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Sample records for current cross sections

  1. Review of Current and Future Neutrino Cross-Section Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    There has been a surge of progress and published results in neutrino cross-section physics in recent years. In many cases, absolute differential cross-sections are being measured for the first time and can be compared to interaction models first developed decades ago. These measurements are important input for the next generation of accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments where precise understanding of both signal and background channels will be critical to the observation of sub-dominant oscillation effects. This paper discusses recent results from several experiments and describes new experiments currently under construction dedicated to making these measurements with unprecedented precision.

  2. Review of Current and Future Neutrino Cross-Section Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, D.

    2010-03-30

    There has been a surge of progress and published results in neutrino cross-section physics in recent years. In many cases, absolute differential cross-sections are being measured for the first time and can be compared to interaction models first developed decades ago. These measurements are important input for the next generation of accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments where precise understanding of both signal and background channels will be critical to the observation of sub-dominant oscillation effects. This paper discusses recent results from several experiments and describes new experiments currently under construction dedicated to making these measurements with unprecedented precision.

  3. Measurement of the antineutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.  A.; Brown, B.  C.; Bugel, L.; Cheng, G.; Church, E.  D.; Conrad, J.  M.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.  A.; Ford, R.; et al

    2015-01-08

    We report the measurement of the flux-averaged antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross section (dσν-barN→ν-barN/dQ2) on CH2 by the MiniBooNE experiment using the largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic candidate events ever collected. The ratio of the antineutrino to neutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross sections and a ratio of the antineutrino neutral current elastic to antineutrino charged current quasi elastic cross sections are also presented.

  4. Measurement of the antineutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.  A.; Brown, B.  C.; Bugel, L.; Cheng, G.; Church, E.  D.; Conrad, J.  M.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.  A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.  G.; Garvey, G.  T.; Grange, J.; Huelsnitz, W.; Ignarra, C.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R.  A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Louis, W.  C.; Mariani, C.; Marsh, W.; Mills, G.  B.; Mirabal, J.; Moore, C.  D.; Mousseau, J.; Nienaber, P.; Osmanov, B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C.  C.; Ray, H.; Roe, B.  P.; Russell, A.  D.; Shaevitz, M.  H.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Tayloe, R.; Van de Water, R.  G.; Wascko, M.  O.; White, D.  H.; Wickremasinghe, D.  A.; Zeller, G.  P.; Zimmerman, E.  D.

    2015-01-08

    We report the measurement of the flux-averaged antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross section (dσν-barN→ν-barN/dQ2) on CH2 by the MiniBooNE experiment using the largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic candidate events ever collected. The ratio of the antineutrino to neutrino neutral current elastic scattering cross sections and a ratio of the antineutrino neutral current elastic to antineutrino charged current quasi elastic cross sections are also presented.

  5. Neutrino-Induced Neutral-Current Reaction Cross Sections for r-PROCESS Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langanke, K.; Kolbe, E.

    2002-11-01

    Neutrino-induced reactions play an important role during and after the r-process, if the latter occurs in an environment with extreme neutrino fluxes such as the neutrino-driven wind model or neutron star mergers. Recently we have evaluated the charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections relevant for r-process simulations. We extend our approach here to the neutral-current cross sections. Our tabulation considers neutron-rich nuclei with neutron numbers N=41-135 and charge numbers Z=21-82 and lists total as well as partial neutron spallation cross sections. The calculations have been performed within the random phase approximation considering multipole transitions with J<=3 and both parities. The supernova neutrino spectrum is described by a Fermi-Dirac distribution with various temperature parameters between T=2.8 MeV and T=10 MeV and with the degeneracy parameters α=0 and α=3.

  6. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Columbia U.

    2010-02-01

    A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section (d{sup 2}{sigma}/dT{sub {mu}}d cos {theta}{sub {mu}}) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimal model dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. With the assumption of CCQE scattering, the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ({sigma}[E{sub {nu}}]) and the single differential cross section (d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}) are extracted to facilitate comparison with previous measurements. These quantities may be used to characterize an effective axial-vector form factor of the nucleon and to improve the modeling of low-energy neutrino interactions on nuclear targets. The results are relevant for experiments searching for neutrino oscillations.

  7. First measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic double differential cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T.

    2010-05-01

    A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section ((d{sup 2{sigma}}/dT{sub {mu}d}cos{theta}{sub {mu}})) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimal model dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. With the assumption of CCQE scattering, the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ({sigma}[E{sub {nu}}]) and the single differential cross section ((d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2})) are extracted to facilitate comparison with previous measurements. These quantities may be used to characterize an effective axial-vector form factor of the nucleon and to improve the modeling of low-energy neutrino interactions on nuclear targets. The results are relevant for experiments searching for neutrino oscillations.

  8. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurements with the MINOS near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Childress, S.; Harris, D.; Hatcher, R.; Hylen, J.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Koizumi, G.; Kreymer, A.; Lucas, P.; Moore, C. D.; Morfin, J.; Plunkett, R. K.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Saoulidou, N.; Shanahan, P.

    2010-04-01

    The energy dependence of the neutrino-iron and antineutrino-iron inclusive charged-current cross sections and their ratio have been measured using a high-statistics sample with the MINOS near detector exposed to the NuMI beam from the main injector at Fermilab. Neutrino and antineutrino fluxes were determined using a low hadronic energy subsample of charged-current events. We report measurements of {nu}-Fe ({nu}-Fe) cross section in the energy range 3-50 GeV (5-50 GeV) with precision of 2%-8% (3%-9%) and their ratio which is measured with precision 2%-8%. The data set spans the region from low energy, where accurate measurements are sparse, up to the high-energy scaling region where the cross section is well understood.

  9. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-03-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10{sup 6} neutrino events and 1.60 x 10{sup 5} antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  10. Meson-exchange currents and quasielastic neutrino cross sections in the superscaling approximation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Williamson, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the quasielastic double differential neutrino cross sections obtained in a phenomenological model based on the superscaling behavior of electron scattering data. We compare our results with the recent experimental data for neutrinos of MiniBooNE and estimate the contribution of the vector meson-exchange currents in the 2p-2h sector.

  11. First Measurement of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic (CCQE) Double Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei; /MIT, LNS

    2009-09-01

    Using a high statistics sample of muon neutrino charged current quasielastic (CCQE) events, we report the first measurement of the double differential cross section (d{sup 2}{sigma}/dT{sub {mu}}d cos {theta}{sub {mu}}) for this process. The result features reduced model dependence and supplies the most complete information on neutrino CCQE scattering to date. Measurements of the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ({sigma}[E{sub v}{sup QE,RFG}]) and the single differential cross section (d{sigma}/dQ{sub QE}{sup 2}) are also provided, largely to facilitate comparison with prior measurements. This data is of particular use for understanding the axial-vector form factor of the nucleon as well as improving the simulation of low energy neutrino interactions on nuclear targets, which is of particular relevance for experiments searching for neutrino oscillations.

  12. Front conditions for gravity currents in channels of general cross-section: some general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius

    2015-11-01

    We consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current in a horizontal channel with general cross-section of width f (z) , 0 <= z <= H the gravity acceleration g acts in - z direction. (The rectangular case is f (z) = const.) We assume a two-layer system of fluids of densities ρc (current, of height h) and ρa (ambient, filling the remaining part of the channel). We revisit the derivation of the nose Froude-number condition Fr = U /(g' h) 1 / 2 ; U is the speed of propagation of the current and g' = (ρc /ρa - 1) g . We present compact insightful expressions of Fr and energy dissipation as a functions of φ (= area fraction occupied by the current in the cross-section), and show that a degree of freedom is present. We demonstrate that the extension of the closure suggested by Benjamin for the rectangular cross-section, namely that the bottom is a perfect stagnation line, produces Fr solutions which are optimal with respect to several useful criteria. However, the energy conserving closure yields problematic Fr results, as manifest in particular by invalidity for deep currents (small h / H). Connection with realistic time-dependent gravity currents is discussed.

  13. Measurement of the Neutrino Neutral-Current Elastic Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Argonne

    2010-07-01

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q{sup 2}. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50 MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form factors apart from an axial mass, M{sub A}, that provides a best fit for M{sub A} = 1.39 {+-} 0.11 GeV. Using the data from the charged-current neutrino interaction sample, a ratio of neutral-current to charged-current quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of Q{sup 2} has been measured. Additionally, single protons with kinetic energies above 350 MeV can be distinguished from neutrons and multiple nucleon events. Using this marker, the strange quark contribution to the neutral-current axial vector form factor at Q{sup 2} = 0, {Delta}s, is found to be {Delta}s = 0.08{+-} 0.26.

  14. A Measurement of the charged-current interaction cross section of the tau neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, Emily O'Connor; /Minnesota U.

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab experiment E872 (DONUT) was designed to make the first observation of the tau neutrino charged-current interaction. Using a hybrid emulsion-spectrometer detector, the tau lepton was identified by its single-prong or trident decay. Six interactions were observed, of which five were in the deep inelastic scattering region. These five interaction were used to measure the charged-current cross section of the tau neutrino. To minimize uncertainties, the tau neutrino cross section was measured relative to the electron neutrino cross section. The result {sigma}{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}N}{sup const}/{sigma}{sub {nu}{sub e}N}{sup const} = 0.77 {+-} 0.39 is consistent with 1.0, which is predicted by lepton universality. The tau neutrino cross section was also measured for 115 GeV neutrinos, which was the average energy of the interacted tau neutrinos. The result {sigma}{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}N}{sup exp} = 45 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} is consistent with the standard model prediction calculated in this thesis, {sigma}{sub {tau}N}{sup SM} = 48 {+-} 5 x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2}.

  15. Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels

    SciTech Connect

    Zemach, T.

    2015-10-15

    We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρ{sub i}, propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρ{sub a}. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general −f{sub 1}(z) ≤ y ≤ f{sub 2}(z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion which is produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of mixture from a lock. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h(x, t), velocity u(x, t), and volume fraction of particles (concentration) ϕ(x, t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law (f(z) = z{sup α} and f(z) = (H − z){sup α}, where α is positive constant), trapezoidal, and circle. In general, the speed of propagation of the flows driven by suspensions decreases compared with those driven by a reduced gravity in homogeneous currents. However, the details depend on the geometry of the cross section. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged “box” model. The present approach is a significant generalization of the classical gravity current problem. The classical formulation for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model.

  16. Neutrino energy reconstruction and the shape of the charged current quasielastic-like total cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, J.; Sánchez, F.; Simo, I. Ruiz; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2012-06-01

    We show that because of the multinucleon mechanism effects, the algorithm used to reconstruct the neutrino energy is not adequate when dealing with quasielastic-like events, and a distortion of the total flux-unfolded cross-section shape is produced. This amounts to a redistribution of strength from high to low energies, which gives rise to a sizable excess (deficit) of low (high) energy neutrinos. This distortion of the shape leads to a good description of the MiniBooNE unfolded charged current quasielastic-like cross sections published by A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo [(MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 81, 092005 (2010)]10.1103/PhysRevD.81.092005. However, these changes in the shape are artifacts of the unfolding process that ignores multinucleon mechanisms.

  17. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. H. Bai, Lihui; Hu, C.-M.; Hemour, S.; Wu, K.; Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S.; Houssameddine, D.

