive 25-year mean growth rate in 46.0% of the projections. Poor calf recruitment was an important determinant of low population growth. Predation by black bears (Ursus americanus) was the dominant calf mortality factor. Most of the variance of growth projections was due to demographic variation resulting from the small population size (n  =  61). Management actions such as predator control may help increase calf recruitment, but our projections suggest that the GSMNP elk population may be at risk for some time because of high demographic variation.

  5. Experimental investigation of the elastic-plastic deformation of mineralized lobster cuticle by digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Sachs, C; Fabritius, H; Raabe, D

    2006-09-01

    This study presents a novel experimental approach to the characterization of the deformation of a mineralized biological composite using arthropod cuticle as a model material. By performing tensile tests combined with a detailed strain analysis via digital image correlation, the elastic-plastic deformation behavior of the endocuticle of the American lobster Homarus americanus is examined. The test specimens originate from the pincher and crusher claws. For evaluating the effect of moisture on the deformation behavior, the samples are tested both in dry and in wet state. Sample characterization using the digital image correlation method requires a stochastic spot pattern on the sample surface. Digital images are then taken at subsequent deformation stages during the mechanical test. These images are used to calculate the displacement, the displacement gradient, and the strain fields via pattern correlation. The method is applied both, at a global scale to measure with high precision the stress-strain behavior of the bulk cuticle and at a microscopic scale to reveal strain heterogeneity, strain patterning, and strain localization phenomena. PMID:16899374

  6. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  7. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Mayer, Jens; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV). Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and black bear (Ursus americanus) but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs) and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals. PMID:26610552

  8. Wildlife use of back channels associated with islands on the Ohio River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zadnik, A.K.; Anderson, James T.; Wood, P.B.; Bledsoe, K.

    2009-01-01

    The back channels of islands on the Ohio River are assumed to provide habitat critical for several wildlife species. However, quantitative information on the wildlife value of back channels is needed by natural resource managers for the conservation of these forested islands and embayments in the face of increasing shoreline development and recreational boating. We compared the relative abundance of waterbirds, turtles, anurans, and riparian furbearing mammals during 2001 and 2002 in back and main channels of the Ohio River in West Virginia. Wood ducks (Aix sponsa), snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), beavers (Castor canadensis), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were more abundant in back than main channels. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and American toads (Bufo americanus) occurred more frequently on back than main channels. These results provide quantitative evidence that back channels are important for several wildlife species. The narrowness of the back channels, the protection they provide from the main current of the river, and their ability to support vegetated shorelines and woody debris, are characteristics that appear to benefit these species. As a conservation measure for important riparian wildlife habitat, we suggest limiting building of piers and development of the shoreline in back channel areas. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems.

    PubMed

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K

    2015-12-30

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. These included three coastal lagoons, an estuarine river and Narragansett Bay. The δ(13)C trends observed along transects in several systems showed isotopically depleted terrestrial signals in the upper reaches of the estuaries. Significant differences (P<0.05) in δ(15)N were observed among all estuarine systems and these differences correlated (P<0.01) with human population densities in the watersheds. Although Narragansett Bay has a strong north-south gradient in nutrient concentrations this trend was not reflected in flounder δ(15)N. The northernmost station with the highest nutrient concentrations unexpectedly had significantly lower δ(15)N values. Depleted δ(15)N values at this nutrient-rich station may indicate that concentration-dependent fractionation needs to be considered when using nitrogen isotope ratios in biota to monitor anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in systems with high nitrogen loadings. PMID:26541984

  10. Habitat selection by a focal predator (Canis lupus) in a multiprey ecosystem of the northern Rockies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large predators respond to land cover and physiography that maximize the likelihood of encountering prey. Using locations from global positioning system-collared wolves (Canis lupus), we examined whether land cover, vegetation productivity or change, or habitat-selection value for ungulate prey species themselves most influenced patterns of selection by wolves in a large, intact multiprey system of northern British Columbia. Selection models based on land cover, in combination with topographical features, consistently outperformed models based on indexes of vegetation quantity and quality (using normalized difference vegetation index) or on selection value to prey species (moose [Alces americanus], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], and Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Wolves generally selected for shrub communities and high diversity of cover across seasons and avoided conifer stands and non-vegetated areas and west aspects year-round. Seasonal selection strategies were not always reflected in use patterns, which showed highest frequency of use in riparian, shrub, and conifer classes. Patterns of use and selection for individual wolf packs did not always conform to global models, and appeared related to the distribution of land cover and terrain within respective home ranges. Our findings corroborate the biological linkages between wolves and their habitat related to ease of movement and potential prey associations. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Non-dietary therapeutic clinical trials in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Crespo Pérez, Laura; Castillejo de Villasante, Gemma; Cano Ruiz, Ana; León, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a permanent immunological intolerance to gluten proteins in genetically predisposed individuals. The only management is life-long strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, compliance with gluten-free diet is very difficult in practice due to the widespread presence of gluten in Western diets. For this reason, about 50% of coeliacs following a gluten-free diet continue to suffer from symptoms and present with autoantibodies and/or villous atrophy while on a gluten-free diet. It is therefore important to explore new therapies to improve the management of coeliac disease. To date, five experimental therapies have been tested in randomized and controlled clinical trials. Larazotide acetate reduces the para-cellular passage of gluten to the lamina propria by preventing the opening of intercellular tight junctions. The endopeptidases ALV003 and AN-PEP break down gluten to produce less or non-toxic peptide fragments. A therapeutic vaccine is being tested with the aim of developing gluten tolerance. Finally, infection with the nematode Necator americanus and treatment with the CCR9 antagonist Traficet-EN have also been reported. While substantial progress has been made in the last few years, it is important to remember that all these investigational therapies are in research stage and are generally being considered as "adjunctive" therapies to the gluten-free diet and not as substitutes of the gluten-free diet at this point in time. PMID:22153524

  12. Treatment of swine wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G B; Hunt, P G; Phillips, R; Stone, K; Grubbs, A

    2001-01-01

    Swine waste is commonly treated in the USA by flushing into an anaerobic lagoon and subsequently applying to land. This natural system type of application has been part of agricultural practice for many years. However, it is currently under scrutiny by regulators. An alternate natural system technology to treat swine wastewater may be constructed wetland. For this study we used four wetland cells (11 m width x 40 m length) with a marsh-pond-marsh design. The marsh sections were planted to cattail (Typha latifolia, L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). Two cells were loaded with 16 kg N ha(-1) day(-1) with a detention of 21 days. They removed 51% of the added N. Two additional cells were loaded with 32 kg ha(-1) day(-1) with 10.5 days detention. These cells removed only 37% of the added N. However, treatment operations included cold months in which treatment was much less efficient. Removal of N was moderately correlated with the temperature. During the warmer periods removal efficiencies were more consistent with the high removal rates reported for continuous marsh systems--often > than 70%. Phosphorus removal ranged from 30 to 45%. Aquatic macrophytes (plants and floating) assimilated about 320 and 35 kg ha(-1), respectively of N and P. PMID:11804147