    2015-03-15

    The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  18. A Measurement of the Neutrino Neutral Current Pi0 Cross Section at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Raaf, Jennifer Lynne

    2005-05-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino beam and detector at Fermilab are used to study the production of neutral current {pi}{sup 0} events. The cross sections for neutrino interactions with mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) are reported for resonantly produced and coherently produced single {pi}{sup 0} events. We measure a resonant single {pi}{sup 0} cross section of {sigma}({nu}{sub {mu}} N {pi}{sup 0}) = (0.0129 {+-} 0.0011(stat.) {+-} 0.0043(syst.)) x 10{sup -36} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at a mean neutrino energy of 1.26 GeV. We measure a coherent single {pi}{sup 0} cross section of {sigma}({nu}{sub {mu}} A {yields} {nu}{sub {mu}} A {pi}{sup 0}) = (0.00077 {+-} 0.00016 (stat.) {+-} 0.00036 (syst.)) x 10{sup -36} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at mean neutrino energy 1.12 GeV.

  19. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross section ratio for neutrino interactions on protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Belusevic, R.; Colley, D. C.; Jones, G. T.; O'Neale, S.; Sewell, S.; Votruba, M. F.; Bertrand, D.; Moreels, J.; Sacton, J.; Vander Velde-Wilquet, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Brisson, V.; Francois, T.; Petiau, P.; Cooper, A. M.; Guy, J. G.; Michette, A. G.; Tyndel, M.; Venus, W.; Baton, J. P.; Gerbier, G.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Alamatsaz, H.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Parker, M. A.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1983-03-01

    About 2000 neutral induced interactions observed inside the hydrogen filled TST in BEBC have been analysed. The data were obtained from an exposure to the vμ wide band beam at the CERN SPS. A separation of these events into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron induced interactions have been achieved using a multidimensional kinematic analysis. The neutral to charged current cross section ratio for vμ interactions on free protons has been determined avoiding the drastic cuts on the data inherent in previous experiments. The result RPv = 0.47 ± 0.04 is compatible with those measurements and the prediction of the standard SU (2) × U (1) model for sin 2θW = 0.18 ± 0.04.

  20. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross-section ratio for antineutrino interactions on protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreels, J.; Van Doninck, W.; Alamatsaz, H.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Belusevic, R.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Calicchio, M.; Colley, D. C.; Cooper, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-muciaccia, M. T.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J. G.; Jones, G. T.; Kochowski, C.; Michette, A. G.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Sewell, S.; Tyndel, M.; Vander Velde, G.; Venus, W.; Vortuba, M. F.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1984-04-01

    An exposure of BEBC equipped with the hydrogen-filled TST to the overlinevμ wide band beam at the CERN SPS has been used to study overlinevμ interactions on free protons. About neutral induced interactions have been observed inside the hydrogen and separated into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron interactions using a multivariate discriminant analysis based on the kinematics of the events. The neutral to charged current cross-section ratio has been determined to be R poverlinev = 0.33 ± 0.04 . When combined with the value of Rpv previously determined in the same experiment, the result is compatible with the prediction of the standard SU (2) × U (1) model for sin 2θW = 0.24 -0.08+0.06 and ρ = 1.07 -0.08+0.06. Fixing the parameter ρ = 1 yields sin 2θW = 0.18 ± 0.04.

  1. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  2. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubas, E. Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-07

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  3. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Loiacono, Laura Jean

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  4. Current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with a rectangular cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, J. H.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Hu, An; Ding, H. F.

    2011-11-01

    We performed micromagnetic simulations of the current-induced domain wall motion in permalloy nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the absence of the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, a threshold current, J{sub c} is required to drive the domain wall moving continuously. We find that J{sub c} is proportional to the maximum cross product of the demagnetization field and magnetization orientation of the domain wall and the domain wall width. With varying both the wire thickness and width, a minimum threshold current in the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} is obtained when the thickness is equivalent to the wire width. With the nonadiabatic spin-transfer term, the calculated domain wall velocity {nu} equals to the adiabatic spin transfer velocity u when the current is far above the Walker limit J{sub w}. Below J{sub w}, {nu}=({beta}/{alpha})u, where {beta} is the nonadiabatic parameter and {alpha} is the damping factor. For different {beta}, we find the Walker limit can be scaled as J{sub w}=({alpha}/{beta}-{alpha})J{sub c}. Our simulations agree well with the one dimensional analytical calculation, suggesting the findings are the general behaviors of the systems in this particular geometry.

  5. Using MiniBooNE neutral current elastic cross section results to constrain 3+1 sterile neutrino models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Thompson, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The MiniBooNE Neutral Current Elastic (NCEL) cross section results are used to extract limits in the Δ m 2 - sin2 ϑ μs plane for a 3+1 sterile neutrino model with a mass splitting 0 .1 ≤ Δ m 2 ≤ 10 .0 eV2. GENIE is used with a cross section model close to the one employed by MiniBooNE to make event rate predictions using simulations on the MiniBooNE target material CH2. The axial mass is a free parameter in all fits. Sterile modifications to the flux and changes to the cross section in the simulation relate the two and allow limits to be set on sterile neutrino mixing using cross section results. The large axial mass problem makes it necessary for experiments to perform their own axial mass fits, but a prior fit to the same dataset could mask a sterile oscillation signal if the sterile and cross section model parameters are not independent. We find that for the NCEL dataset there are significant correlations between the sterile and cross section model parameters, making a fit to both models simultaneously necessary to get robust results. Failure to do this results in stronger than warranted limits on the sterile parameters. The general problems that the current uncertainty on charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and NCEL cross sections at MiniBooNE energies pose for sterile neutrino measurements are discussed.

  6. Measurement of differential cross sections for single neutral pion produced by charged-current interactions in MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Minerva Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment which uses the intense neutrino beam from the NuMI beam line at FNAL. The detector employs high spatial resolution, is fully active, and designed to study interactions of neutrinos using different nuclei. We present the differential cross sections for single neutral pion produced by charged-current interactions of anti-neutrinos in plastic scintillator. We also compare the differential cross sections to predictions by the GENIE event generator.

  7. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training. PMID:26491789

  8. Neutral Current Neutrino-{sup 116}Cd Reaction Cross Sections at Low and Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Balasi, K. G.; Kosmas, T. S.; Divari, P. C.; Chasioti, V. C.

    2008-01-24

    Differential and integrated cross sections for inelastic scattering of electron neutrinos from a {sup 116}Cd target at low and intermediate neutrino energies ({epsilon}{sub i}{<=}100 MeV) are presented. The nuclear wave functions for the initial and final nuclear states are constructed in the context of quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). By exploiting the results of these cross sections, we study the response of {sup 116}Cd to supernova neutrino spectra by utilizing the folding procedure and employing a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution for the supernova neutrino spectra. Our results show that, this isotope may play a significant role in supernova neutrino detection, in addition to its use in double-beta-decay experiments (COBRA, etc)

  9. Measurement of neutrino induced charged current neutral pion production cross section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. It collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon around 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this thesis we present the results on the measurement of the muon neutrino cross section resulting in a μ- plus a single π0 final state (CC- π0 channel). The present work will show the steps taken to achieve this result: from the reconstruction improvements to the background extraction. The flux-averaged CC - π0 production cross section measurement obtained in this thesis < σCC- π0 > Φ = (5.6 ± 1.9fit ± 0.7beam ± 0.5int - 0.7det) × 10-40 cm2/N at an average energy of 0.89 GeV is found to agree well both with the expectation from the Monte Ca

  10. Measurement of the Inclusive Electron Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section on Carbon with the T2K Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ˜1 GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged νe charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ ⟩ϕ =1.11 ±0.10 (stat)±0.18 (syst)×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon . The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23 ×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08 ×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon . The total νe charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment.

  11. Measurement of the inclusive electron neutrino charged current cross section on carbon with the T2K near detector.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-12-12

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ∼1  GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged ν(e) charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ⟩(ϕ)=1.11±0.10(stat)±0.18(syst)×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The total ν(e) charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment. PMID:25541766

  12. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the superscaling model including quasielastic, pion production and meson-exchange contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Megias, G. D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Moreno, O.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-08-01

    Charged current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections are evaluated using the superscaling model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region. The contribution of two-particle-two-hole vector meson-exchange current excitations is also considered within a fully relativistic model tested against electron scattering data. The results are compared with the inclusive neutrino-nucleus data from the T2K and SciBooNE experiments. For experiments where < {E}ν > ∼ 0.8 {{GeV}}, the three mechanisms considered in this work provide good agreement with the data. However, when the neutrino energy is larger, effects from beyond the Δ also appear to be playing a role. The results show that processes induced by vector two-body currents play a minor role in the inclusive cross sections at the kinematics considered.

  13. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of several current helicopter tail boom cross sections including the effect of spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Kelley, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics were determined of three cylindrical shapes representative of tail boom cross sections of the U.S. Army AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1H helicopters. Forces and pressures were measured in a wind-tunnel investigation at the Langley Research Center. Data were obtained for a flow incidence range from -45 to 90 deg and a dynamic pressure range from 1.5 to 50 psf. These ranges provided data representative of full-scale Reynolds numbers and the full range of flow incidence to which these helicopter tail boom shapes would be subjected at low flight speeds. The effects of protuberances such as tail rotor drive-shaft covers and spoilers were evaluated. The data indicate that significant side loads on tail booms of helicopters can be generated and that the addition of spoilers can beneficially alter the side loads. Although an increase in vertical drag occurs, the net effect through reduction of tail rotor thrust required can be an improvement in helicopter performance.

  15. Measurement of the ratio of total and differential cross sections on neutrons and protons for charged-current neutrino events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Belusevic, R.; Colley, D. C.; Jones, G. T.; O'Neale, S.; Sewell, S. J.; Votruba, M. F.; Bertrand, D.; Moreels, J.; Sacton, J.; Vander Velde-Wilquet, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Wilquet, G.; Brisson, V.; Francois, T.; Petiau, P.; Cooper, A. M.; Guy, J. G.; Michette, A. G.; Tyndel, M.; Venus, W.; Alitti, J.; Baton, J. P.; Gerbier, G.; Iori, M.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Bullock, F. W.; Davis, D. H.; Jones, T. W.; Parker, M. A.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1981-06-01

    Charged-current neutrino interactions have been analysed in a sample of pictures from BEBC equipped with a TST. Using a method independent of both the neutrino flux and nuclear interaction corrections, the ratio R= σn/ σp has been measured. The result is R=1.98±0.19 for the ratio of total cross sections. Bjorken x distributions for proton and neutron targets and for u and d quarks are compared.

  16. Measurement of the nu(mu) Charged Current pi+ Production to Quasi-elastic Scattering Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    Using high statistics samples of charged current interactions, MiniBooNE reports a model independent measurement of the single charged pion production to quasi-elastic cross section ratio on mineral oil without corrections for pion re-interactions in the target nucleus [1]. The result is provided as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E < 2.4 GeV with 11% precision in the region of highest statistics.

  17. Measurement of Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Charged Pion Production Cross Sections on Mineral Oil at E$_{\

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Alabama U.

    2010-11-01

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single {pi}{sup 0} production on CH{sub 2} induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC {pi}{sup 0} events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of {pi}{sup 0} momentum and {pi}{sup 0} angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76 {+-} 0.05{sub stat} {+-} 0.76{sub sys}) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of E{sub {nu}} = 808 MeV and (1.48 {+-} 0.05{sub stat} {+-} 0.23{sub sys}) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of E{sub {nu}} = 664 MeV for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} induced production, respectively. In addition, we have included measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total cross sections for incoherent exclusive NC 1{pi}{sup 0} production corrected for the effects of final state interactions to compare to prior results.

  18. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  19. A measurement of the neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, David Christopher

    2008-02-01

    The neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic interaction v N → v N is a fundamental process of the weak interaction ideally suited for characterizing the structure of the nucleon neutral weak current. This process comprises ~18% of neutrino events in the neutrino oscillation experiment, MiniBooNE, ranking it as the experiment's third largest process. Using ~10% of MiniBooNE's available neutrino data, a sample of these events were identified and analyzed to determine the differential cross section as a function of the momentum transfer of the interaction, Q2. This is the first measurement of a differential cross section with MiniBooNE data. From this analysis, a value for the nucleon axial mass MA was extracted to be 1.34 ± 0.25 GeV consistent with previous measurements. The integrated cross section for the Q2 range 0.189 → 1.13 GeV2 was calculated to be (8.8 ± 0.6(stat) ± 0.2(syst)) x 10-40 cm2.

  20. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE

  1. Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleon Neutral-Current Elastic Scattering Cross-section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Hideyuki; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.

    2009-02-01

    In this thesis, results of neutrino-nucleon neutral current (NC) elastic scattering analysis are presented. Neutrinos interact with other particles only with weak force. Measurement of cross-section for neutrino-nucleon reactions at various neutrino energy are important for the study of nucleon structure. It also provides data to be used for beam flux monitor in neutrino oscillation experiments. The cross-section for neutrino-nucleon NC elastic scattering contains the axial vector form factor G{sub A}(Q{sup 2}) as well as electromagnetic form factors unlike electromagnetic interaction. G{sub A} is propotional to strange part of nucleon spin ({Delta}s) in Q{sup 2} {yields} 0 limit. Measurement of NC elastic cross-section with smaller Q{sup 2} enables us to access {Delta}s. NC elastic cross-sections of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon were measured earlier by E734 experiment at Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1987. In this experiment, cross-sections were measured in Q{sup 2} > 0.4 GeV{sup 2} region. Result from this experiment was the only published data for NC elastic scattering cross-section published before our experiment. SciBooNE is an experiment for the measurement of neutrino-nucleon scattering cross-secitons using Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at FNAL. BNB has energy peak at 0.7 GeV. In this energy region, NC elastic scattering, charged current elastic scattering, charged current pion production, and neutral current pion production are the major reaction branches. SciBar, electromagnetic calorimeter, and Muon Range Detector are the detectors for SciBooNE. The SciBar consists of finely segmented scintillators and 14336 channels of PMTs. It has a capability to reconstruct particle track longer than 8 cm and separate proton from muons and pions using energy deposit information. Signal of NC elastic scattering is a single proton track. In {nu}p {yields} {nu}p process, the recoil proton is detected. On the other hand, most of {nu}n {yields} {nu

  2. Optimization and control of the plasma shape and current profile in noncircular cross-section tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.W.; Bernard, L.C.; Chan, V.S.; Davidson, R.H.; Dobrott, D.R.; Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.; Pfeiffer, W.; Waltz, R.E.; Wang, T.S.

    1980-06-01

    High-..beta.. equilibria which are stable to all ideal MHD modes are found by optimizing the plasma shape and current profile for doublets, up-down asymmetric dees, and symmetric dees. The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria for low toroidal mode number n is analyzed with a global MHD stability code, GATO. The stability to high-n modes is analyzed with a localized ballooning code, BLOON. The attainment of high ..beta.. is facilitated by an automated optimization search on shape and current parameters. The equilibria are calculated with a free-boundary equilibrium code using coils appropriate for the Doublet III experimental device. The optimal equilibria are characterized by broad current profiles with values of ..beta../sub poloidal/ approx. =1. Experimental realization of the shapes and current profiles giving the highest ..beta.. limits is explored with a 1 1/2-D transport code, which simulates the time evolution of the 2-D MHD equilibrium while calculating consistent current profiles from a 1-D transport model. Transport simulations indicate that nearly optimal shapes may be obtained provided that the currents in the field-shaping coils are appropriately programmed and the plasma current profile is sufficiently broad. Obtaining broad current profiles is possible by current ramping, neutral beam heating, and electron cyclotron heating. With combinations of these techniques it is possible to approach the optimum ..beta.. predicted by the MHD theory.

  3. Measurement of high- Q2 charged current cross sections in e-p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekanov, S.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Crittenden, J.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Kerger, R.; Kind, O.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Schnurbusch, H.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K. C.; Weber, A.; Bailey, D. S.; Brook, N. H.; Cole, J. E.; Foster, B.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Robins, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R. J.; Wing, M.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Lim, I. T.; Pac, M. Y.; Caldwell, A.; Helbich, M.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Paganis, S.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Przybycień, M. B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A. M.; Kowal, M.; Kowalski, T.; Mindur, B.; Przybycień, M.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Kotański, A.; Słomiński, W.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Derrick, M.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Fox-Murphy, A.; Fricke, U.; Geiser, A.; Goebel, F.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutsche, O.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G. F.; Hillert, S.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labes, H.; Lelas, D.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Martínez, M.; Moritz, M.; Notz, D.; Pellmann, I.-A.; Petrucci, M. C.; Polini, A.; Raval, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Surrow, B.; Wessoleck, H.; Wichmann, R.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Raach, H.; Bell, M.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Glasman, C.; Hanlon, S.; Lee, S. W.; Lupi, A.; McCance, G. J.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Bodmann, B.; Carli, T.; Holm, U.; Klimek, K.; Krumnack, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Salehi, H.; Stonjek, S.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Gonçalo, R.; Long, K. R.; Metlica, F.; Miller, D. B.; Tapper, A. D.; Walker, R.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Kuze, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Barreiro, F.; González, O.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Redondo, I.; Terrón, J.; Vázquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Bertolin, A.; Corriveau, F.; Ochs, A.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D. G.; St-Laurent, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Bashkirov, V.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Vlasov, N. N.; Zotkin, S. A.; Bokel, C.; Engelen, J.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Pellegrino, A.; Schagen, S.; Tassi, E.; Tiecke, H.; Tuning, N.; Velthuis, J. J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Kim, C. L.; Ling, T. Y.; Boogert, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Grzelak, G.; Matsushita, T.; Rigby, M.; Ruske, O.; Sutton, M. R.; Walczak, R.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Parenti, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Heaphy, E. A.; Oh, B. Y.; Saull, P. R. B.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Heusch, C.; Park, I. H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Dagan, S.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kohno, T.; Umemori, K.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Maselli, S.; Monaco, V.; Peroni, C.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Galea, R.; Koop, T.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Mirea, A.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T. W.; Lane, J. B.; Lightwood, M. S.; Loizides, J. H.; West, B. J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Smalska, B.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Gladilin, L. K.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Kçira, D.; Lammers, S.; Li, L.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Hughes, V. W.; Straub, P. B.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Fourletov, S.; Menary, S.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

    2002-07-01

    Cross sections for e-p charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 16.4 pb -1 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Differential cross sections dσ/ dQ2, dσ/ dx and dσ/ dy are presented for Q2>200 GeV 2. In addition, d 2σ/(dx dQ 2) was measured in the kinematic range 280 GeV2cross sections. The mass of the W boson, determined from a fit to dσ/ dQ2, is MW=80.3±2.1(stat.)±1.2(syst.)±1.0(PDF) GeV.

  4. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged-Current Inclusive Cross Sections with the MINERvA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are a nearly massless, neutral particle in the Standard Model that only interact via the weak interaction. Experimental confirmation of neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino created as a particular type (electron, muon or tau) can be observed as a different type after propagating some distance, earned the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments rely on accurate measurements of neutrino interactions with matter, such as that presented here. Neutrinos also provide a unique probe of the nucleus, complementary to electron scattering experiments. This thesis presents a measurement of the charged-current inclusive cross section for muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the energy range 2 to 50 GeV with the MINERvA detector. MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab, near Chicago. A cross section measures the probability of an interaction occurring, measured here as a function of neutrino energy. To extract a cross section from data, the observed rate of interactions is corrected for detector efficiency and divided by the number of scattering nucleons in the target and the flux of neutrinos in the beam. The neutrino flux is determined with the low-$\

  5. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  6. Measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current interaction cross section by observing nuclear deexcitation γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini Aguirre, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.

    2014-10-01

    We report the first measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic (NCQE) cross section. It is obtained by observing nuclear deexcitation γ rays which follow neutrino-oxygen interactions at the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector. We use T2K data corresponding to 3.01 ×1 020 protons on target. By selecting only events during the T2K beam window and with well-reconstructed vertices in the fiducial volume, the large background rate from natural radioactivity is dramatically reduced. We observe 43 events in the 4-30 MeV reconstructed energy window, compared with an expectation of 51.0, which includes an estimated 16.2 background events. The background is primarily nonquasielastic neutral-current interactions and has only 1.2 events from natural radioactivity. The flux-averaged NCQE cross section we measure is 1.55 ×1 0-38 cm2 with a 68% confidence interval of (1.22 ,2.20 )×1 0-38 cm2 at a median neutrino energy of 630 MeV, compared with the theoretical prediction of 2.01 ×1 0-38 cm2 .

  7. Extrauterine Pelvic Serous Carcinomas: Current Update on Pathology and Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Amanullah, Farhan S; Menias, Christine O; Chen, Melissa M; Valente, Philip T; Chintapalli, Kedar N; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas includes ovarian serous carcinoma, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, and primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasm, consists of two distinct entities: high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and primary fallopian tube carcinoma are rare malignancies that share many characteristics of high-grade serous carcinomas. Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of gynecologic cancers have suggested a common origin of many extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas from fallopian tube epithelium. With the exception of low-grade serous carcinomas, which arise from cortical inclusion cysts lined by tubal epithelium, most extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas are believed to originate from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and show similar clinical-biologic behaviors and natural histories. Indeed, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Committee on Gynecologic Oncology recently recognized that these cancers should be considered collectively, with a common system of staging and management strategies for ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers. A paradigm shift has occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of extrauterine pelvic serous carcinomas that has the potential to change current strategies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and management. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and combined positron emission tomography and CT are pivotal in screening, initial diagnosis, and treatment follow-up; however, because of this paradigm shift, new radiologic techniques, such as contrast material-enhanced US and molecular US imaging, and various optical imaging techniques are being investigated as important screening and diagnostic tools. Because of evolving knowledge of genetic and molecular changes underlying the