  13. Black bear depredation on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonker, S.A.; Parkhurst, J.A.; Field, R.; Fuller, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    We used response to a mail survey (n = 848) to evaluate the extent and severity of depredation by black bears (Ursus americanus) on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts and to assess producers' attitudes toward and tolerance of bear depredation. Damage abatement techniques were ranked for effectiveness by producers of corn, bees and honey, and livestock and dairy products. Results showed differences in perception of effects of bear depredation among commodity groups. Producers of corn and livestock and dairy products considered bear damage to be low to moderate in severity whereas beekeepers thought their losses were substantial or severe. Most estimates of economic loss were <$1,000 per year. Respondents considered bears to be an inconvenience, but thought they should remain a part of our natural heritage. There was no significant relationship between producers' experience with or economic dependence on their product and their attitude toward bears or their tolerance of bear damage. We conclude that there is need for effective education programs for agricultural producers, strengthened working relationships between producers and state fish and wildlife agencies, incorporation of producers' suggestions into management decisions, and investment in effective, economical, and long-term solutions to bear depredations for each affected commodity group.

  14. Effects of trapping with bait on bait-station indices to black bear abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Indices of relative abundance allow managers and researchers to examine changes in population size over time or compare relative population sizes in different areas. In the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, bait-station surveys were conducted in most years from 1983 to 2000 to follow trends over time in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population. Baited bear trapping also took place in the sanctuary during those years, and some trap lines coincided with bait-station lines. Because the same baits were used for both trapping and bait station lines, we hypothesized that visitation rates of bears to bait stations established in proximity to baited trap lines would differ from rates at bait stations that were not associated with baited trap lines. We modeled probability of bait stations being visited by bears on trapped and untrapped lines to estimate the effect baited trapping had on visitation rates. We found that population trends inferred from bait-station visits in areas that also were trapped with bait were biased high and that bias increased over time. Bears may have become habituated to the bait on trap lines and incorporated it as a regular food source. Bait-station indices should not be conducted near research sites that employ similar bait when both produce a tangible reward for the animals.

  15. Mark-recapture using tetracycline and genetics reveal record-high bear density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peacock, E.; Titus, K.; Garshelis, D.L.; Peacock, M.M.; Kuc, M.

    2011-01-01

    We used tetracycline biomarking, augmented with genetic methods to estimate the size of an American black bear (Ursus americanus) population on an island in Southeast Alaska. We marked 132 and 189 bears that consumed remote, tetracycline-laced baits in 2 different years, respectively, and observed 39 marks in 692 bone samples subsequently collected from hunters. We genetically analyzed hair samples from bait sites to determine the sex of marked bears, facilitating derivation of sex-specific population estimates. We obtained harvest samples from beyond the study area to correct for emigration. We estimated a density of 155 independent bears/100 km2, which is equivalent to the highest recorded for this species. This high density appears to be maintained by abundant, accessible natural food. Our population estimate (approx. 1,000 bears) could be used as a baseline and to set hunting quotas. The refined biomarking method for abundance estimation is a useful alternative where physical captures or DNA-based estimates are precluded by cost or logistics. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Test of a habitat suitability index for black bears in the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.S.; Zimmerman, J.W.; Powell, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a habitat suitability index (HSI) model for black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the southern Appalachians that was developed a priori from the literature, then tested using location and home range data collected in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, over a 12-year period. The HSI was developed and initially tested using habitat and bear data collected over 2 years in the sanctuary. We increased number of habitat sampling sites, included data collected in areas affected by timber harvest, used more recent Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to create a more accurate depiction of the HSI for the sanctuary, evaluated effects of input variability on HSI values, and duplicated the original tests using more data. We found that the HSI predicted habitat selection by bears on population and individual levels and the distribution of collared bears were positively correlated with HSI values. We found a stronger relationship between habitat selection by bears and a second-generation HSI. We evaluated our model with criteria suggested by Roloff and Kernohan (1999) for evaluating HSI model reliability and concluded that our model was reliable and robust. The model's strength is that it was developed as an a priori hypothesis directly modeling the relationship between critical resources and fitness of bears and tested with independent data. We present the HSI spatially as a continuous fitness surface where potential contribution of habitat to the fitness of a bear is depicted at each point in space.

  17. Investigation, control and epizootiology of anthrax in a geographically isolated, free-roaming bison population in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gates, C C; Elkin, B T; Dragon, D C

    1995-10-01

    In July 1993 anthrax caused significant mortality in an isolated, free-ranging population of bison (Bos bison athabascae) west of Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories. There was no previous record of anthrax in this area. An emergency response was undertaken to reduce the scale of environmental contamination and dissemination of anthrax spores and hence to reduce the likelihood of future outbreaks. One-hundred-and-seventy-two bison, 3 moose (Alces alces), and 3 black bear (Ursus americanus) carcasses were found. Visual detection of carcasses was enhanced with the use of an airborne, remote infrared sensing camera mounted externally on a helicopter. Fifty-five percent of the carcasses were located in forested or shrub-covered sites where detection would not have been likely without the thermal imaging equipment. Carcasses were disposed of by incineration and the sites were decontaminated with formaldehyde. Application of formaldehyde to carcasses prevented scavenging. The outbreak occurred after a prolonged period of drying between April and mid-July 1993 which followed several successive years of flooding of bison habitat. The "spore concentration hypothesis" provides the most conservative explanation for the occurrence of anthrax under the observed conditions. PMID:8548686

  18. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up <1% of the syrphids reared. T. marginatus and Sphaerophoria sulfuripes were commonly collected from romaine plants with few or no detectable aphids. P. stegnus was observed to deposit in clusters of eggs, and was only reared in significant numbers from highly infested fields. Approximately 5% of syrphid larvae overall were parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). PMID:17370807

  19. Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. PMID:25319714

  20. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  1. Genetic connectivity for two bear species at wildlife crossing structures in Banff National Park

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, Michael A.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Clevenger, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    Roads can fragment and isolate wildlife populations, which will eventually decrease genetic diversity within populations. Wildlife crossing structures may counteract these impacts, but most crossings are relatively new, and there is little evidence that they facilitate gene flow. We conducted a three-year research project in Banff National Park, Alberta, to evaluate the effectiveness of wildlife crossings to provide genetic connectivity. Our main objective was to determine how the Trans-Canada Highway and crossing structures along it affect gene flow in grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus). We compared genetic data generated from wildlife crossings with data collected from greater bear populations. We detected a genetic discontinuity at the highway in grizzly bears but not in black bears. We assigned grizzly bears that used crossings to populations north and south of the highway, providing evidence of bidirectional gene flow and genetic admixture. Parentage tests showed that 47% of black bears and 27% of grizzly bears that used crossings successfully bred, including multiple males and females of both species. Differentiating between dispersal and gene flow is difficult, but we documented gene flow by showing migration, reproduction and genetic admixture. We conclude that wildlife crossings allow sufficient gene flow to prevent genetic isolation. PMID:24552834