  8. Gravity currents produced by constant and time varying inflow in a circular cross-section channel: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Ungarish, M.; Di Federico, V.; Chiapponi, L.; Addona, F.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate high-Reynolds number gravity currents (GC) in a horizontal channel of circular cross-section. We focus on GC sustained by constant or time varying inflow (volume of injected fluid ∝ tα, with α = 1 and α > 1). The novelty of our work is in the type of the gravity currents: produced by influx/outflux boundary conditions, and propagation in circular (or semi-circular) channel. The objective is to elucidate the main propagation features and correlate them to the governing dimensionless parameters; to this end, we use experimental observations guided by shallow-water (SW) theoretical models. The system is of Boussinesq type with the denser fluid (salt water) injected into the ambient fluid (tap water) at one end section of a circular tube of 19 cm diameter and 605 cm long. The ambient fluid fills the channel of radius r* up to a given height H* = βr* (0 < β < 2) where it is open to the atmosphere. This fluid is displaced by the intruding current and outflows either at the same or at the opposite end-side of the channel. The two different configurations (with return and no-return flow) allow to analyze the impact of the motion of the ambient fluid on the front speed of the intruding current. For Q larger than some threshold value, the current is expected theoretically to undergo a choking process which limits the speed/thickness of propagation. Two series of experiments were conducted with constant and time varying inflow. The choking effect was observed, qualitatively, in both series. The theory correctly predicts the qualitative behavior, but systematically overestimates the front speed of the current (consistent with previously-published data concerning rectangular and non-rectangular cross-sections), with larger discrepancies for the no-return flow case. These discrepancies are mainly due to: (i) the variations of the free-surface of the ambient fluid with respect to its nominal value (the theoretical model assumes a fixed free-slip top of the

  9. Measuring the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section on Water using the Near Detector of T2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rajarshi

    2012-10-01

    The Near Detector of the T2K Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment comprises of several sub-detectors working together to study neutrino interactions. The neutrinos are provided by a powerful off-axis, accelerator generated neutrino beam located at the J-PARC facility in Tokai, Japan. The first sub-detector in the path of travelling neutrinos, the Pi-Zero Detector (P0D), is made of layers of scintillating plastic, lead, brass and bags of water. The next sub-detector, the Tracker, consists of alternating Time Projection Chambers (TPC) and Fine Grained scintillator Detectors (FGD). We outline the procedure for extracting a muon neutrino charged current cross section on water-only by selecting muons originating in the P0D and travelling through the Tracker. We compare data collected while the P0D water bags are filled with water against data from P0D water bags filled with air. A detailed detector simulation utilizing NEUT and GENIE neutrino interaction generators is used in conjunction with a Bayesian Unfolding scheme to correct for detector effects in the data. The end result is a model-independent double differential neutrino cross section as a function of muon momentum and direction.

  10. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  11. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  12. Total neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross section measurements in 100, 160, and 200 GeV narrow band beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, P.; Blondel, A.; Böckmann, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Dydak, F.; de Groot, J. G. H.; Grant, A. L.; Hagelberg, R.; Hughes, E. W.; Krasny, M.; Meyer, H. J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wahl, H.; Williams, R. W.; Wotschack, J.; Wysłouch, B.; Blümer, H.; Brummel, H. D.; Buchholz, P.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Kampschulte, B.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Müller, E.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Belusević, R.; Falkenburg, B.; Fiedler, M.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Keilwerth, H.; Kurz, N.; Tittel, K.; Debu, P.; Guyot, C.; Merlo, J. P.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Schuller, J. P.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Abramowicz, H.; Królikowski, J.; Lipniacka, A.

    1987-12-01

    Neutrino and antineutrino total charged current cross sections on iron were measured in the 100, 160, and 200 GeV narrow band beams at the CERN SPS in the energy range 10 to 200 GeV. Assuming σ/ E to be constant, the values corrected for non-isoscalarity are σv/E = (0.686 ± 0.019) * 10-38 cm2/ (GeV · nucleon) and σv/E = (0.339 ± 0.010) * 10-38 cm2/ (GeV·nucleon). Between 50 and 150 GeV no energy dependence of σ/ E was observed within ±3% for neutrino and ±4% for antineutrino interactions.

  13. The correlated and shared gamma frailty model for bivariate current status data: an illustration for cross-sectional serological data.

    PubMed

    Hens, N; Wienke, A; Aerts, M; Molenberghs, G

    2009-09-30

    Frailty models are often used to study the individual heterogeneity in multivariate survival analysis. Whereas the shared frailty model is widely applied, the correlated frailty model has gained attention because it elevates the restriction of unobserved factors to act similar within clusters. Estimating frailty models is not straightforward due to various types of censoring. In this paper, we study the behavior of the bivariate-correlated gamma frailty model for type I interval-censored data, better known as current status data. We show that applying a shared rather than a correlated frailty model to cross-sectionally collected serological data on hepatitis A and B leads to biased estimates for the baseline hazard and variance parameters. PMID:19591117

  14. Current views and practice of faculty members and consultants regarding ‘Publications in India’: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Ramaswamy, Ashwini Halebid; Lokare, Laxmikant; Sutagatti, Jagadish G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: There is an increasing enthusiasm and pressure to submit scientific articles to journals for publication due to official policies. This has led to increased stress on authors and editors and in issues like plagiarism. We planned a cross-sectional study with an aim to explore the current publication related views and practice of faculty members and consultants. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire based prospective survey with 22 questions divided into parts. Print and electronic versions were sent to around 18,270 members in total, a majority of whom were anaesthesiologists and 600 members responded to our questionnaire. A database was created and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: About 80% felt that online journals were better read than print journals. Eighty eight percent agreed that publications improve academic skills. The Medical Council of India requirements to publish in reputed journals were cited as the main reasons for plagiarism. The publication rule had become a burden for 46% respondents. Review articles were most likely to be read though clinical investigations were considered to be of maximum academic significance. Review/publishing time followed by author requirements and journal indexing were the points our respondents liked to see most when choosing a journal for article submission. Conclusion: Our survey results depict the current author related views and trends in publication practice which may guide in evidence-based policy making. PMID:26903673

  15. Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Eν˜1GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; van de Water, R.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of νμ-induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CH2), MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross sections for this process. This includes measurements of the CCπ+ cross section as a function of neutrino energy, as well as flux-averaged single- and double-differential cross sections of the energy and direction of both the final-state muon and pion. In addition, each of the single-differential cross sections are extracted as a function of neutrino energy to decouple the shape of the MiniBooNE energy spectrum from the results. In many cases, these cross sections are the first time such quantities have been measured on a nuclear target and in the 1 GeV energy range.

  16. Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}1} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T.

    2011-03-01

    Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CH{sub 2}), MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross sections for this process. This includes measurements of the CC{pi}{sup +} cross section as a function of neutrino energy, as well as flux-averaged single- and double-differential cross sections of the energy and direction of both the final-state muon and pion. In addition, each of the single-differential cross sections are extracted as a function of neutrino energy to decouple the shape of the MiniBooNE energy spectrum from the results. In many cases, these cross sections are the first time such quantities have been measured on a nuclear target and in the 1 GeV energy range.

  17. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    We report herein the first-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering at the GeV scale, which was made using the MINERnuA detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE differential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: final-state electron angle, final-state electron energy, and the square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino, Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE event generator, we also report on an unpredicted photon-like process we observe in a similar kinematic regime. The absence of this process from models for neutrino interactions is a potential stumbling block for future on-axis neutrino oscillation experiments. We include kinematic and particle species identification characterizations which can be used in building models to help address this shortcoming.

  18. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  19. Calculation of the cross section for the d(e,e') reaction near the threshold with inclusion of meson exchange currents

    SciTech Connect

    Korchin, A.Y.; Shebeko, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of the cross section near the deuteron electrodisintegration threshold on the choice of the model for the NN interaction and for the form factors entering into the meson exchange current operator is studied. The results of the calculations are compared with new experimental data in a broad momentum-transfer range.

  20. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  1. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  2. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  3. Measurements of the Total Charge-Changing Cross Sections for Collisions of Fast Ions with Target Gas Using High Current Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Molvik, Arthur W.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shnidman, Ariel; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2009-04-13

    The sum of ionization and charge-exchange cross sections of several gas targets (H2, N2, He, Ne, Kr, Xe, Ar, and water vapor) impacted by 1MeV K+ beam are measured. In a high current ion beam, the self-electric field of the beam is high enough that ions produced from the gas ionization or charge exchange by the ion beam are quickly swept to the sides of accelerator. The flux of the expelled ions is measured by a retarding field analyzer. This allows accurate measuring of the total charge-changing cross sections (ionization plus charge exchange) of the beam interaction with gas. Cross sections for H2, He, and N2 are simulated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement.

  4. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  5. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  6. Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at Eν˜1GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2010-11-01

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH2) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q2. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50 MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form factors apart from an axial mass MA that provides a best fit for MA=1.39±0.11GeV. Using the data from the charged-current neutrino interaction sample, a ratio of neutral-current to charged-current quasielastic cross sections as a function of Q2 has been measured. Additionally, single protons with kinetic energies above 350 MeV can be distinguished from neutrons and multiple nucleon events. Using this marker, the strange quark contribution to the neutral-current axial vector form factor at Q2=0, Δs, is found to be Δs=0.08±0.26.

  7. Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}1} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Cao, J.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.

    2010-11-01

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q{sup 2}. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50 MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form factors apart from an axial mass M{sub A} that provides a best fit for M{sub A}=1.39{+-}0.11 GeV. Using the data from the charged-current neutrino interaction sample, a ratio of neutral-current to charged-current quasielastic cross sections as a function of Q{sup 2} has been measured. Additionally, single protons with kinetic energies above 350 MeV can be distinguished from neutrons and multiple nucleon events. Using this marker, the strange quark contribution to the neutral-current axial vector form factor at Q{sup 2}=0, {Delta}s, is found to be {Delta}s=0.08{+-}0.26.

  8. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  9. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  10. Measurement of the νμ charged current quasielastic cross section on carbon with the T2K on-axis neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Ferchichi, C.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We report a measurement of the νμ charged current quasielastic cross-sections on carbon in the T2K on-axis neutrino beam. The measured charged current quasielastic cross-sections on carbon at mean neutrino energies of 1.94 GeV and 0.93 GeV are (11.95 ±0.19 (stat)-1.47+1.82(syst))×1 0-39 cm2/neutron , and (10.64 ±0.37 (stat)-1.65+2.03(syst))×1 0-39 cm2/neutron , respectively. These results agree well with the predictions of neutrino interaction models. In addition, we investigated the effects of the nuclear model and the multi-nucleon interaction.

  11. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  12. Measurement of Ratios of νμ Charged-Current Cross Sections on C, Fe, and Pb to CH at Neutrino Energies 2-20 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, B. G.; Datta, M.; Mousseau, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Barrios Sazo, M. G.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Bustamante, M. J.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kordosky, M.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martin Mari, C.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Savage, D. G.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.; Minerva Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of νμ charged-current cross section ratios on carbon, iron, and lead relative to a scintillator (CH) using the fine-grained MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. The measurements utilize events of energies 2cross sections as a function of neutrino energy Eν and flux-integrated differential cross sections with respect to the Bjorken scaling variable x. These results provide the first high-statistics direct measurements of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering using different targets in the same neutrino beam. Measured cross section ratios exhibit a relative depletion at low x and enhancement at large x. Both become more pronounced as the nucleon number of the target nucleus increases. The data are not reproduced by GENIE, a conventional neutrino-nucleus scattering simulation, or by the alternative models for the nuclear dependence of inelastic scattering that are considered.

  13. A Cross-sectional Study of Current Doctors’ Performance in a Modified Version of a Medical School Admission Aptitude Test

    PubMed Central

    Blackmur, James P.; Lone, Nazir I.; Stone, Oliver D.; Webb, David J.; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2-hour long United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom as part of their selection process for undergraduate medical and dentistry degrees. We aimed to compare the performance of senior doctors in primary and secondary care and across a range of specialties, in a modified version of the medical school entrance examination—the mUKCAT. Lay people were also included in the study. Despite its widespread use, this is the first study that examines the performance of senior clinicians in the UKCAT. The study used a prospective cross-sectional design. It used mock questions from the UKCAT website to generate an mUKCAT that was anticipated to take 15 minutes to complete. In all, 167 doctors at consultant, general practitioner (GP), or specialty trainee grade and 26 lay people took part. The overall mean mUKCAT score of all participants was 2486 (69.1%). Of the total cohort, 126 (65.3%) scored above our designated threshold of 2368 and were deemed to have passed the mUKCAT. Excluding lay people, 113 (67.7%) of the 167 doctors scored above that threshold. Medical specialty was associated with overall score (P = 0.003), with anesthetists/intensive care physicians scoring highest (n = 20, mean score 2660) and GPs scoring lowest (n = 38, mean score 2302). Academics outperformed nonacademics (mean score of academics, n = 44 vs nonacademics, n = 123: 2750 vs 2406; P < 0.001). Those clinicians in senior management positions scored lower than those in “standard” roles (mean score of senior management, n = 31 vs standard roles, n = 136: 2332 vs 2534, mean difference 202, 95% confidence interval 67–337, P = 0.004). In the situational judgement section, there was no evidence that specialty was associated with score (P = 0.15). Academics exhibited greater situational judgement than their nonacademic colleagues (academics vs nonacademics: 69.8 vs 63.6%; P = 0.01). The

  14. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  15. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  16. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  17. Measurement of the inclusive νμ charged current cross section on iron and hydrocarbon in the T2K on-axis neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We report a measurement of the νμ inclusive charged current cross sections on iron and hydrocarbon in the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) on-axis neutrino beam. The measured inclusive charged current cross sections on iron and hydrocarbon averaged over the T2K on-axis flux with a mean neutrino energy of 1.51 GeV are (1.444±0.002(stat)-0.157+0.189(syst))×10-38 cm2/nucleon and (1.379±0.009(stat)-0.147+0.178(syst))×10-38 cm2/nucleon, respectively, and their cross-section ratio is 1.047±0.007(stat)±0.035(syst). These results agree well with the predictions of the neutrino interaction model, and thus we checked the correct treatment of the nuclear effect for iron and hydrocarbon targets in the model within the measurement precisions.

  18. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  19. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  20. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  1. Measurement of the νμ charged-current quasielastic cross section on carbon with the ND280 detector at T2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J. D.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Stewart, T.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a measurement by the T2K experiment of the νμ charged current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on a carbon target with the off-axis detector based on the observed distribution of muon momentum (pμ) and angle with respect to the incident neutrino beam (θμ). The flux-integrated CCQE cross section was measured to be ⟨σ ⟩=(0.83 ±0.12 )×10-38 cm2 . The energy dependence of the CCQE cross section is also reported. The axial mass, MAQE, of the dipole axial form factor was extracted assuming the Smith-Moniz CCQE model with a relativistic Fermi gas nuclear model. Using the absolute (shape-only) pμ-cos θμ distribution, the effective MAQE parameter was measured to be 1.2 6-0.18+0.21 GeV /c2 (1.4 3-0.22+0.28 GeV /c2 ).

  2. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  3. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  4. DRUG RISK: A CROSS-SECTIONAL EXPLORATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY-OF-ORIGIN AND CURRENT SITUATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES1

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Molly; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate potential predictors of drug risk among a community-based sample of individuals who are exposed to illicit drugs. The four domains of interest are individual socio-demographic and social-psychological attributes, current situational circumstances and family-of-origin characteristics. Interviews were conducted with 242 individuals who were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia. Initial descriptive analyses were followed by multivariate analyses. The final model predicted 60% of the variance in drug risk. Current situational circumstances were statistically significant regarding drug risk. Family-of-origin characteristics also were significant, even when entered into the predictive model after current situational circumstances. In addition to individual social-psychological characteristics such as depression and self-esteem, the impact of childhood emotional abuse is noted. The findings indicate a need for considering proximal as well as more distal influences on drug risk behavior when designing drug use prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24039278

  5. Measurement of the inclusive νμ charged current cross section on carbon in the near detector of the T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Abgrall, N.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Beznosko, D.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Boyd, S.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Brook-Roberge, D. G.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dobson, J.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziomba, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jung, C. K.; Kaboth, A.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khanam, F.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, S. B.; Kirby, B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kowalik, K.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laing, A.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; McLachlan, T.; Messina, M.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nicholls, T. C.; Nielsen, C.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Obayashi, Y.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wang, J.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2013-05-01

    T2K has performed the first measurement of νμ inclusive charged current interactions on carbon at neutrino energies of ˜1GeV where the measurement is reported as a flux-averaged double differential cross section in muon momentum and angle. The flux is predicted by the beam Monte Carlo and external data, including the results from the NA61/SHINE experiment. The data used for this measurement were taken in 2010 and 2011, with a total of 10.8×1019 protons-on-target. The analysis is performed on 4485 inclusive charged current interaction candidates selected in the most upstream fine-grained scintillator detector of the near detector. The flux-averaged total cross section is ⟨σCC⟩ϕ=(6.91±0.13(stat)±0.84(syst))×10-39(cm2)/(nucleon) for a mean neutrino energy of 0.85 GeV.

  6. Relative Cross Section Measurement of the Inclusive Charged Current Multiple Pion Production to Inclusive Charged Current from nu mu at the Near Detector of the T2K Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott

    The Tokai-to-Kamiokande (T2K) experiment is an off-axis, long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based in Japan. One of the largest sources of systematic uncertainty in the oscillation analysis is the uncertainty on neutrino cross sections. In this thesis, we use the pi0 detector (POD) of the T2K Near Detector to measure one cross section of muon neutrinos. The POD is a scintillator based detector with a precision water target which allows for a measurement with water and without water. In particular, we measured the relative cross section of charged current multiple pion production to inclusive charged current production. The analysis is performed with a multi-variate template fit using two Monte Carlo neutrino generators, NEUT and GENIE. The relative ratio for NEUT(GENIE) is 0.126 +/- 0.024 +0.022-0.021(0.100 +/- 0.018+0.018 -0.017) for the Water-In configuration and 0.104 +/- 0.029 +0.030-0.035(0.121 +/- 0.021+0.034 -0.036) for the Water-Out configuration. The prospects for a precision water cross section measurement are also discussed.

  7. Spin waves in a ferromagnetic nanotube of an elliptic cross-section in the presence of a spin-polarized current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorobets, Yuri I.; Kulish, Volodymyr V.

    2015-09-01

    In the paper, spin waves in a ferromagnetic nanotube of an elliptic cross-section in the presence of a spinpolarized electric current are investigated. The linearized Landau-Lifshitz equation in themagnetostatic approximation is used, with the exchange interaction, the dipoledipolemagnetic interaction, the anisotropy effects and the dissipation effects taken into account; the influence of the spin-polarized current is considered by the Slonczewski- Berger term. After elimination of the magnetization density perturbation, an equation for the magnetic potential for the above-described spin excitations is obtained. From this equation, a dispersion relation for spin waves in the nanosystem described previously is obtained. Analysis of the dispersion relation shows that the presence of the spinpolarized current can strengthen or weaken the dissipation, creating an "effective dissipation"; the effect is analogous to the "effective dissipation" in a two-layer ferromagnetic film in the presence of a spin-polarized current. Depending on the direction and the density of the current the spinwave can decay faster or slower than in the absence of the current, transform into a self-sustained wave or grow in amplitude, thus leading to a spin wave generation.

  8. Current status of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a general hospital in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, Chika; Yamada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Gotoda, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been debate over the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in recent years in Japan. In addition, the level of satisfaction of patients and patient’s family after PEG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of PEG and the level of satisfaction of patients and patients’ families after PEG in Japan. Methods: We reviewed the existing data of all patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Yuri Kumiai General Hospital (Akita, Japan) between February 2000 and December 2010. We examined the following points: underlying diseases requiring PEG, levels of consciousness, and performance status. We also sent a questionnaire to the patients and patient’s families to ask about their satisfaction with and thoughts about PEG. Results: The data of 545 patients who underwent PEG were reviewed. There were 295 men and 250 women, with a mean age of 77.2 ± 11.4 years. PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular disorders (48.2%, 239/545). There were 515 (94.4%, 515/545) patients showing consciousness disturbance and 444 (81.5%, 444/545) bedridden patients. The questionnaire was answered by one patient himself and 316 patients’ families. When asked, “Was performing PEG a good decision?”, 57.5% (182/316) of the patients’ families answered yes. Meanwhile, when patients’ family members were asked if they would wish to undergo PEG if they were in the same condition as the patient, 28.4% (90/316) answered yes, whereas 55.3% (175/316) answered no. Conclusions: Few patients were able to make their own decision about PEG tube placement because of consciousness disturbance. As a result, many family members of the patients did not want to experience PEG for themselves. Future studies should be performed to clarify the quality of life and ethical aspects associated with PEG. PMID:27313796

  9. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  10. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  11. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  12. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  13. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  14. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  15. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  17. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  18. Numerical simulation of cross section electron-beam induced current in thin-film solar-cells for low and high injection conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichterwitz, Melanie; Unold, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Electron-beam induced current measurements (EBIC) in the cross-section configuration can be used to characterize electronic properties of thin-film solar-cells with a spatial resolution in the submicrometer range. Assuming low injection conditions and complete charge carrier collection in the depletion region, the minority charge-carrier diffusion length and width of the space charge region can be extracted from EBIC data using an analytical expression. In the present work, we evaluate the validity of the assumptions underlying the analytical description by using numerical device simulation to describe EBIC profiles perpendicular to the pn-junction of thin-film solar cells. We find that under low injection conditions, the analytical description provides good results if the minority charge-carrier diffusion length in the absorber layer is significantly larger than the width of the space charge region. On the other hand, the analytical description of the EBIC profiles deviates significantly from the numerical simulation for short diffusion lengths and also for high injection conditions. Experimental EBIC profiles of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells are evaluated to obtain local minority carrier diffusion-lengths and to illustrate high-injection and low-injection effects in the measurements.

  19. Perceived current needs, psychological distress and functional impairment in a war-affected setting: a cross-sectional study in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ayazi, Touraj; Swartz, Leslie; Eide, Arne H; Lien, Lars; Hauff, Edvard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current perceived needs of the general population in a war-affected setting, and to study the influence of perceived needs on the participants’ mental health status and functional impairment across genders. Methods A cross-sectional community survey (n=464) was conducted in war-affected South Sudan. Three regression models were analysed. Perceived needs were assessed with the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the General Health Questionnaire and level of functioning by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Results The most frequently expressed needs were related to drinking water, alcohol and drug use in the community and access to sanitation facilities. No gender differences were found regarding the level of perceived needs or the number of traumatic events. Higher level of perceived needs significantly predicted psychological distress and lower level of functioning even when numbers of experienced trauma events were taken into account. Conclusions The associations of higher level of needs and trauma experiences, on the one hand, and negative health outcomes on the other, necessitate a greater integration of interventions directed towards the population's perceived needs and mental health, particularly for those who have been exposed to trauma. PMID:26289449

  20. Top pair production cross section at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV and a search for v + a current in top quark decay

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, S.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2006-09-01

    Possible effects from physics beyond the Standard Model have been investigated in top quark decays from a data sample enriched in t{bar t} events produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with an integrated luminosity of approximately 700 pb{sup -1} and collected with the CDF II detector. The combined t{bar t} production cross section measurement 7.3 {+-} 0.9 pb agrees with the QCD NLO predictions: 6.7 {+-} 0.8 pb assuming m{sub top} = 175 GeV/c{sup 2}. The fraction of the V + A current in top quark decay, f{sub V+A}, is determined using the invariant mass of the charged lepton and the bottom quark jet in the decay chain t {yields} Wb {yields} {ell}{nu}b (where {ell} = e or {mu}). The measured value f{sub V+A} = - 0.06 {+-} 0.25 under the assumption m{sub top} = 175 GeV/c{sup 2} is in agreement with the Standard Model. They set an upper limit on f{sub V+A} of 0.29 at the 95% confidence level.