  2. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2012-11-01

    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  3. Distribution, abundance, and transport of larval sciaenids collected during winter and early spring from the continental shelf waters off west Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr.; Shaw, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The larvae of six species of Sciaenidae were collected in continental shelf waters off west Louisiana on five midmonthly ichthyoplankton cruises from December 1981 to April 1982. Ranked in order of abundance these species were sand sea trout, Cynoscion arenarius; Atlantic croacker, Micropogonias undulatus; spot, Leiostomus xanthurus; black drum, Pogonias cromis; southern kingfish, Menticirrhus americanus; and banded drum, Larimus fasciatus. Total larva density was highest in April, and the high densities were associated with the coastal boundary layer, a horizontal density front caused by an intrusion of fresher water onto the inner shelf that probably issued from the Atchafalaya River east of the study area. Spawning by sand sea trout began in January, two months earlier than previously reported, and first occurred offshore of midshelf but moved shoreward as the season progressed. Analysis of length-frequency data suggest that spot probably began to spawn in November, one month earlier than once thought. Both sand sea trout and Atlantic croaker larvae were captured at higher rates at night than during the daytime. Sand sea trout larvae appear to be somewhat surface oriented while spot may undergo vertical migration. Interpretation of the sciaenid data support a previously developed transport hypothesis involving gulf menhaden larvae and west-northwest alongshore advection within and just outside of a horizontally stratified coastal boundary layer.

  4. The Ciidae (Coleoptera) of New Brunswick, Canada: New records and new synonyms

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Ciidae of New Brunswick, Canada are reviewed. Seventeen species are recorded for New Brunswick, including the following 10 species that are newly recorded for the province: Ceracis singularis (Dury), Ceracis thoracicornis (Ziegler), Cis angustus Hatch, Cis fuscipes Mellié, Cis horridulus Casey, Cis striatulus Mellié, Dolichocis laricinus (Mellié), Malacocis brevicollis (Casey), Orthocis punctatus (Mellié), and Plesiocis cribrum Casey. Additional locality data are provided for the following species previously known from the province: Cis americanus Mannerheim, Cis creberrimus Mellié, Cis levettei (Casey), Cis submicans Abeille de Perrin, Dolichocis manitoba Dury, Hadreule elongatula (Gyllenhal), and Octotemnus glabriculus (Gyllenhal). Seven synonyms are proposed here; Cis pistoria Casey with Cis submicans Abeille de Perrin; Cis fraternus Casey, Cis macilentus Casey and Cis striolatus Casey with Cis striatulus Mellié; Dolichocis indistinctus Hatch with Dolichocis laricinus (Mellié); and Octotemnus denudatus Casey and Octotemnus laevis Casey with Octotemnus glabriculus (Gyllenhal). Lindgren funnel traps provided the majority of specimens for 15 of the 17 species reported from New Brunswick and were the sole source of specimens for seven of the 10 species newly reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Ciidae in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110172

  5. Changes in metallothionein mRNA and protein after sublethal exposure to arsenite and cadmium chloride in juvenile winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen-Eller, K.; Crivello, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) from a Long Island Sound site within the Niantic River region contain elevated levels of liver As and Cd. Previous work in mammals suggests that a reduced species of As, NaAs{sup 3+}, is as potent a metallothionein (MT) inducer as CdCl{sub 2}. The authors investigated whether this is also the case in winter flounder by subcutaneously exposing juveniles to a sublethal range of NaAs{sup 3+} (0, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 {micro}mol/g fish) or CdCl{sub 2} (0, 0.045, 0.09, and 0.18 {micro}mol/g). Both metals rapidly induced MT protein within 24 h of exposure, but only the highest dose of CdCl{sub 2} elicited a significant increase in MT mRNA. The magnitude of the MT protein response to CdCl{sub 2} (7.25-fold) demonstrates that elevated liver As and Cd do not narrow the MT response window in juvenile flounder from the Niantic River region. These fish have relatively low liver MT protein levels (46 {micro}g/g) and will be a useful reference population for future metal studies within Long Island Sound.

  6. Aspects and implications of bear reintroduction: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Bear reintroduction has been practiced worldwide with varying degrees of success.  Homing is a significant issue for American black bears, Ursus americanus, and winter-release techniques of females with cubs have been successfully used to improve settling rates and survival. Reintroduction success for all bear species appears to be positively correlated with translocation distance, and success is greater for subadults and females. Animals bred or held in captivity are usually poor candidates for reintroduction, but that may be the only option for some rare species. Habitat analyses are routinely performed, but patch size and configuration may also be important considerations for choosing future reintroduction sites for these wide-ranging species. Biological realities aside, socio-political impediments are more difficult to overcome because of real and perceived threats to human safety and property. Poor public acceptance and understanding were the most important reasons for some bear reintroduction failures, and conservation biologists need to develop methods for identifying areas where co-habitation suitability is high. Citizen-led approaches to develop acceptable restoration strategies may be useful for gaining public acceptance of large-carnivore reintroduction efforts, and public acceptance is where the greatest challenge lies.

  7. Oak-black bear relationships in southeastern uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern uplands without oak mast. Bear reproductive and mortality rates in the region have been shown to be directly linked with acorn production. Masting is thought to be an adaptation by oaks to satiate predators during good acorn years, thus ensuring that the remainder will germinate. Acorn predator populations, however, cannot respond numerically to increased acorn production because the masting is episodic and synchronous. Consequently, bears have developed physiological, behavioral, and ecological adaptations to cope with such food shortages. Despite such adaptations, upland hardwood forests in the Southeast are of lower quality than they once were. The loss of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), higrading, and soil degradation have markedly decreased the carrying capacity for bears and other wildlife. Other changes such as recent forest management practices, forest fragmentation, invasion by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and oak decline threaten to further degrade the capability of southeastern uplands to support bears.

  8. Investigation, control and epizootiology of anthrax in a geographically isolated, free-roaming bison population in northern Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Gates, C C; Elkin, B T; Dragon, D C

    1995-01-01

    In July 1993 anthrax caused significant mortality in an isolated, free-ranging population of bison (Bos bison athabascae) west of Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories. There was no previous record of anthrax in this area. An emergency response was undertaken to reduce the scale of environmental contamination and dissemination of anthrax spores and hence to reduce the likelihood of future outbreaks. One-hundred-and-seventy-two bison, 3 moose (Alces alces), and 3 black bear (Ursus americanus) carcasses were found. Visual detection of carcasses was enhanced with the use of an airborne, remote infrared sensing camera mounted externally on a helicopter. Fifty-five percent of the carcasses were located in forested or shrub-covered sites where detection would not have been likely without the thermal imaging equipment. Carcasses were disposed of by incineration and the sites were decontaminated with formaldehyde. Application of formaldehyde to carcasses prevented scavenging. The outbreak occurred after a prolonged period of drying between April and mid-July 1993 which followed several successive years of flooding of bison habitat. The "spore concentration hypothesis" provides the most conservative explanation for the occurrence of anthrax under the observed conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:8548686

  9. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  10. Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S.; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  11. Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected Coastal Sites in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania

    2009-01-01

    A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan coastal areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, coastal areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive coastal habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these coastal habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected coastal sites within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study sites, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative site assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for sites of interest.