  1. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  3. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  4. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  6. Measurement of {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}} is an element of 0.5-2.0 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T.

    2011-03-01

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged-current single {pi}{sup 0} production on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5-2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q{sup 2}, {mu}{sup -} kinematics, and {pi}{sup 0} kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2{+-}0.3{sub stat}{+-}1.5{sub syst})x10{sup -39} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  7. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; et al

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  8. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  9. Charge exchange cross sections for the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.

    1989-03-01

    An impact parameter method for calculating cross sections as a function of incident ion energy is used in conjunction with an improved exchange energy formulation to update several of the charge exchange cross sections currently used in Io plasma torus modeling. New cross sections for S(+) + S(2+) yielding S(2+) + S(+) and Na(+) on neutral targets, useful in analyzing the fast Na jets observed at Io, are also calculated.

  10. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  11. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  12. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  13. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  14. Measurement of the muon neutrino inclusive charged-current cross section in the energy range of 1-3 GeV with the T2K INGRID detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antonova, M.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Cao, S.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Liptak, Z. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Lu, X.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J. D.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Stewart, T.; Suda, Y.; Suvorov, S.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We report a measurement of the νμ-nucleus inclusive charged-current cross section (=σc c ) on iron using data from the INGRID detector exposed to the J-PARC neutrino beam. The detector consists of 14 modules in total, which are spread over a range of off-axis angles from 0° to 1.1°. The variation in the neutrino energy spectrum as a function of the off-axis angle, combined with event topology information, is used to calculate this cross section as a function of neutrino energy. The cross section is measured to be σc c(1.1 GeV )=1.10 ±0.15 (1 0-38 cm2/nucleon) , σc c(2.0 GeV )=2.07 ±0.27 (1 0-38 cm2/nucleon) , and σc c(3.3 GeV )=2.29 ±0.45 (1 0-38 cm2/nucleon), at energies of 1.1, 2.0, and 3.3 GeV, respectively. These results are consistent with the cross section calculated by the neutrino interaction generators currently used by T2K. More importantly, the method described here opens up a new way to determine the energy dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

  15. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  16. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  17. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  18. Photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.X.; Yeh, T.R.; Lancman, H.

    1986-10-01

    The photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th was measured in the 5.8-12 MeV energy range with an average photon energy resolution of 600 eV. Intermediate structure was observed at 5.91, 5.97, and 6.31 MeV. The experimental fission probability and various properties of the intermediate structure were compared with calculated values based on a double-humped fission barrier as well as a triple-humped one. The results favor, though not decisively, the presence of a shallow third well in the barrier. Certain features of both barriers, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretical barrier calculations.

  19. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  20. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  2. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  3. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  4. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  5. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  6. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  7. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  8. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  9. Evaluation of Non-Laboratory and Laboratory Prediction Models for Current and Future Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seokyung; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Various diabetes risk scores composed of non-laboratory parameters have been developed, but only a few studies performed cross-validation of these scores and a comparison with laboratory parameters. We evaluated the performance of diabetes risk scores composed of non-laboratory parameters, including a recently published Korean risk score (KRS), and compared them with laboratory parameters. Methods The data of 26,675 individuals who visited the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center for a health screening program were reviewed for cross-sectional validation. The data of 3,029 individuals with a mean of 6.2 years of follow-up were reviewed for longitudinal validation. The KRS and 16 other risk scores were evaluated and compared with a laboratory prediction model developed by logistic regression analysis. Results For the screening of undiagnosed diabetes, the KRS exhibited a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 58%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) of 0.754. Other scores showed AROCs that ranged from 0.697 to 0.782. For the prediction of future diabetes, the KRS exhibited a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 54%, and an AROC of 0.696. Other scores had AROCs ranging from 0.630 to 0.721. The laboratory prediction model composed of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels showed a significantly higher AROC (0.838, P < 0.001) than the KRS. The addition of the KRS to the laboratory prediction model increased the AROC (0.849, P = 0.016) without a significant improvement in the risk classification (net reclassification index: 4.6%, P = 0.264). Conclusions The non-laboratory risk scores, including KRS, are useful to estimate the risk of undiagnosed diabetes but are inferior to the laboratory parameters for predicting future diabetes. PMID:27214034

  10. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  11. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  12. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. PMID:26850646

  13. Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Cross sections for electron scattering from α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z.; da Silva, G. B.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Ratnavelu, K.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The energy range of these experiments was 20-50 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely for the total cross section, elastic ICS, inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. Where possible, our calculated cross sections are compared to the limited available data of each scattering process.

  16. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  17. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  18. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  19. Measurement of {nu}{sub {mu}}and {nu}{sub {mu}}induced neutral current single {pi}{sup 0} production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}O} (1 GeV)

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T.

    2010-01-01

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single {pi}{sup 0} production on CH{sub 2} induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC {pi}{sup 0} events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of {pi}{sup 0} momentum and {pi}{sup 0} angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76{+-}0.05{sub stat{+-}}0.76{sub sys})x10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of }=808 MeV and (1.48{+-}0.05{sub stat{+-}}0.23{sub sys})x10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of }=664 MeV for {nu}{sub {mu}}and {nu}{sub {mu}}induced production, respectively. In addition, we have included measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total cross sections for incoherent exclusive NC 1{pi}{sup 0} production corrected for the effects of final state interactions to compare to prior results.

  20. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  1. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  2. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  3. A Cross-sectional Study of Current Doctors' Performance in a Modified Version of a Medical School Admission Aptitude Test: The UKCAT.

    PubMed

    Blackmur, James P; Lone, Nazir I; Stone, Oliver D; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    The 2-hour long United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom as part of their selection process for undergraduate medical and dentistry degrees. We aimed to compare the performance of senior doctors in primary and secondary care and across a range of specialties, in a modified version of the medical school entrance examination-the mUKCAT. Lay people were also included in the study. Despite its widespread use, this is the first study that examines the performance of senior clinicians in the UKCAT.The study used a prospective cross-sectional design. It used mock questions from the UKCAT website to generate an mUKCAT that was anticipated to take 15 minutes to complete. In all, 167 doctors at consultant, general practitioner (GP), or specialty trainee grade and 26 lay people took part.The overall mean mUKCAT score of all participants was 2486 (69.1%). Of the total cohort, 126 (65.3%) scored above our designated threshold of 2368 and were deemed to have passed the mUKCAT. Excluding lay people, 113 (67.7%) of the 167 doctors scored above that threshold. Medical specialty was associated with overall score (P = 0.003), with anesthetists/intensive care physicians scoring highest (n = 20, mean score 2660) and GPs scoring lowest (n = 38, mean score 2302). Academics outperformed nonacademics (mean score of academics, n = 44 vs nonacademics, n = 123: 2750 vs 2406; P < 0.001). Those clinicians in senior management positions scored lower than those in "standard" roles (mean score of senior management, n = 31 vs standard roles, n = 136: 2332 vs 2534, mean difference 202, 95% confidence interval 67-337, P = 0.004).In the situational judgement section, there was no evidence that specialty was associated with score (P = 0.15). Academics exhibited greater situational judgement than their nonacademic colleagues (academics vs nonacademics: 69.8 vs 63.6%; P = 0.01).The majority of senior

  4. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  5. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  6. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  7. Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

  8. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  9. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  10. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  11. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  12. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  13. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  14. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  15. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  16. Gravity currents in non-rectangular cross-section channels: Analytical and numerical solutions of the one-layer shallow-water model for high-Reynolds-number propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemach, T.; Ungarish, M.

    2013-02-01

    We consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current at the bottom of a horizontal channel along the horizontal coordinate x. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross-section is given by the general -f1(z) ⩽ y ⩽ f2(z) for 0 ⩽ z ⩽ H. We use a one-layer, Boussinesq, shallow-water formulation to solve the time-dependent motion produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of fluid from a lock. The dependent variables are the position of the horizontal interface, h(x, t), and the speed (averaged over the area of the current), u(x, t). The non-rectangular cross-section geometry enters the formulation via f(h) and integrals of f(z) and zf(z), where f(z) = f1(z) + f2(z) is the width of the channel. For a given geometry f(z), the only input parameter in the lock-release problem is the height ratio H/h0 of ambient to lock. In general, the solution is obtained by a finite-difference numerical code. Analytical results are derived for the initial dam-break slumping motion, and for the long-time self-similar phase. The model is illustrated for various cross-section shapes: power-law (f(z) = bzα, where b, α are positive constants), trapezoidal, V-shaped valley, and circle-segment. In addition to the quantitative results, the qualitative similarities and differences between the classical rectangular and the general non-rectangular channel have been elucidated: in the first case there is always an initial "slumping" stage of propagation with speed uN = const., followed by a stage of decreasing speed, then a phase of self-similar behavior during which uN decreases like time to some power. In the non-rectangular cross-section channel, the first two stages appear, but the self-similar phase is attained only when the cross-section shape is given by a power-law. When the cross-section of the channel expands upwards, the speed of propagation is larger, and the decay of speed after the slumping stage is weaker, than in the classical

  17. Viscosity cross sections for the heavy noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEachran, Robert P.; Stauffer, Allan Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We have calculated viscosity cross sections for argon, krypton and xenon from zero to 1 keV using the phase shifts from our previous publication [R.P. McEachran, A.D. Stauffer, Eur. Phys. J. D 68, 153 (2014)] which presented total elastic and momentum transfer cross sections for these gases. As previously, we present simple analytic fits to our results to aid in modelling plasmas containing these atoms. By using the current results and those in reference [R.P. McEachran, A.D. Stauffer, Eur. Phys. J. D 68, 153 (2014)] the first two `partial cross sections' used in the general moment method of solving the Boltzmann equation can be obtained. The agreement of our viscosity cross sections with experimentally derived results indicates the overall reliability of our calculations.

  18. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  19. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  20. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  1. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  3. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  4. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  5. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  6. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  7. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  8. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  9. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  10. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  11. Calculation of improved spallation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C. H.; Silberberg, R.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several research groups have recently carried out highly precise measurements (to about 10 percent) of high-energy nuclear spallation cross sections. These measurements, above 5 GeV, cover a broad range of elements: V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta and Au. Even the small cross sections far off the peak of the isotopic distribution curves have been measured. The semiempirical calculations are compared with the measured values. Preliminary comparisons indicate that the parameters of our spallation relations (Silberberg and Tsao, 1973) for atomic numbers 20 to 83 need modifications, e.g. a reduced slope of the mass yield distribution, broader isotopic distributions, and a shift of the isotopic distribution toward the neutron-deficient side. The required modifications are negligible near Fe and Cu, but increase with increasing target mass.