  12. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  13. Parasite detection efficiencies of five stool concentration systems.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, J L; Matthews, J S; Miller, G R

    1990-01-01

    Fresh fecal material that was free of ova and parasites was pooled with 10% Formalin in a 1:4 ratio to prepare a standard specimen. Portions of 100 ml of this specimen were individually seeded with Cryptosporidium oocysts, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia cysts; ova of Necator americanus; and Strongyloides larvae. Appropriate volumes of each parasite suspension were used to evaluate the Fecal Concentrator Kit (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.), Fecal Parasite Concentrator (Evergreen Scientific, Los Angeles, Calif.), Para-Pak Macro-Con (Meridian Diagnostics, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), and Trend FeKal CON-Trate (Trend Scientific, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.). A standardized gauze filtration method was used as the reference procedure. Tests were performed in triplicate with each individual parasite-concentrator combination, with three slides examined from each sediment. All of the systems effectively concentrated parasites compared with direct examination of unconcentrated fecal material. The Fecal Concentrator Kit provided the best overall performance. Clarity of sediment, lack of debris, and uniformity of background material were found to be important considerations for microscopic detection of parasites in concentrated specimens. PMID:2380347

  14. Molecular Modeling and Structural Analysis of Arylesterase of Ancylostoma Duodenale

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Subhamay; Panda, Santamay; Kumari, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hookworm, namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus may be primarily responsible for causing parasitic infections in human beings. The highly prevalent areas for Ancylostoma duodenale infections are mainly India, Middle East, Australia, northern Africa and other parts of the world. The serum arylesterases/paraoxonases are family of enzymes that is involved in the hydrolysis of a number of organophosphorus insecticides to the nontoxic products. The participation of the enzymes in the breakdown of a variety of organophosphate substrates that is generally made up of paraoxon and numerous aromatic carboxylic acid esters (e.g., phenyl acetate), and hence combats the toxic effect of organophosphates. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale giving special importance to structure generation, validation of the generated models, distribution of secondary structural elements and positive charge distribution over the structure. By the implementation of comparative modeling approach we propose the first molecular model structure of arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale.

  15. Comparing scat detection dogs, cameras, and hair snares for surveying carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, T.M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Carnivores typically require large areas of habitat, exist at low natural densities, and exhibit elusive behavior - characteristics that render them difficult to study. Noninvasive survey methods increasingly provide means to collect extensive data on carnivore occupancy, distribution, and abundance. During the summers of 2003-2004, we compared the abilities of scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares to detect black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) at 168 sites throughout Vermont. All 3 methods detected black bears; neither fishers nor bobcats were detected by hair snares. Scat detection dogs yielded the highest raw detection rate and probability of detection (given presence) for each of the target species, as well as the greatest number of unique detections (i.e., occasions when only one method detected the target species). We estimated that the mean probability of detecting the target species during a single visit to a site with a detection dog was 0.87 for black bears, 0.84 for fishers, and 0.27 for bobcats. Although the cost of surveying with detection dogs was higher than that of remote cameras or hair snares, the efficiency of this method rendered it the most cost-effective survey method.

  16. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and Drug Administration) to detect intestinal bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, there are no approved tests currently available for STH. Although studies comparing qPCR to microscopy methods for STH are imperfect, due in large part to a lack of a sufficient gold standard, they do show a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity of qPCR compared with microscopic techniques. These studies, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using qPCR for STH diagnosis, are discussed. Guidelines for those designing future studies utilizing qPCR are proposed for optimizing results, as is the proposition for using standardized molecular diagnostics routinely for STH in clinical laboratories and for field-based studies when possible. PMID:27481053

  17. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de La Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-02-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Crustacea, Maxillopoda, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Baek, Ye-Seul; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae). The genome sequence is 15,502 bp in size. Except for CO1, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with an ATN initiation codon (ATA, ATG, ATC and ATT). Twelve PCGs were terminated with TAA or TAG stop codon, whereas ND1 possessed an incomplete termination codon (T- -). We compared the mitogenome structure of L. australis to those of other cirripeds and a typical arthropod Homarus americanus. The PCGs in the L. australis mtgenome showed a typical gene arrangement, identical to the arthropod pattern in other cirriped genomes. However, at least 8 tRNA genes were translocated and 2 tRNA genes were inverted in the coding polarity. Unique differences in L. australis mtgenome included translocation of trnS2, trnD and trnI. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among cirripedians, and additional mtgenome information of barnacles including the polar species would allow exploration of the thoracican relationships and mtgenome modifications in the barnacle evolution. PMID:25228375

  19. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. ‘homaria’ (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  20. Hot spots of genetic diversity descended from multiple Pleistocene refugia in an alpine ungulate.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    Species that inhabit naturally fragmented environments are expected to be spatially structured and exhibit reduced genetic diversity at the periphery of their range. Patterns of differentiation may also reflect historical processes such as recolonization from glacial refugia. We examined the relative importance of these factors in shaping the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation across the range of an alpine specialist, the North American mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Contrary to fossil evidence that suggests a single southern refugium, we detected evidence for additional refugia in northern British Columbia and the Alaskan coast using both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. A core area of elevated genetic diversity characterized both regions, and molecular dating suggested a recent Pleistocene split was followed by demographic expansion. Across their range, mountain goats were highly genetically structured and displayed the expected pattern of declining diversity toward the periphery. Gene flow was high within contiguous mountain ranges, but cross-assignments paradoxically suggest that long-distance contemporary dispersal movements are not uncommon. These results improve our understanding of how historical vicariance and contemporary fragmentation influence population differentiation, and have implications for conserving the adaptive potential of alpine populations and habitat. PMID:20731714

  1. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  2. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  3. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  4. Changes in water chemistry can disable plankton prey defenses

    PubMed Central

    Riessen, Howard P.; Linley, Robert Dallas; Altshuler, Ianina; Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian; Yan, Norman D.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of antipredator defenses is greatly influenced by the environment in which an organism lives. In aquatic ecosystems, the chemical composition of the water itself may play an important role in the outcome of predator–prey interactions by altering the ability of prey to detect predators or to implement defensive responses once the predator’s presence is perceived. Here, we demonstrate that low calcium concentrations (<1.5 mg/L) that are found in many softwater lakes and ponds disable the ability of the water flea, Daphnia pulex to respond effectively to its predator, larvae of the phantom midge, Chaoborus americanus. This low-calcium environment prevents development of the prey’s normal array of induced defenses, which include an increase in body size, formation of neck spines, and strengthening of the carapace. We estimate that this inability to access these otherwise effective defenses results in a 50–186% increase in the vulnerability of the smaller juvenile instars of Daphnia, the stages most susceptible to Chaoborus predation. Such a change likely contributes to the observed lack of success of daphniids in most low-calcium freshwater environments, and will speed the loss of these important zooplankton in lakes where calcium levels are in decline. PMID:22949653

  5. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-10

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  6. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.