  12. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  13. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  14. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  15. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  16. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  17. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  18. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  19. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  20. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  1. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  2. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  3. The propagation of particulate gravity currents in a V-shaped triangular cross section channel: Lock-release experiments and shallow-water numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mériaux, C. A.; Zemach, T.; Kurz-Besson, C. B.; Ungarish, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the motion of particulate gravity currents in a horizontal V-shaped channel. The particulate currents consisted of particles whose size varied between 0 and 100 μm but whose mean size increased. Particles were poorly sorted as the variance of the grain size distributions varied between 50 and 200. While the phases of propagation of homogeneous currents in such a geometry have been studied in the literature, this study considers the effects of the grain size on the propagation. The distance of propagation and front velocity of full-depth high-Reynolds-number lock-release experiments and shallow-water equation simulations were analyzed as the mean grain size of the initial particle distributions, defined by mass, was increased from 19 to 58 μm. Similar to the homogeneous currents, three consecutive phases of the front velocity could be identified but their characteristics and extent depend on the particle size. The initial phase, in particular, depends on a dimensionless settling number β that is defined as the ratio of two characteristic time scales, the propagation time x0/U, where U is the scale for the front speed and x0 the lock length, and the settling time h0/vs, where vs is the scale for the settling velocity and h0 the initial height of the current. For dimensionless settling numbers less than 0.001, the initial phase is characterized by a constant velocity for over about 6-7 lock lengths that is alike the initial slumping phase of perfectly constant velocity of the homogeneous currents. For dimensionless settling numbers greater than 0.001 and less than 0.015, the initial phase is no longer characterized by a constant velocity but an almost constant velocity for over about a similar 6-7 lock lengths. For dimensionless settling numbers greater than 0.015, however, as such, this phase is no longer seen. This initial phase is followed by a continuous decrease of the front advance, which results from the sedimentation of the

  4. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  5. Neutrino and Antineutrino Cross sections at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan; /Alabama U.

    2011-10-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections -among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil (CH2). Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.

  6. ACTIV87: Fast Neutron Activation Cross Section File

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-08-01

    4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND INFORMATION ACTIV87 is a compilation of fast neutron induced activation reaction cross-sections. The compilation covers energies from threshold to 20 MeV and is based on evaluated data taken from other evaluated data libraries and individual evaluations. The majority of these evaluations were performed by using available experimental data. The aforementioned available experimental data were used in the selection of needed parameters for theoretical computations and for normalizing the results of suchmore » computations. Theoretical calculations were also used for interpolation and extrapolation of experimental cross-section data. All of the evaluated data curves were compared with experimental data that had been reported over the four year period preceding 1987. Only those cross-sections not in contradiction with experimental data that was current in 1987 were retained in the activation file, ACTIV87. In cases of several conflicting evaluations, that evaluation was chosen which best corresponded to the experimental data. A few evaluated curves were renormalized in accordance with the results of the latest precision measurements. 5. APPLICATION OF THE DATA 6. SOURCE AND SCOPE OF DATA The following libraries and individual files of evaluated neutron cross-section data were used for the selection of the activation cross-sections: the BOSPOR Library, the Activation File of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, the Evaluated Neutron Data File (ENDF/B-V) Activation File, the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-82), and individual evaluations carried out under various IAEA research contracts. The file of selected reactions contains 206 evaluated cross-section curves of the (n,2n), (n,p) and (n,a) reactions which lead to radioactive products and may be used in many practical applications of neutron activation analysis. Some competing activation reactions, usually with low cross-section values, are given for completeness.« less

  7. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  8. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  9. EDDIX--a database of ionisation double differential cross sections.

    PubMed

    MacGibbon, J H; Emerson, S; Liamsuwan, T; Nikjoo, H

    2011-02-01

    The use of Monte Carlo track structure is a choice method in biophysical modelling and calculations. To precisely model 3D and 4D tracks, the cross section for the ionisation by an incoming ion, double differential in the outgoing electron energy and angle, is required. However, the double differential cross section cannot be theoretically modelled over the full range of parameters. To address this issue, a database of all available experimental data has been constructed. Currently, the database of Experimental Double Differential Ionisation Cross sections (EDDIX) contains over 1200 digitalised experimentally measured datasets from the 1960s to present date, covering all available ion species (hydrogen to uranium) and all available target species. Double differential cross sections are also presented with the aid of an eight parameter functions fitted to the cross sections. The parameters include projectile species and charge, target nuclear charge and atomic mass, projectile atomic mass and energy, electron energy and deflection angle. It is planned to freely distribute EDDIX and make it available to the radiation research community for use in the analytical and numerical modelling of track structure. PMID:21113060

  10. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  11. The current health of the signing Deaf community in the UK compared with the general population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Alan; Ridd, Matthew; Sutherland, Hilary; Allsop, Lorna; Alexander, Andrew; Kyle, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the current health of the Deaf community in the UK and compare with the general population. Design A quota sample of adult Deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users underwent a health assessment and interview in 2012–2013. Comparative data were obtained from the Health Survey for England (HSE) 2011 and the Quality Outcomes Framework (QOF) 2012. Setting Participants completed a structured interview and health assessment at seven Bupa centres across the UK, supported in BSL by Deaf advisers and interpreters. Participants 298 Deaf people, 20–82 years old, 47% male, with 12% from ethnic minorities. Main outcome measures Self–reported health conditions, medication usage, tobacco and alcohol consumption; measured blood pressure (BP), body mass index, fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results Rates of obesity in the Deaf sample were high, especially in those over 65 years, and 48% were in a high risk group for serious illness. High BP readings were obtained in 37% of Deaf people (21% in HSE): 29% were unaware of this (6% in HSE). Only 42% of Deaf people being treated for hypertension had adequate control, compared with 62% of the general population. Deaf people with self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) were significantly less than the general population. One-third of Deaf participants had total cholesterol >5 mmol/L but although control rates were high compared with HSE, treatment rates for self-reported CVD were half the general population rate. Eleven per cent of Deaf participants had blood sugar at prediabetic or diabetic levels, and 77% of those at prediabetic levels were unaware of it. Deaf respondents self-reported more depression (31% of women, 14% of men), but less smoking (8%) and alcohol intake (2–8 units/week). Conclusions Deaf people's health is poorer than that of the general population, with probable underdiagnosis and undertreatment of chronic conditions putting them at risk of preventable ill health. PMID:25619200

  12. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  13. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  14. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FLİBE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  15. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  16. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  17. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  18. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  19. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  20. Top-Quark Cross Section and Properties at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Wolfgang; /Wuppertal U.

    2009-09-01

    At the Tevatron, the collider experiments CDF and D0 have data sets at their disposal that compromise several hundreds of reconstructed top-antitop-quark pairs and allow for precision measurements of the cross section and production and decay properties. Besides comparing the measurements to standard model predictions, these data sets open a window to physics beyond the standard model. Dedicated analyses look for new heavy gauge bosons, fourth generation quarks, and flavor-changing neutral currents.

  1. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  2. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  3. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  4. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  5. Electron cross section set for CHF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W. Lowell; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2001-08-15

    We describe the development of a consistent set of low-energy electron collision cross sections for trifluoromethane, CHF{sub 3}. First-principles calculations are used to obtain key elastic and inelastic cross sections. These are combined with literature values of the ionization cross section and with vibrational excitation cross sections obtained from the Born approximation to form a preliminary set, which is then adjusted to achieve consistency with measured swarm parameters. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. A simple approach to SEU cross section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshkin, V.V.; Tverskoy, M.G.

    1998-12-01

    The simplified method for determination of proton induced SEU cross section is presented. The method is based on results of the analysis of experimental SEU cross sections initiated by fast nucleons. The possibility of SEU cross section measurement at single proton energy for SEU rate prediction is shown.

  7. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  8. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  9. Vaginal birth after cesarean section: current opinion.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, D; Benshushan, A; Ezra, Y; Rojansky, N

    1996-04-01

    Although the current literature attests to the merits of a trial of labor in the patient with a prior cesarean section, some controversies remain. For example, can women with two or more sections be allowed a trial of labor and can patients who undergo a trial of labor receive oxytocin or prostaglandins for induction? Also, do certain indications for previous cesarean section such as relative cephalopelvic disproportion/failure to progress or the diagnosis of breech or twins in the present pregnancy constitute an indication for elective repeat cesarean delivery? These questions along with some other controversies are discussed in the light of newly accumulated data in the English literature and our own experience over the last decade in a major university-based tertiary medical center. PMID:8737297

  10. Cross sections for actinide burner reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of burning higher actinides (i.e., transuranium (TRU) elements excluding plutonium) in ad hoc designed reactors (Actinide Burner Reactors: ABR) which, because of their hard neutron spectra, enhance the fission of TRU. The transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into stable or short-lived isotopes reduces considerably the burden of handling high-level waste from either LWR or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) fuels. Because of the large concentrations of higher actinides in these novel reactor designs the Doppler effect due to TRU materials is the most important temperature coefficient from the point of view of reactor safety. Here we report calculations of energy group-averaged capture and fission cross sections as function of temperature and dilution for higher actinides in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The calculations were done with the codes SAMMY in the resolved region and URR in the unresolved regions and compared with an independent calculation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  12. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  13. Electron-impact-ionization cross section for the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Fang, D.; Wang, Y.; Yang, F.

    1994-02-01

    A distorted-wave Born exchange approximation was used to calculate the cross section for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atoms. Both the integral and energy-differential cross section were calculated. The results were compared with the latest experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Comparison shows that the calculations agree with differential cross-section measurements in general. For integral cross sections the calculation shows a better agreement with an earlier measurement [M.B. Shah, D. S. Elliott, and H. B. Gilbody, J. Phys. B 20, 3501 (1987)] in which the cross sections are normalized to the first Born approximation.

  14. Measurement of Ratios of νμ Charged-Current Cross Sections on C, Fe, and Pb to CH at Neutrino Energies 2–20 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tice, B. G.; Datta, M.; Mousseau, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Barrios Sazo, M. G.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Bustamante, M. J.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kordosky, M.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martin Mari, C.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Savage, D. G.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of νμ charged-current cross section ratios on carbon, iron, and lead relative to a scintillator (CH) using the fine-grained MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. The measurements utilize events of energies 2<Eν<20GeV, with (Eν)=8GeV, which have a reconstructed μ- scattering angle less than 17° to extract ratios of inclusive total cross sections as a function of neutrino energy Eν and flux-integrated differential cross sections with respect to the Bjorken scaling variable x. These results provide the first high-statistics direct measurements of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering using different targets in the same neutrino beam. Measured cross section ratios exhibit a relative

  15. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.

  16. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J.

    2016-06-23

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0.46(22)fm2, with a much larger uncertainty than determined inmore » the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμn → μ-p)|Ev=1GeV = 10.1(0.9)×10-39cm2. The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. Furthermore, these techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.« less

  17. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2=0.46 (22 ) fm2 , with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ (νμn →μ-p )|Eν=1GeV=10.1 (0.9 )×10-39 cm2 . The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. These techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  18. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980–2000). Methods A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Findings Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = −.198, t = −2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. Conclusions These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their

  19. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  20. Experimental verification of theoretical cross sections for FIB PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streib, Kenneth L.; Alford, Terry L.; Mayer, James W.

    2006-08-01

    X-ray production cross sections were found for films of Cr, Cu, Ge, Ag, W and Au, using incident H+ and Be+ ions at energies from 300 keV to 3.5 MeV. These experimental cross section results were compared with the cross section results obtained using software which calculates inner shell ionization and X-ray production cross sections. The software uses the ECPSSR-UA approach to finding X-ray production cross sections. This program was found to be useful for predicting cross sections for H+ and Be+ ions at the energies in this study. The software was then used to predict results for Li+, Be+ and B+ ions at 280 keV, energies available in the Arizona State University focused ion beam laboratory.

  1. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  2. Single event upset cross sections at various data rates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; Marshall, C.J.; McMorrow, D.; Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W.; Buchner, S.; La Macchia, M.; Mathes, B.

    1996-12-01

    The authors present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. They show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. They also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies. Knowledge of the relationship between SEU cross section and frequency is important for estimates of on-orbit SEU rates.

  3. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  4. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  5. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  6. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak.

  7. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  8. Documentation of Uncertainties in Experimental Cross Sections for EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-06-15

    Documentation of uncertainties and covariances in experimental nuclear reaction cross sections has been assessed. Following consideration of the importance of covariances for nuclear data in various nuclear applications, and presentation of a simple numerical example to demonstrate this point, the minimum basic concepts (mean, covariance, standard derivation, partial uncertainties, micro- and macro-correlation coefficients) are introduced. A deterministic approach to propagating the covariances in primary measured parameters (e.g., counts) to the derived cross sections is discussed, using a neutron-induced activation cross section measurement as an example. Finally, various approaches to documentation (publication, compilation) of experimental cross sections to facilitate their use in future evaluations are mentioned.

  9. DBCC Software as Database for Collisional Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Daniel; Moroz, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Interactions of species, such as atoms, radicals, molecules, electrons, and photons, in plasmas used for materials processing could be very complex, and many of them could be described in terms of collisional cross-sections. Researchers involved in plasma simulations must select reasonable cross-sections for collisional processes for implementing them into their simulation codes to be able to correctly simulate plasmas. However, collisional cross-section data are difficult to obtain, and, for some collisional processes, the cross-sections are still not known. Data on collisional cross-sections can be obtained from numerous sources including numerical calculations, experiments, journal articles, conference proceedings, scientific reports, various universities' websites, national labs and centers specifically devoted to collecting data on cross-sections. The cross-sections data received from different sources could be partial, corresponding to limited energy ranges, or could even not be in agreement. The DBCC software package was designed to help researchers in collecting, comparing, and selecting cross-sections, some of which could be constructed from others or chosen as defaults. This is important as different researchers may place trust in different cross-sections or in different sources. We will discuss the details of DBCC and demonstrate how it works and why it is beneficial to researchers working on plasma simulations.

  10. Derivation of reaction cross sections from experimental elastic backscattering probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Gomes, P. R. S.

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the backward elastic scattering probabilities and the reaction cross sections is derived. This is a very simple and useful method to extract reaction cross sections for heavy-ion systems. We compare the results of our method with those that use the traditional full elastic scattering angular distributions for several systems at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. From the calculated reaction and capture cross sections that use the present method, we derive the cross sections of other mechanisms for weak nearly spherical systems.

  11. PROBLEM DEPENDENT DOPPLER BROADENING OF CONTINUOUS ENERGY CROSS SECTIONS IN THE KENO MONTE CARLO COMPUTER CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S. W. D.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Celik, Cihangir; Leal, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    For many Monte Carlo codes cross sections are generally only created at a set of predetermined temperatures. This causes an increase in error as one moves further and further away from these temperatures in the Monte Carlo model. This paper discusses recent progress in the Scale Monte Carlo module KENO to create problem dependent, Doppler broadened, cross sections. Currently only broadening the 1D cross sections and probability tables is addressed. The approach uses a finite difference method to calculate the temperature dependent cross-sections for the 1D data, and a simple linear-logarithmic interpolation in the square root of temperature for the probability tables. Work is also ongoing to address broadening theS (alpha , beta) tables. With the current approach the temperature dependent cross sections are Doppler broadened before transport starts, and, for all but a few isotopes, the impact on cross section loading is negligible. Results can be compared with those obtained by using multigroup libraries, as KENO currently does interpolation on the multigroup cross sections to determine temperature dependent cross-sections. Current results compare favorably with these expected results.

  12. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  13. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  14. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  15. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  16. Determination of Electron Collision Cross Sections Set for Tetramethysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordage, Marie-Claude

    2007-12-01

    A swarm analysis technique based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to derive low energy electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane (TMS). The calculated swarm parameters with this first available cross sections set is consistent with measured values of the swarm parameters. Calculations of transport parameters in mixtures of TMS with argon are also presented.

  17. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  18. The energy dependence of the total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-10-18

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. We compare the next-to-leading order calculation of the total cross section with results obtained using PYTHIA.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  20. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  1. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  2. Consistent set of electron cross sections for methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. L.; Guerra, V.; Pintassilgo, C. D.

    2013-09-01

    This contribution presents a complete consistent set of electron-impact cross sections for methane (CH4) , recently made available on the IST-LISBON database with the LXCat website. The set is based on the cross sections originally compiled and adjusted in and first used in. The elementary processes taken into account are elastic momentum-transfer, vibrational excitation of the (1,3) and (2,4) modes, total dissociation into neutrals, and ionization producing CH4+and CH3++ H. For the latter two processes we have adjusted the partial ionization cross section of Chatham et al. as to reproduce their measured total ionization. The new cross-section set is validated by comparing calculated and measured electron swarm parameters for E / N = 0.1-400 Td. A discussion of similarities and differences with sets of CH4 cross sections from other databases is also presented. Work partially supported by FCT (Pest-OE/SADG/LA0010/2011).

  3. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  4. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH2) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  5. Detailed photonuclear cross-section calculations and astrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.

    1989-06-15

    We have investigated the role of an isomeric state and its coupling to the ground state (g.s.) via photons and neutron inelastic scattering in a stellar environment by making detailed photonuclear and neutron cross-section calculations for /sup 176/Lu and /sup 210/Bi. In the case of /sup 176/Lu, the g.s. would function as an excellent galactic slow- (s-) process chronometer were it not for the 3.7-h isomer at 123 keV. Our calculations predicted much larger photon cross sections for production of the isomer, as well as a lower threshold, than had been assumed based on earlier measurements. These two factors combine to indicate that an enormous correction, a factor of 10/sup 7/, must be applied to shorten the current estimate of the half-life against photoexcitation of /sup 176/Lu as a function of temperature. This severely limits the use of /sup 176/Lu as a stellar chronometer and indicates a significantly lower temperature at which the two states reach thermal equilibrium. For /sup 210/Bi, our preliminary calculations of the production and destruction of the 3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ y isomeric state by neutrons and photons suggest that the /sup 210/Bi isomer may not be destroyed by photons as rapidly as assumed in certain stellar environments. This leads to an alternate production path of /sup 207/Pb and significantly affects presently interpreted lead isotopic abundances. We have been able to make such detailed nuclear cross-section calculations using: modern statistical-model codes of the Hauser-Feshbach type, with complete conservation of angular momentum and parity; reliable systematics of the input parameters required by these codes, including knowledge of the absolute gamma-ray strength-functions for E1, M1, and E2 transitions; and codes developed to compute large, discrete, nuclear level sets, their associated gamma-ray branchings, and the presence and location of isomeric states. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köroğlu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-02-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH3-CH2-CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750-3300 cm-1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm-1 and at seven different pressures (4-33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde.

  7. Constant cross section of loops in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, H.; Bingert, S.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The corona of the Sun is dominated by emission from loop-like structures. When observed in X-ray or extreme ultraviolet emission, these million K hot coronal loops show a more or less constant cross section. Aims: In this study we show how the interplay of heating, radiative cooling, and heat conduction in an expanding magnetic structure can explain the observed constant cross section. Methods: We employ a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (3D MHD) model of the corona. The heating of the coronal plasma is the result of braiding of the magnetic field lines through footpoint motions and subsequent dissipation of the induced currents. From the model we synthesize the coronal emission, which is directly comparable to observations from, e.g., the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (AIA/SDO). Results: We find that the synthesized observation of a coronal loop seen in the 3D data cube does match actually observed loops in count rate and that the cross section is roughly constant, as observed. The magnetic field in the loop is expanding and the plasma density is concentrated in this expanding loop; however, the temperature is not constant perpendicular to the plasma loop. The higher temperature in the upper outer parts of the loop is so high that this part of the loop is outside the contribution function of the respective emission line(s). In effect, the upper part of the plasma loop is not bright and thus the loop actually seen in coronal emission appears to have a constant width. Conclusions: From this we can conclude that the underlying field-line-braiding heating mechanism provides the proper spatial and temporal distribution of the energy input into the corona - at least on the observable scales. Movies associated to Figs. 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements (C)

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Baker; C. A. McGrath

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from “minor” actinides that currently have poorly known (n,g) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  9. Revised evaluations of fission-product cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports on revised cross-section evaluations for {sup 134}Ba, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 160}Dy, {sup 161}Dy, {sup 162}Dy, {sup 163}Dy, and {sup 164}Dy. The evaluations for {sup 134}Ba, {sup 154}Eu, and {sup 1554}Eu were previously revised for ENDF/B-VI. The other 6 evaluations, carried over from ENDF/B-V, were completed in the 1974--1980 time period. The evaluations for the dysprosium isotopes go back to ENDF/B-IV. Newer experimental data, not considered for the current ENDF/B-VI evaluations, was used in all of the revised evaluations. In the present work the primary emphasis was placed on the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, but newer measured data were also used for energies above the unresolved resonance region. Elastic, capture, and total cross sections are revised. Some important parameters from the revised evaluations are given in Table 1; corresponding values from the ENDF/B-VI evaluations are also given.

  10. Measurement of the beryllium-7 plus proton fusion cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan P.

    2005-11-01

    The fusion of protons with radioactive nuclei plays an important role in a wide variety of astrophysical scenarios ranging from high-temperature environments like novae and X-ray bursts to the production of neutrinos in the sun. For example, the 8 B neutrino flux measured in neutrino detectors on earth is directly proportional to the cross section for the fusion of protons with radioactive 7 Be. An experimental program has been established to study proton-fusion experiments in inverse kinematics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a windowless gas target and the Daresbury Recoil Separator (DRS). The performance of the target and separator have been well characterized using a variety of experiments with stable beams including 12 C, 19 F, and 24 Mg. For instance, the areal density of hydrogen in the target was determined to 3% accuracy. This well-characterized system was used to measure accurate stopping powers for many elements in hydrogen gas for the first time. The first measurement of a proton-fusion cross section with a radioactive ion beam at ORNL, the fusion of protons with 7 Be, was performed using the hydrogen gas target and the DRS. The 7 Be was produced at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and chemically isolated at ORNL. An average 7 Be beam current of 2.5 ppA bombarded the windowless gas target for a period of 3 days. Recoiling B-8 nuclei were efficiently collected using the DRS and were clearly identified in a gas-filled ion detector. The cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 1.502 MeV was determined to be 1.12 mb with 24% uncertainty. The zero-energy S-factor was determined to be 26.8 eV-b with 25% uncertainty. The technique has been clearly demonstrated, and a precise measurement of the fusion cross section will be possible with the development of a somewhat more intense 7 Be radioactive ion beam.