    2013-05-20

    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  7. Pathogenic Eukaryotes in Gut Microbiota of Western Lowland Gorillas as Revealed by Molecular Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Keita, Mamadou B.; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Although gorillas regarded as the largest extant species of primates and have a close phylogenetic relationship with humans, eukaryotic communities have not been previously studied in these populations. Herein, 35 eukaryotic primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer gene and other specific genes were used firstly to explore the eukaryotes in a fecal sample from a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Then specific real-time PCRs were achieved in additional 48 fecal samples from 21 individual gorillas to investigate the presence of human eukaryotic pathogens. In total, 1,572 clones were obtained and sequenced from the 15 cloning libraries, resulting in the retrieval of 87 eukaryotic species, including 52 fungi, 10 protozoa, 4 nematodes and 21 plant species, of which 52, 5, 2 and 21 species, respectively, have never before been described in gorillas. We also reported the occurrence of pathogenic fungi and parasites (i.e. Oesophagostomum bifurcum (86%), Necator americanus (43%), Candida tropicalis (81%) and other pathogenic fungi were identified). In conclusion, molecular techniques using multiple primer sets may offer an effective tool to study complex eukaryotic communities and to identify potential pathogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of primates. PMID:25231746

  8. Serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in Alaskan wildlife.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, R L

    1983-10-01

    Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (Rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (Alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). Antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (Ursus americanus). Antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou. Antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were found in sera of eight of 17 (47%) Dall sheep and two of 39 (6%) moose. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus antibodies were detected in sera of six of 67 (9%) caribou. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies were found in sera of two of 67 (3%) caribou. Parainfluenza 3 virus antibodies were detected in sera of 14 of 21 (67%) bison (Bison bison). Antibodies to Q fever rickettsia were found in sera of 12 of 15 (80%) Dall sheep. No evidence of prior exposure to bluetongue virus was found in Dall sheep, caribou, moose, or bison sera. PMID:6139490

  9. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Brant, Heather A; Jagoe, Charles H; Snodgras, Joel W; Bryan, A Lawrence; Gariboldi, Joan C

    2002-01-01

    Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchuspomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands. PMID:12395855

  10. Genetic connectivity for two bear species at wildlife crossing structures in Banff National Park.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, Michael A; Kalinowski, Steven T; Clevenger, Anthony P

    2014-04-01

    Roads can fragment and isolate wildlife populations, which will eventually decrease genetic diversity within populations. Wildlife crossing structures may counteract these impacts, but most crossings are relatively new, and there is little evidence that they facilitate gene flow. We conducted a three-year research project in Banff National Park, Alberta, to evaluate the effectiveness of wildlife crossings to provide genetic connectivity. Our main objective was to determine how the Trans-Canada Highway and crossing structures along it affect gene flow in grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus). We compared genetic data generated from wildlife crossings with data collected from greater bear populations. We detected a genetic discontinuity at the highway in grizzly bears but not in black bears. We assigned grizzly bears that used crossings to populations north and south of the highway, providing evidence of bidirectional gene flow and genetic admixture. Parentage tests showed that 47% of black bears and 27% of grizzly bears that used crossings successfully bred, including multiple males and females of both species. Differentiating between dispersal and gene flow is difficult, but we documented gene flow by showing migration, reproduction and genetic admixture. We conclude that wildlife crossings allow sufficient gene flow to prevent genetic isolation. PMID:24552834

  11. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    PubMed

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources. PMID:21719845

  13. Patterns of concurrent hookworm infection and schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lwambo, N J; Siza, J E; Brooker, S; Bundy, D A; Guyatt, H

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 6897 schoolchildren in 59 out of the 155 primary schools in Magu District on the shores of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, was undertaken in 1997 to determine the prevalence of single- and multiple-species helminth infection. Schistosoma haematobium, hookworm (primarily Necator americanus) and S. mansoni were the most common helminth species infecting schoolchildren in the district. The prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were negligible (< 1%). Anaemia and stunting were highly prevalent and widespread. Hookworm and S. mansoni occurred more frequently in multiple infections with other helminths than as single-species infections, but triple-species infection was rare. Analysis of the frequency distribution of infection amongst schools showed that prevalences of S. haematobium and hookworm tended to be normally distributed, with medians 75% and 45%, respectively, while the distribution of S. mansoni was markedly skewed such that only 17% schools had a prevalence greater than 20%. An inverse association between S. mansoni and S. haematobium was observed. Geographical information system (GIS) analysis indicated that S. mansoni infection was highly prevalent only along the shore of Lake Victoria, whilst S. haematobium was homogeneously prevalent everywhere except the lakeshore. This pattern appears to reflect the distribution of schistosome species-specific snail intermediate hosts. The results imply that joint treatment for hookworm infection and schistosomiasis would be beneficial throughout the district. PMID:10696404

  14. Revised megafossil biostratigraphic zonation for Carboniferous of northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dutro, J.T. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    Carboniferous megafossils are widely distributed in the Kayak Shale and Lisburne Group throughout the northern Brooks Range. Diverse assemblages of brachiopods, corals, and mollusks, with subordinate echinoderms and bryozoans, were collected from 40 measured sections. The combined stratigraphic ranges and abundances of more than 300 species were assessed to construct a biostratigraphic zonation that can be applied regionally for correlation. Preliminary zonations, used for more than a quarter century, were revised to account for the rapidly accumulating data. In the central and western Brooks Range, the deeper water Kuna formation contains a low-diversity fauna of mollusks and brachiopods. Goniatites are found at several levels but never more than two zones in any partial section. Regionally, these goniatite zones, from youngest to oldest, are: Delephinoceras (late Chesterian), Goniatites americanus (late Meramecian - early Chesterian), Beyrichoceras (early to middle Meramecian), Ammonellipsites (Osagean) and Muensteroceras-Protocanites (late Kinderhookian.). Correlations of megafossil zones with the foraminiferal zones of Mamet are discussed. The 15 Mississippian zones have an average age-resolution of about 2 m.y. By themselves, the goniatite zones give an ageresolution of about 6 m.y. zone.

  15. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    PubMed

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production. PMID:26260945

  16. Enhancement of protein secretion in Pichia pastoris by overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mehmet; Aryasomayajula, Dinesh; Sinha, Jayanta; Meagher, Michael M

    2006-03-01

    A potential vaccine candidate, Necator americanus secretory protein (Na-ASP1), against hookworm infections, has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. Na-ASP1, a 45 kDa protein containing 20 cysteines, was directed outside the cell by fusing the protein to the preprosequence of the alpha-mating factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the protein produced by single copy clones was secreted outside the cell. However, increasing gene copy number of Na-ASP1 protein in P. pastoris saturated secretory capacity and therefore, decreased the amount of secreted protein in clones harboring multiple copies of Na-ASP1 gene. Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident, homologous chaperone protein, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was able to increase the secretion of (Na-ASP1) protein in high copy clones. The effect of PDI levels on secretion of Na-ASP1 protein was examined in clones with varying copy number of PDI gene. Increase in secreted Na-ASP1 secretion is correlated well with the PDI copy number. Increasing levels of PDI also increased overall Na-ASP1 protein production in all the clones. Nevertheless, there was still accumulation of intracellular Na-ASP1 protein in P. pastoris clones over-expressing Na-ASP1 and PDI proteins. PMID:16255058

  17. Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS = 0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean = 0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

  18. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  19. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  20. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, Therese M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy modeling that explicitly incorporated detectability as well as habitat and landscape variables. For black bears, percentage of forested land within 5 km of survey sites was an important positive predictor of occupancy, and percentage of human developed land within 5 km was a negative predictor. Although the relationship was less clear for bobcats, occupancy appeared positively related to the percentage of both mixed forest and forested wetland habitat within 1 km of survey sites. The relationship between specific covariates and fisher occupancy was unclear, with no specific habitat or landscape variables directly related to occupancy. For all species, we used model averaging to predict occurrence across the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of our black bear and fisher models suggested that occupancy modeling efforts with data from noninvasive surveys could be useful for carnivore conservation and management, as they provide insights into habitat use at the regional and landscape scale without requiring capture or direct observation of study species.

  1. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus exposure on American toads in the presence of an insecticide.

    PubMed

    Wise, Rayona S; Rumschlag, Samantha L; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-11-01

    Abiotic factors such as pesticides may alter the impact of a pathogen on hosts, which could have implications for host-pathogen interactions and may explain variation in disease outbreaks in nature. In the present laboratory experiment, American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) metamorphs were exposed to the amphibian chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and environmentally relevant concentrations of the insecticide malathion to determine whether malathion altered the effects of Bd exposure on growth and survival of toad metamorphs. Exposure to Bd significantly decreased survival over the 51 d of the experiment, suggesting that Bd could reduce recruitment into the terrestrial life stage when exposure occurs at metamorphosis. Malathion did not impact survival, but a 12-h exposure at metamorphosis significantly reduced terrestrial growth. Toads that were exposed to both Bd and malathion showed a nonsignificant trend toward the smallest growth compared with other treatments. The present study suggests that Bd may pose a threat to American toads even though population declines have not been observed for this species; in addition, the presence of both the insecticide malathion and Bd could reduce terrestrial growth, which could have implications for lifetime fitness and suggests that environmental factors could play a role in pathogen impacts in nature. PMID:25099070

  2. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, T.A.; Hobbie, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that was strongly pulsed in the autumn. Specifically, reaches dominated by saltcedar had allochthonous litter inputs of 299 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1, macrophyte production of 15 g AFDM m-2 year-1 and algal production of 400 g AFDM m-2 year-1, while reaches dominated by native riparian vegetation or where saltcedar had been experimentally removed had allochthonous litter inputs of 7-34 g AFDM m -2 year-1, macrophyte production of 118-425 g AFDM m -2 year-1 and algal production of 640-900 g AFDM m -2 year-1. 3. A leaf litter breakdown study indicated that saltcedar also altered decomposition in Jackrabbit Spring, mainly through its influence on litter quality rather than by altering the environment for decomposition. Decomposition rates for saltcedar were lower than for ash (Fraxinus velutina), the dominant native allochthonous litter type, but faster than for bulrush (Scirpus americanus), the dominant macrophyte in this system.

  3. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Lindsay, Bruce G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Carlson, John E.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth–death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella. PMID:16702410

  4. Recent observations of intraspecific predation and cannibalism among polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.; Smith, T.S.; Perham, C.; Thiemann, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Intraspecific killing has been reported among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus). Although cannibalism is one motivation for such killings, the ecological factors mediating such events are poorly understood. Between 24 January and 10 April 2004, we confirmed three instances of intraspecific predation and cannibalism in the Beaufort Sea. One of these, the first of this type ever reported for polar bears, was a parturient female killed at her maternal den. The predating bear was hunting in a known maternal denning area and apparently discovered the den by scent. A second predation event involved an adult female and cub recently emerged from their den, and the third involved a yearling male. During 24 years of research on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea region of northern Alaska and 34 years in northwestern Canada, we have not seen other incidents of polar bears stalking, killing, and eating other polar bears. We hypothesize that nutritional stresses related to the longer ice-free seasons that have occurred in the Beaufort Sea in recent years may have led to the cannibalism incidents we observed in 2004. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  5. Salmon fishing by bears and the dawn of cooperative predation.

    PubMed

    Stringham, Stephen F

    2012-11-01

    Although bears are an epitome of solitary predation, black (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos) occasionally act in pairs to capture salmon (Onchorynchous spp.). I sought to identify conditions that promote pairing and how this relates to optimal foraging. This study on Alaskan black bears assessed whether each mode of fishing (solo vs. paired) occurs mainly where it is most efficient at harvesting salmon--that is, whether modal group size (1 vs. 2) is also optimal size. Not in this case. Pairing increased captures per attempt (benefit/cost ratio = profitability) by up to 47% and captures per minute by up to 5.2-fold. Yet, the ratio of paired versus solo fishing was significantly lower than either profitability or chance explains. Modal group size was 1, optimal size was 2. This discrepancy did not result from intervention by other current benefits and costs, but from unnecessary defensiveness toward any rapidly approaching conspecific, even though it was chasing salmon, not threatening. For bears to regularly hunt cooperatively, they would have to more readily habituate to agonistic-like predatory actions, communicate intentions from > 10 m apart, and assess situational variations in benefit/cost ratios for solo versus paired hunting. It would be revealing to discover how social carnivores overcame these challenges. PMID:23088647

  6. Horizontal Gene Acquisition of Liberibacter Plant Pathogens from a Bacteriome-Confined Endosymbiont of Their Psyllid Vector

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Kenshiro; Inoue, Hiromitsu; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hongoh, Yuichi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    he Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits the phloem-inhabiting alphaproteobacterial ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and allied plant pathogens, which cause the devastating citrus disease called Huanglongbing or greening disease. D. citri harbors two distinct bacterial mutualists in the symbiotic organ called bacteriome: the betaproteobacterium ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’ in the syncytial cytoplasm at the center of the bacteriome, and the gammaproteobacterium ‘Candidatus Carsonella ruddii’ in uninucleate bacteriocytes. Here we report that a putative amino acid transporter LysE of Profftella forms a highly supported clade with proteins of L. asiaticus, L. americanus, and L. solanacearum. L. crescens, the most basal Liberibacter lineage currently known, lacked the corresponding gene. The Profftella-Liberibacter subclade of LysE formed a clade with proteins from betaproteobacteria of the order Burkholderiales, to which Profftella belongs. This phylogenetic pattern favors the hypothesis that the Liberibacter lineage acquired the gene from the Profftella lineage via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) after L. crescens diverged from other Liberibacter lineages. KA/KS analyses further supported the hypothesis that the genes encoded in the Liberibacter genomes are functional. These findings highlight the possible evolutionary importance of HGT between plant pathogens and their insect vector’s symbionts that are confined in the symbiotic organ and seemingly sequestered from external microbial populations. PMID:24349319

  7. Fitness costs of worker specialization for ant societies.

    PubMed

    Jongepier, Evelien; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-13

    Division of labour is of fundamental importance for the success of societies, yet little is known about how individual specialization affects the fitness of the group as a whole. While specialized workers may be more efficient in the tasks they perform than generalists, they may also lack the flexibility to respond to rapid shifts in task needs. Such rigidity could impose fitness costs when societies face dynamic and unpredictable events, such as an attack by socially parasitic slavemakers. Here, we experimentally assess the colony-level fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in Temnothorax longispinosus ants that are attacked by the slavemaker ant T. americanus. We manipulated the social organization of 102 T. longispinosus colonies, based on the behavioural responses of all 3842 workers. We find that strict specialization is disadvantageous for a colony's annual reproduction and growth during slave raids. These fitness costs may favour generalist strategies in dynamic environments, as we also demonstrate that societies exposed to slavemakers in the field show a lower degree of specialization than those originating from slavemaker-free populations. Our findings provide an explanation for the ubiquity of generalists and highlight their importance for the flexibility and functional robustness of entire societies. PMID:26763706

  8. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  9. The influence of space and time on the evolution of altruistic defence: the case of ant slave rebellion.

    PubMed

    Metzler, D; Jordan, F; Pamminger, T; Foitzik, S

    2016-05-01

    How can antiparasite defence traits evolve even if they do not directly benefit their carriers? An example of such an indirect defence is rebellion of enslaved Temnothorax longispinosus ant workers against their social parasite Temnothorax americanus, a slavemaking ant. Ant slaves have been observed to kill their oppressors' offspring, a behaviour from which the sterile slaves cannot profit directly. Parasite brood killing could, however, reduce raiding pressure on related host colonies nearby. We analyse with extensive computer simulations for the Temnothorax slavemaker system under what conditions a hypothetical rebel allele could invade a host population, and in particular, how host-parasite dynamics and population structure influence the rebel allele's success. Exploring a wide range of model parameters, we only found a small number of parameter combinations for which kin selection or multilevel selection could allow a slave rebellion allele to spread in the host population. Furthermore, we did not detect any cases in which the reduction of raiding pressure in the close vicinity of the slavemaker nest would substantially contribute to the inclusive fitness of rebels. This suggests that slave rebellion is not costly and perhaps a side-effect of some other beneficial trait. In some of our simulations, however, even a costly rebellion allele could spread in the population. This was possible when host-parasite interactions led to a metapopulation dynamic with frequent local extinctions and recolonizations of demes by the offspring of few immigrants. PMID:26873305

  10. The ecological success of a social parasite increases with manipulation of collective host behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jongepier, E; Kleeberg, I; Foitzik, S

    2015-12-01

    Many parasites alter the behaviour of their host to their own advantage, yet hosts often vary in their susceptibility to manipulation. The ecological and evolutionary implications of such variation can be profound, as resistant host populations may suffer lower parasite pressures than those susceptible to manipulation. To test this prediction, we assessed parasite-induced aggressive behaviours across 16 populations of two Temnothorax ant species, many of which harbour the slavemaker ant Protomognathus americanus. This social parasite uses its Dufour's gland secretions to manipulate its hosts into attacking nestmates, which may deter defenders away from itself during invasion. We indeed find that colonies that were manipulated into attacking their Dufour-treated nestmates were less aggressive towards the slavemaker than those that did not show slavemaker-induced nestmate attack. Slavemakers benefited from altering their hosts' aggression, as both the likelihood that slavemakers survived host encounters and slavemaker prevalence in ant communities increased with slavemaker-induced nestmate attack. Finally, we show that Temnothorax longispinosus colonies were more susceptible to manipulation than Temnothorax curvispinosus colonies. This explains why T. curvispinosus colonies responded with more aggression towards invading slavemakers, why they were less likely to let slavemakers escape and why they were less frequently parasitized by the slavemaker than T. longispinosus. Our findings highlight that large-scale geographic variation in resistance to manipulation can have important implications for the prevalence and host preference of parasites. PMID:26299653

  11. New Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) records with new collection data from New Brunswick, Canada: Scaphidiinae, Piestinae, Osorinae, and Oxytelinae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of Scaphidiinae are newly reported for New Brunswick, Canada, bringing the total number of species known from the province to 12. Scaphium castanipes Kirby, Baeocera inexspectata Löbl and Stephen, Baeocera securiforma (Cornell), Scaphisoma repandum Casey, and Toxidium gammaroides LeConte are reported for the first time from the Maritime provinces. Siagonum punctatum LeConte and Siagonum stacesmithi Hatch, and the subfamily Piestinae are reported for the first time from New Brunswick. The subfamily Osoriinae is reported for the first time from New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces based on the collection of three species: Clavilispinus prolixus (LeConte), Thoracophorus costalis (Erichson), and a Lispinodes species. The Lispinodes species is also newly recorded for Canada. Six species of Oxytelinae are newly recorded from New Brunswick, bringing the total number of species of this subfamily known to the province to 20. Apocellus sphaericollis (Say) and Platystethus americanus Erichson are new to the Maritime provinces. Additional locality and bionomic data are presented for Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, and the male genitalia are illustrated for the first time. Collection and bionomic data are presented for all included species. PMID:22577322

  12. Liberibacter crescens gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultured member of the genus Liberibacter.

    PubMed

    Fagen, Jennie R; Leonard, Michael T; Coyle, Janelle F; McCullough, Connor M; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Davis, Michael J; Triplett, Eric W

    2014-07-01

    The Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial isolate BT-1(T) is the closest relative to the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' cultured to date. BT-1(T) was recovered from the phloem sap of a defoliating mountain papaya in Puerto Rico. The BT-1(T) 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain BT-1(T) is most closely related to members of the genus 'Ca. Liberibacter' sharing 94.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' and 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'. Additionally, average nucleotide identity, 16S rRNA gene sequences and conserved protein sequences supported inclusion of the previously described species of the genus 'Ca. Liberibacter' in a genus with BT-1(T). The prominent fatty acids of isolate BT-1(T) were C18 : 1ω7c (77.2%), C16 : 0 OH (4.8%), C18 : 0 (4.4%) and C16 : 0 (3.5%). Both physiological and genomic characteristics support the creation of the genus Liberibacter, as well as the novel species Liberibacter crescens gen. nov., sp. nov. with type strain BT-1(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2481(T) = DSM 26877(T)). PMID:24786353

  13. Soil-food chain-pesticide wildlife relationships in aldrin-treated fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  14. Spatial and diurnal distribution of invertebrate and fish fauna of a Zostera marina bed and nearby unvegetated sediments in Damariscotta River, Maine (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, Johanna; Chaplin, Glen; Eilers, Michele R.; Heck, Kenneth L.; O'Neal, Jonathan P.; Valentine, John F.

    1999-06-01

    Fish, epibenthos and macroinfauna were collected in a Zostera marina bed and nearby unvegetated sediments in the estuary of the Damariscotta River, on the mid-coast of Maine. Samples of epibenthic fauna and fish were collected at low tides both during day and night, and samples of infauna at low tides during the day. The mean density of Zostera shoots in the study area was 335 m -2. Abundance and species number of fish were greater at night than during the day and greater in eelgrass beds ( Z. marina) than in unvegetated habitats. Daytime fish collections were dominated by Atlantic silversides ( Medinia medinia), while juvenile winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus) dominated night collections. Also Zostera-associated epifaunal abundances and number of species were significantly higher at night than during the day. Mysis stenolepis, Idotea balthica and Littorina obtusata were dominant species in the epifauna samples. Of the total of 37 invertebrate species encountered, only five occurred both in the infaunal and epifaunal samples. Nineteen different taxa were collected from the benthic core samples. The most abundant invertebrate infaunal taxa were sipunculids, the polychaete Nereis virens, and oligochaetes. Infaunal invertebrate abundances and species diversity were significantly higher in eelgrass beds than in unvegetated sediments. The abundance and number of species of benthic invertebrates were also positively correlated to seagrass biomass. Community diversity values ( H') were relatively low but fit well in the general pattern of decreasing diversity towards northern latitudes.

  15. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat. PMID:22538454

  16. Feeding habits of the congeneric species Stellifer rastrifer and Stellifer brasiliensis (Acanthopterygii: Sciaenidae) co-occurring in the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues-Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Branco, J O; Verani, J R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feeding habits allowing the occurrence of the congeneric species Stellifer rastrifer and Stellifer brasiensis, collected on a seasonal basis, in the operating area of the artisanal seabob-shrimp trawl fishery in Porto Belo, an important fishing area on the southern Brazilian coast. Fish were collected seasonally from November 2009 to August 2010, in isobaths of 10, 20 and 30 m. Of the 450 stomachs analyzed, 194 belonged to Stellifer rastrifer and 242 to Stellifer brasiliensis. From the totality of analyzed stomachs 33.49% were empty and 66.52% had some content. Crustacea were the predominant food category in the diet of S. rastrifer and S. brasiliensis, and the shrimp Acetes americanus was the most frequent crustacean in stomachs of both studied species. The overlapping in the diet of the species was high, however when analyzing the overlap in each season it was found that it occurred only during spring and winter. Although the most important items in the diet of these species are the same, the intake of each alternates in time, suggesting a difference in predation pressure, which leads to less direct competition in a given time. PMID:26132027

  17. Characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in Canada.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    Wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern Ontario, Canada were examined for subspecies of Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill). Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), European hares (Lepus capensis) and woodchucks (Marmota monax). Prevalence of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of intensity) was 760 (9-4, 198) in Lindsay, Ontario in 1980. Mean intensity in hares varied trimonthly. The highest mean intensity of worms occurred in spring when most worms were adult. Transmission occurred mainly in spring. Most worms present in fall (70%) and winter (54%) were fourth stage. Immature fifth-stage and gravid females were present in hares during fall and winter. Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in cottontails was 15% and 29 (1-118). Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in woodchucks was 6% and 56 (16-118). European hares were infected with O. c. cuniculi, prevalence was 10% and mean intensity was 60 (36-83). In Ontario woodchucks and European hares were common in areas frequented by cottontail rabbits and probably acquired sporadic infections of O. c. cuniculi from infected cottontails. PMID:6644920

  18. Development of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs, woodchucks and small rodents.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    The parasitic development of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus Measures and Anderson, 1983 was studied in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Third-stage larvae exsheathed within 24 hr. The third molt occurred 3 days and the fourth 8-11 days post-infection. All worms were fifth stage 14 days post-infection. Males were mature at 16 days and copulation occurred in 15-16 days. Females were gravid at 18 days. The prepatent period was 16-22 days. The patent period was 61-118 days and males lived longer than females. All stages were found in the mucosa except the fifth which was found lying on the mucosal surface within a layer of mucus. Petechiae were the only lesions seen in experimentally infected rabbits. Patent infections of O. c. multistriatus were established experimentally in infected woodchucks (Marmota monax), snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Patent infections of O. c. cuniculi were established experimentally in snowshoe hares. Patent infections of O. c. multistriatus did not appear in experimentally infected HPB white (Swiss Webster) mice (Mus musculus). Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), H.O.R.F1 Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), H.O.R.F1 smooth-haired guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and H.O.R.F1 gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). PMID:6644921

  19. Changes in contaminant distributions with trophic level in a marine food chain study

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Taplin, B.K.; McGovern, D.G.; Montmarquet, B.T.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory study was designed to investigate the transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants from sediments to marine biota in a simplified marine food chain. Sediments collected from the Passaic River, NJ, which contained high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, were used as the contamination source. Polychaete worms (Nereis virens) were exposed to Passaic River sediment for 70 days to allow steady-state concentrations to be achieved and then these organisms were fed to a crustacean, the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Contaminant distributions were altered significantly as they passed from sediments to polychaetes and then to the lobster. PCDDs and PCDFs containing four or five chlorines were accumulated by the polychaetes and lobster; however, the highly chlorinated congeners were not accumulated. PCB patterns in lobsters indicated that these organisms metabolized many PCB congeners. Coplanar PCBs did not appear to be metabolized and therefore became enriched relative to total PCB levels in the lobsters. Lobsters also greatly altered the ratios of chlordane and DDT series compounds relative to those in the sediments and polychaetes.

  20. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    The trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were investigated in a simplified marine benthic food chain. Polychaetes, Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and depuration measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and depuration rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas, showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues.