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1

Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number

Lisa Claire du Toit; Viness Pillay; Michael Paul Danckwerts

2006-01-01

2

Multiparticulate Formulation .. Approach to Colon Specific Drug Delivery: Current Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also as potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptide and proteins. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug needs to be protected from degradation, release and\\/or absorption in the upper

Laila Fatima; Ali Asghar; Sajeev Chandran

3

Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past twenty five years have seen an explosion in the creation and discovery of new medicinal agents. Related innovations in drug delivery systems have not only enabled the successful implementation of many of these novel pharmaceuticals, but have also permitted the development of new medical treatments with existing drugs. The creation of transdermal delivery systems has been one of

Mark R. Prausnitz; Samir Mitragotri; Robert Langer

2004-01-01

4

Multiparticulate formulation approach to colon specific drug delivery: current perspectives.  

PubMed

Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also as potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptide and proteins. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug needs to be protected from degradation, release and/or absorption in the upper portion of the GI tract and then ensure abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. Drug modifications through covalent linkages with carrier or prodrug approach and formulation based approaches can be used for colonic delivery. Report suggests that drug carrier systems larger than 200 mm possess very low gastric transit time due to physiological condition of the bowel in colitis. And for this reason and considering the selective uptake of micron or sub-micron particles by cancerous and inflamed cells/ tissues a multiparticulate approach based on pellets, granules, microsphere or nanoparticle type formulation is expected to have better pharmacological effect in the colon. The review is aimed at understanding recent advancements made in multiparticulate formulation approach for colon specific delivery of medicaments. PMID:17207416

Asghar, Laila Fatima Ali; Chandran, Sajeev

2006-01-01

5

Intravesical drug delivery: Challenges, current status, opportunities and novel strategies.  

PubMed

The urinary bladder has certain unique anatomical features which enable it to form an effective barrier to toxic substances diffusing from the urine into the blood. The barrier function is due to the epithelial surface of the urinary bladder, the urothelium, which has characteristic umbrella cells, joined by tight junctions and covered by impenetrable plaques, as well as an anti-adherent mucin layer. Diseases of the urinary bladder, such as bladder carcinomas and interstitial cystitis, cause acute damage to the bladder wall and cannot be effectively treated by systemic administration of drugs. Such conditions may benefit from intravesical drug delivery (IDD), which involves direct instillation of drug into the bladder via a catheter, to attain high local concentrations of the drug with minimal systemic effects. IDD however has its limitations, since the permeability of the urothelial layer is very low and instilled drug solutions become diluted with urine and get washed out of the bladder during voiding, necessitating repeated infusions of the drug. Permeation enhancers serve to overcome these problems to some extent by using electromotive force to enhance diffusion of the drug into the bladder wall or chemical molecules, such as chitosan, dimethylsulphoxide, to temporarily disrupt the tight packing of the urothelium. Nanotechnology can be integrated with IDD to devise drug-encapsulated nanoparticles that can greatly improve chemical interactions with the urothelium and enhance penetration of drugs into the bladder wall. Nanocarriers such as liposomes, gelatin nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and magnetic particles, have been found to enhance local drug concentrations in the bladder as well as target diseased cells. Intravesical drug carriers can be further improved by using mucoadhesive biomaterials which are strongly adhered to the urothelial cell lining, thus preventing the carrier from being washed away during urine voiding. This increases the residence time of the drug at the target site and enables sustained delivery of the drug over a prolonged time span. Polymeric hydrogels, such as the temperature sensitive PEG-PLGA-PEG polymer, have been used to develop in situ gelling systems to deliver drugs into the bladder cavity. Recent advances and future prospects of biodegradable nanocarriers and in situ gels as drug delivery agents for intravesical drug delivery are reviewed in this paper. PMID:20831887

GuhaSarkar, Shruti; Banerjee, R

2010-09-08

6

Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases with numerous clinical manifestations for instance harshness from skin lesions to severe disfigurement and chronic systemic infection in the liver and spleen. So far, the most classical leishmaniasis therapy, despite its documented toxicities, remains pentavalent antimonial compounds. The arvailable therapeutic modalities for leishmaniasis are overwhelmed with resistance to leishmaniasis therapy. Mechanisms of classical drug resistance are often related with the lower drug uptake, increased efflux, the faster drug metabolism, drug target modifications and over-expression of drug transporters. The high prevalence of leishmaniasis and the appearance of resistance to classical drugs reveal the demand to develop and explore novel, less toxic, low cost and more promising therapeutic modalities. The review describes the mechanisms of classical drug resistance and potential drug targets in Leishmania infection. Moreover, current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives towards Leishmaniasis treatment are also covered. PMID:24144417

Yasinzai, Masoom; Khan, Momin; Nadhman, Akhtar; Shahnaz, Gul

2013-10-01

7

Nanoscale Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Drug Penetration into Solid Tumors: Current Progress and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Poor penetration of anticancer drugs into solid tumors significantly limits their efficacy. This phenomenon has long been observed for small-molecule chemotherapeutics, and it can be even more pronounced for nanoscale therapies. Nanoparticles have enormous potential for the treatment of cancer due to their wide applicability as drug delivery and imaging vehicles and their size-dependent accumulation into solid tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Further, synthetic nanoparticles can be engineered to overcome barriers to drug delivery. Despite their promise for the treatment of cancer, relatively little work has been done to study and improve their ability to diffuse into solid tumors following passive accumulation in the tumor vasculature. In this review, we present the complex issues governing efficient penetration of nanoscale therapies into solid tumors. The current methods available to researchers to study nanoparticle penetration into malignant tumors are described, and the most recent works studying the penetration of nanoscale materials into solid tumors are summarized. We conclude with an overview of the important nanoparticle design parameters governing their tumor penetration, as well as by highlighting critical directions in this field.

Waite, Carolyn L.; Roth, Charles M.

2013-01-01

8

The effects of electric current applied to skin: A review for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical enhancement of transdermal drug delivery is limited by undesired side-effects, such as tissue damage and pain. To aid in the development of electrical protocols which safely increase transport across skin, this review discusses the effects of electrical current on: skin electrical properties; sensation, pain, and muscle stimulation; and safety considerations. Quantitative relationships are presented whenever possible. First, the magnitudes

Mark R. Prausnitz

1996-01-01

9

Advances in Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we review critical aspects in the area of drug delivery. Specifically, delivery of siRNA, remote-controlled delivery, noninvasive delivery, and nanotechnology in drug delivery are reviewed.

Timko, Brian P.; Whitehead, Kathryn; Gao, Weiwei; Kohane, Daniel S.; Farokhzad, Omid; Anderson, Daniel; Langer, Robert

2011-08-01

10

Intracochlear Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious delivery of these compounds. Emerging delivery systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear delivery. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug delivery systems capable of direct intracochlear delivery is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug delivery systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale delivery devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, delivery, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence delivery devices for treatment of these diseases.

Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2011-01-01

11

Manipulation of magnetic carriers for drug delivery using pulsed-current high Tc superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative method of manipulating magnetic carriers is proposed, and its feasibility for drug delivery and therapy is demonstrated experimentally. The proposed method employs pulsed-field solenoid coils with high-critical- temperature (Tc) superconductor inserts. Pulsed current is used to magnetize and de-magnetize the superconductor insert. The proposed method was demonstrated to be able to (1) move magnetic particles, ranging in size from a few millimeters to 10 ?m, with strong enough forces over a substantial distance, (2) hold the particles at a designated position as long as needed, and (3) reverse the processes and retrieve the particles. We further demonstrated that magnetic particles can be manipulated in a stationary environment, in water flow, and in simulated blood (water/glycerol mixture) flow.

Cha, Yung; Chen, Lihua; Askew, Thomas; Veal, Boyd; Hull, John

2007-04-01

12

Transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted

Mark R Prausnitz; Robert Langer

2008-01-01

13

MRI in ocular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed.

Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

2008-01-01

14

Advancing the field of drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery systems for cancer therapeutics have now been used by millions of patients and have resulted in the creation of new therapies as well as significantly improving existing ones. Here we discuss a number of the drug delivery systems that have been approved by regulatory authorities and that are currently in clinical use, such as controlled delivery of cancer

Marsha A Moses; Henry Brem; Robert Langer

2003-01-01

15

PECTIN IN CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlled drug delivery remains a research focus for public health to enhance patient compliance, drug efficiency and to reduce the side effects of drugs. Pectin, an edible plant polysaccharide, has shown potential for the construction of drug delivery systems for site-specific drug delivery. Sev...

16

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal).

Shaikh, Rahamatullah; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Garland, Martin James; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

2011-01-01

17

Cyclodextrins in nasal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal drug delivery is an attractive approach for the systemic delivery of high potency drugs with a low oral bioavailability due to extensive gastrointestinal breakdown and high hepatic first-pass effect. For lipophilic drugs nasal delivery is possible if they can be dissolved in the dosage form. Peptide and protein drugs often have a low nasal bioavailability because of their large

F. W. H. M Merkus; J. C Verhoef; E Marttin; S. G Romeijn; P. H. M van der Kuy; W. A. J. J Hermens; N. G. M Schipper

1999-01-01

18

Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years.

Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

2012-01-01

19

MEMS-based Implantable Drug Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantable devices are currently used regularly for chronic pain relief, cardiac pacemakers, arterial infusion for cancer and insulin delivery. A MEMS based implantable drug delivery system (IDDS) integrating a subcutaneous reservoir, an in plane silicon pump and associated circuitry for local or centralized delivery of therapeutic agents for chemotherapy is proposed. System configurations, flow rate analysis and applications are presented.

Smitha M. N. Rao; Amit Mhatre; Dan O. Popa; C. Chiao; Jeongsik Sin; Harry E. Stephanou

2005-01-01

20

Chronotherapeutic drug delivery.  

PubMed

Living organisms follow a circadian rhythm in which physiological processes such as hormonal secretion, metabolism, heart rate, and renal output are affected by the time of day. Chronotherapy coordinates drug delivery with the circadian rhythm to enhance effectiveness and mitigate adverse effects and is achieved by delivering a drug when the system is most susceptible. Cancer is a chronotherapeutic disorder. Cancer treatment requires high doses of intravenous medication to kill cancerous cells; however, normal cells are also killed, creating intolerable side effects. This review shows that chronotherapy can play a vital role in the quality of life and survival rate for oncology patients. PMID:22955155

Librodo, Paul; Buckley, Mitchell; Luk, Marilyn; Bisso, Andrea

21

Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Transdermal drug delivery is a validated technology contributing significantly to global pharmaceutical care. Since 1980,\\u000a impressive growth in this field has been observed with many commercial successes; importantly, a new chemical entity was recently\\u000a developed and approved for transdermal administration without having first been given as an injectable or oral dosage form.\\u000a The progress achieved has been based on the

Richard H. Guy

22

Photomechanical drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomechanical waves (PW) are generated by Q-switched or mode-locked lasers. Ablation is a reliable method for generating PWs with consistent characteristics. Depending on the laser wavelength and target material, PWs with different parameters can be generated which allows the investigation of PWs with cells and tissue. PWs have been shown to permeabilize the stratum corneum (SC) in vivo and facilitate the transport of drugs into the skin. Once a drug has diffused into the dermis it can enter the vasculature, thus producing a systemic effect. Fluorescence microscopy of biopsies show that 40-kDa molecules can be delivered to a depth of > 300 micrometers into the viable skin of rats. Many important drugs such as insulin, and erythropoietin are smaller or comparable in size, making the PWs attractive for transdermal drug delivery. There are three possible pathways through the SC: Transappendageal via hair follicles or other appendages, transcellular through the corneocytes, and intercellular via the extracellular matrix. The intracellular route appears to be the most likely pathway of drug delivery through the SC.

Doukas, Apostolos G.; Lee, Shun

2000-05-01

23

Current State-of-Art and New Trends on Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN and NLC) for Oral Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Lipids and lipid nanoparticles are extensively employed as oral-delivery systems for drugs and other active ingredients. These have been exploited for many features in the field of pharmaceutical technology. Lipids usually enhance drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and when formulated as nanoparticles, these molecules improve mucosal adhesion due to small particle size and increasing their GIT residence time. In addition, lipid nanoparticles may also protect the loaded drugs from chemical and enzymatic degradation and gradually release drug molecules from the lipid matrix into blood, resulting in improved therapeutic profiles compared to free drug. Therefore, due to their physiological and biodegradable properties, lipid molecules may decrease adverse side effects and chronic toxicity of the drug-delivery systems when compared to other of polymeric nature. This paper highlights the importance of lipid nanoparticles to modify the release profile and the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs when administrated through oral route.

Severino, Patricia; Andreani, Tatiana; Macedo, Ana Sofia; Fangueiro, Joana F.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Silva, Amelia M.; Souto, Eliana B.

2012-01-01

24

Designing Paclitaxel Drug Delivery Systems Aimed at Improved Patient Outcomes: Current Status and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used and effective antineoplastic agents derived from natural sources. It has a wide spectrum of antitumor activity, particularly against ovarian cancer, breast cancer, nonsmall cell lung cancer, head and neck tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma, and urologic malignancies. It is a highly lipophilic compound with a log P value of 3.96 and very poor aqueous solubility of less than 0.01?mg/mL. In addition, the compound lacks functional groups that are ionizable which could potentially lead to an increase in its solubility with the alteration in pH. Therefore, the delivery of paclitaxel is associated with substantial challenges. Until the introduction of Abraxane, only commercial formulation was solution of paclitaxel in cremophor, which caused severe side effects. However, in recent years, a number of approaches have been reported to solubilize paclitaxel using cosolvents and inclusion complexes. In addition, innovative approaches have been reported for passive targeting of tumors using nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, emulsions, micelles, implants, pastes and gels. All approaches for delivery of improved therapeutic outcome have been discussed in this paper.

Surapaneni, Madhu S.; Das, Sudip K.; Das, Nandita G.

2012-01-01

25

Suprachoroidal and Intrascleral Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Local drug delivery to the eye minimizes systemic side effects and targets specific ocular tissue. In preclinical studies,\\u000a transscleral and suprachoroidal delivery appear to achieve therapeutic drug tissue levels that target specific tissues, such\\u000a as the choroid and macula. These routes allow minimally invasive sustained delivery of drugs to the ocular posterior segment\\u000a while minimizing systemic drug levels and the

Timothy W. Olsen; Brian C. Gilger

26

Ultrasound and transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injection. However, the stratum corneum acts as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances through the skin. Application of ultrasound to the skin increases its permeability (sonophoresis) and enables the delivery of various substances into and through the skin. This review presents

Ilana Lavon; Joseph Kost

2004-01-01

27

Drug delivery to damaged brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery to the brain poses unique challenges. Specialized anatomic and physiological features of the cerebrovasculature and cerebral tissue fluids result in barriers which significantly restrict delivery of a wide range of possible therapeutic agents. In addition to these normal restrictions to brain drug delivery, pathophysiological features and sequelae of acute brain injury will also impact upon the efficiency of

Eng H. Lo; Aneesh B. Singhal; Vladimir P. Torchilin; N. Joan Abbott

2001-01-01

28

Transport Barriers in Transscleral Drug Delivery for Retinal Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transscleral delivery has emerged as an attractive method for treating retinal disorders because it offers localized delivery of drugs as a less invasive method compared to intravitreal administration. Numerous novel transscleral drug delivery systems ranging from microparticles to implants have been reported. However, transscleral delivery is currently not as clinically effective as intravitreal delivery in the treatment of retinal diseases.

Stephanie H. Kim; Robert J. Lutz; Nam Sun Wang; Michael R. Robinson

2007-01-01

29

Biologically responsive polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Responsive nanoparticles that release their drug cargo in accordance with a change in pH or oxidative stress are of significant clinical interest as this approach offers the opportunity to link drug delivery to a specific location or disease state. This research news article reviews the current state of this field by examining a series of published articles that highlight the novelty and benefits of using responsive polymeric particles to achieve functionally-targeted drug delivery. PMID:22988558

Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

2012-07-24

30

Ophthalmic drug delivery systems—Recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye-drops are the conventional dosage forms that account for 90% of currently accessible ophthalmic formulations. Despite the excellent acceptance by patients, one of the major problems encountered is rapid precorneal drug loss. To improve ocular drug bioavailability, there is a significant effort directed towards new drug delivery systems for ophthalmic administration.This chapter will focus on three representative areas of ophthalmic

Chrystèle Le Bourlais; Liliane Acar; Hosein Zia; Pierre A. Sado; Thomas Needham; Roger Leverge

1998-01-01

31

Liposomes in drug delivery: Progress and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liposomes are microparticulate lipoidal vesicles which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Due to new developments in liposome technology, several liposome- based drug formulations are currently in clinical trial, and recently some of them have been approved for clinical use. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the

Amarnath Sharma; Uma S. Sharma

1997-01-01

32

New Methods of Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional forms of drug administration generally rely on pills, eye drops, ointments, and intravenous solutions. Recently, a number of novel drug delivery approaches have been developed. These approaches include drug modification by chemical means, drug entrapment in small vesicles that are injected into the bloodstream, and drug entrapment within pumps or polymeric materials that are placed in desired bodily compartments

Robert Langer

1990-01-01

33

Ultrasound-enhanced drug and gene delivery: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of drug and gene delivery is currently a topic of great interest. This optimization can be achieved via site-specific (targeted) delivery, controlled drug release, and by finding ways to deliver more of the drug into tissues of interest (despite various barriers). Targeted delivery can serve to lower the required drug dose and minimize toxic side effects, which is crucial

Vesna Zderic

2008-01-01

34

Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger

Jin-Oh You; Dariela Almeda; George JC Ye; Debra T Auguste

2010-01-01

35

Transdermal drug delivery: Microfabrication insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presented an enhancement solution for transdermal drug delivery using microneedles array with biodegradable tips. The microneedles array was fabricated by using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the biodegradable tips were made to be porous by electrochemical etching process. The porous silicon microneedle tips can greatly enhance the transdermal drug delivery in a minimum invasion, painless, and convenient

Ciprian Iliescu; Bangtao Chen; Jiashen Wei; Zhilian Yue

2009-01-01

36

PECTIN BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two drug delivery systems have been developed from pectin recently in our laboratory. (I) Pectin gel formulations for controlled fragrance release and (II) pectin/zein hydrogels for oral drug delivery. By altering the molecular characteristics or modifying the pectin hydrogel networks, the release ...

37

Microneedles for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery, especially for macromolecules. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a

Mark R Prausnitz

2004-01-01

38

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery

Sarabjeet Singh Suri; Hicham Fenniri; Baljit Singh

2007-01-01

39

Nanosuspension Technology for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor water solubility of drugs is major problem for drug formulation. To date, nanoscale systems for drug delivery have gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. The reduction of drug particles into the sub-micron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are promising candidates that can be

Jiraporn CHINGUNPITUK

40

Floating drug delivery systems: an approach to oral controlled drug delivery via gastric retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), also known as hydrodynamically balanced

Brahma N. Singh; Kwon H. Kim

2000-01-01

41

Drug delivery to the ear.  

PubMed

Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions. PMID:23323784

Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

2013-01-01

42

Microfabricated Drug Delivery Systems: Concepts to Improve Clinical Benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important classes of drugs have yet to benefit from advances in drug delivery technology. Strategies to provide reasonable oral bioavailability of peptide and proteins drugs remain elusive, for example. Systemic cancer drugs produce dose-limiting toxicities largely due to their lack of selectivity. Although delivery systems such as immunotoxins and liposomes improve selectivity of a few cancer drugs, current technology is

Frank J. Martin; Carl Grove

2001-01-01

43

Transmucosal macromolecular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces are the most common and convenient routes for delivering drugs to the body. However, macromolecular drugs such as peptides and proteins are unable to overcome the mucosal barriers and/or are degraded before reaching the blood stream. Among the approaches explored so far in order to optimize the transport of these macromolecules across mucosal barriers, the use of nanoparticulate carriers represents a challenging but promising strategy. The present paper aims to compare the characteristics and potential of nanostructures based on the mucoadhesive polysaccharide chitosan (CS). These are CS nanoparticles, CS-coated oil nanodroplets (nanocapsules) and CS-coated lipid nanoparticles. The characteristics and behavior of CS nanoparticles and CS-coated lipid nanoparticles already reported [A. Vila, A. Sanchez, M. Tobio, P. Calvo, M.J. Alonso, Design of biodegradable particles for protein delivery, J. Control. Rel. 78 (2002) 15-24; R. Fernandez-Urrusuno, P. Calvo, C. Remunan-Lopez, J.L. Vila-Jato, M.J. Alonso, Enhancement of nasal absorption of insulin using chitosan nanoparticles, Pharm. Res. 16 (1999) 1576-1581; M. Garcia-Fuentes, D. Torres, M.J. Alonso, New surface-modified lipid nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for salmon calcitonin (submitted for publication).] are compared with those of CS nanocapsules originally reported here. The three types of systems have a size in the nanometer range and a positive zeta potential that was attributed to the presence of CS on their surface. They showed an important capacity for the association of peptides such as insulin, salmon calcitonin and proteins, such as tetanus toxoid. Their mechanism of interaction with epithelia was investigated using the Caco-2 model cell line. The results showed that CS-coated systems caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the transepithelial resistance of the cell monolayer. Moreover, within the range of concentrations investigated, these systems were internalized in the monolayer in a concentration-dependent manner. This uptake was slightly enhanced by the presence of the CS coating but, as compared with previously published results [M. Garcia-Fuentes, C. Prego, D. Torres, M.J. Alonso, Triglyceride-chitosan nanostructures for oral calcitonin delivery: evaluation in the Caco-2 cell model and in vivo (submitted for publication)], highly dependent on the nature of the lipid core. Nevertheless, these differences in the uptake of the CS-coated systems (solid lipid core or oily core) by the Caco-2 cells did not have a consequence in the in vivo behaviour. Indeed, both CS-coated systems (nanocapsules and CS-coated nanoparticles) showed an important capacity to enhance the intestinal absorption of the model peptide, salmon calcitonin, as shown by the important and long-lasting decrease in the calcemia levels observed in rats. PMID:15588901

Prego, C; García, M; Torres, D; Alonso, M J

2005-01-01

44

Polymeric conjugates for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The field of polymer therapeutics has evolved over the past decade and has resulted in the development of polymer-drug conjugates with a wide variety of architectures and chemical properties. Whereas traditional non-degradable polymeric carriers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide) (HPMA) copolymers have been translated to use in the clinic, functionalized polymer-drug conjugates are increasingly being utilized to obtain biodegradable, stimuli-sensitive, and targeted systems in an attempt to further enhance localized drug delivery and ease of elimination. In addition, the study of conjugates bearing both therapeutic and diagnostic agents has resulted in multifunctional carriers with the potential to both “see and treat” patients. In this paper, the rational design of polymer-drug conjugates will be discussed followed by a review of different classes of conjugates currently under investigation. The design and chemistry used for the synthesis of various conjugates will be presented with additional comments on their potential applications and current developmental status.

Larson, Nate; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

45

Ask the Experts: Transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery, an arena currently worth several billions of US dollars, is a highly favored route of drug administration due to its convenience for patients and medical professionals alike. However, given the high costs in bringing new technologies to the market, as well as the technical issues of delivering drugs past the stratum corneum, the transdermal field needs to overcome a number of obstacles before it can realize its true potential. James Potticary, Assistant Commissioning Editor, spoke with three experts, discussing the challenges faced within the transdermal community, their motivations for becoming involved in the field and their visions for the future of transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24116908

2013-10-01

46

Drug delivery across the skin.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the first through the skin (TTS) therapeutic in 1980, a total of 34 TTS products have been marketed and numerous drugs have been tested by more than 50 commercial organisations for their suitability for TTS delivery. Most of the agents which have been tested have had low molecular weights, due to the impermeability of the skin barrier. This barrier resides in the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. It is mechanical, anatomical, as well as chemical in nature; laterally overlapping cell multi-layers are sealed by tightly packed, intercellular, lipid multi-lamellae. Chemical skin permeation enhancers increase the transport across the barrier by partly solubilising or extracting the skin lipids and by creating hydrophobic pores. This is often irritating and not always well-tolerated. The TTS approach allows drugs (< 400 kDa in size) to permeate through the resulting pores in the skin, with a short lag-time and subsequent steady-state period. Drug bioavailability for TTS delivery is typically below 50%, avoiding the first pass effect. Wider, hydrophilic channels can be generated by skin poration, with the aid of a small electrical current (> 0.4 mA/cm2) across the skin (iontophoresis) or therapeutic ultrasound (few W/cm2; sonoporation). High-voltage (> 150 V, electroporation) widens the pores even more and often irreversibly. These standard poration methods require experience and equipment and are therefore, not practical; at best, charged/small molecules (< or = 4000 kDa in size) can be delivered efficiently across the skin. In spite of the potential harm of gadget-driven skin poration, this method is used to deliver molecules which conventional TTS patches are unable to deliver, especially polypeptides. Lipid-based drug carriers (liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticle microemulsions, etc.) were proposed as alternative, low-risk delivery vehicles. Such suspensions provide an improved drug reservoir on the skin, but the aggregates remain confined to the surface. Conventional carrier suspensions increase skin hydration and/or behave as skin permeation enhancers. The recently developed carriers; Transferomes, comprise pharmaceutically-acceptable, established compounds and are thought to penetrate the skin barrier along the naturally occurring transcutaneous moisture gradient. Transfersomes are believed to penetrate the hydrophilic (virtual) channels in the skin and widen the former after non-occlusive administration. Both small and large hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules are deliverable across the stratum after conjugation with Transfersomes. Drug distribution after transdermal delivery probably proceeds via the lymph. This results in quasi-zero order kinetics with significant systemic drug levels reached after a lag-time of up to a few hours. The relative efficiency of TTS drug delivery with Transfersomes is typically above 50 %; with the added possibility of regional drug targeting. PMID:15989590

Cevc, G

1997-12-01

47

Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery  

PubMed Central

For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli.

2010-01-01

48

Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery.  

PubMed

For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli. PMID:21114841

You, Jin-Oh; Almeda, Dariela; Ye, George Jc; Auguste, Debra T

2010-11-29

49

COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon targeted drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver drugs for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. In recent years, various pharmaceutical approaches have been developed for targeting the drugs to the colon include, formation of prodrugs, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon

Ceyda Tuba

50

Cellulose esters in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose esters have played a vital role in the development of modern drug delivery technology. They possess properties that\\u000a are not only well-suited to the needs of pharmaceutical applications, but that enable construction of drug delivery systems\\u000a that address critical patient needs. These properties include very low toxicity, endogenous and\\/or dietary decomposition products,\\u000a stability, high water permeability, high T\\u000a g,

Kevin J. Edgar

2007-01-01

51

Chitosan Microspheres in Novel Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems.

Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

2011-01-01

52

Colloidal drug delivery systems in vaccine delivery.  

PubMed

Vaccines play a vital role in the field of community medicine to combat against several diseases of human existence. Vaccines primarily trigger the acquired immune system to develop long-lasting immunity against pathogens. Conventional approaches for vaccine delivery lacks potential to target a particular antigen to develop acquired immunity by specific antibodies. Recent advancements in vaccine delivery showed that inclusion of adjuvants in vaccine formulations or delivery of them in a carrier helps in achieving desired targeting ability, reducing the immunogenicity and significant augmentation in the immune response. Colloidal carriers (liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, proteosomes, virosomes and virus like particles (VLPs), antigen cochleates, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) have been widely explored for vaccine delivery. Further, surface engineering of these carriers with ligands, functional moieties and monoclonal antibodies tend to enhance the immune recognition potential of vaccines by differentiation of antigen specific memory T-cells. The current review, therefore, provides an updated account on the recent advancements in various colloidal delivery systems in vaccine delivery, outlining the mechanism of immune response initiated by them along with potential applications and marketed instances in an explicit manner. PMID:23072326

Beg, Sarwar; Samad, Abdus; Nazish, Iram; Sultana, Ruksar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Md Zaki; Akbar, Md

2013-01-01

53

Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology, a multidisciplinary scientific undertaking, involves creation and utilization of materials, devices or systems on the nanometer scale. The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to create innovations and play a critical role in various biomedical applications, not only in drug delivery, but also in molecular imaging, biomarkers and biosensors. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas where nanotechnology would play a vital role. This review considers different nanotechnology-based drug delivery and imaging approaches, and their economic impact on pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. PMID:14678737

Sahoo, Sanjeeb K; Labhasetwar, Vinod

2003-12-15

54

Nanosuspensions in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble, and therefore poorly bioavailable, leading to abandoned development efforts. These so-called 'brickdust' candidates can now be rescued by formulating them into crystalline nanosuspensions. In the process of overcoming issues involving solubility, additional pharmacokinetic benefits of the drugs so formulated have come to be appreciated.

Barrett E. Rabinow

2004-01-01

55

Drug delivery from jet nebulisers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximising the rate of drug delivered in particles small enough to reach the lower respiratory tract from jet nebulisers may allow treatment times to be reduced and thus improve the acceptability of this form of treatment, particularly in very young patients. The role of various technical factors such as driving gas flow (DGF) in determining the rate of drug delivery

M L Everard; A R Clark; A D Milner

1992-01-01

56

Drug delivery to the Lungs 21.  

PubMed

Drug Delivery to the Lungs 21 was focused exclusively on delivery technologies of medicines for the treatment of diseases that are 'local' to the respiratory tract or for wider 'systemic' distribution. Therefore, the range of diseases that can be treated via delivering drugs to the lungs is large and diverse. This diversity means that the delivery technologies (device and/or formulation) are also very varied. Moreover, the patient is critically involved when using drug-delivery technologies to the lungs as their inhalation and 'user' characteristics are pivotal in ensuring that the correct dose is given and reaches the appropriate part of the respiratory tract. Thus, Drug Delivery to the Lungs 21 was a wide-ranging conference, ideal for an overview of current and future inhaled-delivery technologies. The conference was split into various themed sections and supported by approximately 65 posters. Furthermore, the conference was preceded by a workshop organized by the European Pharmaceutical Aerosol Group on abbreviated impactor measurement, which is a tool currently of much interest in assessing aerosol products (see separate summary). The conference initiated a number of innovations this year, including a Facebook page on which delegates and organizers could follow and 'chat' about conference proceedings. PMID:22834000

Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steve C

2011-03-01

57

Transmucosal macromolecular drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces are the most common and convenient routes for delivering drugs to the body. However, macromolecular drugs such as peptides and proteins are unable to overcome the mucosal barriers and\\/or are degraded before reaching the blood stream. Among the approaches explored so far in order to optimize the transport of these macromolecules across mucosal barriers, the use of nanoparticulate

C. Prego; M. García; D. Torres; M. J. Alonso

2005-01-01

58

Biodegradable Polymers for Ocular Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of ocular drug delivery systems, including a controlled release of the drug, drug targeting, and penetration enhancement of the drug, have been investigated. Biodegradable polymers have been widely used as the drug carrier for controlled-release systems. Biodegradable polymers release the drug as they themselves degrade and are finally absorbed within the body. Several ocular drug delivery systems using

Hideya Kimura; Yuichiro Ogura

2001-01-01

59

Developments in macromolecular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Macromolecular drugs hold great promise as novel therapeutics of several major disorders, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, their use is limited by lack of efficient, safe, and specific delivery strategies. Successful development of such strategies requires interdisciplinary collaborations involving researchers with expertise on, e.g., polymer chemistry, cell biology, nanotechnology, systems biology, advanced imaging methods, and clinical medicine. This not only poses obvious challenges to the scientific community but also provides opportunities for the unexpected at the interface between different disciplines. This introductory chapter summarizes and gives references to studies on macromolecular delivery that should be of interest to a broad scientific audience involved in macromolecular drug synthesis as well as in vitro and in vivo drug delivery studies. PMID:19085127

Belting, Mattias; Wittrup, Anders

2009-01-01

60

Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology, a multidisciplinary scientific undertaking, involves creation and utilization of materials, devices or systems on the nanometer scale. The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to create innovations and play a critical role in various biomedical applications, not only in drug delivery, but also in molecular imaging, biomarkers and biosensors. Target-specific

Sanjeeb K. Sahoo; Vinod Labhasetwar

2003-01-01

61

Drug delivery and nanoparticles: Applications and hazards  

PubMed Central

The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Interestingly pharmaceutical sciences are using nanoparticles to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs and up to recently did not realize that carrier systems themselves may impose risks to the patient. The kind of hazards that are introduced by using nanoparticles for drug delivery are beyond that posed by conventional hazards imposed by chemicals in classical delivery matrices. For nanoparticles the knowledge on particle toxicity as obtained in inhalation toxicity shows the way how to investigate the potential hazards of nanoparticles. The toxicology of particulate matter differs from toxicology of substances as the composing chemical(s) may or may not be soluble in biological matrices, thus influencing greatly the potential exposure of various internal organs. This may vary from a rather high local exposure in the lungs and a low or neglectable exposure for other organ systems after inhalation. However, absorbed species may also influence the potential toxicity of the inhaled particles. For nanoparticles the situation is different as their size opens the potential for crossing the various biological barriers within the body. From a positive viewpoint, especially the potential to cross the blood brain barrier may open new ways for drug delivery into the brain. In addition, the nanosize also allows for access into the cell and various cellular compartments including the nucleus. A multitude of substances are currently under investigation for the preparation of nanoparticles for drug delivery, varying from biological substances like albumin, gelatine and phospholipids for liposomes, and more substances of a chemical nature like various polymers and solid metal containing nanoparticles. It is obvious that the potential interaction with tissues and cells, and the potential toxicity, greatly depends on the actual composition of the nanoparticle formulation. This paper provides an overview on some of the currently used systems for drug delivery. Besides the potential beneficial use also attention is drawn to the questions how we should proceed with the safety evaluation of the nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery. For such testing the lessons learned from particle toxicity as applied in inhalation toxicology may be of use. Although for pharmaceutical use the current requirements seem to be adequate to detect most of the adverse effects of nanoparticle formulations, it can not be expected that all aspects of nanoparticle toxicology will be detected. So, probably additional more specific testing would be needed.

De Jong, Wim H; Borm, Paul JA

2008-01-01

62

Microneedles for transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery, especially for macromolecules. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. Most drug delivery studies have emphasized solid microneedles, which have been shown to increase skin permeability to a broad range of molecules and nanoparticles in vitro. In vivo studies have demonstrated delivery of oligonucleotides, reduction of blood glucose level by insulin, and induction of immune responses from protein and DNA vaccines. For these studies, needle arrays have been used to pierce holes into skin to increase transport by diffusion or iontophoresis or as drug carriers that release drug into the skin from a microneedle surface coating. Hollow microneedles have also been developed and shown to microinject insulin to diabetic rats. To address practical applications of microneedles, the ratio of microneedle fracture force to skin insertion force (i.e. margin of safety) was found to be optimal for needles with small tip radius and large wall thickness. Microneedles inserted into the skin of human subjects were reported as painless. Together, these results suggest that microneedles represent a promising technology to deliver therapeutic compounds into the skin for a range of possible applications. PMID:15019747

Prausnitz, Mark R

2004-03-27

63

Biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.  

PubMed

General aspects of biodegradable microspheres prepared from natural and synthesized polymers used in drug delivery systems are reviewed first from various viewpoints: characteristics of biodegradable polymers (physicochemical properties, bioerosion mechanism, biocompatibility), preparation method for the microspheres, drug release from parenteral products and briefly nonparenteral products. The relationship between release pattern and pharmacological activity of therapeutic peptides and proteins and rational controlled release design are also discussed. In the latter half, successful sustained release depot formulations of peptides, leuprorelin acetate, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), utilizing poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are reviewed with respect to preparation, drug release, biocompatibility, pharmacological effects, and results of clinical studies. Thereafter, studies on antitumor therapy by chemoembolization using PLGA microspheres containing an angiogenesis inhibitor (TNP-470) are described as an example of targeted drug delivery with biodegradable microspheres. PMID:8521523

Okada, H; Toguchi, H

1995-01-01

64

Nanocarriers and Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles may serve, among other techniques, as a useful tool for achieving the main objective of regional cancer therapy:\\u000a they can deliver a higher concentration of the agent to the tumor and expose the tumor to active drug for longer periods than\\u000a safely possible with conventional formulations. These carriers combine many advantages, such as a potential for selective\\u000a targeting and

Svetlana Gelperina

65

Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based

Mehrdad Hamidi; Amir Azadi; Pedram Rafiei

2008-01-01

66

Drug delivery by lipid cochleates.  

PubMed

Drug delivery technology has brought additional benefits to pharmaceuticals such as reduction in dosing frequency and side effects, as well as the extension of patient life. To address this need, cochleates, a precipitate obtained as a result of the interaction between phosphatidylserine and calcium, have been developed and proved to have potential in encapsulating and delivering small molecule drugs. This chapter discusses the molecules that can be encapsulated in a cochleate system and describes in detail the methodology that can be used to encapsulate and characterize hydrophobic drugs such as amphotericin B, a potent antifungal agent. Some efficacy data in animal models infected with candidiasis or aspergillosis are described as well. PMID:15721389

Zarif, Leila

2005-01-01

67

Gelatin Used for Drug Delivery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how gelatin can be used as a medium for drug delivery. Learners create colored gelatin and then cut out pieces of the gelatin to simulate medicine (pills). Learners then put their simulated pills in a pan of hot water. Since gelatin is a thermoreversible or cold-setting polymer, gelatin will convert back to a liquid if put in a hot environment. As the gelatin returns to its liquid form, it releases its embedded dye. The dye eventually diffuses completely out of the gelatin which simulates the slow release of a drug from a pill. From this activity, learners learn more about diffusion and drug delivery. Adult supervision recommended.

Mississippi, University O.

2003-01-01

68

Magnetic nanovectors for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology holds the promise of novel and more effective treatments for vexing human health issues. Among these are the use of nanoparticle platforms for site-specific delivery of therapeutics to tumors, both by passive and active mechanisms; the latter includes magnetic vectoring of magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) that are functionalized to carry a drug payload that is released at the tumor. The conceptual basis, which actually dates back a number of decades, resides in physical (magnetic) enhancement, with magnetic field gradients aligned non-parallel to the direction of flow in the tumor vasculature, of existing passive mechanisms for extravasation and accumulation of MNP in the tumor interstitial fluid, followed by MNP internalization. In this review, we will assess the most recent developments and current status of this approach, considering MNP that are composed of one or more of the three elements that are ferromagnetic at physiological temperature: nickel, cobalt and iron. The effects on cellular functions in vitro, the ability to successfully vector the platform in vivo, the anti-tumor effects of such localized nano-vectors, and any associated toxicities for these MNP will be presented. The merits and shortcomings of nanomaterials made of each of the three elements will be highlighted, and a roadmap for moving this long-established approach forward to clinical evaluation will be put forth. PMID:22640907

Klostergaard, Jim; Seeney, Charles E

2012-05-26

69

Pulmonary drug delivery: medicines for inhalation.  

PubMed

Mankind has inhaled substances for medical and other reasons for thousands of years, notably resulting in the cultural manifestations of tobacco and opium smoking. Over the course of time concepts of pulmonary application, including inhalation devices and drug formulations, have been and still are being continuously developed. State of the art instruments even allow for individualized drug application by adaptation of the inhalation procedure to the breathing pattern of the patient. Pulmonary drug delivery offers promising advantages in comparison to "classical" drug administration via the oral or transcutaneous routes, which is also reflected by an increasing interest and number of marketed products for inhalation therapy. However, the lungs' efficient clearance mechanisms still limit the benefit of many therapeutic concepts. In consequence the objective of current research and development in pulmonary drug delivery is to overcome and to control drug clearance from the intended target site. Here, several of the most auspicious future drug delivery concepts are presented and discussed in order to give the reader an insight into this emerging field of medicine. PMID:20217530

Henning, Andreas; Hein, Stephanie; Schneider, Marc; Bur, Michael; Lehr, Claus-Michael

2010-01-01

70

Polysaccharides for colon targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Colon targeted drug delivery has the potential to deliver bioactive agents for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. Various strategies, currently available to target the release of drugs to colon, include formation of prodrug, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon-specific biodegradable polymers, timed released systems, osmotic systems, and pressure controlled drug delivery systems. Among the different approaches to achieve targeted drug release to the colon, the use of polymers especially biodegradable by colonic bacteria holds great promise. Polysaccharidases are bacterial enzymes that are available in sufficient quantity to be exploited in colon targeting of drugs. Based on this approach, various polysaccharides have been investigated for colon-specific drug release. These polysaccharides include pectin, guar gum, amylose, inulin, dextran, chitosan, and chondroitin sulphate. This family of natural polymers has an appeal to drug delivery as it is comprised of polymers with a large number of derivatizable groups, a wide range of molecular weights, varying chemical compositions, and, for the most part, low toxicity and biodegradability yet high stability. The most favorable property of these materials is their approval as pharmaceutical excipients. PMID:15200012

Chourasia, M K; Jain, S K

71

Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Oakland, CA)

2002-01-01

72

Biopolymers as transdermal drug delivery systems in dermatology therapy.  

PubMed

The skin is considered a complex organ for drug delivery because of its structure. Drug delivery systems are designed for the controlled release of drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation, maintaining consistent efficacy and reducing the dose of the drugs and their related side effects. Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. The excellent impervious nature of the skin is the greatest challenge that must be overcome for successful drug delivery. Today, polymers have been proven to be successful for long-term drug delivery applications as no single polymer can satisfy all of the requirements. Biopolymers in the field of dermal application are rare and the mechanisms that affect skin absorption are almost unknown. Biopolymers are widely used as drug delivery systems, but as such the use of biopolymers as drug delivery systems in dermatologic therapy is still in progress. Commonly used biopolymers include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), chitosan, proteins and peptides, pectin, siRNAs, and hyaluronic acid. These new and exciting methods for drug delivery are already increasing the number and quality of dermal and transdermal therapies. This article reviews current research on biopolymers and focuses on their potential as drug carriers, particularly in relation to the dermatologic aspects of their use. PMID:20499487

Basavaraj, K H; Johnsy, George; Navya, M A; Rashmi, R; Siddaramaiah

2010-01-01

73

Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery. PMID:23662604

Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

2013-01-01

74

Biosensing and Drug Delivery at the Microscale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The book chapter “Biosensing and Drug Delivery at the Microscale: Novel Devices for a Controlled and Responsive Drug Delivery”\\u000a published in the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology vol. 197: Drug Delivery has been retracted. For further details see Erratum.

Andrea A. Robitzki; Randy Kurz

75

Protease-mediated drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

2003-12-01

76

Endocytic mechanisms for targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Advances in the delivery of targeted drug systems have evolved to enable highly regulated site specific localization to subcellular organelles. Targeting therapeutics to individual intracellular compartments has resulted in benefits to therapies associated with these unique organelles. Endocytosis, a mechanism common to all cells in the body, internalizes macromolecules and retains them in transport vesicles which traffic along the endolysosomal scaffold. An array of vesicular internalization mechanisms exist, therefore understanding the key players specific to each pathway has allowed researchers to bioengineer macromolecular complexes for highly specialized delivery. Membrane specific receptors most frequently enter the cell through endocytosis following the binding of a high affinity ligand. High affinity ligands interact with membrane receptors, internalize in membrane bound vesicles, and traffic through cells in different manners to allow for accumulation in early endosomal fractions or lysosomally associated fractions. Although most drug delivery complexes aim to avoid lysosomal degradation, more recent studies have shown the clinical utility in directed protein delivery to this environment for the enzymatic release of therapeutics. Targeting nanomedicine complexes to the endolysosomal pathway has serious potential for improving drug delivery for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. Although several issues remain for receptor specific targeting, current work is investigating a synthetic receptor approach for high affinity binding of targeted macromolecules. PMID:17659804

Bareford, Lisa M; Swaan, Peter W

2007-06-28

77

New Approaches to Targeted Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For targeted drug delivery, one of the primary drawbacks lies with the inability to design a delivery system that can be loaded with a variety of drugs and biomolecules. Motivated by this challenge, we will present data showing 400 nm liposomes loaded via the novel method of lysenin pores. These pores are approximately 3 nm in diameter and can be closed with divalent and trivalent ions in addition to charged polymers. This new method allows for the controllable passage of large biomolecules such as DNA and protein without the inherent problems common to active and passive loading methods. We will show proof-of-concept results of this method using fluorescent calcein as a drug simulator. Furthermore, data demonstrating current attempts at loading DNA will also be presented.

Cooper, James; Oliver, William; Fologea, Daniel

2013-03-01

78

Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. These systems are currently of interest to the pharmaceutical scientist because of their considerable potential to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating a wide range of drug molecules. In order to appreciate the potential of microemulsions as delivery vehicles, this review gives

M. Jayne Lawrence; Gareth D. Rees

2000-01-01

79

Polymeric Micelles - The Future of Oral Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines current advancements in polymeric micelles as a method for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The oral route presents several barriers to drug delivery that the chosen vesicle must overcome. Polymeric micelles have several physical properties, including molecular weight and copolymer block composition, which can be tailored to alter the vesicle structure and overcome these barriers. Examination

Isaac Godfroy

80

Nano- and microfabrication for overcoming drug delivery challenges  

PubMed Central

This highlight article describes current nano- and microfabrication techniques for creating drug delivery devices. We first review the main physiological barriers to delivering therapeutic agents. Then, we describe how novel fabrication methods can be utilized to combine many features into a single physiologically relevant device to overcome drug delivery challenges.

Kam, Kimberly R.

2013-01-01

81

Recent advances in liposomal drug-delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liposomal drug-delivery systems have come of age in recent years, with several liposomal drugs currently in advanced clinical trials or already on the market. It is clear from numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies that drugs, such as antitumor drugs, packaged in liposomes exhibit reduced toxicities, while retaining, or gaining enhanced, efficacy. This results, in part, from altered pharmacokinetics, which lead

Arcadio Chonn; Pieter R Cullis

1995-01-01

82

Subcellular targeting strategies for drug design and delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drug targets are localized to particular subcellular compartments, yet current drug design strategies are focused on bioavailability and tissue targeting and rarely address drug delivery to specific intracellular compartments. Insights into how the cell traffics its constituents to these different cellular locations could improve drug design. In this Review, we explore the fundamentals of membrane trafficking and subcellular organization,

Lawrence Rajendran; Hans-Joachim Knölker; Kai Simons

2010-01-01

83

Orotransmucosal drug delivery systems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosal drug delivery is an alternative method of systemic drug delivery that offers several advantages over both injectable and enteral methods and also enhances drug bioavailability because the mucosal surfaces are usually rich in blood supply, providing the means for rapid drug transport to the systemic circulation and avoiding, in most cases, degradation by first-pass hepatic metabolism. The systems

N. V. Satheesh Madhav; Ashok K. Shakya; Pragati Shakya; Kuldeep Singh

2009-01-01

84

Enhanced anticancer drug delivery using electrical pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drugs that have the potential to treat cancers have had limited success due to their lack of efficient and safe delivery mechanisms that allow the drug molecules to cross cell membranes. Electrical pulses-mediated drug delivery, known as electroporation, is gaining attention as a possible approach to enhance uptake of chemotherapy. It delivers anticancer drugs with enhanced efficacy and fewer

Funian Xiao

2009-01-01

85

Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal delivery of pharmacologically active agents has been extensively studied for the past 40 years. Despite the strong\\u000a efforts, currently, only about 40 products are in market on about 20 drug molecules, due to the requirements that the patch\\u000a area should be small enough for the patients to feel comfortable, and to the barrier properties of the stratum corneum. Various

Robhash Kusam Subedi; Seaung Youl Oh; Myung-Kwan Chun; Hoo-Kyun Choi

2010-01-01

86

Technique for Drug and Chemical Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates generally to a technique for delivering drugs and/or chemicals, and, more particularly, to effecting such delivery by means of microwave-stimulation of drug containing liposomes. By subjecting liposome encapsulated drugs to microwave...

R. P. Liburdy

1986-01-01

87

Microbially triggered drug delivery to the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing acceptance of protein- and peptide-based drugs necessitates an investigation into the suitability of various sites for their administration. Colon is being investigated for delivery of such molecules. Colon-specific drug delivery is designed to target drug molecules specifically to this area. Development of site-specific delivery systems may exploit a specific property of the target site for drug activation\\/release. The gastrointestinal

V. R Sinha; Rachna Kumria

2003-01-01

88

Magnetizable implants for targeted drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to deliver high effective dosages to specific sites in the human body has become the holy grail of drug delivery research. Drugs with proven effectiveness under in vitro investigation often reach a major roadblock under in vivo testing due to a lack of an effective delivery strategy. In addition, many clinical scenarios require delivery of agents that are

Zachary Graham Forbes

2005-01-01

89

Drug delivery systems from nose to brain.  

PubMed

The treatment of brain disorders is particularly challenging due to the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles to deliver drugs selectively and effectively to the brain. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) constitutes the major obstacle to the uptake of drugs into the brain following systemic administration. Intranasal delivery offers a non-invasive and convenient method to bypass the BBB and delivery of therapeutics directly to the brain. The review discusses the potential of intranasal route to deliver drugs to the brain, the mechanisms and pathways of direct nose to brain drug transport, the various factors influencing transnasal drug absorption, the conventional and novel intranasal drug delivery systems, the various intranasal drug delivery techniques and devices, and examples of brain drug transport that have been feasible in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, products on the market, investigational drugs, and the author's perceptions about the prospect of intranasal delivery for treating brain disorders are also been discussed. PMID:23016642

Misra, Ambikanandan; Kher, Gitanjali

2012-09-01

90

Transdermal drug delivery: from micro to nano.  

PubMed

Delivery across skin offers many advantages compared to oral or intravenous routes of drug administration. Skin however is highly impermeable to most molecules on the basis of size, hydrophilicity, lipophilicity and charge. For this reason it is often necessary to temporarily alter the barrier properties of skin for effective administration. This can be done by applying chemical enhancers, which alter the lipid structure of the top layer of skin (the stratum corneum, SC), by applying external forces such as electric currents and ultrasounds, by bypassing the stratum corneum via minimally invasive microneedles or by using nano-delivery vehicles that can cross and deliver their payload to the deeper layers of skin. Here we present a critical summary of the latest technologies used to increase transdermal delivery. PMID:22334401

Pegoraro, Carla; MacNeil, Sheila; Battaglia, Giuseppe

2012-02-15

91

Novel drug delivery systems in pain therapy.  

PubMed

Pain is an unpleasant sensory experience resulting from damage to bodily tissues. It is considered a significant public health problem because it affects 1/5 of the world population and causes loss of great amounts of money. Pain reflects a mixture of pathological, psychological and genetic conditions that need deep understanding to be efficiently treated. If under-treated, pain results in serious immune and metabolic problems. Pain management faces many problems that limit its control. For instance, efficiency of pain killers is limited, pain killers give rise to serious side effects and inability of drug administration methods to help in pain control. Technology can overcome some of these problems and the introduction of implantable controlled drug delivery systems (CDDS), manufactured from biodegradable materials, offers a solution. Implantable CDDS provide good level of pain control, as they continuously provide drug, reduce side effects and improve patients' compliance. Biodegradable type of implantable CDDS are polymer based devices that are fabricated to locally deliver drugs in a pre-designed manner. They are currently a focus of research in the field of pain therapy in order to explore their chance to offer an alternative to the conventional methods for drug delivery. This paper aims to highlight the dimensions of pain issue and to overview the basics of drug release from polymers used for CDDS in pain management. In addition, it discusses the recent advances in the technologically designed drug delivery systems in the field of pain medicine and their clinical applications. Future perspectives are also presented. PMID:17159768

Al Malyan, M; Becchi, C; Boncinelli, S; Ashammakhi, N

2006-12-12

92

Cyclodextrins in drug delivery: An updated review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to discuss and summarize some of the interesting findings and applications of cyclodextrins\\u000a (CDs) and their derivatives in different areas of drug delivery, particularly in protein and peptide drug delivery and gene\\u000a delivery. The article highlights important CD applications in the design of various novel delivery systems like liposomes,\\u000a microspheres, microcapsules, and nanoparticles. In

Rajeswari Challa; Alka Ahuja; Javed Ali; R. K. Khar

2005-01-01

93

Nanoparticle drug delivery system for restenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restenosis, an arterial reobstruction occurring in thirty to fifty percent of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty, because of its localized nature can possibly be best treated by local drug therapy. In recent years, several local drug delivery strategies have been investigated for the prevention of restenosis. In this review we discuss the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

Vinod Labhasetwar; Cunxian Song; Robert J. Levy

1997-01-01

94

Moving smaller in drug discovery and delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in new micro- and nanotechnologies are accelerating the identification and evaluation of drug candidates, and the development of new delivery technologies that are required to transform biological potential into medical reality. This article will highlight the emerging micro- and nanotechnology tools, techniques and devices that are being applied to advance the fields of drug discovery and drug delivery. Many

David A. LaVan; David M. Lynn; Robert Langer

2002-01-01

95

The rise and rise of drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery has typically focused on optimizing marketed compounds, improving their effectiveness or tolerability, and simplifying their administration. This role now includes the first biopharmaceuticals as well as more conventional drugs. As drug-delivery technologies come into play earlier in the development cycle, however, they can also enhance the screening and evaluation of new compounds and 'rescue' failed compounds, such as

Howard Rosen; Thierry Abribat

2005-01-01

96

Polymers for colon targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Bhandari, A

2010-11-01

97

CCMR: Controlled Drug Delivery From New Biomaterials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of controlled release systems for drug delivery is an area that has generated considerable research interest over the past decade. Biodegradable polymers, which degrade naturally via hydrolysis or enzymatic digestion, have demonstrated great potential for use in the preparation of controlled drug delivery systems. Biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems hold several distinct advantages over more conventional oral and inhalation routes, including enhanced site specificity of drug delivery, reduced side effects, improved patient compliance, and greater overall efficacy. The primary objective of this work was to synthesize biodegradable polyesters based on a locked dimer of dihydroxyacetone (DHA).

Rhodes, Steven D.

2005-08-17

98

Monolithic maleic anhydride drug delivery systems  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Erodible bioadhesive drug delivery vehicles for use in delivering pharmaceutical compounds to the eye and similar physiological environments are disclosed. The drug delivery vehicles are formed of a homopolymer or copolymer of maleic anhydride or lower alkyl maleic anhydride incorporating a pharmaceutical compound in either a monolithic matrix or encapsulated form. The bioadhesive erodible drug delivery vehicles are configured to be retained in the eye following administration while providing specific erosion profiles allowing convenient drug delivery schedules ranging from hourly to daily or weekly intervals.

1995-12-12

99

Therapeutic applications of implantable drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, drugs were frequently administered orally, as liquids or in powder forms. To avoid problems incurred through the utilization of the oral route of drug administration, new dosage forms containing the drug(s) were introduced. As time progressed, there was a need for delivery systems that could maintain a steady release of drug to the specific site of action.

AlekhaK Dash; GreggreyC Cudworth

1998-01-01

100

Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches  

PubMed Central

Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery.

Shaji, Jessy; Patole, V.

2008-01-01

101

Image Guided Biodistribution of Drugs and Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Image guided technique is playing an increasingly important role in the investigation of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of drugs or drug delivery systems. The application of these new materials and techniques with combined properties of diagnosis and therapy can benefit the development of targeted drug delivery system and modern personalized medicine This special issue provides an up-to-date collection of original research articles and review on the development of novel targeted drug and drug delivery systems combining with non-invasive image guided techniques for chemotherapeutic reagents or DNA delivery.

Ding, Hong; Wu, Fang

2012-01-01

102

Membranes and Barriers: Targeted Drug Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Retrometabolic Approaches to Drug Targeting; Vector-Mediated Delivery of Opioid Peptides to the Brain; Conformationally Constrained Peptide Drugs Targeted at the Blood-Brain Barrier; Passive and Facilitative Transport of Nucleobases, Nucleosides...

R. S. Rapaka

1995-01-01

103

Microfabrication Technologies for Oral Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Micro-/nanoscale technologies such as lithographic techniques and microfluidics offer promising avenues to revolutionalize the fields of tissue engineering, drug discovery, diagnostics and personalized medicine. Microfabrication techniques are being explored for drug delivery applications due to their ability to combine several features such as precise shape and size into a single drug delivery vehicle. They also offer to create unique asymmetrical features incorporated into single or multiple reservoir systems maximizing contact area with the intestinal lining. Combined with intelligent materials, such microfabricated platforms can be designed to be bioadhesive and stimuli-responsive. Apart from drug delivery devices, microfabrication technologies offer exciting opportunities to create biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models incorporating physiological cell types, flow patterns and brush-border like structures. Here we review the recent developments in this field with a focus on the applications of microfabrication in the development of oral drug delivery devices and biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models that can be used to evaluate the drug delivery efficacy.

Sant, Shilpa; Tao, Sarah L.; Fisher, Omar; Xu, Qiaobing; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

2012-01-01

104

Transdermal delivery of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of transdermal drug delivery for the treatment of bone diseases is described in this review. The structure, physiology and function of skin and their importance in determining delivery into and across skin are discussed. Special emphasis has been devoted to a description of the major pathways of transport across the skin and the quite continuing controversy over

Chandrasekharan Ramachandran; David Fleisher

2000-01-01

105

Cubic phase gels as drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids have been used extensively for drug delivery in various forms such as liposomes, and solid-matrices. The focus of this review is evaluation of liquid crystalline cubic phases, spontaneously formed when amphiphilic lipids are placed in aqueous environment, for drug delivery. Cubic phases have an interesting thermodynamically stable structure consisting of curved bicontinuous lipid bilayer in three dimensions, separating two

Jaymin C Shah; Yogesh Sadhale; Dakshina Murthy Chilukuri

2001-01-01

106

Bioadhesive Dosage Forms for Esophageal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

No Heading The esophagus as a site for drug delivery has been much overlooked in comparison to the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract. The low permeability and transient nature of the esophagus means that it is unsuitable for delivery of drugs for systemic action. However, esophageal disorders including fungal infection, cancers, motility dysfunction, and damage due to gastric reflux may

Hannah Batchelor

2005-01-01

107

Optically generated ultrasound for enhanced drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency acoustic waves, analogous to ultrasound, can enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds into cells. The compounds delivered may be chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, photodynamic drugs or gene therapies. The therapeutic compounds are administered systemically, or preferably locally to the targeted site. Local delivery can be accomplished through a needle, cannula, or through a variety of vascular catheters, depending on

Steven R. Visuri; Heather L. Campbell; Luiz Da Silva

2002-01-01

108

Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

2011-12-01

109

Recent advances in ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Recent research has focused on the characteristic advantages and limitations of the various drug delivery systems, and further research will be required before the ideal system can be developed. Administration of drugs to the ocular region with conventional delivery systems leads to short contact time of the formulations on the epithelium and fast elimination of drugs. This transient residence time involves poor bioavailability of drugs which can be explained by the tear production, non-productive absorption and impermeability of corneal epithelium. Anatomy of the eye is shortly presented and is connected with ophthalmic delivery and bioavailability of drugs. In the present update on ocular dosage forms, chemical delivery systems such as prodrugs, the use of cyclodextrins to increase solubility of various drugs, the concept of penetration enhancers and other ocular drug delivery systems such as polymeric gels, bioadhesive hydrogels, in-situ forming gels with temperature-, pH-, or osmotically induced gelation, combination of polymers and colloidal systems such as liposomes, niosomes, cubosomes, microemulsions, nanoemulsions and nanoparticles are discussed. Novel ophthalmic delivery systems propose the use of many excipients to increase the viscosity or the bioadhesion of the product. New formulations like gels or colloidal systems have been tested with numerous active substances by in vitro and in vivo studies. Sustained drug release and increase in drug bioavailability have been obtained, offering the promise of innovation in drug delivery systems for ocular administration. Combining different properties of pharmaceutical formulations appears to offer a genuine synergy in bioavailability and sustained release. Promising results are obtained with colloidal systems which present very comfortable conditions of use and prolonged action. PMID:23153114

Achouri, Djamila; Alhanout, Kamel; Piccerelle, Philippe; Andrieu, Véronique

2012-11-16

110

Ultrasound-mediated micellar drug delivery.  

PubMed

During the last decade, nanomedicine has emerged as a new field of medicine that utilises nanoscale materials for delivery of drugs, genes and imaging agents. The efficiency of drug delivery may be enhanced by the application of directed energy, which provides for drug targeting and enhanced intracellular uptake. In this paper, we present a review of recent advances in the ultrasound-mediated drug delivery with the emphasis on polymeric micelles as tumour-targeted drug carriers. This new modality of drug targeting to tumours is based on the drug encapsulation in polymeric micelles followed by a localised release at the tumour site triggered by focused ultrasound. The rationale behind this approach is that drug encapsulation in micelles decreases systemic concentration of free drug and provides for a passive drug targeting to tumours via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, therefore reducing unwanted drug interactions with healthy tissues. Ultrasound affects micellar drug delivery on various levels. Mild hyperthermia induced by ultrasound may enhance micelle extravasation into tumour tissue; mechanical action of ultrasound results in drug release from micelles and enhances the intracellular uptake of both released and encapsulated drug. In addition, polymeric micelles sensitise multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to the action of drugs. PMID:22621738

Rapoport, Natalya

2012-01-01

111

Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: Strategy for Improving Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs are most often administered by the oral route. However, more than 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility, resulting in unsatisfactory oral drug delivery. Recently, much attention has been focused on self- emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents\\/surfactants.

Jing-ling Tang; Jin Sun; Zhong-Gui He

2007-01-01

112

Formulating Drug Delivery Systems by Spray Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the potential use of the spray-drying technology to prepare microparticulate drug delivery systems—microspheres and microcapsules—has been strongly improved over the last years. Various microparticulate spray drying systems used as vehicles for drug encapsulation and delivery that have been investigated for different purposes are presented here, including spray-dried powders formulated with hydrophilic polymers allowing controlled drug release, biodegradable

Maria-Inês Ré

2006-01-01

113

Magnetic nanoparticles for gene and drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Investigations of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery began over 30 years ago. Since that time, major progress has been made in particle design and synthesis techniques, however, very few clinical trials have taken place. Here we review advances in magnetic nanoparticle design, in vitro and animal experiments with magnetic nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery, and clinical trials of drug targeting.

McBain, Stuart C; Yiu, Humphrey HP; Dobson, Jon

2008-01-01

114

Chronopharmaceutics: as a clinically relevant drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Current research in the field of drug delivery devices, by which pulsatile release is achieved, has been intensified. In this article, an attempt has been made to discuss several types of drug delivery systems that show pulsatile drug delivery characteristics. As found frequently in the living body, many vital functions are regulated by pulsed or transient release of bioactive substances at a specific site and time. Thus it is important to develop new drug delivery devices to achieve pulsed delivery of a certain amount of drugs in order to mimic the function of the living systems, while minimizing undesired side-effects. Pulsatile delivery, which is meant as the liberation of drugs following programmed lag phases, has drawn increasing interest, especially in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches. This review article is an attempt to discuss various design strategies, chiefly including reservoir, capsular, and osmotic formulations, and drug delivery systems which cause the pulsed or triggered release of bioactive compounds induced due to certain stimuli like thermal, electrical, and magnetic. PMID:21138394

Gandhi, B R; Mundada, A S; Gandhi, P P

2011-01-01

115

Transdermal patch drug delivery interactions with exercise.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery systems, such as the transdermal patch, continue to be a popular and convenient way to administer medications. There are currently several medications that use a transdermal patch drug delivery system. This article describes the potential untoward side effects of increased drug absorption through the use of a transdermal patch in individuals who exercise or participate in sporting events. Four studies have been reported that demonstrate a significant increase in the plasma concentration of nitroglycerin when individuals exercise compared with rest. Likewise, several case reports and two studies have been conducted that demonstrate nicotine toxicity and increased plasma nicotine while wearing a nicotine patch in individuals who exercise or participate in sporting events compared with rest. Healthcare providers, trainers and coaches should be aware of proper transdermal patch use, especially while exercising, in order to provide needed information to their respective patients and athletes to avoid potential untoward side effects. Particular caution should be given to individuals who participate in an extreme sporting event of long duration. Further research that includes more medications is needed in this area. PMID:21395361

Lenz, Thomas L; Gillespie, Nicole

2011-03-01

116

Applying models of targeted drug delivery to gene delivery.  

PubMed

Gene delivery requires targeted delivery systems. Exploratory simulations using models of targeted drug delivery helps one assess the worthiness of such systems, and helps quantify the expected therapeutic benefits of the systems. The drug targeting index (DTI), a ratio of availabilities, is a measure of pharmacokinetic benefit of the delivery device, based on a combination of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model and a single pharmacodynamic Emaxmodel. Pharmacodynamic outcomes are quantified by the degree of separation between the dose-response and dose-toxicity curves (SRT). Simulations are undertaken to investigate the potential linkage of DTI and SRT, a pharmacodynamic outcome. A significant positive linear relationship is found between the DTI and SRT. The relationship can be translated into a minimum pharmacokinetic requirement that can be used to guide making decisions regarding whether or not further pursue the development of a candidate gene-delivery device as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17271053

Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C Anthony

2004-01-01

117

Transfersomes for transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Transfersomes (Idea AG) are a form of elastic or deformable vesicle, which were first introduced in the early 1990s. Elasticity is generated by incorporation of an edge activator in the lipid bilayer structure. The original composition of these vesicles was soya phosphatidyl choline incorporating sodium cholate and a small concentration of ethanol. Transfersomes are applied in a non-occluded method to the skin and have been shown to permeate through the stratum corneum lipid lamellar regions as a result of the hydration or osmotic force in the skin. They have been used as drug carriers for a range of small molecules, peptides, proteins and vaccines, both in vitro and in vivo. It has been claimed by Idea AG that intact Transfersomes penetrate through the stratum corneum and the underlying viable skin into the blood circulation. However, this has not been substantiated by other research groups who have extensively probed the mechanism of penetration and interaction of elastic vesicles in the skin. Structural changes in the stratum corneum have been identified, and intact elastic vesicles visualised within the stratum corneum lipid lamellar regions, but no intact vesicles have been ascertained in the viable tissues. Using the principle of incorporating an edge-activator agent into a bilayer structure, a number of other elastic vesicle compositions have been evaluated. This review describes the research into the development and evaluation of Transfersomes and elastic vesicles as topical and transdermal delivery systems. PMID:17076595

Benson, Heather A E

2006-11-01

118

Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery with Aptamers  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Tumor-targeted drug delivery is one of the major areas in cancer research. Aptamers exhibit many desirable properties for tumor-targeted drug delivery, such as ease of selection and synthesis, high binding affinity and specificity, low immunogenicity, and versatile synthetic accessibility. Over the last several years, aptamers have quickly become a new class of targeting ligands for drug delivery applications. In this review, we will discuss in detail about aptamer-based delivery of chemotherapy drugs (e.g. doxorubicin, docetaxel, daunorubicin, and cisplatin), toxins (e.g. gelonin and various photodynamic therapy agents), and a variety of small interfering RNAs. Although the results are promising which warrants enthusiasm for aptamer-based drug delivery, tumor homing of aptamer-based conjugates after systemic injection has only been achieved in one report. Much remains to be done before aptamer-based drug delivery can reach clinical trials and eventually the day-to-day management of cancer patients. Therefore, future directions and challenges in aptamer-based drug delivery are also discussed.

Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

2011-01-01

119

Recent expansions in an emergent novel drug delivery technology: Emulgel.  

PubMed

Emulgel is an emerging topical drug delivery system to which if more effort is paid towards its formulation & development with more number of topically effective drugs it will prove a boon for derma care & cosmetology. Emulgels are either emulsion of oil in water or water in oil type, which is gelled by mixing it with gelling agent. Incorporation of emulsion into gel increases its stability & makes it a dual control release system. Due to lack of excess oily bases & insoluble excipients, it shows better drug release as compared to other topical drug delivery system. Presence of gel phase makes it a non greasy & favors good patient compliance. These reviews give knowledge about Emulgel including its properties, advantages, formulation considerations, and its recent advances in research field. All factors such as selection of gelling agent, oil agent, emulsifiers influencing the stability and efficacy of Emulgel are discussed. All justifications are described in accordance with the research work carried out by various scientists. These brief reviews on formulation method have been included. Current research works that carried out on Emulgel are also discussed and highlighted the wide utility of Emulgel in topical drug delivery system. After the vast study, it can be concluded that the Emulgels appear better & effective drug delivery system as compared to other topical drug delivery system. The comprehensive analysis of rheological and release properties will provide an insight into the potential usage of Emulgel formulation as drug delivery system. PMID:23831051

Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Khichariya, Ajita; Gupta, Saurabh; Patel, Ravish J; Giri, Tapan Kumar; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

2013-07-02

120

Drug Delivery Using Platelet Cancer Cell Interaction.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To develop an efficient biocompatible and targeted drug delivery system in which platelets, an essential blood component having a natural affinity for cancer cells, are used as carrier of anticancer drug as delivery of drug to the targeted site is crucial for cancer treatment. METHODS: Doxorubicin hydrochloride, a potent anti cancer drug, was delivered in lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) using platelet as a delivery agent. This delivery mode was also tested in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice in presence and absence of platelets. RESULTS: The results show that platelets can uptake the drug and release the same upon activation. The efficiency of drug loaded platelets in inducing cytotoxicity was significantly higher in both in vitro and in vivo model, as compared to the free drug. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed drug delivery strategy may lead to clinical improvement in the management of cancer treatment as lower drug concentration can be used in a targeted mode. Additionally the method can be personalized as patient's own platelet can be used for deliver various drugs. PMID:23739991

Sarkar, Sounik; Alam, Mohammed Aftab; Shaw, Jyoti; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

2013-06-01

121

Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents the most outstanding contributions in the field of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems. Methods of preparation, drug loading and drug release are covered. The most important findings on surface modification methods as well as surface characterization are covered from 1990 through mid-2000.

Kumaresh S Soppimath; Tejraj M Aminabhavi; Anandrao R Kulkarni; Walter E Rudzinski

2001-01-01

122

Multiscale modeling of transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the modeling of transdermal diffusion of drugs, to better understand the permeation of molecules through the skin, and especially the stratum corneum, which forms the main permeation barrier of the skin. In transdermal delivery of systemic drugs, the drugs diffuse from a patch placed on the skin through the epidermis to the underlying blood vessels. The epidermis

Jee Eun Rim

2006-01-01

123

NANOMAGNETIC PARTICLES FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays drug administration through the transdermal route has emphasized for comfort of patient and easy application. However, the limitations of transdermal drug delivery are governed largely by high impermeability of the human skin, which acts as a natural selective barrier impeding the penetration of foreign molecules and minimizing water losses. Recent advances on improvement of drug transport through the skin

M. H. A. Santana; R. M. Barbosa

124

Device-directed therapeutic drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the therapeutic effectiveness of device-directed drug delivery systems for diseased cardiovascular tissues and cancerous tissues, new devices and new functional biomaterials were devised to meet the requirements as listed below: drug-infusible balloon catheter, drug-releasable and covered stents, and in situ hydrogelation on and in cancerous tissues. New therapeutic strategies based on these devices were discussed.

Takehisa Matsuda

2002-01-01

125

Intracellular Delivery of Drugs to Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic side effects which often complicate successful therapy in a number of diseases possibly arise due to the fact that at therapeutically effective concentrations the non-target cells in the body are also exposed to the cytotoxic effects of the drugs. Minimization of such adverse reactions might be feasible through drug delivery modalities that would reduce the uptake of the drugs

Amitabha Mukhopadhyay; Sandip K. Basu

126

Drug delivery system for zero order, zero order-biphasic, ascending or descending drug delivery  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention is directed to a drug delivery device for controlled release of a drug, comprising a core that has a cylindrical plug embedded therein; and a coating that at least partially surrounds the core. The core is comprised of a drug and excipients. The coating surrounding the core is essentially impermeable to the drug. The cylindrical plug, which is embedded in the core, may be hollow or solid. The drug delivery device enables zero-order drug release profiles as well as more complicated release profiles to be obtained. The invention is also directed to a method of making the drug delivery device.

2007-03-27

127

Perspectives on transdermal ultrasound mediated drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The use of needles for multiple injection of drugs, such as insulin for diabetes, can be painful. As a result, prescribed drug noncompliance can result in severe medical complications. Several noninvasive methods exist for transdermal drug delivery. These include chemical mediation using liposomes and chemical enhancers or physical mechanisms such as microneedles, iontophoresis, electroporation, and ultrasound. Ultrasound enhanced transdermal drug delivery offers advantages over traditional drug delivery methods which are often invasive and painful. A broad review of the transdermal ultrasound drug delivery literature has shown that this technology offers promising potential for noninvasive drug administration. From a clinical perspective, few drugs, proteins or peptides have been successfully administered transdermally because of the low skin permeability to these relatively large molecules, although much work is underway to resolve this problem. The proposed mechanism of ultrasound has been suggested to be the result of cavitation, which is discussed along with the bioeffects from therapeutic ultrasound. For low frequencies, potential transducers which can be used for drug delivery are discussed, along with cautions regarding ultrasound safety versus efficacy.

Smith, Nadine Barrie

2007-01-01

128

Inner ear drug delivery for auditory applications.  

PubMed

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

Swan, Erin E Leary; Mescher, Mark J; Sewell, William F; Tao, Sarah L; Borenstein, Jeffrey T

2008-09-21

129

Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications  

PubMed Central

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored.

Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2008-01-01

130

Elongated supramolecular assemblies in drug delivery.  

PubMed

This review presents different lipid-based elongated microstructures: tubules, cochleate cylinders and ribbons. Their composition, process of preparation and the mechanism behind their formation is discussed as well as their use as a drug delivery system. PMID:11992674

Zarif, Leila

2002-05-17

131

Inner ear drug delivery for auditory applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the

Erin E. Leary Swan; Mark J. Mescher; William F. Sewell; Sarah L. Tao; Jeffrey T. Borenstein

2008-01-01

132

Intra-Arterial Catheter for Drug Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a catheter, a drug delivery system and methods for the localized delivery of therapeutic or diagnostic agent to a target location in a subject and methods for the treatment of a pathological disorder in a subject using the s...

S. Joshi

2004-01-01

133

Microsystems for drug and gene delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microneedles and other structures have been developed for introducing therapeutic agents into tissues and cells. Microstructures for transdermal delivery hold the promise of pain-free drug injection. Electrodes integrated with microneedles can sense and monitor the effects of injected materials on tissues. Microprobes have been shown to be effective in transfecting cells through the delivery of DNA in experiments with both

MICHAEL L. REED; WHYE-KEI LYE

2004-01-01

134

Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery  

SciTech Connect

Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

2011-09-10

135

Novel Platforms for Oral Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to provide the reader general and inspiring prospects on recent and promising fields of innovation\\u000a in oral drug delivery. Nowadays, inventive drug delivery systems vary from geometrically modified and modular matrices, more\\u000a close to “classic” pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, to futuristic bio micro-electro-mechanical systems (bioMEMS), based\\u000a on manufacturing techniques borrowed from electronics and other fields.

P. Colombo; F. Sonvico; G. Colombo; R. Bettini

2009-01-01

136

A Review on Composite Liposomal Technologies for Specialized Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

The combination of liposomes with polymeric scaffolds could revolutionize the current state of drug delivery technology. Although liposomes have been extensively studied as a promising drug delivery model for bioactive compounds, there still remain major drawbacks for widespread pharmaceutical application. Two approaches for overcoming the factors related to the suboptimal efficacy of liposomes in drug delivery have been suggested. The first entails modifying the liposome surface with functional moieties, while the second involves integration of pre-encapsulated drug-loaded liposomes within depot polymeric scaffolds. This attempts to provide ingenious solutions to the limitations of conventional liposomes such as short plasma half-lives, toxicity, stability, and poor control of drug release over prolonged periods. This review delineates the key advances in composite technologies that merge the concepts of depot polymeric scaffolds with liposome technology to overcome the limitations of conventional liposomes for pharmaceutical applications.

Mufamadi, Maluta S.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; Du Toit, Lisa C.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.

2011-01-01

137

Transdermal drug delivery system: patent reviews.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. Although the concept of transdermal drug delivery has been known since 1924, it took until 1979, as FDA approved the transdermal delivery of scopolamine, that transdermal delivery systems [TDDS] received broad attention as novel tool for controlled release. These drug delivery systems are designed for controlled release of drug through the skin into systemic circulation maintaining consistent efficacy and reducing dose of the drug and its related side effects. More than 200 patents have been granted by the United State patent alone, of which more than 35 TDD products have now been approved for sale in the US, and approximately 16 active ingredients have been approved for use globally. Statistics reveal a market of $ 12.7 billion in the year 2005 which is expected to increase by $ 21.5 billion in the year 2010 and $ 31.5 billion in the year 2015. Almost all major and minor pharmaceutical companies are developing TDDS. There is not a single review article which describes patents on different types of TDDS. Thus this review is designed for patents on the different type of TDDS which would be helpful for the researcher in the field of TDDS. PMID:19519574

Samad, Abdus; Ullah, Zabih; Alam, Mohammad I; Wais, Mohd; Shams, Mohammad Shabaz

2009-06-01

138

Chronopharmaceutical Drug Delivery Systems: Hurdles, Hype or Hope??  

PubMed Central

The current advances in chronobiology and the knowledge gained from chronotherapy of selected diseases strongly suggest that “the one size fits all at all times” approach to drug delivery is no longer substantiated, at least for selected bioactive agents and disease therapy or prevention. Thus, there is a critical and urgent need for chronopharmaceutical research (e.g., design and evaluation of robust, spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery systems that would be clinically intended for chronotherapy by different routes of administration). This review provides a brief overview of current delivery system intended for chronotherapy. In theory, such an ideal “magic pill” preferably with affordable cost, would improve the safety, efficacy and patient compliance of old and new drugs. However, currently, there are three major hurdles for the successful transition of such system from laboratory to patient bedside. These include the challenges to identify adequate (i) rhythmic biomaterials and systems, (ii) rhythm engineering modeling, perhaps using system biology and (iii) regulatory guidance.

Youan, Bi-Botti C.

2010-01-01

139

Drug Delivery to the Posterior Eye Using Etched Microneedles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sight-threatening diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affect the tissues of the posterior segment of the eye. Though modern classes of biomolecular based drugs are therapeutically useful, drug targeting for prolonged bioavailability to pathological sites within the eye is challenging. Current delivery approaches are invasive and lack control over drug release rates and tissue-specific localization. In this thesis, a

Geetha Mahadevan

2011-01-01

140

Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2011-04-01

141

Microneedles for drug and vaccine delivery  

PubMed Central

Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, but only became the subject of significant research starting in the mid-1990’s when microfabrication technology enabled their manufacture as (i) solid microneedles for skin pretreatment to increase skin permeability, (ii) microneedles coated with drug that dissolves off in the skin, (iii) polymer microneedles that encapsulate drug and fully dissolve in the skin and (iv) hollow microneedles for drug infusion into the skin. As shown in more than 350 papers now published in the field, microneedles have been used to deliver a broad range of different low molecular weight drugs, biotherapeutics and vaccines, including published human studies with a number of small-molecule and protein drugs and vaccines. Influenza vaccination using a hollow microneedle is in widespread clinical use and a number of solid microneedle products are sold for cosmetic purposes. In addition to applications in the skin, microneedles have also been adapted for delivery of bioactives into the eye and into cells. Successful application of microneedles depends on device function that facilitates microneedle insertion and possible infusion into skin, skin recovery after microneedle removal, and drug stability during manufacturing, storage and delivery, and on patient outcomes, including lack of pain, skin irritation and skin infection, in addition to drug efficacy and safety. Building off a strong technology base and multiple demonstrations of successful drug delivery, microneedles are poised to advance further into clinical practice to enable better pharmaceutical therapies, vaccination and other applications.

Kim, Yeu-Chun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2012-01-01

142

Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.

Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Mishra, Pradyumna K.; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.

2012-01-01

143

Drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye.  

PubMed

Delivery of drugs to the posterior eye is challenging, owing to anatomical and physiological constrains of the eye. There is an increasing need for managing rapidly progressing posterior eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye is therefore compounded by the increasing number of new therapeutic entities (e.g. oligonucleotides, aptamers and antibodies) and the need for chronic therapy. Currently, the intravitreal route is widely used to deliver therapeutic entities to the retina. However, frequent administration of drugs via this route can lead to retinal detachment, endophthalmitis and increased intraocular pressure. Various controlled delivery systems, such as biodegradable and non-biodegradable implants, liposomes and nanoparticles, have been developed to overcome such adverse effects, with some success. The periocular route is a promising alternative, owing to the large surface area and the relatively high permeability of the sclera. Yet, the blood-retinal barrier and efflux transporters hamper the transport of therapeutic entities to the retina. As such, the efficient delivery of drugs to the posterior eye remains a major challenge facing the pharmaceutical scientist. In this review, we discuss the barriers of the posterior eye drug delivery and the various drug-delivery strategies used to overcome these barriers. PMID:21167306

Thrimawithana, Thilini Rasika; Young, Simon; Bunt, Craig Robert; Green, Colin; Alany, Raid Ghassan

2010-12-15

144

Hydrogen peroxide mediated transvaginal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Simple, safe and effective permeability enhancers are crucial for successful non-invasive drug delivery methods. We seek local permeability augmentation mechanisms for integration into passive or active architectures in order to enable novel therapeutic delivery routes of the target drug while minimizing drug formulation challenges. This study explores the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (HP) as a permeability enhancer for transmucosal delivery of macromolecules. HP at low concentrations (2–8 mM) is an effective permeability enhancer that is locally metabolized and safe. HP improves drug permeation through mucosa by altering tight junctions (TJ) between cells and oxidizing enzymes that function to degrade the foreign species. Results from trans-epithelial electrical resistance measurements and cell viability assay show reversible disassembly of TJ with minimal cell damage demonstrating the feasibility of HP as a safe permeability enhancer for drug delivery. Permeation studies show that HP treatment of cell cultured vaginal mucosa significantly enhances the permeability to insulin by more than an order of magnitude. This work lays foundation for the development of a drug delivery platform that administers drug doses by enhancing the permeability of local epithelial tissue via a separate HP treatment step. PMID:21498011

Fatakdawala, Hussain; Uhland, Scott A

2011-05-16

145

Recent Applications of Liposomes in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Liposomal formulations were significantly explored over the last decade for the ophthalmic drug delivery applications. These formulations are mainly composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and other constituents such as cholesterol and lipid-conjugated hydrophilic polymers. Liposomes are biodegradable and biocompatible in nature. Current approaches for topical delivery of liposomes are focused on improving the corneal adhesion and permeation by incorporating various bioadhesive and penetration enhancing polymers. In the case of posterior segment disorders improvement in intravitreal half life and targeted drug delivery to the retina is achieved by liposomes. In this paper we have attempted to summarize the applications of liposomes in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery by citing numerous investigators over the last decade.

Mishra, Gyan P.; Bagui, Mahuya; Tamboli, Viral; Mitra, Ashim K.

2011-01-01

146

Stimuli sensitive hydrogels for ophthalmic drug delivery: A review  

PubMed Central

Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist for past 10-20 years. As an isolated organ, eye is very difficult to study from a drug delivery point of view. Despite this limitation, improvements have been made with the objective of maintaining the drug in the biophase for an extended period. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of an optimal drug concentration at the site of action. To achieve effective ophthalmic therapy, an adequate amount of active ingredient must be delivered and maintained within the eye. The most frequently used dosage forms, i.e., eye solution, eye ointments, eye gels, and eye suspensions are compromised in their effectiveness by several limitations leading to poor ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic use of viscosity-enhancing agents, penetration enhancers, cyclodextrins, prodrug approaches, and ocular inserts, and the ready existing drug carrier systems along with their application to ophthalmic drug delivery are common to improve ocular bioavailability. Amongst these hydrogel (stimuli sensitive) systems are important, which undergo reversible volume and/or sol-gel phase transitions in response to physiological (temperature, pH and present of ions in organism fluids, enzyme substrate) or other external (electric current, light) stimuli. They help to increase in precorneal residence time of drug to a sufficient extent that an ocularly delivered drug can exhibit its maximum biological action. The concept of this innovative ophthalmic delivery approach is to decrease the systemic side effects and to create a more pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug. The present article describes the advantages and use stimuli sensitive of hydrogel systems in ophthalmic drug delivery.

Kushwaha, Swatantra KS; Saxena, Prachi; Rai, AK

2012-01-01

147

Stimuli sensitive hydrogels for ophthalmic drug delivery: A review.  

PubMed

Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist for past 10-20 years. As an isolated organ, eye is very difficult to study from a drug delivery point of view. Despite this limitation, improvements have been made with the objective of maintaining the drug in the biophase for an extended period. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of an optimal drug concentration at the site of action. To achieve effective ophthalmic therapy, an adequate amount of active ingredient must be delivered and maintained within the eye. The most frequently used dosage forms, i.e., eye solution, eye ointments, eye gels, and eye suspensions are compromised in their effectiveness by several limitations leading to poor ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic use of viscosity-enhancing agents, penetration enhancers, cyclodextrins, prodrug approaches, and ocular inserts, and the ready existing drug carrier systems along with their application to ophthalmic drug delivery are common to improve ocular bioavailability. Amongst these hydrogel (stimuli sensitive) systems are important, which undergo reversible volume and/or sol-gel phase transitions in response to physiological (temperature, pH and present of ions in organism fluids, enzyme substrate) or other external (electric current, light) stimuli. They help to increase in precorneal residence time of drug to a sufficient extent that an ocularly delivered drug can exhibit its maximum biological action. The concept of this innovative ophthalmic delivery approach is to decrease the systemic side effects and to create a more pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug. The present article describes the advantages and use stimuli sensitive of hydrogel systems in ophthalmic drug delivery. PMID:23119233

Kushwaha, Swatantra Ks; Saxena, Prachi; Rai, Ak

2012-04-01

148

Cyclodextrins in ophthalmic drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most ocular diseases are treated by topical drug application in the form of aqueous eye drop solutions. Recent studies have shown that cyclodextrins are useful additives in ophthalmic formulations for increasing the aqueous solubility, aqueous stability and bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs, and to decrease drug irritation. However, these studies have also shown that there are some basic differences between ophthalmic

Thorsteinn Loftssona; Tomi Järvinen

1999-01-01

149

Molecularly imprinted polymers for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imprinting technology has an enormous potential for creating satisfactory drug dosage forms. Although its application in this field is just at an incipient stage, the use of MIPs in the design of new drug delivery systems (DDS) and devices useful in closely related fields, such as diagnostic sensors, is receiving increasing attention. Examples of MIP-based DDS can be found

Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo; Angel Concheiro

2004-01-01

150

Transdermal drug delivery by localized intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both field-confined skin electroporation and microscissioning offer minimally invasive methods for delivering drugs across skin and nail with minimal sensation. Both methods create high permeability pathways in a pain-free manner. These openings are similar in dimension to commonly experienced scratches and nicks on the skin. These localized openings provide pathways for sustained delivery of drugs either passively using a patch

T. R. Gowrishankar; T. O. Herndon; J. C. Weaver

2009-01-01

151

Emulsion forming drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs.  

PubMed

In the recent years, there is a growing interest in the lipid-based formulations for delivery of lipophilic drugs. Due to their potential as therapeutic agents, preferably these lipid soluble drugs are incorporated into inert lipid carriers such as oils, surfactant dispersions, emulsions, liposomes etc. Among them, emulsion forming drug delivery systems appear to be a unique and industrially feasible approach to overcome the problem of low oral bioavailability associated with the BCS class II drugs. Self-emulsifying formulations are ideally isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants and co-solvents that emulsify to form fine oil in water emulsions when introduced in aqueous media. Fine oil droplets would pass rapidly from stomach and promote wide distribution of drug throughout the GI tract, thereby overcome the slow dissolution step typically observed with solid dosage forms. Recent advances in drug carrier technologies have promulgated the development of novel drug carriers such as control release self-emulsifying pellets, microspheres, tablets, capsules etc. that have boosted the use of "self-emulsification" in drug delivery. This article reviews the different types of formulations and excipients used in emulsion forming drug delivery system to enhance the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. PMID:22568032

Wadhwa, Jyoti; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna

152

Ultrasonic Drug Delivery - A General Review  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound (US) has an ever-increasing role in the delivery of therapeutic agents including genetic material, proteins, and chemotherapeutic agents. Cavitating gas bodies such as microbubbles are the mediators through which the energy of relatively non-interactive pressure waves is concentrated to produce forces that permeabilize cell membranes and disrupt the vesicles that carry drugs. Thus the presence of microbubbles enormously enhances delivery of genetic material, proteins and smaller chemical agents. Delivery of genetic material is greatly enhanced by ultrasound in the presence of microbubbles. Attaching the DNA directly to the microbubbles or to gas-containing liposomes enhances gene uptake even further. US-enhanced gene delivery has been studied in various tissues including cardiac, vascular, skeletal muscle, tumor and even fetal tissue. US-enhanced delivery of proteins has found most application in transdermal delivery of insulin. Cavitation events reversibly disrupt the structure of the stratus corneum to allow transport of these large molecules. Other hormones and small proteins could also be delivered transdermally. Small chemotherapeutic molecules are delivered in research settings from micelles and liposomes exposed to ultrasound. Cavitation appears to play two roles: it disrupts the structure of the carrier vesicle and releases the drug; it also makes the cell membranes and capillaries more permeable to drugs. There remains a need to better understand the physics of cavitation of microbubbles and the impact that such cavitation has upon cells and drug-carrying vesicles.

Pitt, William G.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Staples, Bryant J.

2006-01-01

153

Inhaled Drug Delivery for Tuberculosis Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), and new infections occur at a rate of one per second.\\u000a The recent increase in the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the dearth of anti-TB drugs is threatening the future containment of TB. New drugs or delivery systems that will stop\\u000a the spread of TB and

Pavan Muttil; Chenchen Wang; Anthony J. Hickey

2009-01-01

154

Local drug delivery system using biodegradable polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For last five years, we are developing the novel local drug delivery devices using biodegradable polymers, especially polylactide\\u000a (PLA) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) due to its relatively good biocompatibility, easily controlled biodegradability, good processability and\\u000a only FDA approved synthetic degradable polymers. The relationship between various kinds of drug [water soluble small molecule\\u000a drugs : gentamicin sulfate (GS), fentanyl citrate (FC), BCNU,

Gilson Khang; John M. Rhee; Je Kyo Jeong; Jeong Sik Lee; Moon Suk Kim; Sun Hang Cho; Hai Bang Lee

2003-01-01

155

A biodegradable filament for controlled drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable filaments (diameters of 250–300 ?m) for the controlled delivery of dexamethasone or levofloxacin are described. Filaments are prepared by wet-spinning solutions of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and drug dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into a coagulation bath of water. Compositional analyses of the filaments by independent measurements of drug, DMSO, water, and polymer give drug loadings up to 40% of filament mass

Brendan C. Mack; Kenneth W. Wright; Mark E. Davis

2009-01-01

156

Intracellular Delivery of Drugs to Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic side effects which often complicate successful therapy in a number of diseases possibly arise due to the fact that at\\u000a therapeutically effective concentrations the non-target cells in the body are also exposed to the cytotoxic effects of the\\u000a drugs. Minimization of such adverse reactions might be feasible through drug delivery modalities that would reduce the uptake\\u000a of the drugs

Amitabha Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Basu

157

A look at emerging delivery systems for topical drug products.  

PubMed

The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154

Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava

158

Self assembled materials: design strategies and drug delivery perspectives.  

PubMed

Self assembly of small molecules in complex supramolecular structures provides a new avenue in the development of materials for drug delivery applications. Owing to the low aqueous solubility of various drugs, an effective delivery system is often required to reach sufficient drug bioavailability and/or to facilitate clinical use. Micelles, amphiphilic gels, vesicles (liposomes), nanodisks, cubosomes, colloidosomes, tubules, microemulsions, lipid particles, polyelectrolyte capsules etc. are some of the intriguing structures formed via self assembly. As well as enabling improved solubilization, such materials can be tuned to offer a range of other advantages, including controlled or stimuli sensitive drug release, protection from drug hydrolysis and chemical or enzymatic degradation, a reduction in toxicity, improvement of drug availability, prevention of RES uptake or selective targeting to organelles etc. Such multiple functionalities can be brought together by self assembly of different functional molecules. This route offers a cost effective means of developing drug delivery carriers tailored to specific needs. Our current understanding of the microstructure evolution of self assembled materials will go a long way towards designing/selecting molecules to create well defined structures. We believe that most of the potential resources mentioned above are untapped and that there is a need to further strengthen research in this area to fully exploit their potential. Selective cross linking of core or shell, stimuli sensitive amphiphiles, prodrug amphiphiles, antibody coupled amphiphiles etc. are only some of the new approaches for the development of effective drug delivery systems via self assembly. PMID:23907560

Verma, Gunjan; Hassan, P A

2013-09-25

159

Electrically responsive smart hydrogels in drug delivery: a review.  

PubMed

Recently, much of the research activity has been focused on the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels. Such hydrogels can show a response to the external or internal stimuli in the form of rapid changes in the physical nature of the polymeric network. This hydrogel property can be utilized for drug delivery applications. A literature search suggests that current research related to stimuli responsive drug delivery systems deals with temperature sensitive, pH sensitive, glucose sensitive and bio-molecule sensitive hydrogels. Electrically responsive hydrogels have also been recently developed in the form of gel matrices, implants and membranes for drug delivery. Control over the release of drugs such as quantity and timing, is essential to optimize drug therapy. Reports say that the electrically controlled in vitro and in vivo drug release studies have been carried out on polyelectrolyte hydrogels. A pulsatile pattern of drug release was achieved with the alternative application and removal of the electrical stimulus. This article gives an overview of the latest developments in the formulation of drug delivery systems using electrically responsive hydrogels. PMID:20799182

Kulkarni, R V; Biswanath, Sa

160

Current Drug Shortages Index  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... posting 10/2/2013) 10/21/2013 Copper (Cupric Chloride ... P. Pancuronium Bromide Injection 10/21/2013 Papaverine Hydrochloride Injection (initial ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugshortages/ucm050792.htm

161

Current Drug Shortages Index  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... F. Fentanyl Citrate (Sublimaze) Injection 10/7/2013 Fluphenazine Decanoate Injection 4/25/2013 Fluphenazine Hydrochloride Injection Fluticasone ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugshortages

162

Nanoporous Implants for Controlled Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last three decades considerable advances have marked the field of drug delivery technology, resulting in many breakthroughs\\u000a in clinical medicine. However, major unmet needs remain. Among these are broad categories of: 1) Continuous release of therapeutic\\u000a agents over extended time periods and in accordance to a pre-determined temporal profile [38, 60]; 2) Local delivery at a constant rate

Tejal A. Desai; Sadhana Sharma; Robbie J. Walczak; Anthony Boiarski; Michael Cohen; John Shapiro; Teri West; Kristie Melnik; Carlo Cosentino; Piyush M. Sinha; Mauro Ferrari

163

Operative vaginal delivery: current trends in obstetrics.  

PubMed

After centuries of use in obstetrics, have forceps and vacuum deliveries become a dying art? Contemporary trends in operative vaginal delivery show increasing numbers of vacuum deliveries and decreasing numbers of forceps deliveries worldwide. Primary drivers of such trends include concerns over neonatal and maternal safety as well as fewer clinicians skilled in forcep use. Current literature reports a comparable efficacy rate for the two instruments, as well as a decrease in maternal morbidity compared with cesarean section. It has also been suggested that the neonatal morbidity once associated with operative vaginal delivery may actually be a function of an abnormal labor process itself, rather than a consequence of an operative vaginal intervention. Both the American College and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists continue to support the use of both vacuum and forceps and strongly encourage residency programs to incorporate the teaching of these skills into their curricula. PMID:19072477

Goetzinger, Katherine R; Macones, George A

2008-05-01

164

Nanoparticles in the ocular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Ocular drug transport barriers pose a challenge for drug delivery comprising the ocular surface epithelium, the tear film and internal barriers of the blood-aqueous and blood-retina barriers. Ocular drug delivery efficiency depends on the barriers and the clearance from the choroidal, conjunctival vessels and lymphatic. Traditional drug administration reduces the clinical efficacy especially for poor water soluble molecules and for the posterior segment of the eye. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to overcome the barriers, increase the drug penetration at the target site and prolong the drug levels by few internals of drug administrations in lower doses without any toxicity compared to the conventional eye drops. With the aid of high specificity and multifunctionality, DNA NPs can be resulted in higher transfection efficiency for gene therapy. NPs could target at cornea, retina and choroid by surficial applications and intravitreal injection. This review is concerned with recent findings and applications of NPs drug delivery systems for the treatment of different eye diseases.

Zhou, Hong-Yan; Hao, Ji-Long; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Song

2013-01-01

165

Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 1: Normal and Chronic Wounds: Biology, Causes, and Approaches to Care  

PubMed Central

This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians’ understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing.

Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

2012-01-01

166

Acute and impaired wound healing: pathophysiology and current methods for drug delivery, part 1: normal and chronic wounds: biology, causes, and approaches to care.  

PubMed

This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians' understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing. PMID:22713781

Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Hamblin, Michael R; Herman, Ira M

2012-07-01

167

Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for improved oral delivery of lipophilic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs presents a major challenge because of the low aqueous solubility of such compounds. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), which are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents\\/surfactants, can be used for the design of formulations in order to improve the oral absorption of highly lipophilic drug compounds. SEDDS can be orally administered in

R Neslihan Gursoy; Simon Benita

2004-01-01

168

Comparison of local intravascular drug-delivery catheter systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic and local delivery on the photosensitive drug Photofrin polyporphyrin was investigated in normal porcine arteries (n = 192). A macroporous balloon and a novel needle injection catheter were used for local drug delivery and compared with systemic delivery. Fluorescence microscopy combined with digital image analysis was used to quantify the drug-related fluorescence. Systemic delivery showed a maximum in the

Peter Gonschior; Clemens Pahl; Tanya Y. Huehns; Florian Gerheuser; Aysel Erdemci; Katharina Larisch; Marc Dellian; Stefan Deil; Alwin-E. Goetz; Hans A. Lehr; Berthold Höfling

1995-01-01

169

Local Inner Ear Drug Delivery and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Summary A number of drugs are in widespread clinical use for the treatment of inner ear disorders by applying them directly to the inner ear. Many new substances and drug delivery systems specific to the inner ear are under development, and in some cases are undergoing evaluations in animal experiments and in clinical studies. The pharmacokinetics of drugs in the inner ear, however, is not well defined and the field is plagued by technical problems in obtaining pure samples of the inner ear fluids for analysis. Nevertheless, a basic understanding of the mechanisms of drug dispersal in the inner ear has emerged that facilitates the design and interpretation of future pharmacokinetic studies.

Salt, Alec N.; Plontke, Stefan K.R.

2008-01-01

170

Principles of local drug delivery to the inner ear.  

PubMed

As more and more substances have been shown in preclinical studies to be capable of preventing damage to the inner ear from exposure to noise, ototoxic drugs, ischemia, infection, inflammation, mechanical trauma and other insults, it is becoming very important to develop feasible and safe methods for the targeted delivery of drugs to specific regions in the inner ear. Recently developed methods for sampling perilymph from the cochlea have overcome major technical problems that have distorted previous pharmacokinetic studies of the ear. These measurements show that drug distribution in perilymph is dominated by passive diffusion, resulting in large gradients along the cochlea when drugs are applied intratympanically. Therefore, in order to direct drugs to specific regions of the ear, a variety of delivery strategies are required. To target drugs to the basal cochlear turn and vestibular system while minimizing exposure of the apical cochlear turns, single one-shot intratympanic applications are effective. To increase the amount of drug reaching the apical cochlear turns, repeated intratympanic injections or controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as biodegradable biopolymers or catheters and pumps, are more effective. However, if the applied substance does not easily pass through the round window membrane, or if a more widespread distribution of drug in the ear is required, then intralabyrinthine injections of the substance may be required. Intralabyrinthine injection procedures, which are currently in development in animals, have not yet been proven safe enough for human use. PMID:19923805

Salt, Alec N; Plontke, Stefan K

2009-11-16

171

Chemically modified and nanostructured porous silicon as a drug delivery material and device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the fabrication, chemical modification, drug release, and toxicity studies of nanostructured porous silicon for the purposes of developing a smart drug delivery device. The first chapter is an introductory chapter, presenting the chemical and physical properties of porous silicon, the concepts and issues of current drug delivery devices and materials, and how porous silicon can address the

Emily Jessica Anglin

2007-01-01

172

Systemic delivery of antihypertensive drugs via skin.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a chronic disease with one of the highest chances of causing death, and long-term treatment is required. The antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment are generally administered orally. The limitations of the oral route make transdermal delivery of drugs more attractive. The transdermal route offers numerous advantages including avoidance of systemic first-pass metabolism and high patient compliance. The transdermal therapeutic systems, popularly known as 'patches', deliver drugs across the skin with a constant release rate. However, skin is a unique membrane having excellent barrier properties. Either chemical enhancers or physical methods such as iontophoresis and electroporation have been used to provide effective plasma drug concentrations. This review article focuses on the approaches to enhance skin permeability of antihypertensive drugs for the optimization of transdermal therapeutic systems of these drugs and the research studies intended for the optimization of transdermal dosage forms of antihypertensive drugs are summarized. PMID:23035594

Güngör, Sevgi; Ozsoy, Yildiz

2012-09-01

173

Controlled Release of Simvastatin from Biomimetic ?-TCP Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Bishop, David; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-01-01

174

Improved treatment of nicotine addiction and emerging pulmonary drug delivery.  

PubMed

Nicotine addiction remains the leading cause of death and disease in developed and developing nations and a major cause of mortality around the world. Currently, nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), bupropion, and varenicline are approved by the regulatory agencies as first-line treatments for nicotine addiction. Emerging evidence indicates that varenicline and bupropion have some therapeutic limitations for treating nicotine addiction with oral route of administration. Thus, continued investigation of innovative drug delivery for nicotine addiction remains a critical priority. This review will discuss some novel strategies and future directions for pulmonary drug delivery, an emerging route of administration for smoking cessation. It is anticipated that the advancement of knowledge on pulmonary drug delivery will provide better management for nicotine addiction and other addictive disorders. PMID:22890202

Islam, Nazrul; Rahman, Shafiqur

2012-06-01

175

Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic ?-TCP drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin. PMID:23349949

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Bishop, David; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-01-18

176

Porous polysulfone coatings for enhanced drug delivery.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a porous polysulfone (PSU) coating for use in drug delivery applications is presented. PSU can serve as a functional surface coating for drug delivery vehicles, such as intraocular biomicrorobots. The coatings can be applied using spin coating or dip coating. The porosity is introduced by selectively dissolving calcium carbonate nanoparticles embedded in the bulk polymer. The network of pores thus formed increases by a factor of thirty the amount of Rhodamine B (model drug) that can be loaded and by a factor of fifteen the amount that can be released. The films do not affect cell viability and exhibit poor cell adhesion. The straightforward synthesis and predictability of porosity enables the tuning of the amount of drug that can be loaded. PMID:22391877

Sivaraman, Kartik M; Kellenberger, Christoph; Pané, Salvador; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Lühmann, Tessa; Luechinger, Norman A; Hall, Heike; Stark, Wendelin J; Nelson, Bradley J

2012-06-01

177

Colonic Drug Delivery: Prodrug Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colon is largely being investigated as a site for administration of protein and peptides, which are degraded by digestive enzymes in the upper GIT. Also for local diseases of the colon, drug administration to the site of action can not only reduce the dose to be administered, but also decrease the side effects. One of the approaches used for

V. R. Sinha; Rachna Kumria

2001-01-01

178

Nano-Sized Carriers for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery is an important issue, especially with a new generation of therapeutics, which are either unstable in the biological\\u000a environment, have poor transport properties across biological membranes, are insoluble in water, or have very low bioavailability.\\u000a Nano-sized drug carriers can address some of the above issues and enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Different types of nano-sized\\u000a carriers, such as nanoparticles,

Sanjeeb K. Sahoo; Tapan K. Jain; Maram K. Reddy; Vinod Labhasetwar

179

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ionexchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants/ superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20497105

Gupta, Shweta; Benien, Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-05-24

180

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ion-exchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants / superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20158479

Gupta, Shweta; Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-02-17

181

Kinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocating drug delivery is a means of delivering soluble drugs directly to closed fluid spaces in the body via a single cannula without an accompanying fluid volume change. It is ideally suited for drug delivery into small, sensitive and unique fluid spaces such as the cochlea. We characterized the pharmacokinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the scala tympani within the

Erin E. Leary Pararas; Zhiqiang Chen; Jason Fiering; Mark J. Mescher; Ernest S. Kim; Michael J. McKenna; Sharon G. Kujawa; Jeffrey T. Borenstein; William F. Sewell

2011-01-01

182

Micro- and nano-fabricated implantable drug-delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Implantable drug-delivery systems provide new means for achieving therapeutic drug concentrations over entire treatment durations in order to optimize drug action. This article focuses on new drug administration modalities achieved using implantable drug-delivery systems that are enabled by micro- and nano-fabrication technologies, and microfluidics. Recent advances in drug administration technologies are discussed and remaining challenges are highlighted.

Meng, Ellis; Hoang, Tuan

2013-01-01

183

Optically generated ultrasound for enhanced drug delivery  

DOEpatents

High frequency acoustic waves, analogous to ultrasound, can enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds into cells. The compounds delivered may be chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, photodynamic drugs or gene therapies. The therapeutic compounds are administered systemically, or preferably locally to the targeted site. Local delivery can be accomplished through a needle, cannula, or through a variety of vascular catheters, depending on the location of routes of access. To enhance the systemic or local delivery of the therapeutic compounds, high frequency acoustic waves are generated locally near the target site, and preferably near the site of compound administration. The acoustic waves are produced via laser radiation interaction with an absorbing media and can be produced via thermoelastic expansion, thermodynamic vaporization, material ablation, or plasma formation. Acoustic waves have the effect of temporarily permeabilizing the membranes of local cells, increasing the diffusion of the therapeutic compound into the cells, allowing for decreased total body dosages, decreased side effects, and enabling new therapies.

Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Campbell, Heather L. (Baltimore, MD); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

184

Phototriggering of liposomal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been approved for the treatment of various cancers. Additional applications of photochemical processes for triggering site-specific drug delivery are in early stages of development at this time. This review focuses on the literature appearing between January 1996–June 2001 that describe new and ongoing studies of phototriggering mechanisms that may ultimately find

Pochi Shum; Jong-Mok Kim; David H Thompson

2001-01-01

185

Cell Penetrating Peptides in Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are small cationic peptides that can facilitate the uptake of large, biologically active molecules into mammalian cells. Recent reports have suggested that PTDs may be able to mediate the delivery of cargo to tissues throughout a living organism. Such technology could eliminate the size restrictions on usable drugs, enabling previously unavailable large molecules to modulate in

Eric L. Snyder; Steven F. Dowdy

2004-01-01

186

Endocytic mechanisms for targeted drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the delivery of targeted drug systems have evolved to enable highly regulated site specific localization to subcellular organelles. Targeting therapeutics to individual intracellular compartments has resulted in benefits to therapies associated with these unique organelles. Endocytosis, a mechanism common to all cells in the body, internalizes macromolecules and retains them in transport vesicles which traffic along the endolysosomal

Lisa M. Bareford; Peter W. Swaan

2007-01-01

187

REVIEW NANOPARTICLES IN DELIVERY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everything in nature is built upward from the atomic level to define limits and structures to everything. Nanomedicines marked the field of medicine from nanobiotechnology, biological micro-electromechanical systems, microfluidics, biosensors, drug delivery, microarrays to tissue microengineering. Since then nanoparticles has overcome many challenges from blood brain barrier to targeting tumors. Where solid biodegradable nanoparticles were a step up liposome, targeting

M. SAEED ARAYNE; NAJMA SULTANA; FAIZA QURESHI

188

Mathematical modelling of magnetically targeted drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for targeted drug delivery using magnetic particles is developed. This includes a diffusive flux of particles arising from interactions between erythrocytes in the microcirculation. The model is used to track particles in a vessel network. Magnetic field design is discussed and we show that it is impossible to specifically target internal regions using an externally applied field.

Andrew D. Grief; Giles Richardson

2005-01-01

189

Echogenic Lipsomes for Targeted Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic immunoliposomes (ELIP) are under development to enable ultrasound-controlled drug delivery. Mechanistic studies in vitro have revealed that stable cavitation is correlated with enhanced recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis, yet strategies to optimize the occurrence of such bubble activity and avoid potential harmful bioeffects have yet to be identified. Stable cavitation is characterized by bubbles pulsating gently in response

Christy K. Holland; David D. McPherson

2009-01-01

190

Electroporation apparatus for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparatus described is applicable to transdermal drug delivery (TDD) by electroporation in vitro. It is a pulse generator which uses capacitor discharge to produce a series of controlled exponential pulses to the skin. The unit is capable of producing selected pulse amounts from 1 to 9 with continuous regulable pulse intensity of 70-400 V and selected pulse rates of

Bao Jiali; Lang Wenquan; Hu Qiaohong; Gao Jianqing

1998-01-01

191

Micromechanical devices for intravascular drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfabrication technology, more commonly applied to the manufacture of integrated circuits, can be used to build devices useful for mechanical delivery of drugs and genes. Microprobes fabricated using silicon micromachining have been used to deliver DNA into cells as an alternative to bombardment and microinjection. This idea can be extended to intravascular stents with integrated microprobes capable of piercing compressed

Michael L. Reed; Clarence Wu; James Kneller; Simon Watkins; David A. Vorp; Ahmed Nadeem; Lee E. Weiss; Keith Rebello; Mark Mescher; A. J. Conrad Smith; Warren Rosenblum; Marc D. Feldman

1998-01-01

192

Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Environmentally sensitive hydrogels have enormous potential in various applications. Some environmental variables, such as low pH and elevated temperatures, are found in the body. For this reason, either pH-sensitive and/or temperature-sensitive hydrogels can be used for site-specific controlled drug delivery. Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors as well as drug delivery systems. Light-sensitive, pressure-responsive and electro-sensitive hydrogels also have the potential to be used in drug delivery and bioseparation. While the concepts of these environment-sensitive hydrogels are sound, the practical applications require significant improvements in the hydrogel properties. The most significant weakness of all these external stimuli-sensitive hydrogels is that their response time is too slow. Thus, fast-acting hydrogels are necessary, and the easiest way of achieving that goal is to make thinner and smaller hydrogels. This usually makes the hydrogel systems too fragile and they do not have mechanical strength necessary in many applications. Environmentally sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery applications also require biocompatibility. Synthesis of new polymers and crosslinkers with more biocompatibility and better biodegradability would be essential for successful applications. Development of environmentally sensitive hydrogels with such properties is a formidable challenge. If the achievements of the past can be extrapolated into the future, however, it is highly likely that responsive hydrogels with a wide array of desirable properties can be made. PMID:11744175

Qiu, Y; Park, K

2001-12-31

193

Control-relevant modeling in drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of control-relevant models for a variety of biomedical engineering drug delivery problems is reviewed in this paper. A summary of each control problem is followed by a review of relevant patient models from literature, an examination of the control approaches taken to solve the problem, and a discussion of the control-relevance of the models used in each case.

Robert S. Parker; Francis J. Doyle

2001-01-01

194

Microdialysis in mice for drug delivery research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracerebral microdialysis was first performed in the mouse at the end of the 1980s. Most microdialysis studies on mice were confined to neuropharmacology and changes in neurotransmitter concentrations up to 1995, although pharmacological studies were done on other tissues like the skin, kidney and implanted tumors. The use of microdialysis in mice for pharmacokinetic and drug delivery studies owes much

Gabrielle Boschi; Jean-Michel Scherrmann

2000-01-01

195

Trial of vaginal breech delivery: current role.  

PubMed

Breech presentation occurs at term in approximately 3% to 4% of singleton gestations. This presentation is associated with a variety of maternal and fetal conditions including preterm labor, abnormal amniotic fluid volume, hydrocephaly, anencephaly, mullerian anomalies, abnormal placentation, and multifetal gestation. Cesarean delivery has been associated with increased risk of subsequent accreta, placenta previa, hemorrhage, and hysterectomy. The Term Breech Trial initially suggested that planned vaginal breech delivery is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality compared with planned cesarean delivery. Long-term follow-up of these vaginally delivered infants contradict the initial findings. Current debate surrounds the dilemma of whether the untoward complications of cesarean delivery are warranted given uncertain minimal increases in neonatal survival and improvement in neurologic outcome with planned cesarean. PMID:17513938

Yamamura, Yasuko; Ramin, Kirk D; Ramin, Susan M

2007-06-01

196

Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for drug delivery and targeting.  

PubMed

Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are drug-delivery systems composed of both solid and liquid lipids as a core matrix. It was shown that NLCs reveal some advantages for drug therapy over conventional carriers, including increased solubility, the ability to enhance storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, reduced adverse effect, prolonged half-life, and tissue-targeted delivery. NLCs have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This review describes recent developments in drug delivery using NLCs strategies. The structures, preparation techniques, and physicochemical characterization of NLCs are systematically elucidated in this review. The potential of NLCs to be used for different administration routes is highlighted. Special attention is paid to parenteral injection and topical delivery since these are the most common routes for investigating NLCs. Relevant issues for the introduction of NLCs to market, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, are discussed. The related patents of NLCs for drug delivery are also reviewed. Finally, the future development and current obstacles needing to be resolved are elucidated. PMID:22946628

Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Fang, Jia-You

2013-01-01

197

Matrix metalloproteases: Underutilized targets for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Pathophysiological molecules in the extracellular environment offer excellent targets that can be exploited for designing drug targeting systems. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteolytic enzymes that are characterized by their overexpression or overactivity in several pathologies. Over the last two decades, the MMP literature reveals heightened interest in the research involving MMP biology, pathology, and targeting. This review describes various strategies that have been designed to utilize MMPs for targeting therapeutic entities. Key factors that need to be considered in the successful design of such systems have been identified based on the analyses of these strategies. Development of targeted drug delivery using MMPs has been steadily pursued; however, drug delivery efforts using these targets need to be intensified and focused to realize the clinical application of the fast developing fundamental MMP research.

Vartak, Deepali G.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

2013-01-01

198

Intestinal lymphatic transport for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphatic transport has been shown to be an absorptive pathway following oral administration of lipids and an increasing number of lipophilic drugs, which once absorbed, diffuse across the intestinal enterocyte and while in transit associate with secretable enterocyte lipoproteins. The chylomicron-associated drug is then secreted from the enterocyte into the lymphatic circulation, rather than the portal circulation, thus avoiding the metabolically-active liver, but still ultimately returning to the systemic circulation. Because of this parallel and potentially alternative absorptive pathway, first-pass metabolism can be reduced while increasing lymphatic drug exposure, which opens the potential for novel therapeutic modalities and allows the implementation of lipid-based drug delivery systems. This review discusses the physiological features of the lymphatics, enterocyte uptake and metabolism, links between drug transport and lipid digestion/re-acylation, experimental model (in vivo, in vitro, and in silico) of lymphatic transport, and the design of lipid- or prodrug-based drug delivery systems for enhancing lymphatic drug transport. PMID:21689702

Yáñez, Jaime A; Wang, Stephen W J; Knemeyer, Ian W; Wirth, Mark A; Alton, Kevin B

2011-06-13

199

Fate of polymeric nanocarriers for oral drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will focus on two polymeric nanocarriers: nanoparticles and micelles that have been studied for oral drug delivery at preclinical level. Their potential for oral drug delivery will first be illustrated. Then their mechanisms of uptake and their fate after oral delivery will be discussed. Future directions for oral delivery with nanocarriers will be analyzed with a special emphasis

Laurence Plapied; Nicolas Duhem; Anne des Rieux; Véronique Préat

2011-01-01

200

Revival of the abandoned therapeutic wortmannin by nanoparticle drug delivery  

PubMed Central

One of the promises of nanoparticle (NP) carriers is the reformulation of promising therapeutics that have failed clinical development due to pharmacologic challenges. However, current nanomedicine research has been focused on the delivery of established and novel therapeutics. Here we demonstrate proof of the principle of using NPs to revive the clinical potential of abandoned compounds using wortmannin (Wtmn) as a model drug. Wtmn is a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3? kinase-related kinases but failed clinical translation due to drug-delivery challenges. We engineered a NP formulation of Wtmn and demonstrated that NP Wtmn has higher solubility and lower toxicity compared with Wtmn. To establish the clinical translation potential of NP Wtmn, we evaluated the therapeutic as a radiosensitizer in vitro and in vivo. NP Wtmn was found to be a potent radiosensitizer and was significantly more effective than the commonly used radiosensitizer cisplatin in vitro in three cancer cell lines. The mechanism of action of NP Wtmn radiosensitization was found to be through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation. Finally, NP Wtmn was shown to be an effective radiosensitizer in vivo using two murine xenograft models of cancer. Our results demonstrate that NP drug-delivery systems can promote the readoption of abandoned drugs such as Wtmn by overcoming drug-delivery challenges.

Karve, Shrirang; Werner, Michael E.; Sukumar, Rohit; Cummings, Natalie D.; Copp, Jonathan A.; Li, Chenxi; Sethi, Manish; Chen, Ronald C.; Pacold, Michael E.; Wang, Andrew Z.

2012-01-01

201

Silica-based mesoporous nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Drug molecules with lack of specificity and solubility lead patients to take high doses of the drug to achieve sufficient therapeutic effects. This is a leading cause of adverse drug reactions, particularly for drugs with narrow therapeutic window or cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. To address these problems, there are various functional biocompatible drug carriers available in the market, which can deliver therapeutic agents to the target site in a controlled manner. Among the carriers developed thus far, mesoporous materials emerged as a promising candidate that can deliver a variety of drug molecules in a controllable and sustainable manner. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles are widely used as a delivery reagent because silica possesses favourable chemical properties, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Currently, sol-gel-derived mesoporous silica nanoparticles in soft conditions are of main interest due to simplicity in production and modification and the capacity to maintain function of bioactive agents. The unique mesoporous structure of silica facilitates effective loading of drugs and their subsequent controlled release. The properties of mesopores, including pore size and porosity as well as the surface properties, can be altered depending on additives used to fabricate mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Active surface enables functionalisation to modify surface properties and link therapeutic molecules. The tuneable mesopore structure and modifiable surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle allow incorporation of various classes of drug molecules and controlled delivery to the target sites. This review aims to present the state of knowledge of currently available drug delivery system and identify properties of an ideal drug carrier for specific application, focusing on mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

Kwon, Sooyeon; Singh, Rajendra K; Perez, Roman A; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

2013-01-01

202

Organic–Inorganic Composites for Bone Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper attempts to provide an overview in the fabrication and application of organic–inorganic based composites\\u000a in the field of local drug delivery for bone. The concept of local drug delivery exists for a few decades. However, local\\u000a drug delivery in bone and specially application of composites for delivery of drugs to bone is an area for potential research

Chidambaram Soundrapandian; Biswanath Sa; Someswar Datta

2009-01-01

203

A thermally responsive biopolymer for intra-articular drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-articular drug delivery is the preferred standard for targeting pharmacologic treatment directly to joints to reduce undesirable side effects associated with systemic drug delivery. In this study, a biologically based drug delivery vehicle was designed for intra-articular drug delivery using elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs), a biopolymer composed of repeating pentapeptides that undergo a phase transition to form aggregates above their transition

Helawe Betre; Wenge Liu; Michael R. Zalutsky; Ashutosh Chilkoti; Virginia B. Kraus; Lori A. Setton

2006-01-01

204

Fluorescence techniques for drug delivery research: theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in drug delivery require an understanding of drug design, drug stability and metabolism together with the complexities imposed by the biological system such as cell\\/tissue penetration, drug-target interaction, and the pharmacodynamic consequences. Fluorescence microscopy provides a comprehensive tool for investigating many of these aspects of drug delivery in single cells and whole tissue. This review presents the fundamental concepts

Nick S. White; Rachel J. Errington

2005-01-01

205

A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of microscale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth, and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of a nozzle is 125 ?m and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

Han, Tae-Hee; Yoh, Jack J.

2010-05-01

206

Enhanced drug delivery capabilities from stents coated with absorbable polymer and crystalline drug.  

PubMed

Current drug eluting stent (DES) technology is not optimized with regard to the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery. A novel, absorbable-coating sirolimus-eluting stent (AC-SES) was evaluated for its capacity to deliver drug more evenly within the intimal area rather than concentrating drug around the stent struts and for its ability to match coating erosion with drug release. The coating consisted of absorbable poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and crystalline sirolimus deposited by a dry-powder electrostatic process. The AC-SES demonstrated enhanced drug stability under simulated use conditions and consistent drug delivery balanced with coating erosion in a porcine coronary implant model. The initial drug burst was eliminated and drug release was sustained after implantation. The coating was absorbed within 90 days. Following implantation into porcine coronary arteries the AC-SES coating is distributed in the surrounding intimal tissue over the course of several weeks. Computational modeling of drug delivery characteristics demonstrates how distributed coating optimizes the load of drug immediately around each stent strut and extends drug delivery between stent struts. The result was a highly efficient arterial uptake of drug with superior performance to a clinical bare metal stent (BMS). Neointimal thickness (0.17±0.07 mm vs. 0.28±0.11 mm) and area percent stenosis (22±9% vs. 35±12%) were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by the AC-SES compared to the BMS 30 days after stent implantation in an overlap configuration in porcine coronary arteries. Inflammation was significantly reduced in the AC-SES compared to the BMS at both 30 and 90 days after implantation. Biocompatible, rapidly absorbable stent coatings enable the matching of drug release with coating erosion and provide for the controlled migration of coating material into tissue to reduce vicissitudes in drug tissue levels, optimizing efficacy and reducing potential toxicity. PMID:22800575

Carlyle, Wenda C; McClain, James B; Tzafriri, Abraham R; Bailey, Lynn; Zani, Brett G; Markham, Peter M; Stanley, James R L; Edelman, Elazer R

2012-07-16

207

Bharatbook.com - Drug Delivery Systems forecasts for 2012 & 2017  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral drug delivery systems will remain the largest method used for drug delivery. Orally disintegrating tablets and transmucosal drugs will generate strong growth opportunities in the delivery of pain control and other critical care medication. Ease of administration advantages will promote the widening use of chewable tablet dosages for nutritional, respiratory and central nervous system agents, especially pediatric preparations. Better

2008-01-01

208

Nanobiotechnology-Based Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Several approaches are being investigated to improve drug delivery across the BBB. Objective\\/Methods: This review deals with the role of nanobiotechnology in CNS drug delivery. The small size of the nanoparticles enables them to penetrate the BBB and facilitate

K. K. Jain

2007-01-01

209

Liposomes and Niosomes as Topical Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome

M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach

2005-01-01

210

Polymeric multilayer capsules in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Recent advances in medicine and biotechnology have prompted the need to develop nanoengineered delivery systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of novel therapeutics such as proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Moreover, these delivery systems should be "intelligent", such that they can deliver their payload at a well-defined time, place, or after a specific stimulus. Polymeric multilayer capsules, made by layer-by-layer (LbL) coating of a sacrificial template followed by dissolution of the template, allow the design of microcapsules in aqueous conditions by using simple building blocks and assembly procedures, and provide a previously unmet control over the functionality of the microcapsules. Polymeric multilayer capsules have recently received increased interest from the life science community, and many interesting systems have appeared in the literature with biodegradable components and biospecific functionalities. In this Review we give an overview of the recent breakthroughs in their application for drug delivery. PMID:20645362

De Cock, Liesbeth J; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G; Grooten, Johan; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Antipina, Maria N

2010-09-17

211

Nanotechnology approaches for ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments. PMID:23580849

Xu, Qingguo; Kambhampati, Siva P; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

212

Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Virus delivery vectors are one among the many nanomaterials that are being developed as drug delivery materials. This chapter focuses on methods utilizing plant virus nanoparticles (PVNs) synthesized from the Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). A successful vector must be able to effectively carry and subsequently deliver a drug cargo to a specific target. In the case of the PVNs, we describe two types of ways cargo can be loaded within these structures: encapsidation and infusion. Several targeting approaches have been used for PVNs based on bioconjugate chemistry. Herein, examples of such approaches will be given that have been used for RCNMV as well as for other PVNs in the literature. Further, we describe characterization of PVNs, in vitro cell studies that can be used to test the efficacy of a targeting vector, and potential routes for animal administration. PMID:21424452

Lockney, Dustin; Franzen, Stefan; Lommel, Steven

2011-01-01

213

Nanotechnology Approaches for Ocular Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.

Xu, Qingguo; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

2013-01-01

214

ECHOGENIC LIPSOMES FOR TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY.  

PubMed

Echogenic immunoliposomes (ELIP) are under development to enable ultrasound-controlled drug delivery. Mechanistic studies in vitro have revealed that stable cavitation is correlated with enhanced recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis, yet strategies to optimize the occurrence of such bubble activity and avoid potential harmful bioeffects have yet to be identified. Stable cavitation is characterized by bubbles pulsating gently in response to the time-varying acoustic pressure in an ultrasound field. A review of in vitro sonothrombolysis studies utilizing commercial US contrast agent or echogenic liposomes loaded with rt-PA to nucleate stable cavitation will be presented. Strategies for the development of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis and drug delivery will be discussed. PMID:20383294

Holland, Christy K; McPherson, David D

2009-06-28

215

Protein-Based Nanomedicine Platforms for Drug Delivery  

SciTech Connect

Drug delivery systems have been developed for many years, however some limitations still hurdle the pace of going to clinical phase, for example, poor biodistribution, drug molecule cytotoxicity, tissue damage, quick clearance from the circulation system, solubility and stability of drug molecules. To overcome the limitations of drug delivery, biomaterials have to be developed and applied to drug delivery to protect the drug molecules and to enhance the drug’s efficacy. Protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery are platforms comprised of naturally self-assembled protein subunits of the same protein or a combination of proteins making up a complete system. They are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability coupled with low toxicity. A variety of proteins have been used and characterized for drug delivery systems including the ferritin/apoferritin protein cage, plant derived viral capsids, the small Heat shock protein (sHsp) cage, albumin, soy and whey protein, collagen, and gelatin. There are many different types and shapes that have been prepared to deliver drug molecules using protein-based platforms including the various protein cages, microspheres, nanoparticles, hydrogels, films, minirods and minipellets. There are over 30 therapeutic compounds that have been investigated with protein-based drug delivery platforms for the potential treatment of various cancers, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases. In protein-based drug delivery platforms, protein cage is the most newly developed biomaterials for drug delivery and therapeutic applications. Their uniform sizes, multifunctions, and biodegradability push them to the frontier for drug delivery. In this review, the recent strategic development of drug delivery has been discussed with a special emphasis upon the polymer based, especially protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery. The advantages and disadvantages are also discussed for each type of protein based drug delivery system.

Ma Ham, Aihui; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2009-08-03

216

Battling with environments: drug delivery to target tissues with particles and functional biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a growing interest in drug-delivery technology as an enabling tool for complicated pharmacological activities. At the same time, this field has faced as many ideas into clinical benefits. The Laboratory for Therapeutic Particles and Biomaterials Engineering at Purdue University (IN, USA) has striven to identify the current challenges in drug delivery and find solutions through the design of new drug-delivery systems. We develop new inhalable formulations for drug and gene delivery for cystic fibrosis patients, simple particle platforms for inhalable drug delivery, anion-resistant nonviral gene vectors, tumor-targeted nanoparticle systems, and hydrogel-based therapeutics. Through expanded collaborations with researchers in medicine and related disciplines, we strive to contribute to advancing the drug delivery field in a clinically relevant manner.

Yeo, Yoon

2011-01-01

217

Intratumoral Drug Delivery with Nanoparticulate Carriers  

PubMed Central

Stiff extracellular matrix, elevated interstitial fluid pressure, and the affinity for the tumor cells in the peripheral region of a solid tumor mass have long been recognized as significant barriers to diffusion of small-molecular-weight drugs and antibodies. However, their impacts on nanoparticle-based drug delivery have begun to receive due attention only recently. This article reviews biological features of many solid tumors that influence transport of drugs and nanoparticles and properties of nanoparticles relevant to their intratumoral transport, studied in various tumor models. We also discuss several experimental approaches employed to date for enhancement of intratumoral nanoparticle penetration. The impact of nanoparticle distribution on the effectiveness of chemotherapy remains to be investigated and should be considered in the design of new nanoparticulate drug carriers.

Holback, Hillary

2011-01-01

218

Biosensing and drug delivery at the microscale : novel devices for controlled and responsive drug delivery.  

PubMed

An overall objective of pharmaceutical research is the controlled release or delivery of drugs at the biological target site in a therapeutically and pharmacodynamically optimal amount. In relation to "intelligent" drug delivery, several basic aspects are important, i.e., release of active pharmaceutical ingredients from the formulation, transport to and penetration across biological barriers, and subsequent biotransformation depending on a controlled release process. Future development of advanced and/or controlled drug releasing systems, e.g. polymeric or particulate drug targeting systems, nano-carbon tube related and/or nano-pillar based drug release, or electronically mediated molecule delivery, is expected to take advantage of progress in molecular cell biology, cell and tissue engineering, membrane nano-biophysics, and bioelectronic properties (Bramstedt et al. 2005; Gardner et al. 2006). In this chapter novel aspects of the development of innovative drug delivery systems described and are categorized into polymeric, lipid-based or electronically mediated delivery systems (De la Heras et al. 2004). PMID:20217527

Robitzki, Andrea A; Kurz, Randy

2010-01-01

219

[Drug delivery systems for intraocular applications].  

PubMed

Numerous drug delivery systems (DDSs) can be used as intraocular tools to provide a sustained and calibrated release for a specific drug. Great progress has been made on the design, biocompatibility, bioavailability, and efficacy of DDSs. Although several of them are undergoing clinical trials, a few are already on the market and could be of a routine use in clinical practice. Moreover, miniaturization of the implants makes them less and less traumatic for the eye tissues and some DDSs are now able to target certain cells or tissues specifically. An overview of ocular implants with therapeutic application potentials is provided. PMID:18268450

Bourges, J-L; Touchard, E; Kowalczuk, L; Berdugo, M; Thomas-Doyle, A; Bochot, A; Gomez, A; Azan, F; Gurny, R; Behar-Cohen, F

2007-12-01

220

Nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic drugs.  

PubMed

Nanoemulsions have received a growing attention as colloidal drug carriers for pharmaceutical applications. Their advantages over conventional formulations include drug enhanced solubility and bioavailability, protection from toxicity, improved pharmacological activity and stability, more sustained delivery and protection from physical and chemical degradation. Nanoemulsions can be prepared by two major techniques, high-energy and low-energy emulsification. Both these emulsification methods have proved to be efficient to obtain stable nanoemulsions with small and highly uniform droplets. Further research into nanoemulsions is important to develop novel liquid formulations with more efficient results in therapeutic. PMID:22755138

de Campos, Vania E B; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

2012-03-01

221

Floating drug delivery systems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special\\u000a focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the\\u000a physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating\\u000a systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are

Shweta Arora; Javed Ali; Alka Ahuja; Roop K. Khar; Sanjula Baboota

2005-01-01

222

A microneedle roller for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microneedle rollers have been used to treat large areas of skin for cosmetic purposes and to increase skin permeability for drug delivery. In this study, we introduce a polymer microneedle roller fabricated by inclined rotational UV lithography, replicated by micromolding hydrophobic polylactic acid and hydrophilic carboxy-methyl-cellulose. These microneedles created micron-scale holes in human and porcine cadaver skin that permitted entry

Jung-Hwan Park; Seong-O Choi; Soonmin Seo; Young Bin Choy; Mark R. Prausnitz

2010-01-01

223

[Intraocular lens as a drug delivery device].  

PubMed

The development of an intraocular lens (IOL) as a drug delivery device has been the purpose of numerous preclinical studies and might become a future technology in cataract surgery. There are three techniques of pharmacological IOL modification: surface modification (coating), optic modification (soaking) or haptic modification with a slow-release-system. The therapeutic goals are endophthalmitis, postoperative inflammation and posterior capsule opacification. PMID:23933838

Eibl-Lindner, K H; Liegl, R; Wertheimer, C; Kampik, A

2013-10-01

224

Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally sensitive hydrogels have enormous potential in various applications. Some environmental variables, such as low pH and elevated temperatures, are found in the body. For this reason, either pH-sensitive and\\/or temperature-sensitive hydrogels can be used for site-specific controlled drug delivery. Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors as well as

Yong Qiu

2001-01-01

225

Protein microspheres for pulmonary drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new supercritical fluid (SCF) technique was developed for the preparation of microspheres for pulmonary drug delivery (PDD).\\u000a This technique, based on the anti-solvent process, has incorporated advanced engineering design features to enable improved\\u000a control of the particle formation process. Human recombinant insulin (HRI) was used as a model compound to evaluate the efficiency\\u000a of this SCF process. An aqueous

Yongda Sun

2010-01-01

226

Strategy for effective brain drug delivery.  

PubMed

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) together with enzymes restricts the entry of substances for maintaining the internal milieu of the brain. Because of the presence of multiple endogenous transporters, BBB allows a selective entry of nutrients and minerals across it and limits the entry of foreign substances like drugs as well as neuropharmaceutical agents. This makes the CNS treatment ineffective. The conventional drug delivery systems which release drug into general circulation fail to deliver drugs effectively to brain and is therefore not very useful in treating certain diseases that affect CNS including Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, AIDS, viral and bacterial meningitis. Therefore there is a need to develop and design approaches which specifically target to brain in a better and effective way. The present review enlightens about several novel approaches including nanotechnology based approach like nanoparticles, liposomes, antibody mediated delivery approach and application of genomics in brain drug targeting that would give an insight to the researchers, academia and industrialists. PMID:20497904

Alam, M Intakhab; Beg, Sarwar; Samad, Abdus; Baboota, Sanjula; Kohli, Kanchan; Ali, Javed; Ahuja, Alka; Akbar, M

2010-05-16

227

A model of axonal transport drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a model of targeted drug delivery by means of active (motor-driven) axonal transport is developed. The model is motivated by recent experimental research by Filler et al. (A.G. Filler, G.T. Whiteside, M. Bacon, M. Frederickson, F.A. Howe, M.D. Rabinowitz, A.J. Sokoloff, T.W. Deacon, C. Abell, R. Munglani, J.R. Griffiths, B.A. Bell, A.M.L. Lever, Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect, Bmc Neuroscience 11 (2010) 8) that reported synthesis and pharmacological efficiency tests of a tri-partite complex designed for axonal transport drug delivery. The developed model accounts for two populations of pharmaceutical agent complexes (PACs): PACs that are transported retrogradely by dynein motors and PACs that are accumulated in the axon at the Nodes of Ranvier. The transitions between these two populations of PACs are described by first-order reactions. An analytical solution of the coupled system of transient equations describing conservations of these two populations of PACs is obtained by using Laplace transform. Numerical results for various combinations of parameter values are presented and their physical significance is discussed.

Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

2011-12-01

228

Pharmacytes: an ideal vehicle for targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

An ideal nanotechnology-based drug delivery system is a pharmacyte--a self-powered, computer-controlled medical nanorobot system capable of digitally precise transport, timing, and targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents to specific cellular and intracellular destinations within the human body. Pharmacytes may be constructed using future molecular manufacturing technologies such as diamond mechanosynthesis which are currently being investigated theoretically using quantum ab initio and density-functional computational methods. Pharmacytes will have many applications in nanomedicine such as initiation of apoptosis in cancer cells and direct control of cell signaling processes. PMID:17048481

Freitas, Robert A

229

New Technologies for Drug Delivery across the Blood Brain Barrier  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently restricts penetration of therapeutic agents to the brain from the periphery. Therefore, discovery of new modalities allowing for effective delivery of drugs and biomacromolecules to the central nervous system (CNS) is of great need and importance for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This manuscript focuses on three relatively new strategies. The first strategy involves inhibition of the drug efflux transporters expressed in BBB by Pluronic® block copolymers, which allows for the increased transport of the substrates of these transporters to the brain. The second strategy involves the design of nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands that can target receptors in the brain microvasculature and carry the drugs to the brain through the receptor mediated transcytosis. The third strategy involves artificial hydrophobization of peptides and proteins that facilitates the delivery of these peptides and proteins across BBB. This review discusses the current state, advantages and limitations of each of the three technologies and outlines their future prospects.

Kabanov, A.V.; Batrakova, E.V.

2009-01-01

230

Local drug delivery to the inner ear using biodegradable materials.  

PubMed

The lack of an effective method of drug delivery has been a considerable obstacle in the development of novel therapeutics for inner ear diseases. However, several strategies have been investigated to achieve drug delivery to the inner ear, particularly for local application. Here, we review recent advances in the development of inner ear drug-delivery systems, focusing on biodegradable materials. Both synthetic and natural biodegradable materials have shown efficacy for inner ear drug delivery, resulting in an attenuation of hearing loss in animal models. We expect the further development of such drug-delivery systems to help translate the findings of experimental studies to clinical applications. PMID:22822510

Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Juichi

2011-06-01

231

Immediate topical drug delivery by natural submicron injectors.  

PubMed

Transdermal delivery is an attractive but challenging solution for delivery of drugs. The sea anemone possesses a sophisticated injection system, which utilizes built-in high osmotic pressures. The system is folded within microcapsules and upon activation it injects a long, needle-like tubule of submicron diameter that penetrates the target in a fraction of a second. Here we show that this natural injection system can be adapted for active topical drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells, formulated into a topical gel, and uploaded with the desired drug. The formulated injectors retained their physical characteristics and were capable of penetrating the skin, achieving immediate delivery of a hydrophilic compound. We demonstrate quantitative rapid delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular and drug concentrations. The adaptation of natural injectors for drug delivery combines the benefits of short topical application with rapid delivery of physical devices, thereby presenting a promising alternative for transdermal drug delivery. PMID:21839819

Ayalon, Ari; Shichor, Iris; Tal, Yossi; Lotan, Tamar

2011-08-03

232

A biodegradable filament for controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

Biodegradable filaments (diameters of 250-300 microm) for the controlled delivery of dexamethasone or levofloxacin are described. Filaments are prepared by wet-spinning solutions of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and drug dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into a coagulation bath of water. Compositional analyses of the filaments by independent measurements of drug, DMSO, water, and polymer give drug loadings up to 40% of filament mass and drug retention (drug in filament per drug in solution) greater than 40%. Drug release kinetics, and thermal and mechanical properties, of the filaments are reported. Three filaments with levofloxacin contents of 46+/-2, 85+/-4, and 36+/-2 microg/cm (denoted 506-L1, 506-L2, and 506-L3, respectively) are implanted in the conjunctiva of New Zealand white rabbits. The time dependent, in-vivo tear concentrations of levofloxacin from filament implants in New Zealand white rabbit eyes are in general agreement with the results from the in-vitro release profiles, with one of the filaments (506-L1) showing effective levels of levofloxacin in the tears for 6 days. The filaments are generally well tolerated by the rabbits. Filament failure occurs at 6-8 days within the rabbit eyes, essentially the same time to failure observed from in-vitro mechanical properties testing results. PMID:19567255

Mack, Brendan C; Wright, Kenneth W; Davis, Mark E

2009-06-28

233

An implantable thermoresponsive drug delivery system based on Peltier device.  

PubMed

Locally dropping the temperature in vivo is the main obstacle to the clinical use of a thermoresponsive drug delivery system. In this paper, a Peltier electronic element is incorporated with a thermoresponsive thin film based drug delivery system to form a new drug delivery device which can regulate the release of rhodamine B in a water environment at 37 °C. Various current signals are used to control the temperature of the cold side of the Peltier device and the volume of water on top of the Peltier device affects the change in temperature. The pulsatile on-demand release profile of the model drug is obtained by turning the current signal on and off. The work has shown that the 2600 mAh power source is enough to power this device for 1.3 h. Furthermore, the excessive heat will not cause thermal damage in the body as it will be dissipated by the thermoregulation of the human body. Therefore, this simple novel device can be implanted and should work well in vivo. PMID:23467083

Yang, Rongbing; Gorelov, Alexander V; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Carroll, William M; Rochev, Yury

2013-03-04

234

Application of Sterylglucoside-Containing Particles for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in biotechnology have promoted biomolecular targeting of drugs, peptides and genes in the treatment and management of major diseases and infections. Therapeutic development of drugs and delivery systems may have various objectives: Systemic drugs require optimal delivery and uptake at target sites; peptide drugs require alternative routes of administration, such as nasal or intestinal absorption; gene medicines need

Yoshie Maitani; Koji Nakamura; Kumi Kawano

235

In Vitro Performance Testing for Pulmonary Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a detailed review of in vitro testing methods for inhalation products. Specifically, the current compendial\\u000a methods for pulmonary drug delivery are presented, discussion of cascade impactor use and simplification, determination of\\u000a aerosol electrostatics, static characterization of particles and powders, solubility screening, and a review of research leading\\u000a to improved dissolution studies for these products.

Yoen-Ju Son; Jolyon P. Mitchell; Jason T. McConville

236

Recent progress in drug delivery systems for anticancer agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of cancer brought out new materials such as oligonucleotides, genes,\\u000a peptides and proteins as a source of new anticancer agents. Due to their macromolecular properties, however, new strategies\\u000a of delivery for them are required to achieve their full therapeutic efficacy in clinical setting. Development of improved\\u000a dosage forms of currently marketed anticancer drugs

Chong-Kook Kim; Soo-Jeong Lim

2002-01-01

237

Macrophage specific drug delivery in experimental leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Macrophage-specific delivery systems are the subject of much interest nowadays, because of the fact that macrophages act as host cells for many parasites and bacteria, which give rise to outbreak of so many deadly diseases(eg. leishmaniasis, tuberculosis etc.) in humans. To combat these deadly diseases initially macrophage specific liposomal delivery system were thought of and tested in vivo against experimental leishmaniasis in hamsters using a series of indigenous or synthetic antileishmanial compounds and the results were critically discussed. In vitro testing was also done against macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. The common problem of liposome therapy being their larger size, stability and storage, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, niosomes were prepared, for their different drug distribution and release characteristics compared to liposomes. When tested in vivo, the retention capacity of niosomes was found to be higher than that of liposomes due to the absence of lipid molecules and their smaller size. Thus the therapeutic efficacy of certain antileishmanial compounds was found to be better than that in the liposomal form. The niosomes, being cheaper, less toxic, biodegradable and non-immunogenic, were considered for sometime as suitable alternatives to liposomes as drug carriers. Besides the advent of other classical drugs carriers(e.g. neoglycoproteins), the biggest challenge came from polymeric delivery vehicles, specially the polymeric nanoparticles which were made of cost effective biodegradable polymers and different natural polymers. Because of very small size and highly stable nature, use of nanoparticles as effective drug carriers has been explored in experimental leishmaniasis using a series of antileishmanial compounds, both of indigenous and synthetic origin. The feasibility of application in vivo, when tested for biological as well as for other physicochemical parameters, the polymeric nanoparticles have turned out to be the best and thus may be projected for effective use in the clinics. PMID:15357216

Basu, Mukul Kumar; Lala, Sanchaita

2004-09-01

238

Oral drug delivery systems using chemical conjugates or physical complexes.  

PubMed

Oral delivery of therapeutics is extremely challenging. The digestive system is designed in a way that naturally allows the degradation of proteins or peptides into small molecules prior to absorption. For systemic absorption, the intact drug molecules must traverse the impending harsh gastrointestinal environment. Technologies, such as enteric coating, with oral dosage formulation strategies have successfully provided the protection of non-peptide based therapeutics against the harsh, acidic condition of the stomach. However, these technologies showed limited success on the protection of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Importantly, inherent permeability coefficient of the therapeutics is still a major problem that has remained unresolved for decades. Addressing this issue in the context, we summarize the strategies that are developed in enhancing the intestinal permeability of a drug molecule either by modifying the intestinal epithelium or by modifying the drug itself. These modifications have been pursued by using a group of molecules that can be conjugated to the drug molecule to alter the cell permeability of the drug or mixed with the drug molecule to alter the epithelial barrier function, in order to achieve the effective drug permeation. This article will address the current trends and future perspectives of the oral delivery strategies. PMID:23220326

Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Alam, Farzana; Byun, Youngro

2012-12-07

239

Advances in the Use of Tocols as Drug Delivery Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in recent years in the drug delivery applications of tocols and their derivatives. Their\\u000a biocompatibility and potential to deliver both poorly soluble and water-soluble drugs make tocols attractive as drug delivery\\u000a vehicles. This review article will focus primarily on topical, oral, and parenteral drug administration using tocols, although\\u000a other routes of delivery such as pulmonary

Panayiotis P. Constantinides; Jihong Han; Stanley S. Davis

2006-01-01

240

Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2011-11-01

241

Ultrasonically Activated Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery in a Rat Model1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic delivery of anticancer agents is accompanied by many un- wanted side effects that can be mitigated by encapsulation of antineoplas- tic agents. However, encapsulation necessitates a technique for controlled delivery to the cancerous tissue. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that releases drug from stabilized micelles upon application of low-frequency ultrasound and that demonstrates efficacy using doxoru-

Jared L. Nelson; Beverly L. Roeder; John C. Carmen; Friederike Roloff; William G. Pitt

242

Microneedles: A Valuable Physical Enhancer to Increase Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injection. However, the stratum corneum acts as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances through the skin. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery. Microneedles have been fabricated with

José Juan Escobar-Chávez; Dalia Bonilla-Martínez; Martha Angélica Villegas-González; Eva Molina-Trinidad; Norma Casas-Alancaster; Alma Luisa Revilla-Vázquez

2011-01-01

243

In situ forming polymeric drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost. PMID:20490289

Madan, M; Bajaj, A; Lewis, S; Udupa, N; Baig, J A

2009-05-01

244

Effect of menthol on ocular drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To assess how safe and effective it is to use menthol as a permeability enhancer in ophthalmic drug delivery systems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, the effect of menthol on permeability of dexamethasone disodium phosphate in the cornea and sclera was investigated\\u000a in vitro. Application of topical drops and subconjunctival injection of dexamethasone disodium phosphate with or without 0.1%\\u000a menthol was administered

Xiaolin Xu; Nannan Yu; Zhengzhong Bai; Yanbin Xun; Di Jin; Zhijian Li; Hao Cui

245

Polyurethane-based drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PUs) are formed by a reaction between isocyanates and diols to yield polymers with urethane bonds (-NH-COO-) in their main chain. A great variety of building blocks is commercially available that allows the chemical and physical properties of PUs to be tailored to their target applications, particularly for the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. This article reviews the synthesis and characterization of PUs and PU-copolymers, as well as their in vitro and in vivo biodegradability and biocompatibility. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of PUs for the controlled release of drugs and for the (targeted) delivery of biotherapeutics. PMID:23632262

Cherng, Jong Yuh; Hou, Ting Yi; Shih, Mei Fen; Talsma, Herre; Hennink, Wim E

2013-04-28

246

Transdermal drug delivery enhanced by low voltage electropulsation (LVE).  

PubMed

The efficiency of low voltage electropulsation (LVE) technique for delivery of drugs and macromolecules across the skin was investigated. The in vitro studies were carried out across the porcine epidermis in Franz diffusion cells using salicylic acid and fluorescein labeled Dextran of molecular weight 10,000 Da (FD10K). LVE enhanced the transport of salicylic acid and FD10K by approximately 4-fold and approximately 2-fold, respectively over the control. The potential application of LVE in transdermal drug delivery was studied in the case of lidocaine hydrochloride. The transport of lidocaine hydrochloride was enhanced by approximately 8-fold over the control. The transport enhancement by LVE was compared with that of 1 min and 20 min constant DC iontophoresis at 0.5 mA/cm(2). Iontophoresis applied for 1 min delivers equivalent electrical dose as that of LVE (50 ms pulses for 20 min at 1 Hz) in the current set up. The transport by application of iontophoresis for 1 min was significantly less than the control (passive diffusion for 20 min). However, the application of iontophoresis for 20 min (electrical dose approximately 20-fold more than that of LVE) resulted in comparable drug transport as that of LVE. It is evident from the results of this experiment that the transdermal delivery of drugs could be enhanced by LVE which is a rather mild technique than electroporation or iontophoresis. PMID:19519188

Sammeta, S M; Vaka, Siva Ram K; Murthy, S Narasimha

2009-01-01

247

Peptide-based hydrogel nanoparticles as effective drug delivery agents.  

PubMed

Peptide-based hydrogel nanoparticles represent a promising alternative to current drug delivery approaches. We have previously demonstrated that the Fmoc-FF aromatic dipeptide building block can self-assemble in aqueous solutions to form nano-scaled ordered hydrogels of remarkable mechanical rigidity. Here, we present a scalable process for the assembly of this peptide into hydrogel nanoparticles (HNPs) aimed to be utilized as potential drug delivery carriers. Fmoc-FF based HNPs were formulated via modified inverse-emulsion method using vitamin E-TPGS as an emulsion stabilizer and high speed homogenization. The formed HNPs exhibited two distinguishable populations with an average size of 21.5±1.3 and 225.9±0.8 nm. Gold nanoparticles were encapsulated within the hydrogel nanoparticles as contrast agents to monitor the formation of the assemblies and their ultrastructural properties. Next, we demonstrated a robust experimental procedure developed and optimized for the formulation, purification, storage and handling procedures of HNPs. Encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and 5-flourouracil (5-Fu) within the HNPs matrix showed release kinetics of the drugs depending on their chemical structure, molecular weight and hydrophobicity. The results clearly indicate that Fmoc-FF based hydrogel nanoparticles have the potential to be used as encapsulation and delivery system of various drugs and bioactive molecules. PMID:23566763

Ischakov, Rafael; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Shekhter, Talia; Gazit, Ehud

2013-03-21

248

Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

2011-10-01

249

Polymeric microdevices for transdermal and subcutaneous drug delivery.  

PubMed

Low cost manufacturing of polymeric microdevices for transdermal and subcutaneous drug delivery is slated to have a major impact on next generation devices for administration of biopharmaceuticals and other emerging new formulations. These devices range in complexity from simple microneedle arrays to more complicated systems incorporating micropumps, micro-reservoirs, on-board sensors, and electronic intelligence. In this paper, we review devices currently in the market and those in the earlier stages of research and development. We also present two examples of the research in our laboratory towards using phase change liquids in polymeric structures to create disposable micropumps and the development of an elastomeric reservoir for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems. PMID:23000744

Ochoa, Manuel; Mousoulis, Charilaos; Ziaie, Babak

2012-09-20

250

Designing of 'intelligent' liposomes for efficient delivery of drugs.  

PubMed

The liposome- vesicles made by a double phospholipid layers which may encapsulate aqueous solutions- have been introduced as drug delivery vehicles due to their structural flexibility in size, composition and bilayer fluidity as well as their ability to incorporate a large variety of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. With time the liposome formulations have been perfected so as to serve certain purposes and this lead to the design of "intelligent" liposomes which can stand specifically induced modifications of the bilayers or can be surfaced with different ligands that guide them to the specific target sites. We present here a brief overview of the current strategies in the design of liposomes as drug delivery carriers and the medical applications of liposomes in humans. PMID:12611636

Voinea, Manuela; Simionescu, Maya

251

Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

2010-01-01

252

Application of Ultrasound Energy as a New Drug Delivery System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound has been in use for the last three decades as amodality for diagnostic imaging in medicine. Recently, there have beennumerous reports on the application of nonthermal ultrasound energyfor targeting or controlling drug release. This new concept oftherapeutic ultrasound combined with drugs has led to much excitementin various medical fields. Ultrasound energy can enhance the effectsof thrombolytic agents such as urokinase. Therapeutic ultrasoundcatheters are currently being developed for treatment ofcardiovascular diseases. Devices with ultrasound transducers implantedin transdermal drug patches are also being evaluated for possibledelivery of insulin through the skin. Chemical activation of drugs byultrasound energy for treatment of cancers is another new fieldrecently termed “Sonodynamic Therapy”. Various examples of ultrasoundapplication are under investigation which could lead to revolutionarydrug delivery systems in the future.

Tachibana, Katsuro; Tachibana, Shunro

1999-05-01

253

Intelligent biomaterials for drug delivery: combining molecular recognition with drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the medical field, a need exists for self-contained implantable sensors for the rapid detection of disease and the rapid release of therapeutic agents. The expanding field of molecular imprinting (MIP) technology has an enormous potential to create intelligent, analyte-sensitive polymers that are capable of controlled drug delivery of therapeutic molecules in response to a biological event. MIP systems are

Nicole M Bergmann; E Hunter Lauten; Nicholas A Peppas

2004-01-01

254

Biodegradable injectable in situ forming drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to inject a drug incorporated into a polymer to a localized site and have the polymer form a semi-solid drug depot has a number of advantages. Among these advantages is ease of application and localized, prolonged drug delivery. For these reasons a large number of in situ setting polymeric delivery systems have been developed and investigated for use

A Hatefi; B Amsden

2002-01-01

255

Bioadhesive Microdevices for Drug Delivery: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of delivery systems have been devised to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs including enterically coated tablets, capsules, particles, liposomes, and others. Microfabrication technology, however, may offer some potential advantages over conventional drug delivery technologies. This technology, combined with appropriate surface chemistry, may permit the highly localized and unidirectional release of drugs, permeation enhancers, and\\/or promoters. In this

Aamer Ahmed; Chris Bonner; Tejal A. Desai

2001-01-01

256

Pressure-sensitive adhesives for transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesives are a critical component in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) devices. In addition to the usual requirements of functional adhesive properties, adhesives for TDD applications must have good biocompatibility with the skin, chemical compatibility with the drug, various components of the formulation, and provide consistent, effective delivery of the drug. This review discusses the three most commonly used adhesives (polyisobutylenes,

Hock S Tan; William R Pfister

1999-01-01

257

Development of an implantable drug delivery catheter.  

PubMed

A microtextured, pillared drug delivery system has been designed and tested in rabbits. This model has allowed for the calculation of the mass transport rate indicating after a 4 week time period a pillar device's mass transport rate K1 [min-1] is K1p 1.54 x 10(-2) in contrast to the smooth control which is K1C .043 x 10(-2) and K1im IM which is 0.136 x 10(-2). As a result of these experiments, it is apparent a micropillared drug delivery system is an order magnitude faster than an intramuscular injection and is 30 times faster than the smooth control device. The etiology for this difference is related to close blood vessel proximity and minimal to no fibrous capsule formation with the micropillared implant. Finally, even after a 6-month implantation time, the pillared device has greater reproducibility regarding curve profile and there is no loss in magnitude or rate of mass transport, in contrast the smooth control devices in many instances resulted in complete occlusion with total loss of mass transport capabilities. PMID:1751157

Lewandowski, J J; Picha, G J; Nguyen, A J; Bressen, D

258

Albumin-based nanoparticles as potential controlled release drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albumin, a versatile protein carrier for drug delivery, has been shown to be nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, it is ideal material to fabricate nanoparticles for drug delivery. Albumin nanoparticles have gained considerable attention owing to their high binding capacity of various drugs and being well tolerated without any serious side-effects. The current review embodies an in-depth discussion of

Ahmed O. Elzoghby; Wael M. Samy; Nazik A. Elgindy

259

Nanotechnology-based combinational drug delivery: an emerging approach for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Combination therapy for the treatment of cancer is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, reduces individual drug-related toxicity and suppresses multi-drug resistance through different mechanisms of action. In recent years, nanotechnology-based combination drug delivery to tumor tissues has emerged as an effective strategy by overcoming many biological, biophysical and biomedical barriers that the body stages against successful delivery of anticancer drugs. The sustained, controlled and targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in a combination approach enhanced therapeutic anticancer effects with reduced drug-associated side effects. In this article, we have reviewed the scope of various nanotechnology-based combination drug delivery approaches and also summarized the current perspective and challenges facing the successful treatment of cancer. PMID:22652342

Parhi, Priyambada; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

2012-05-29

260

Antibody Drug Conjugate bioinformatics: drug delivery through the letterbox.  

PubMed

Antibodies appear to be the first line of defence in the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and thereby are involved in a multitude of biochemical mechanisms, such as regulation of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. It goes without saying that a full understanding of antibody function is required for the development of novel antibody-interacting drugs. These drugs are the Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs), which are a new type of targeted therapy, used for example for cancer. They consist of an antibody (or antibody fragment such as a single-chain variable fragment [scFv]) linked to a payload drug (often cytotoxic). Because of the targeting, the side effects should be lower and give a wider therapeutic window. Overall, the underlying principle of ADCs is to discern the delivery of a drug that is cytotoxic to a target that is cancerous, hoping to increase the antitumoural potency of the original drug by reducing adverse effects and side effects, such as toxicity of the cancer target. This is a pioneering field that employs state-of-the-art computational and molecular biology methods in the fight against cancer using ADCs. PMID:23853668

Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia

2013-06-19

261

Design of a Smart Transdermal Insulin Drug Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a micro-needle array combined with transdermal delivery, as well as the detection of micro-sensors intelligent transdermal insulin delivery systems was designed with characteristics of pain-free, smart, timing, positioning, quantitative drug delivery. Transdermal delivery of the requirements for the design of the transdermal delivery of the microneedle array structure, and UV-LIGA process for the production of polymer micro-needle

Zhenqing Hou; Chenghong Lin; Qiqing Zhang

2010-01-01

262

Infrared free electron laser enhanced transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to control enhancement of transdermal drug delivery with non-invasive. The present study was investigated to assess the effectivity of enhancing the drug delivery by irradiating 6-mum region mid infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL). The enhancement of transdermal drug (lidocaine) delivery of the samples (hairless mouse skin) irradiated with lasers was examined for flux (mug\\/cm2\\/h) and total penetration

Kunio Awazu; Takeyuki Uchizono; Sachiko Suzuki; Kazushi Yoshikawa

2005-01-01

263

[Research on intelligent controlled drug delivery with polymer].  

PubMed

The intelligent controlled drug delivery systems are a series of the preparations including microcapsules or nanocapsules composed of intelligent polymers and medication. The properties of preparations can change with the external stimuli such as pH value, temperature, chemical substance, light, electricity and magnetism. According to this properties, the drug delivery can be intelligently controlled. This paper has reviewed research on syntheses and applications of intelligent controlled drug delivery systems with polymers. PMID:16532842

Zhang, Zhibin; Tang, Changwei; Chen, Huiqing; Shan, Lianhai; Wan, Changxiu

2006-02-01

264

Recent advances in nanotechnology based drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery into the brain was difficult due to the existence of blood brain barrier, which only permits some molecules\\u000a to pass through freely. In past decades, nanotechnology has enabled many technical advances including drug delivery into the\\u000a brain with high efficiency and accuracy. In the present paper, we summarize recent important advances in employing nanotechnology\\u000a for drug delivery to

Li-Na Lin; Qun Liu; Lei Song; Fang-Fang Liu; Jin-Xiu Sha

2010-01-01

265

Hydrogels: an interesting strategy for smart drug delivery.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are novel delivery systems that have drawn much attention in the current pharmaceutical scenario. Of all the advantages, the most important is their versatility, which makes them optimal for any kind of molecule, adequate to be administered by any administration route and capable to modulate the desired release profile. Current research is managed to solve the limitations of this systems; mainly the low mechanical strength and lack of control of release in time and quantity, and the reversibility of the delivery. Several approaches such as the use of multi-stimuli-sensitive mechanisms, the enhancement of mechanical properties using chemical crosslinkers, development of polyelectrolyte complexes, the increment of interpenetrating networks or composite hydrogels are providing excellent results. These systems represent a promising alternative due to the countless possibilities to offer for modulating drug release. PMID:23343156

González-Alvarez, Marta; González-Alvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival

2013-02-01

266

Microprocessor in controlled transdermal drug delivery of anti-cancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microprocessor controlled transdermal delivery of anticancer drugs 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) was developed\\u000a and in vitro evaluation was done. Drugs were loaded based on the pharmacokinetics parameters. In vitro diffusion studies were\\u000a carried at different current density (0.0, 0.1, 0.22, 0.50 mA\\/cm2). The patches were evaluated for the drug content, thickness, weight, folding endurance, flatness, thumb tack test and

N. S. Chandrashekar; R. H. Shobha Rani

2009-01-01

267

Design of a multiple drug delivery system directed at periodontitis.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165

Sundararaj, Sharath C; Thomas, Mark V; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D; Puleo, David A

2013-08-12

268

Polymeric carriers: role of geometry in drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The unique properties of synthetic nanostructures promise a diverse set of applications as carriers for drug delivery, which are advantageous in terms of biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, targeting and controlled drug release. Historically, more traditional drug delivery systems have focused on spherical carriers. However, there is a growing interest in pursuing non-spherical carriers, such as elongated or filamentous morphologies, now available due to novel formulation strategies. Unique physiochemical properties of these supramolecular structures offer distinct advantages as drug delivery systems. In particular, results of recent studies in cell cultures and lab animals indicate that rational design of carriers of a given geometry (size and shape) offers an unprecedented control of their longevity in circulation and targeting to selected cellular and subcellular locations. This article reviews drug delivery aspects of non-spherical drug delivery systems, including material selection and formulation, drug loading and release, biocompatibility, circulation behavior, targeting and subcellular addressing.

Simone, Eric A; Dziubla, Thomas D; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

2009-01-01

269

Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Microgels and Injectable Hydrogels for the Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical and chemical properties of hydrogels make them excellent vehicles to deliver drugs. However, current systems encounter difficulties with loading hydrophobic molecules into the aqueous gel network and the subsequent release of the drug from the gel matrix. Cyclodextrins (CDs) offer a potential solution to this drug delivery challenge. CDs have the unique property of possessing a hydrophilic exterior

Rabia Mateen

2012-01-01

270

Transdermal Delivery Devices: Fabrication, Mechanics and Drug Release from Silk.  

PubMed

Microneedles are a relatively simple, minimally invasive and painless approach to deliver drugs across the skin. However, there remain limitations with this approach because of the materials most commonly utilized for such systems. Silk protein, with tunable and biocompatibility properties, is a useful biomaterial to overcome the current limitations with microneedles. Silk devices preserve drug activity, offer superior mechanical properties and biocompatibility, can be tuned for biodegradability, and can be processed under aqueous, benign conditions. In the present work, the fabrication of dense microneedle arrays from silk with different drug release kinetics is reported. The mechanical properties of the microneedle patches are tuned by post-fabrication treatments or by loading the needles with silk microparticles, to increase capacity and mechanical strength. Drug release is further enhanced by the encapsulation of the drugs in the silk matrix and coating with a thin dissolvable drug layer. The microneedles are used on human cadaver skin and drugs are delivered successfully. The various attributes demonstrated suggest that silk-based microneedle devices can provide significant benefit as a platform material for transdermal drug delivery. PMID:23653252

Raja, Waseem K; Maccorkle, Scott; Diwan, Izzuddin M; Abdurrob, Abdurrahman; Lu, Jessica; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

2013-05-01

271

Clinical trials in pediatrics: The drug delivery dimension.  

PubMed

The medical and drug delivery devices needs of children are quite different and unique when compared to that of adults. The practice of off label use and modification of adult devices for pediatric use is widespread. Attendant risk and adverse effects of such practices are poorly documented. Lack of pediatric age appropriate drug formulations constitutes a major impediment to pediatric drug labeling. While novel drug delivery system can help circumvent some of the pediatric formulations issues, the inherent high cost of development, the small size of the pediatric market, and the ethical dilemma of enrolling children in non-therapeutic clinical trials continue to militate against pediatric drug labeling as well medical devices development. Over the past four decades, major breakthroughs and achievements in basic biomedical science have supplied unprecedented potential information for improving human health. The need for properly designed and conducted pediatric clinical trials along with new drug delivery devices has never been greater. However major issues, like slow transition of promising basic scientific discovery into clinical applications, heavy regulatory burden, limited pediatric pharmacology research infrastructure, spiraling costs of health care, disproportionate governmental funding of basic science research over clinical research, conflicts of interest, and shortage of properly trained clinical investigators and willing study subjects continue to constitute major impediments to pediatric clinical trials clinical trials. This paper will seek to review among other things, the current state of affairs and the structure of the pediatric academic research enterprise along with their relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. Impediments to successful implementation of clinical trials in the academic setting will also be closely examined. PMID:16529842

Osuntokun, Bankole

2006-03-09

272

Extended Release Drug Delivery Strategies in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Objective: An overview of the emerging field of long-term delivery strategies for improved convenience and adherence with psychiatric medications is provided. This review is motivated by the hypothesis that adherence to treatment is an important determinant of clinical outcomes in a wide range of settings and is particularly important in psychiatry practice where patients require treatment for months or years and premature discontinuation can have serious consequences for patient health and quality of life. Design: The author reviews the relevant literature and highlights several approaches to providing improved access to continuous medication through new and innovative delivery strategies ranging from days to annual intervals. Benefits and Disadvantages: Several solutions to the problem of discontinuous access to pharmacotherapy are being developed in the form of new, long-acting drug-delivery systems, which gradually release medication over a period of several days or weeks with a single application. Long-acting formulations of psychiatric medications offer a number of potential benefits in comparison with conventional immediate-release agents, including improved safety and effectiveness. Potential limitations to using long-acting formulations may include pain and discomfort at the injection site, perceived inconvenience of a new treatment method, preference for oral medications, and length of time to titrate down to the lowest effective dose. Conclusions: The introduction of new, long-acting drug formulations could provide significant improvements in clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction for many patients, including those with affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence. Switching from oral administration to these new agents requires careful monitoring to reach the optimal dose, and patient concerns regarding the use of new delivery methods must be addressed. Long-acting formulations are not intended to be a sole form of treatment, and the use of psychotherapy as an adjunct form of treatment is still required. Controlled clinical trials of these new formulations have only recently been completed, offering clinicians a new option in their treatment regimens; however, as technologies improve, several new formulations are likely to enter clinical trials during the next few years. Psychiatrists will need to become acquainted with these technologies and educate their patients about them so they may work together to determine the most effective treatment option.

2005-01-01

273

Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Microparticles offer various significant advantages as drug delivery systems, including: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

Singh, M.N.; Hemant, K.S.Y.; Ram, M.; Shivakumar, H.G.

2010-01-01

274

A new self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for poorly soluble drugs: Characterization, dissolution, in vitro digestion and incorporation into solid pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was the development of a new pellet based self-emulsifying (SE) drug delivery system for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate the influence of physiological dilution media and enzymatic digestion on the solubilization capacity of the formulation for the model drug Progesterone.Lipid mixtures composed of Solutol® HS 15 and

Ahmed Abdalla; Sandra Klein; Karsten Mäder

2008-01-01

275

The Rule of Five for Non-Oral Routes of Drug Delivery: Ophthalmic, Inhalation and Transdermal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rule of Five predicts suitability of drug candidates, but was developed primarily using orally administered drugs. Here,\\u000a we test whether the Rule of Five predicts drugs for delivery via non-oral routes, specifically ophthalmic, inhalation and\\u000a transdermal. We assessed 111 drugs approved by FDA for those routes of administration and found that >98% of current non-oral\\u000a drugs have physicochemical properties

Young Bin Choy; Mark R. Prausnitz

2011-01-01

276

Liposomal gels for vaginal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to develop a liposomal drug carrier system, able to provide sustained and controlled release of appropriate drug for local vaginal therapy. To optimise the preparation of liposomes with regards to size and entrapment efficiency, liposomes containing calcein were prepared by five different methods. Two optimal liposomal preparations (proliposomes and polyol dilution liposomes) were tested for their in vitro stability in media that simulate human vaginal conditions (buffer, pH 4.5). To be closer to in vivo application of liposomes and to achieve further improvement of their stability, liposomes were incorporated in vehicles suitable for vaginal self-administration. Gels of polyacrylate were chosen as vehicles for liposomal preparations. Due to their hydrophilic nature and bioadhesive properties, it was possible to achieve an adequate pH value corresponding to physiological conditions as well as desirable viscosity. In vitro release studies of liposomes incorporated in these gels (Carbopol 974P NF or Carbopol 980 NF) confirmed their applicability as a novel drug carrier system in vaginal delivery. Regardless of the gel used, even 24 h after the incubation of liposomal gel in the buffer pH 4.5 more than 80% of the originally entrapped substance was still retained. PMID:11337174

Paveli?, Z; Skalko-Basnet, N; Schubert, R

2001-05-21

277

Advanced techniques for penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Transdermal route has been recognized as a promising drug delivery system for systemic delivery of drugs and provides the advantage of avoidance of first-pass effect, ease of use, better patient compliance, maintaining constant blood level for longer period of time and decrease side effects. The major pitfalls of this route lie with difficulty in permeation of drugs through the skin. Several literatures have been published for enhancing the permeation of drugs by chemical approaches. However the present review highlighted about the advanced physical techniques used for enhancing delivery of drugs such as structure-based, electrically based, velocity based and several other miscellaneous physical techniques for enhancing the permeation of drugs. In addition to these, the present review also gives an exhaustive account on clinical data about these techniques and regulatory considerations for new drugs as well as generic product approval in transdermal drug delivery. PMID:21453254

Swain, Suryakanta; Beg, Sarwar; Singh, Astha; Patro, Ch Niranjan; Rao, M E Bhanoji

2011-07-01

278

Engineering approaches to transdermal drug delivery: a tribute to contributions of prof. Robert Langer.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery continues to provide an advantageous route of drug administration over injections. While the number of drugs delivered by passive transdermal patches has increased over the years, no macromolecule is currently delivered by the transdermal route. Substantial research efforts have been dedicated by a large number of researchers representing varied disciplines including biology, chemistry, pharmaceutics and engineering to understand, model and overcome the skin's barrier properties. This article focuses on engineering contributions to the field of transdermal drug delivery. The article pays tribute to Prof. Robert Langer, who pioneered the engineering approach towards transdermal drug delivery. Over a period spanning nearly 25 years since his first publication in the field of transdermal drug delivery, Bob Langer has deeply impacted the field by quantitative analysis and innovative engineering. At the same time, he has inspired several generations of engineers by collaborations and mentorship. His scientific insights, innovative technologies, translational efforts and dedicated mentorship have transformed the field. PMID:23921113

Mitragotri, S

2013-07-29

279

Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

280

Issues in drug delivery: concepts and practice.  

PubMed

Understanding the transport and deposition of inhaled aerosols is of fundamental importance to inhalation therapy. Herein we address issues that affect drug delivery from experimental and theoretical perspectives. Accordingly, we shall limit our comments to a focused review of laboratory work (ie, an in vitro perspective) and the development of a computer-based 3-dimensional (3D) oral morphology with related computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and particle deposition studies (ie, an "in silico" perspective). To describe the oral region, morphometric data from the literature were employed. With Maya Unlimited, a third-party animation software package, coronal images were used to create initial spline curves, which served as the foundation of a nonuniform rational B-spline surface, representing a 3D morphology. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first medical application of Maya Unlimited. We have demonstrated that the code can be employed to construct 3D biological structures and perform 3D CFD simulations of aerosols from dry powder inhalers and metered-dose inhalers. A study was also conducted using Fluent, a commercially available software package that has been used extensively in our laboratory for 3D CFD computations. The Maya Unlimited software can generate physiologically realistic oral structures; it has great potential for use in the medical arena, because it requires neither advance technical training nor substantial peripheral ( eg, hardware) support, it allows for the introduction of medical devices ( eg, dry powder inhalers) into simulations, and it predicts 3D CFDpatterns consistent with experimental observations and results of more rigorous software ( Fluent). In the in vitro perspective we considered numerous salient topics, including the performances of dry powder inhalers and metered-dose inhalers, their respective operating characteristics, and relevance to in vivo data. We advocate that 3D CFD software be employed in a complementary manner, in real time, with aerosol therapy protocols in the medical arena, to promote the targeted delivery of inhaled drugs and thereby enhance their efficacies. PMID:16163810

Martonen, Ted B; Smyth, Hugh D; Isaacs, Kristin K; Burton, Ray T

2005-09-01

281

Liposomes and skin: From drug delivery to model membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early eighties saw the introduction of liposomes as skin drug delivery systems, initially promoted primarily for localised effects with minimal systemic delivery. Subsequently, a novel ultradeformable vesicular system (termed “Transfersomes” by the inventors) was reported for transdermal delivery with an efficiency similar to subcutaneous injection. Further research illustrated that the mechanisms of liposome action depended on the application regime

G. M. El Maghraby; B. W. Barry; A. C. Williams

2008-01-01

282

Production of protein nanoparticles for food and drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins nanoparticles are one of the new methods for food delivery systems. The protein nanoparticles which represent promising carriers for delivery are fabricated based on different methods. Synthetic protein nanostructure acts as surrogate mimics such as viruses and plasmid for food and drug delivery system. The benefits of protein nanoparticles include non-toxicity, stability for long duration, nonantigenicity and biodegradability. The

M. Rahimnejad; N. Mokhtarian; M. Ghasemi

2009-01-01

283

Microemulsions as transdermal drug delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water, and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. Microemulsions have been intensively studied during the last decades by many scientists and technologists because of their great potential in many food and pharmaceutical applications. The use of microemulsions is advantageous not only due to the facile and low cost preparation, but also because of the improved bioavailability. The increased absorption of drugs in topical applications is attributed to enhancement of penetration through the skin by the carrier. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids serving as an oil phase are frequently used as penetration enhancers. The most popular enhancer is oleic acid. Other permeation enhancers commonly used in transdermal formulations are isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, triacetin, isostearylic isostearate, R(+)-limonene and medium chain triglycerides. The most popular among the enhancing permeability surfactants are phospholipids that have been shown to enhance drug permeation in a different mode. l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine 60%, from soybean and dioleylphosphatidyl ethanolamine which are in a fluid state may diffuse into the stratum corneum and enhance dermal and transdermal drug penetration, while distearoylphosphatidyl choline which is in a gel-state has no such capability. Other very commonly used surfactants are Tween 20, Tween 80, Span 20, Azone, Plurol Isostearique and Plurol Oleique. As cosurfactants commonly serve short-chain alkanols such as ethanol and propylene glycol. Long-chain alcohols, especially 1-butanol, are known for their enhancing activity as well. Decanol was found to be an optimum enhancer among other saturated fatty alcohols that were examined (from octanol to myristyl alcohol). Many enhancers are concentration-dependent; therefore, optimal concentration for effective promotion should be determined. The delivery rate is dependent on the type of the drug, the structure and ingredients of the carrier, and on the character of the membrane in use. Each formulation should be examined very carefully, because every membrane alters the mechanism of penetration and can turn an enhancer to a retarder. Various potential mechanisms to enhance drug penetration through the skin include directly affecting the skin and modifying the formulation so the partition, diffusion, or solubility is altered. The combination of several enhancement techniques such as the use of iontophoresis with fatty acids leads to synergetic drug penetration and to decrease in skin toxicity. Selected studies of various microemulsions containing certain drugs including retinoic acid, 5-fluorouracil, triptolide, ascorbic acid, diclofenac, lidocaine, and prilocaine hydrochloride in transdermal formulations are presented in this review. In conclusion, microemulsions were found as an effective vehicle of the solubilization of certain drugs and as protecting medium for the entrapped of drugs from degradation, hydrolysis, and oxidation. It can also provide prolonged release of the drug and prevent irritation despite the toxicity of the drug. Yet, in spite of all the advantages the present formulations lack several key important characteristics such as cosmetic-permitted surfactants, free dilution in water capabilities, stability in the digestive tracts and sufficient solubilization capacity. PMID:16843424

Kogan, Anna; Garti, Nissim

2006-07-14

284

Lyophilisomes as a new generation of drug delivery capsules.  

PubMed

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are currently explored to overcome critical challenges associated with classical administration forms. In this study, we present a drug delivery system based on a novel class of proteinaceous biodegradable nano/micro capsules, lyophilisomes. Lyophilisomes can be prepared from biomolecules without the need for amphiphilicity. Albumin-based lyophilisomes were prepared by freezing, annealing and lyophilizing, resulting in capsules ranging from 100 to 3000 nm. Lyophilisomes were loaded with the anti-tumor drugs doxorubicin and curcumin using different concentrations and time/temperature regimes. Incubation in 0.1 mg/ml doxorubicin or 1.0 mg/ml curcumin resulted in an entrapment efficiency of 95±1% and 4±1%, respectively. This corresponds to a drug loading of 0.24 mg doxorubicin per milligram albumin and 0.10 mg curcumin per milligram albumin. Drug release profiles from doxorubicin and curcumin-loaded lyophilisomes were studied in culture medium and showed slow release for doxorubicin (2.7% after 72 h), and rapid release for curcumin (55% after 72 h). When applied to cells, non-loaded lyophilisomes did not influence cell viability, even at high concentrations (1 mg/ml). Lyophilisomes were internalized by cells. When loaded with doxorubicin and curcumin, lyophilisomes strongly reduced cell proliferation and viability of SKOV-3 and HeLa cells, respectively, to a level similar or better compared to an equal amount of free drugs. In conclusion, albumin lyophilisomes show potential as (nano)carriers of drugs for tumor cell elimination. PMID:23069914

van Bracht, Etienne; Raavé, René; Verdurmen, Wouter P R; Wismans, Ronnie G; Geutjes, Paul J; Brock, Roland E; Oosterwijk, Egbert; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F

2012-10-13

285

Nasal and buccal drug delivery: management forum conference.  

PubMed

The scope of the conference (Nasal and Buccal Drug Delivery Conference, Management Forum; Chairs Franz Merkus and Julie Suman) was to consider innovations in drug delivery via the nose and oral cavity, notably for the delivery of vaccines, antimalarials and rapidly acting sedatives. Presentations from experts from academia, government agencies and commercial organisations were made over the 2 days. The advantages of both routes were ease of application, patient acceptability and no requirement to produce sterile products. These routes worked best for drugs that are water soluble--but with some lipophilicity--only require low doses, are acceptable to the patient and have low irritancy (particulary for the nasal route). Challenges relate to the effectiveness of deposition from the delivery systems and the efficient clearance mechanisms. It was concluded that for many drugs, buccal and nasal delivery could become the route of choice for their application; vaccines, in particular, appear to show promise for nasal delivery. PMID:22900464

Smart, John D

2012-07-01

286

In situ forming parenteral drug delivery systems: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable injectable in situ forming drug delivery systems represent an attractive alternative to microspheres and implants as parenteral depot systems. Their importance will grow as numerous proteins will lose their patent protection in the near future. These devices may offer attractive opportunities for protein delivery and could possibly extend the patent life of protein drugs. The controlled release of bioactive

C. B Packhaeuser; J Schnieders; C. G Oster; T Kissel

2004-01-01

287

Surface modification of polyethylene balloon catheters for local drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local drug delivery is an attractive approach to the associated problems of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), including arterial injury. The objective of the present research was to deliver a high concentration of a potent anti-thrombin agent, argatroban (ARG), to the vessel wall in order to reduce arterial injury. Local delivery was accomplished by the ionic attachment of drug particles

T Richey; H Iwata; H Oowaki; E Uchida; S Matsuda; Y Ikada

2000-01-01

288

Small-scale systems for in vivo drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the application of micro- and nanosystems for drug administration include a diverse range of new materials and methods. New approaches include the on-demand activation of molecular interactions, novel diffusion-controlled delivery devices, nanostructured 'smart' surfaces and materials, and prospects for coupling drug delivery to sensors and implants. Micro- and nanotechnologies are enabling the design of novel methods such

David A LaVan; Terry McGuire; Robert Langer

2003-01-01

289

Colon targeted drug delivery systems--an overview.  

PubMed

In the last two decades colon targeted drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the deliver drugs for the treatment of various colonic diseases but also for its potential for delivery of proteins and therapeutic peptides. In the past various traditional approaches used for colon targeted delivery like prodrugs, pH, time dependent, and microflora activated systems, have achieved limited success. For successful colon targeted drug delivery, the drug needs to be protected from absorption and/or the environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract and then be abruptly released into the colon. Hence continuous efforts have been made on designing colon targeted drug delivery systems with improved site specificity and versatile drug release kinetics to fulfill different therapeutic needs. In last couple of years few new systems have been developed for colon targeted drug delivery such as pressure dependent systems, CODES technology, microsponges, pectin and galactomannan coating, microbially triggered osmotic systems, lectins and neoglyconjugated etc. which are reported to have better in-vivo site specificity and design rationale than the earlier approaches. This review article gives an overview of various approaches for colonic targeted drug delivery with emphasis on newer systems, their merits and demerits, in vitro/ in-vivo evaluation and market status of such delivery systems. PMID:18673262

Kumar, P; Mishra, B

2008-07-01

290

AC electrokinetic platform for iontophoretic transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iontophoretic and electroporation transdermal delivery modes of ionic drugs have been utilized in a number of clinical and biomedical devices. However, applications of these methods have been found challenging for the delivery of many non polar and high molecular weight clinically important drugs. The main goal of the present study is to investigate whether transdermal transport of non polar macromolecular

Vadim F. Lvovich; Ellen Matthews; Alan T. Riga; Lakshmi Kaza

2010-01-01

291

Transdermal drug delivery: an assessment of skin impedance models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability found in skin impedance can significantly influence the effectiveness of Transdermal Drug Delivery. In order to optimize drug delivery, skin impedance frequency response must be considered. Several electrical models for skin impedance are presented in an attempt to understand the \\

Anthony F. Coston; J. K.-J. Li

2003-01-01

292

Microneedles array with biodegradable tips for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presented an enhancement solution for transdermal drug delivery using microneedles array with biodegradable tips. The microneedles array was fabricated by using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the biodegradable tips were made to be porous by electrochemical etching process. The porous silicon microneedle tips can greatly enhance the transdermal drug delivery in a minimum invasion, painless, and convenient

Ciprian Iliescu; Bangtao Chen; Jiashen Wei; Francis E. H. Tay

2008-01-01

293

A practical assessment of transdermal drug delivery by skin electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery has many potential advantages, but the skin's poorly-permeable stratum corneum blocks delivery of most drugs at therapeutic levels. Short high-voltage pulses have been used to electroporate the skin's lipid bilayer barriers and thereby deliver compounds at rates increased by as much as four orders of magnitude. Evidence that the observed flux enhancement is due to physical alteration

Mark R Prausnitz

1999-01-01

294

Functionalized mesoporous silica particles for application in drug delivery system.  

PubMed

In these years, ordered mesoporous silica materials have shown promising applications in drug delivery system as drug carriers. These carriers with stable mesoporous structure, large surface area, good biocompatibility and tailored size of mesopores exhibit significant property of higher drug loading. However, silica-based mesoporous materials cannot control the release of the loaded drug without modifications. In this paper, we review the recent research work discussing functionalization of mesoporous materials by various components and methods for application in drug delivery systems. All the examples show that these functionalized mesoporous silica-based systems have great potential for a variety of drug delivery applications, specifically in the fields of the drug targeted and controlled delivery systems. PMID:22512562

Pang, J; Luan, Y; Yang, X; Jiang, Y; Zhao, L; Zong, Y; Li, Z

2012-07-01

295

The vesosome-- a multicompartment drug delivery vehicle.  

PubMed

Assembling structures to divide space controllably and spontaneously into subunits at the nanometer scale is a significant challenge, although one that biology has solved in two distinct ways: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have a single compartment delimited by one or more lipid-protein membranes. Eukaryotes have nested-membrane structures that provide internal compartments--such as the cell nucleus and cell organelles in which specialized functions are carried out. We have developed a simple method of creating nested bilayer compartments in vitro via the "interdigitated" bilayer phase formed by adding ethanol to a variety of saturated phospholipids. At temperatures below the gel-liquid crystalline transition, T(m), the interdigitated lipid-ethanol sheets are rigid and flat; when the temperature is raised above T(m), the sheets become flexible and close on themselves and the surrounding solution to form closed compartments. During this closure, the sheets can entrap other vesicles, biological macromolecules, or colloidal particles. The result is efficient and spontaneous encapsulation without disruption of even fragile materials to form biomimetic nano-environments for possible use in drug delivery, colloidal stabilization, or as microreactors. The vesosome structure can take full advantage of the 40 years of progress in liposome development including steric stabilization, pH loading of drugs, and intrinsic biocompatibility. However, the multiple compartments of the vesosome give better protection to the interior contents in serum, leading to extended release of model compounds in comparison to unilamellar liposomes. PMID:14754417

Kisak, E T; Coldren, B; Evans, C A; Boyer, C; Zasadzinski, J A

2004-01-01

296

Electrospun Nanofibers of Guar Galactomannan for Targeted Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guar galactomannan is a biodegradable polysaccharide used widely in the food industry but also in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, oil drilling, textile and paper industries. Guar consists of a mannose backbone and galactose side groups that are both susceptible to enzyme degradation, a unique property that can be explored for targeted drug delivery especially since those enzymes are naturally secreted by the microflora in human colon. The present study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss ways to modify guar to produce nanofibers by electrospinning, a process that involves the application of an electric field to a polymer solution or melt to facilitate production of fibers in the sub-micron range. Nanofibers are currently being explored as the next generation of drug carriers due to its many advantages, none more important than the fact that nanofibers are on a size scale that is a fraction of a hair's width and have large surface-to-volume ratio. The incorporation and controlled release of nano-sized drugs is one way in which nanofibers are being utilized in drug delivery. In the second part of the study, we explore various methods to crosslink guar nanofibers as a means to promote water-resistance in a potential drug carrier. The scope and utility of water-resistant guar nanofibers can only be fully appreciated when subsequent drug release studies are carried out. To that end, the third part of our study focuses on understanding the kinetics and diffusion mechanisms of a model drug, Rhodamine B, through moderately-swelling (crosslinked) hydrogel nanofibers in comparison to rapidly-swelling (non-crosslinked) nanofibers. Along the way, our investigations led us to a novel electrospinning set-up that has a unique collector designed to capture aligned nanofibers. These aligned nanofiber bundles can then be twisted to hold them together like yarn. From a practical standpoint, these yarns are advantageous because they come freely suspended and without any attached support. As composites of aligned nanofibers, yarns potentially combine the inherent advantages of nanofibers with the strength and pliability of larger sized fibers. As such, we became interested in exploring the potential of nanofiber yarns as drug carriers. Our study evolved to accommodate comparative studies between the behavior of traditional nonwoven mats and nanofiber yarns. Throughout the process, we sought to answer the bigger question: Can guar galactomannan nanofibers be used as a new biodegradable platform for drug delivery?

Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie

297

Use of clays as drug delivery systems: Possibilities and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for safe, therapeutically effective and patient-compliant drug delivery systems continuously leads researchers to design novel tools and strategies. Clay minerals are widely used materials in drug products both as excipients and active agents. When administered simultaneously, drug–clay interactions have been observed and studied, but until recently were not considered as a possible mechanism to modify drug release. In

C. Aguzzi; P. Cerezo; C. Viseras; C. Caramella

2007-01-01

298

Synergistic Effect of Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers a non-invasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Various enhancers including iontophoresis, chemicals, ultrasound, and electroporation have been shown to enhance transdermal drug transport. Although all these meth- ods have been individually shown to enhance transdermal drug transport, their combinations have often been found to enhance transdermal transport more

Samir Mitragotri

2000-01-01

299

Synergistic Effect of Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers a non-invasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Various enhancers including iontophoresis, chemicals, ultrasound, and electroporation have been shown to enhance transdermal drug transport. Although all these methods have been individually shown to enhance transdermal drug transport, their combinations have often been found to enhance transdermal transport more effectively

Samir Mitragotri

2000-01-01

300

Enhancing intestinal drug solubilisation using lipid-based delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid-based delivery systems are finding increasing application in the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble, lipophilic drugs. Whilst lipidic dose forms may improve oral bioavailability via several mechanisms, enhancement of gastrointestinal solubilisation remains argueably the most important method of absorption enhancement. This review firstly describes the mechanistic rationale which underpins the use of lipid-based delivery systems to enhance drug solubilisation and

Christopher J. H. Porter; Colin W. Pouton; Jean F. Cuine; William N. Charman

2008-01-01

301

Development of a Microfluidics-Based Intracochlear Drug Delivery Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Direct delivery of drugs and other agents into the inner ear will be important for many emerging therapies, including the treatment of degenerative disorders and guiding regeneration. Methods: We have taken a microfluidics\\/MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) technology approach to develop a fully implantable reciprocating inner-ear drug-delivery system capable of timed and sequenced delivery of agents directly into perilymph of the

William F. Sewell; Jeffrey T. Borenstein; Zhiqiang Chen; Jason Fiering; Ophir Handzel; Maria Holmboe; Ernest S. Kim; Sharon G. Kujawa; Michael J. McKenna; Mark M. Mescher; Brian Murphy; Erin E. Leary Swan; Marcello Peppi; Sarah Tao

2009-01-01

302

Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs  

PubMed Central

In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system.

2013-01-01

303

Cavitation-enhanced extravasation for drug delivery.  

PubMed

A flow-through tissue-mimicking phantom composed of a biocompatible hydro-gel with embedded tumour cells was used to assess and optimize the role of ultrasound-induced cavitation on the extravasation of a macromolecular compound from a channel mimicking vessel in the gel, namely a non-replicating luciferase-expressing adenovirus (Ad-Luc). Using a 500 KHz therapeutic ultrasound transducer confocally aligned with a focussed passive cavitation detector, different exposure conditions and burst mode timings were selected by performing time and frequency domain analysis of passively recorded acoustic emissions, in the absence and in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents acting as cavitation nuclei. In the presence of Sonovue, maximum ultraharmonic emissions were detected for peak rarefactional pressures of 360 kPa, and maximum broadband emissions occurred at 1250 kPa. The energy of the recorded acoustic emissions was used to optimise the pulse repetition frequency and duty cycle in order to maximize either ultraharmonic or broadband emissions while keeping the acoustic energy delivered to the focus constant. Cell viability measurements indicated that none of the insonation conditions investigated induces cell death in the absence of a therapeutic agent (i.e. virus). Phase contrast images of the tissue-mimicking phantom showed that short range vessel disruption can occur when ultra-harmonic emissions (nf0/2) are maximised whereas formation of a micro-channel perpendicular to the flow can be obtained in the presence of broadband acoustic emissions. Following Ad-Luc delivery, luciferase expression measurements showed that a 60-fold increase in its bioavailability can be achieved when broadband noise emissions are present during insonation, even for modest contrast agent concentrations. The findings of the present study suggest that drug delivery systems based on acoustic cavitation may help enhance the extravasation of anticancer agents, thus increasing their penetration distance to hypoxic regions and poorly vascularised tumour regions. PMID:21963037

Arvanitis, Costas D; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; Rifai, Bassel; Seymour, Leonard W; Coussios, Constantin C

2011-10-02

304

Microemulsion: New Insights into the Ocular Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions as an ocular drug delivery carrier offers several favorable pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties such as their excellent thermodynamic stability, phase transition to liquid-crystal state, very low surface tension, and small droplet size, which may result in improved ocular drug retention, extended duration of action, high ocular absorption, and permeation of loaded drugs. Further, both lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics are present in microemulsions, so that the loaded drugs can diffuse passively as well get significantly partitioned in the variable lipophilic-hydrophilic corneal barrier. This review will provide an insight into previous studies on microemulsions for ocular delivery of drugs using various nonionic surfactants, cosurfactants, and associated irritation potential on the ocular surface. The reported in vivo experiments have shown a delayed effect of drug incorporated in microemulsion and an increase in the corneal permeation of the drug.

Hegde, Rahul Rama; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava

2013-01-01

305

Microemulsion: new insights into the ocular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions as an ocular drug delivery carrier offers several favorable pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties such as their excellent thermodynamic stability, phase transition to liquid-crystal state, very low surface tension, and small droplet size, which may result in improved ocular drug retention, extended duration of action, high ocular absorption, and permeation of loaded drugs. Further, both lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics are present in microemulsions, so that the loaded drugs can diffuse passively as well get significantly partitioned in the variable lipophilic-hydrophilic corneal barrier. This review will provide an insight into previous studies on microemulsions for ocular delivery of drugs using various nonionic surfactants, cosurfactants, and associated irritation potential on the ocular surface. The reported in vivo experiments have shown a delayed effect of drug incorporated in microemulsion and an increase in the corneal permeation of the drug. PMID:23936681

Hegde, Rahul Rama; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava

2013-06-27

306

Multipulse drug delivery from a resorbable polymeric microchip device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release drug delivery systems have many applications, including treatments for hormone deficiencies and chronic pain. A biodegradable device that could provide multi-dose drug delivery would be advantageous for long-term treatment of conditions requiring pulsatile drug release. In this work, biodegradable polymeric microchips were fabricated that released four pulses of radiolabelled dextran, human growth hormone or heparin in vitro. Heparin that

Amy C. Richards Grayson; Insung S. Choi; Betty M. Tyler; Paul P. Wang; Henry Brem; Michael J. Cima; Robert Langer

2003-01-01

307

Physical methods to promote drug delivery on mucosal tissues of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Introduction: The success of drug delivery through the mucosal tissue of the oral cavity represents a current challenge as well as a great future perspective. The need for more rapid onset of action and improved absorption of medications has resulted in great development of drug delivery technologies that use physical methods to overcome the barrier properties of oral mucosae. Areas covered: This review discusses the various physical techniques which have been, and are being, explored to sustain drug delivery in the oral cavity. In particular, supersaturation, eutectic formation, iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, laser radiation, photomechanical waves and needleless injection are considered. Following a careful selection of the most appropriate site and technique, in agreement with local variations of the oral mucosal permeability features, physical methods to promote drug delivery can improve treatment of diseases. Expert opinion: Although physical methods are very promising to promote drug delivery through keratinized epithelial tissues, they are not extensively used on the oral cavity mucosae. The authors feel that, in the near future, these methods could be further developed to provide noninvasive and convenient means for locoregional/systemic delivery of drugs with poor bioavailability profile, short half-life and multiple doses scheduling. This review will help the readers in the selection of a suitable physical method for improving drug delivery in the oral cavity for future chances. The authors imagine that new formulations or devices will be marketed in the coming years. PMID:23802558

Giannola, Libero Italo; Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana

2013-06-27

308

Sustained Release Intraocular Drug Delivery Devices for Treatment of Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of uveitis therapy. When intraocular inflammation is unresponsive to steroids, or steroid related side effects become a concern, steroid-sparing medications may be administered which can be classified into immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory agents. Uveitis treatment can be delivered systemically, topically, periocularly or intraocularly. All of the above mentioned medications can entail significant systemic side effects, particularly if administered for prolonged durations, which may become treatment-limiting. Some medications, particularly hydrophobic compounds, may poorly cross the blood–retinal barrier. Topical medications, which have the least side effects, do not penetrate well into the posterior segment and are unsuitable for posterior uveitis which is often sight-threatening. Intraocular or periocular injections can deliver relatively high doses of drug to the eye with few or no systemic side effects. However, such injections are associated with significant complications and must often be repeated at regular intervals. Compliance with any form of regular medication can be a problem, particularly if its administration is associated with discomfort or if side effects are unpleasant. To overcome the above-mentioned limitations, an increasing number of sustained-release drug delivery devices using different mechanisms and containing a variety of agents have been developed to treat uveitis. This review discusses various current and future sustained-release ophthalmic drug delivery systems for treatment of uveitis.

Haghjou, Nahid; Soheilian, Masoud; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar

2011-01-01

309

Intraperiodontal pocket: An ideal route for local antimicrobial drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Periodontal pockets act as a natural reservoir filled with gingival crevicular fluid for the controlled release delivery of antimicrobials directly. This article reflects the present status of nonsurgical controlled local intrapocket delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. These sites have specialty in terms of anatomy, permeability, and their ability to retain a delivery system for a desired length of time. A number of antimicrobial products and the composition of the delivery systems, its use, clinical results, and their release are summarized. The goal in using an intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Novel controlled drug delivery system are capable of improving patient compliance as well as therapeutic efficacy with precise control of the rate by which a particular drug dosage is released from a delivery system without the need for frequent administration. These are considered superior drug delivery system because of low cost, greater stability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and are biodegradable in nature. This review also focus on the importance and ideal features of periodontal pockets as a drug delivery platform for designing a suitable dosage form along with its potential advantage and limitations. The microbes in the periodontal pocket could destroy periodontal tissues, and a complete knowledge of these as well as an ideal treatment strategy could be helpful in treating this disease.

Nair, Sreeja C.; Anoop, K. R.

2012-01-01

310

Novel nanocarriers for topical drug delivery: investigating delivery efficiency and distribution in skin using two-photon microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex structure of skin represents an effective barrier against external environmental factors, as for example, different chemical and biochemical compounds, yeast, bacterial and viral infections. However, this impermeability prevents efficient transdermal drug delivery which limits the number of drugs that are able to penetrate the skin efficiently. Current trends in drug application through skin focus on the design and use of nanocarriers for transport of active compounds. The transport systems applied so far have several drawbacks, as they often have low payload, high toxicity, a limited variability of inclusion molecules, or long degradation times. The aim of these current studies is to investigate novel topical drug delivery systems, e.g. nanocarriers based on cyclic oligosaccharides - cyclodextrins (CD) or iron (III)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOF). Earlier studies on cell cultures imply that these drug nanocarriers show promising characteristics compared to other drug delivery systems. In our studies, we use two-photon microscopy to investigate the ability of the nanocarriers to deliver compounds through ex-vivo skin samples. Using near infrared light for excitation in the so called optical window of skin allows deep-tissue visualization of drug distribution and localization. In addition, it is possible to employ two-photon based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of drug distribution and concentrations in different cell layers.

Kirejev, Vladimir; Guldbrand, Stina; Bauer, Brigitte; Smedh, Maria; Ericson, Marica B.

2011-02-01

311

Recent trends in oral drug delivery: a review.  

PubMed

There are many ways to deliver drugs into the body, viz oral (through swallowing), sub mucosal (through buccal and sublingual mucosa), parenteral (through injection), transdermal (through skin), pulmonary (through inhalation) etc. Among these deliveries oral delivery (by swallowing) is widely accepted. In oral drug delivery, many scientific challenges and breakthrough technologies are required to generate novel dosage forms raising drug delivery to higher level. Some are self emulsifying systems, solid self nanoemulsion, polymeric micelles, spray freezing, pH controlled systems, time delayed system, osmotic pumps, prodrugs etc. This paper reviews recent patents, technologies and products with their importance, manufacturing and novel approaches implemented till date to overcome the challenges in oral drug delivery systems. PMID:19519576

Gupta, Himanshu; Bhandari, Dinesh; Sharma, Aarti

2009-06-01

312

Polymer nanogels: a versatile nanoscopic drug delivery platform  

PubMed Central

In this review we put the spotlight on crosslinked polymer nanogels, a promising platform that has the characteristics of an “ideal” drug delivery vehicle. Some of the key aspects of drug delivery vehicle design like stability, response to biologically relevant stimuli, passive targeting, active targeting, toxicity and ease of synthesis are discussed. We discuss several delivery systems in this light and highlight some examples of systems, which satisfy some or all of these design requirements. In particular, we point to the advantages that crosslinked polymeric systems bring to drug delivery. We review some of the synthetic methods of nanogel synthesis and conclude with the diverse applications in drug delivery where nanogels have been fruitfully employed.

Chacko, Reuben T.; Ventura, Judy; Zhuang, Jiaming; Thayumanavan, S.

2012-01-01

313

Polymeric Nanomedicine for Cancer MR Imaging and Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Multifunctional nanomedicine is emerging as a highly integrated platform that allows for molecular diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous monitoring and treatment of cancer. Advances in polymer and materials science are critical for the successful development of these multi-component nanocomposites in one particulate system with such a small size confinement (<200 nm). Currently, several nanoscopic therapeutic and diagnostic systems have been translated into clinical practices. In this feature article, we will provide an up-to-date review on the development and biomedical applications of nanocomposite materials for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Overview of each functional component, i.e. polymer carriers, MR imaging agents, and therapeutic drugs will be presented. Integration of different functional components will be illustrated in several highlighted examples to demonstrate the synergy of the multifunctional nanomedicine design.

Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kessinger, Chase W.

2010-01-01

314

Development of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels for controlling drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of polymers as biomaterials has evolved over the past several decades, encompassing an expanding synthetic toolbox and many bio-mimetic approaches. Both synthetic and natural polymers have been used as components for biomaterials as their unique chemical structures can provide specific functions for desired applications. Of these materials, heparin, a highly sulfated naturally occurring polysaccharide, has been investigated extensively as a core component in drug delivery platforms and tissue engineering. The goal of this work was to further explore the use of heparin via conjugation with synthetic polymers for applications in drug delivery. We begin by investigating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a depolymerized heparin that is used medicinally in the prevention of thrombosis by subcutaneous injection or intravenous drip. Certain disease states or disorders require frequent administration with invasive delivery modalities leading to compliance issues for individuals on prolonged therapeutic courses. To address these issues, a long-term delivery method was developed for LMWH via subcutaneous injection of in situ hydrogelators. This therapy was accomplished by chemical modification of LMWH with maleimide functionality so that it may be crosslinked into continuous hydrogel networks with four-arm thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). These hydrogels degrade via hydrolysis over a period of weeks and release bioactive LMWH with first-order kinetics as determined by in vitro and in vivo models, thus indicating the possibility of an alternative means of heparin delivery over current accepted methodologies. Evaluation of the maleimide-thiol chemistries applied in the LMWH hydrogels revealed reversibility for some conjugates under reducing conditions. Addition chemistries, such as maleimide-thiol reactions, are widely employed in biological conjugates and are generally accepted as stable. Here we show that the resulting succinimide thioether formed by the Michael type addition of thiol derivatives to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) undergoes retro and exchange reactions in the presence of other thiol compounds at physiological pH and temperature. Model studies of NEM conjugated to various thiols (4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPA), N-acetylcysteine, or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)), incubated with a naturally occurring reducing agent, glutathione, showed half-lives from 20-80 hrs with extents of conversion from 20-90% for MPA and N-acetylcysteine conjugates. The kinetics of the retro reactions and extent of exchange can be modulated by the Michael donor's reactivity; therefore the degradation of maleimide-thiol adducts could be tuned for controlled release of drugs or degradation of materials at timescales different than those currently possible via disulfide-mediated release. The reduction sensitive maleimide-thiol chemistry was then investigated as a crosslinking mechanism for LMWH hydrogels. Crosslinking maleimide functionalized LMWH with PEG functionalized with thiophenyl functionalities imparted glutathione sensitivity. 4-mercaptophenylpropionic acid and 2,2-dimethyl-3-(4-mercaptophenyl)propionic acid, induced sensitivity to glutathione as shown by a decrease in degradation time of 4x and 5x respectively. The pseudo-first order retro reaction constants were approximately an order of magnitude slower than hydrogels crosslinked via disulfide linkages, indicating the potential use of the retro succinimide-thioether covalent bonds for reduction mediated release and/or degradation with increased blood stability and prolonged drug delivery timescales compared to disulfide chemistries. In summary, this work highlights the use of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels composed of LMWH and PEG as investigated for drug delivery and as a tool for elucidating a novel reduction sensitive controlled release mechanism.

Baldwin, Aaron David

315

Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery.  

PubMed

Microneedles have been used for the dermal and transdermal delivery of a broad range of drugs, such as small molecular weight drugs, oligonucleotides, DNA, peptides, proteins and inactivated viruses. However, until now there are no microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery systems on the market. In the past decade various types of microneedles have been developed by a number of production processes. Numerous geometries of microneedles have been designed from various materials. These microneedles have been used for different approaches of microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery. Following a brief introduction about dermal and transdermal drug delivery, this review describes different production methods for solid and hollow microneedles as well as conditions that influence skin penetration. Besides, the four microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery approaches are discussed: "poke and flow", "poke and patch", "poke and release", and "coat and poke". A separate section of this review is devoted to the use of microneedles for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and vaccines. Finally, we give our view on research and development that is needed to render microneedle-based (trans)dermal drug delivery technologies clinically useful in the near future. PMID:22342643

van der Maaden, Koen; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

2012-02-04

316

Colonic Drug Delivery Systems Based on Natural Polysaccharides and their Evaluation.  

PubMed

Natural polysaccharides are found in abundance, are inexpensive, safe and available in a variety of structures which can easily be modified chemically and biochemically. A number of natural gums and mucilages along with their chemically modified forms have been evaluated as controlled drug delivery devices. They are reported to be capable of providing the desired drug release profiles and in some cases, have shown comparable drug release properties with currently available sustained release products in the market. Colon specific drug delivery based on natural polysaccharides has highly been acclaimed in recent years. A colon specific drug delivery system should prevent drug release in the stomach as well as the small intestine. Several polysaccharides have been reported to be capable of preventing drug release in the upper GI tract while being susceptible to enzymatic degradation by colonic bacterial enzymes. A wide range of natural or modified polysaccharides has been investigated for peroral delivery of drugs to the colon. As the release of drug from these polysaccharides based systems is independent of pH and gastric emptying time these polysaccharides based systems are considered the most effective and preferable means for colonic drug delivery in terms of target specificity. PMID:24032514

Pachuau, Lalduhsanga; Mazumder, Bhaskar

2013-11-01

317

Synthesis and evaluation of airway targeted PLGA nanoparticles for drug delivery in obstructive lung diseases.  

PubMed

Chronic airway inflammation is a hallmark of chronic obstructive airway diseases, including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and CF (cystic fibrosis). It is also a major challenge in delivery and therapeutic efficacy of nano-based delivery systems in these chronic airway conditions as nanoparticle (NP) need to bypass airways defense mechanisms as we recently discussed. NPs which are capable of overcoming airways defense mechanisms should allow targeted drug delivery to disease cells. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in development of targeted NPs for cancer but relatively little effort on designing novel systems for treating chronic inflammatory and obstructive airway conditions. Here we describe methods for preparing drug loaded multifunctional nanoparticles for targeted delivery to specific cell types in airways. The formulations and methods for selective drug delivery, discussed here are currently under preclinical development in our laboratory for treating chronic airway conditions such as COPD, CF, and asthma. PMID:22791443

Vij, Neeraj

2012-01-01

318

Advances in chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the past few years, chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles have become some of the most attractive to be studied. In contrast to all other polysaccharides, chitosan has demonstrated its unique characteristics for drug delivery platforms, including its active primary amino groups for chemical modification, simple and mild preparation methods for the encapsulation of biomolecules or drugs, mucoadhesion to facilitate transport across mucosal barriers and so on. In this review, an overview of the various types of chitosan-based drug delivery systems is provided, with special focus on polymeric drug conjugates and drug nanocarriers. The first part of the review is concerned with the development and applications of polymeric chitosan-drug conjugates. Then the chitosan-based nanocarrier systems as well as their preparation methods and applications are further discussed.

Hu, Liming; Sun, Yun; Wu, Yan

2013-03-01

319

Recent advances in gastric floating drug delivery technology: a review.  

PubMed

Gastric floating drug delivery systems have been an avenue of considerable interest in terms of their immense potential for better pharmacotherapeutic interventions along with site-specific absorption. These buoyant systems significantly enhance the bioavailability and controlled delivery of several drug molecules. Scientific investigators have also carried out substantial research endeavours worldwide in order to design a more systematic and intellectual floating systems. The present manuscript is an attempt to highlight numerous recent advancements in the design of gastric floating drug delivery systems along with various available commercial preparations. Salient applications, characterization aspects and future perspectives of these multifarious systems have also been addressed. PMID:23808593

Pahwa, Rakesh; Bisht, Seema; Kumar, Vipin; Kohli, Kanchan

2013-06-01

320

Inorganic Nanoporous Membranes for Immunoisolated Cell-Based Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Materials advances enabled by nanotechnology have brought about promising approaches to improve the encapsulation mechanism\\u000a for immunoisolated cell-based drug delivery. Cell-based drug delivery is a promising treatment for many diseases but has thus\\u000a far achieved only limited clinical success. Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) by transplantation of\\u000a pancreatic ?-cells represents the most anticipated application of cell-based drug delivery

Adam Mendelsohn; Tejal Desai

321

Local drug delivery to the bone by drug-releasing implants: perspectives of nano-engineered titania nanotube arrays.  

PubMed

Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays fabricated by electrochemical anodization of titanium are currently one of the most attractive nanomaterials due to their remarkable properties. In this review, we highlight recent research activities that are focused on the application of the TNT arrays for local drug delivery, specifically for addressing problems associated with orthopedic implants. The advantages of drug-releasing implants based on TNT arrays for local delivery of therapeutics in bone related to these challenging problems including inflammation, infection and osseointegration are discussed. An overview of recent research to advance the drug-releasing performance of TNT arrays and the potential of their future applications and development are presented. PMID:22900467

Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Findlay, David; Losic, Dusan

2012-07-01

322

Branched biodegradable polyesters for parenteral drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous, ‘infusion-like’ drug release profiles from biodegradable parenteral delivery systems are difficult to achieve for proteins and other hydrophilic macromolecular drugs with commonly used linear polyesters from lactic acid (PLA) and its random copolymers with glycolic acid (PLG). Drug release rates can be modified either by increasing the hydrophilicity of polyesters or by manipulating the polymer architecture to adjust polymer

Armin Breitenbach; You Xin Li; Thomas Kissel

2000-01-01

323

Development of colon targeted drug delivery systems for mebendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for mebendazole using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for drug content uniformity, and were subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The

Y. S. R Krishnaiah; P Veer Raju; B Dinesh Kumar; P Bhaskar; V Satyanarayana

2001-01-01

324

Chapter 7.1 Microdialysis in clinical drug delivery studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate methods to directly measure drug concentrations at their actual sites of action within tissues and organs have not been available in clinical drug delivery studies for many years. Consequently, pharmacokinetic research was long restricted to drug concentration measurements from biological specimens that are relatively easy to obtain, such as tissue biopsies, urine, saliva, or skin blister fluid, or to

Martin Brunner; Markus Müller

2006-01-01

325

Innovations in Transdermal Drug Delivery: Formulations and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transdermal route of drug delivery has attracted researchers due to many biomedical advantages associated with it. However, excellent impervious nature of skin is the greatest challenge that has to be overcome for successfully delivering drug molecules to the systemic circulation by this route. Various formulation approaches used to systemically deliver drug molecules include use of prodrugs\\/lipo philic analogs, permeation

Ashok K. Tiwary; Bharti Sapra; Subheet Jain

2007-01-01

326

A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

2012-01-01

327

PATHWAYS FOR OPTIMIZATION-BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND DEVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug synthesis and discovery represents today one of the most rapidly evolving scientific areas. This is primarily due to the interdisciplinary collaboration between chemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists. A direct implication of the developments in drug discovery is the need for novel drug delivery systems and devices. Considering the advances in engineering disciplines and micro\\/nano technology the potential for

Leonidas Bleris; Panagiotis Vouzis; Mark V. Arnold; Mayuresh V. Kothare

328

Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical

Manel Puig-Vidal; Jaime Lopez; Pere Miribel; Josep Samitier-Marti; Carole Rossi; Axel Berthold

2003-01-01

329

Smart-drug delivery system employing molecular motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drug delivery system has been envisioned employing actinmyosin molecular motors, liposomes, microcantilevers and a specific track formed by microfilaments. Molecular motors can pull on giant liposomes enclosing the drug to be delivered at the target site. An array of microcantilevers whose deflection in nanometers would cause the opening of the valves responsible for delivering the drug, would be implanted

S. K. Vashist; R. Tewari; I. Kaur; R. P. Bajpai; L. M. Bharadwaj

2005-01-01

330

Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Controlled Release Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection Carriers  

SciTech Connect

In this review, we highlight the recent research developments of a series of surface-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials as efficient drug delivery carriers. The synthesis of this type of MSN materials is described along with the current methods for controlling the structural properties and chemical functionalization for biotechnological and biomedical applications. We summarized the advantages of using MSN for several drug delivery applications. The recent investigations of the biocompatibility of MSN in vitro are discussed. We also describe the exciting progress on using MSN to penetrate various cell membranes in animal and plant cells. The novel concept of gatekeeping is introduced and applied to the design of a variety of stimuli-responsive nanodevices. We envision that these MSN-based systems have a great potential for a variety of drug delivery applications, such as the site-specific delivery and intracellular controlled release of drugs, genes, and other therapeutic agents.

Igor I. Slowing; Juan L. Viveo-Escoto; Chia-Wen Wu; Victor S. Y. Lin

2008-04-10

331

Formulation aspects in the development of osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agent(s). Drug delivery from these systems, to a large extent, is independent of the physiological factors of the gastrointestinal tract and these systems can be utilized for systemic as well as targeted delivery of drugs. The release of drug(s) from osmotic systems is governed by various

Rajan K Verma; Divi Murali Krishna; Sanjay Garg

2002-01-01

332

A thermally responsive biopolymer for intra-articular drug delivery.  

PubMed

Intra-articular drug delivery is the preferred standard for targeting pharmacologic treatment directly to joints to reduce undesirable side effects associated with systemic drug delivery. In this study, a biologically based drug delivery vehicle was designed for intra-articular drug delivery using elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs), a biopolymer composed of repeating pentapeptides that undergo a phase transition to form aggregates above their transition temperature. The ELP drug delivery vehicle was designed to aggregate upon intra-articular injection at 37 degrees C, and form a drug 'depot' that could slowly disaggregate and be cleared from the joint space over time. We evaluated the in vivo biodistribution and joint half-life of radiolabeled ELPs, with and without the ability to aggregate, at physiological temperatures encountered after intra-articular injection in a rat knee. Biodistribution studies revealed that the aggregating ELP had a 25-fold longer half-life in the injected joint than a similar molecular weight protein that remained soluble and did not aggregate. These results suggest that the intra-articular joint delivery of ELP-based fusion proteins may be a viable strategy for the prolonged release of disease-modifying protein drugs for osteoarthritis and other arthritides. PMID:16959360

Betre, Helawe; Liu, Wenge; Zalutsky, Michael R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Kraus, Virginia B; Setton, Lori A

2006-07-26

333

Current Drug Shortages L - N  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Company, Product, Availability and Estimated Shortage Duration, Related Information, Shortage Reason (per New Legislation-FDASIA)*, Date ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugshortages

334

Current Drug Shortages S - Z  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Company, Product, Availability and Estimated Shortage Duration, Related Information, Shortage Reason (per New Legislation-FDASIA)*, Date ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugshortages

335

Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for oral delivery of protein drugs: I. Formulation development.  

PubMed

The global aim of this research project was to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for non-invasive delivery of protein drugs. The specific aim of this study was to develop SNEDDS formulations. An experimental design was adopted to develop SNEDDS. Fluorescent labeled beta-lactamase (FITC-BLM), a model protein, was loaded into SNEDDS through solid dispersion technique. The experimental design provided 720 compositions of different oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant at various ratios, of which 33 SNEDDS prototypes were obtained. Solid dispersion of FITC-BLM in SoyPC prepared was able to dissolve in 16 SNEDDS prototypes (approximately 2200 mU BLM in 1g SNEDDS). SNEDDS NE-12-7 (composition: Lauroglycol FCC, Cremophor EL and Transcutol; ratio: 5:4:3) formed O/W nanoemulsion with mean droplet size in the range of 22-50 nm when diluted with various pH media and different dilution factor with PBS (pH 7.4). The phase diagram of NE-12-7 indicated a broad region of nanoemulsion. BLM-loaded SNEDDS (NE-12-7) stored at 4 degrees C for 12 weeks indicated 10% loss of BLM activity. A SNEDDS was developed to load FITC-BLM into the oil phase which can spontaneously form O/W nanoemulsion upon the addition of water. PMID:18650038

Rao, Sripriya Venkata Ramana; Shao, Jun

2008-05-27

336

Recent Applications of Mesoscale Modeling to Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mesoscale simulations have traditionally been used to investigate structural morphology of polymer in solution, melts and blends. Recently we have been pushing such modeling methods to important areas of Nanotechnology and Drug delivery that are well out ...

A. Maiti J. Wescott P. Kung G. Goldbeck-Wood

2005-01-01

337

Sonophoresis for Rapid Assessment of Interstitial Fluid and Drug Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general objective of the proposed studies was to develop sonophoresis as a platform technology for assessing interstitial fluid from the skin and perform transdermal drug delivery. In this method, a short application of low-frequency ultrasound is use...

S. Mitragotri

2007-01-01

338

Electrically-Assisted Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically-assisted transdermal delivery (EATDD) is the facilitated transport of compounds across the skin using an electromotive force. It has been extensively explored as a potential means for delivering peptides and other hydrophilic, acid-labile or orally unstable products of biotechnology. The predominant mechanism for delivery is iontophoresis, although electroosmosis and electroporation have also been investigated. The focus of this review is

Jim E. Riviere; Mark C. Heit

1997-01-01

339

The core-inversible micelles for hydrophilic drug delivery.  

PubMed

A unique core-inversible micelle (CIM) was formed via PEG(5k)CA8 for hydrophilic drug delivery. An amyloid-fibril-inhibiting water-soluble molecule, congo red (CR), has been loaded into the hydrophilic core of CIMs. The targeting folate-CIMs significantly enhanced the intracellular delivery of hydrophilic CR in a folate receptor-expressing cell line. PMID:23775217

Huang, Wenzhe; Shi, Changying; Shao, Yu; Lam, Kit S; Luo, Juntao

2013-07-28

340

Usefulness verification of biocompatible microneedle patch for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issues in the development of a microneedle patch as a tool for transdermal drug delivery are safety and delivery performance in addition to economical production. In this paper, a novel fabrication method for an inexpensive microneedle patch made of biocompatible polymer is reported, along with verifications for the fabricated microneedle patch. For microneedle patch fabrication, we combined the

Chun Yan Jin; Man Hee Han; S. S. Lee; Yo Han Choi

2009-01-01

341

Mesoporous SBA15 HPLC evaluation for controlled gentamicin drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was prepared to evaluate its application as gentamicin drug delivery system. Two procedures were used to evaluate the delivery: calcined powder and disk conformed. The samples were charged with gentamicin sulphate and the experiments were carried out in vitro. No significant difference between powder and disk was observed in the tests. The release profiles exhibited a pronounced

A. L. Doadrio; E. M. B. Sousa; J. C. Doadrio; J. Pérez Pariente; I. Izquierdo-Barba; M. Vallet-Reg??

2004-01-01

342

Drug delivery by red blood cells: vascular carriers designed by Mother Nature  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Vascular delivery of several classes of therapeutic agents may benefit from carriage by red blood cells (RBC), for example, drugs that require delivery into phagocytic cells and those that must act within the vascular lumen. The fact that several protocols of infusion of RBC-encapsulated drugs are been currently explored in patients illustrates a high biomedical importance for the field. Areas covered by this review Two strategies for RBC drug delivery are discussed: encapsulation into isolated RBC ex vivo followed by infusion in compatible recipients and coupling therapeutics to surface of RBC. Studies of pharmacokinetics and effects in animal models and in human studies of diverse therapeutic enzymes, antibiotics and other drugs encapsulated in RBC are described and critically analyzed. Coupling to RBC surface of compounds regulating immune response and complement, affinity ligands, polyethylene glycol alleviating immune response to donor RBC and fibrinolytic plasminogen activators is d escribed. Also described is a novel, translation-prone approach for RBC drug delivery by injecting of therapeutics conjugated with fragments of antibodies providing safe anchoring of cargoes to circulating RBC, without need for ex vivo modification and infusion of RBC. What the reader will gain The readers will gain historical perspective, current status, challenges and perspectives of medical applications of RBC for drug delivery. Take home message RBC represent naturally designed carriers for intravascular drug delivery, characterized by unique longevity in the bloodstream, biocompatibility and safe physiological mechanisms for metabolism. Novel approaches for encapsulating drugs into RBC and coupling to RBC surface provide promising avenues for safe and widely useful improvement of drug delivery in the vascular system.

Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

2010-01-01

343

Micelles and Nanoparticles for Ultrasonic Drug and Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery research employing micelles and nanoparticles has expanded in recent years. Of particular interest is the use of these nanovehicles that deliver high concentrations of cytotoxic drugs to diseased tissues selectively, thus reducing the agent’s side effects on the rest of the body. Ultrasound, traditionally used in diagnostic medicine, is finding a place in drug delivery in connection with these nanoparticles. In addition to their non-invasive nature and the fact that they can be focused on targeted tissues, acoustic waves have been credited with releasing pharmacological agents from nanocarriers, as well as rendering cell membranes more permeable. In this article, we summarize new technologies that combine the use of nanoparticles with acoustic power both in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasonic drug delivery from micelles usually employs polyether block copolymers, and has been found effective in vivo for treating tumors. Ultrasound releases drug from micelles, most probably via shear stress and shock waves from collapse of cavitation bubbles. Liquid emulsions and solid nanoparticles are used with ultrasound to deliver genes in vitro and in vivo. The small packaging allows nanoparticles to extravasate into tumor tissues. Ultrasonic drug and gene delivery from nano-carriers has tremendous potential because of the wide variety of drugs and genes that could be delivered to targeted tissues by fairly non-invasive means.

Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Pitt, William G.

2008-01-01

344

Pharmaceutical Aerosol Sprays for Drug Delivery to the Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Respiratory illnesses are commonly treated with drugs delivered to the lungs as an inhaled aerosol. The inhaled aerosol route\\u000a sometimes offers advantages over other routes such as injection or oral delivery. These advantages include rapid and predictable\\u000a onset of action of drug, decreased adverse reactions, as well as safe and convenient delivery. However, the design of a device\\u000a and formulation

W. H. Finlay

345

NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol\\/Plurol Isostearique\\/isostearylic isostearate\\/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T1 relaxation times were

Mads Kreilgaard; Erik J Pedersen; Jerzy W Jaroszewski

2000-01-01

346

Targeted Drug Delivery to the Eye Enabled by Microneedles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drug delivery targeted to specific tissues within the eye represents an important advance over conventional methods of topical\\u000a and injectable delivery that have poor specificity for particular ocular tissues requiring therapy. This level of intraocular\\u000a targeting can be achieved using microneedles, which are solid and ­hollow needles of micron dimensions. Microneedles can selectively\\u000a target intraocular tissues by delivering drug formulations

Samirkumar R. Patel; Henry F. Edelhauser; Mark R. Prausnitz

347

Brain Tumors: Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Drugs (Method)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain has been an ongoing challenge for many years. The poor prognosis for patient\\u000a with primary malignant brain tumors treated with conventional techniques (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) has motivated\\u000a the development of new strategies to deliver drugs into the brain. Local intracranial delivery of antineoplastic agents has\\u000a appeared to be the most effective drug

Anne-Laure Laine; Emilie Allard; Philippe Menei; Catherine Passirani

348

Retro-Convection Enhanced Drug Delivery: A Computational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retro-convection enhanced delivery (R-CED) is an emerging drug delivery method to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB).\\u000a We have developed a mathematical model to understand the fluid flow and mass transfer in the interstitium of brain tissue\\u000a in R-CED therapy. The model was used to predict pressure distributions, fluid flow patterns, and drug concentration profiles.\\u000a Some numerical results were obtained

Peng Wang; William L. Olbricht

2010-01-01

349

Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation  

PubMed Central

Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.

2011-01-01

350

Albumin-based nanoparticles as potential controlled release drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Albumin, a versatile protein carrier for drug delivery, has been shown to be nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, it is ideal material to fabricate nanoparticles for drug delivery. Albumin nanoparticles have gained considerable attention owing to their high binding capacity of various drugs and being well tolerated without any serious side-effects. The current review embodies an in-depth discussion of albumin nanoparticles with respect to types, formulation aspects, major outcomes of in vitro and in vivo investigations as well as site-specific drug targeting using various ligands modifying the surface of albumin nanoparticles with special insights to the field of oncology. Specialized nanotechnological techniques like desolvation, emulsification, thermal gelation and recently nano-spray drying, nab-technology and self-assembly that have been investigated for fabrication of albumin nanoparticles, are also discussed. Nanocomplexes of albumin with other components in the area of drug delivery are also included in this review. PMID:21839127

Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Samy, Wael M; Elgindy, Nazik A

2011-08-01

351

Electroporation as an efficient physical enhancer for skin drug delivery.  

PubMed

Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injection. However, the stratum corneum acts as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances through the skin. Application of high-voltage pulses to the skin increases its permeability (electroporation) and enables the delivery of various substances into and through the skin. The application of electroporation to the skin has been shown to increase transdermal drug delivery. Moreover, electroporation, used alone or in combination with other enhancement methods, expands the range of drugs (small to macromolecules, lipophilic or hydrophilic, charged or neutral molecules) that can be delivered transdermally. The efficacy of transport depends on the electrical parameters and the physicochemical properties of drugs. The in vivo application of high-voltage pulses is well tolerated, but muscle contractions are usually induced. The electrode and patch design is an important issue to reduce the discomfort of the electrical treatment in humans. This review presents the main findings in the field of electroporation-namely, transdermal drug delivery. Particular attention is paid to proposed enhancement mechanisms and trends in the field of topical and transdermal delivery. PMID:19717723

Escobar-Chávez, José Juan; Bonilla-Martínez, Dalia; Villegas-González, Martha Angélica; Revilla-Vázquez, Alma Luisa

2009-08-28

352

Critical Assessment of Implantable Drug Delivery Devices in Glaucoma Management  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a group of heterogeneous disorders involving progressive optic neuropathy that can culminate into visual impairment and irreversible blindness. Effective therapeutic interventions must address underlying vulnerability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to degeneration in conjunction with correcting other associated risk factors (such as elevated intraocular pressure). However, realization of therapeutic outcomes is heavily dependent on suitable delivery system that can overcome myriads of anatomical and physiological barriers to intraocular drug delivery. Development of clinically viable sustained release systems in glaucoma is a widely recognized unmet need. In this regard, implantable delivery systems may relieve the burden of chronic drug administration while potentially ensuring high intraocular drug bioavailability. Presently there are no FDA-approved implantable drug delivery devices for glaucoma even though there are several ongoing clinical studies. The paper critically assessed the prospects of polymeric implantable delivery systems in glaucoma while identifying factors that can dictate (a) patient tolerability and acceptance, (b) drug stability and drug release profiles, (c) therapeutic efficacy, and (d) toxicity and biocompatibility. The information gathered could be useful in future research and development efforts on implantable delivery systems in glaucoma.

Manickavasagam, Dharani; Oyewumi, Moses O.

2013-01-01

353

Layer-by-layer self-assembled shells for drug delivery.  

PubMed

There are several requirements for the safe and effective delivery of therapeutic agents for human use. Direct injection of drugs may cause side effects due to their permeation to other, undiseased regions of the body so that concealment and targeting with appropriate materials is a critical consideration in the design of practical drug delivery systems. In particular, carriers with structures which can be flexibly controlled are more useful since functional structure units can be assembled in component-by-component and/or layer-by-layer fashion. In this review, we focus on preparation of layer-by-layer shells directed at drug delivery applications. After a description of the fundamentals of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, recent progress in the field of self-assembled microshells and nanoshells for drug delivery applications are summarized. In addition, concepts developed to solve current difficulties are also described. Encapsulation of insoluble drugs in nanoshells and their delivery can satisfy some of the demands of practical medical use. Thus, aqueous suspensions of insoluble drugs have been subjected to powerful ultrasonic treatment followed by sequential addition of polycations and polyanions to the particle solution leading to assembly of ultra-thin polyelectrolyte shells on the nano-sized drug particles. In another innovative example, stepwise release of drugs from LbL films of mesoporous capsules to the exterior in the absence of external stimuli was demonstrated. It can be regarded as stimuli-free auto-modulated material release. PMID:21510989

Ariga, Katsuhiko; Lvov, Yuri M; Kawakami, Kohsaku; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P

2011-04-12

354

Drug Establishments Current Registration Site  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... For example, if a firm sends in an Establishment Registration SPL ... questions on the electronic registration and listing requirements send an inquiry ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/informationondrugs

355

Current Challenges in Drug Regulation  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... partnering with data holders (eg, insurance companies with large claims databases, owners of electronic health records, others) Page 11. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

356

Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning and electrospraying are facile electrohydrodynamic fabrication methods that can generate drug delivery systems (DDS) through a one-step process. The nano-structured fiber and particle morphologies produced by these techniques offer tunable release kinetics applicable to diverse biomedical applications. Coaxial-electrospinning/electrospraying, a relatively new technique of fabricating core-shell fibers/particles have added to the versatility of these DDS by affording a near zero-order drug release kinetics, dampening of burst release, and applicability to a wider range of bioactive agents. Controllable electrospinning/spraying of fibers and particles and subsequent drug release from these chiefly polymeric vehicles depends on well-defined solution and process parameters. The additional drug delivery capability from electrospun fibers can further enhance the material’s functionality in tissue engineering applications. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of using electrohydrodynamic technique to generate nano-fiber/particles as drug delivery devices.

Chakraborty, Syandan; Liao, I-Chien; Adler, Andrew; Leong, Kam W.

2009-01-01

357

Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Electrospinning and electrospraying are facile electrohydrodynamic fabrication methods that can generate drug delivery systems (DDS) through a one-step process. The nanostructured fiber and particle morphologies produced by these techniques offer tunable release kinetics applicable to diverse biomedical applications. Coaxial electrospinning/electrospraying, a relatively new technique of fabricating core-shell fibers/particles have added to the versatility of these DDS by affording a near zero-order drug release kinetics, dampening of burst release, and applicability to a wider range of bioactive agents. Controllable electrospinning/spraying of fibers and particles and subsequent drug release from these chiefly polymeric vehicles depends on well-defined solution and process parameters. The additional drug delivery capability from electrospun fibers can further enhance the material's functionality in tissue engineering applications. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of using electrohydrodynamic technique to generate nanofiber/particles as drug delivery devices. PMID:19651167

Chakraborty, Syandan; Liao, I-Chien; Adler, Andrew; Leong, Kam W

2009-08-03

358

Drug delivery with carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have shown promise in tumor-targeted accumulation in mice and exhibit biocompatibility, excretion, and little toxicity. Here, we show in vivo SWNT drug delivery for tumor suppression in mice. We conjugate paclitaxel (PTX), a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, to branched polyethylene glycol chains on SWNTs via a cleavable ester bond to obtain a water-soluble SWNT-PTX conjugate. SWNT-PTX affords higher efficacy in suppressing tumor growth than clinical Taxol in a murine 4T1 breast cancer model, owing to prolonged blood circulation and 10-fold higher tumor PTX uptake by SWNT delivery likely through enhanced permeability and retention. Drug molecules carried into the reticuloendothelial system are released from SWNTs and excreted via biliary pathway without causing obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Thus, nanotube drug delivery is promising for high treatment efficacy and minimum side effects for future cancer therapy with low drug doses. PMID:18701489

Liu, Zhuang; Chen, Kai; Davis, Corrine; Sherlock, Sarah; Cao, Qizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Hongjie

2008-08-15

359

Template synthesized chitosan nano test tubes for drug delivery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is tremendous current interest in developing nanoscale drug delivery vehicles. Though intensive efforts have focused on developing spherical drug delivery vehicles, cylindrically shaped vehicles such as nanotubes offer many advantages. Typically, nanotubes can carry a larger inner payload than nanoparticles of the same diameter. Also, we can prepare nanotubes in templates whose geometries can be controlled, in turn allowing precise control over the length and diameter of the tubes. In addition, template synthesized nanotubes can be differentially functionalized on the inner and outer surfaces. Furthermore, templates that are closed on one end can be used to fabricate nano test tubes (closed on one end). The geometry of these nano test tubes allows them to be easily filled with a payload, the open end sealed with a nanoparticle to protect the payload from leaking out, and then the exterior of the tube can be functionalized with a targeting moiety. In an effort to develop such a system, we explored the fabrication of chitosan nano test tubes. Defect-free, chitosan nano test tubes of uniform size were synthesized within the pores of a nanoporous alumina template membrane. While the nano test tubes remained within the template membrane, their inner cavities were filled with a model payload. The payload was then trapped inside the nano test tubes by sealing the open ends of the tubes with latex nanoparticle caps. For proof-of-principle studies, imine linkages were used to attach the caps to the nano test tubes. To create a self-disassembling system, disulfide chemistry was used to covalently cap the nano test tubes. Once removed from the template, the exterior of the nano test tubes were modified with a targeting moiety, allowing them to be targeted to pathological sites. We have also shown that the chitosan nano test tubes are biodegradable by two systems: enzymatic cleavage by lysozymes and disulfide cleavage of the crosslinker by reducing environments (glutathione) found within cells. Therefore, once the nano test tubes reach their target site and are taken into a cell, the tubes can be degraded and release their payload. This chitosan nano test tube delivery stystem shows great potential for applications in targeted drug delivery. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Perry, Jillian L. Moulton

360

Lipid carrier systems for targeted drug and gene delivery.  

PubMed

For effective chemotherapy, it is necessary to deliver therapeutic agents selectively to their target sites, since most drugs are associated with both beneficial effects and side effects. The use of lipid dispersion carrier systems, such as lipid emulsions and liposomes, as carriers of lipophilic drugs has attracted particular interest. A drug delivery system can be defined as a methodology for manipulating drug distribution in the body. Since drug distribution depends on the carrier, administration route, particle size of the carrier, lipid composition of the carrier, electric charge of the carrier and ligand density of the targeting carrier, these factors must be optimized. Recently, the lipid carrier system has also been applied to gene delivery systems for gene therapy. However, in both drug and gene medicine cases, a lack of cell-selectivity limits the wide application of this kind of drug and/or gene therapy. Therefore, lipid carrier systems for targeted drug and gene delivery must be developed for the rational therapy. In this review, we shall focus on the progress of research into lipid carrier systems for drug and gene delivery following systemic or local injection. PMID:16079512

Hashida, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi

2005-08-01

361

[Research progress of polyamidoamine dendrimer in targeting drug delivery system].  

PubMed

Targeting drug delivery system (TDDS) is one of the most concerned research fields in cancer treatment because it can bind selectively and react with the target diseased sites at the cellular or sub-cellular level, making distribution and release of drugs in a controlled manner, thus enhance therapeutic effects and reduce toxic and side-effects on normal cells. Polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAMD) is a kind of newly developed polymer in nanometer degree. Hyper-branched, monodispersity, three-dimensional structure and host-guest entrapment ability make it used as drug carrier, gene delivery system and imaging agent. Various targeting ligands, which have high affinity to specific organs, tissues or cells in human body, can be linked to surface functional groups of PAMAMD. And drugs and theoretical gene are carried by encapsulation or chemical conjugation. Finally, PAMAMD targeting drug delivery system can carry drugs and theoretical gene to diseased sites and then release them for targeted therapy. The PAMAMD-based conjugates have small size, ligh permeability and retention effect (EPR), low toxicity and so on. The research progress of PAMAMD modified by different ligands in targeting drug delivery system is reviewed, and research direction of the PAMAMD targeting delivery system in the future is also suggested. PMID:21800534

Ding, Rong-min; He, Hua; Li, Juan

2011-05-01

362

Paliperidone Loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) for Improved Oral Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research is aimed to improve the oral delivery of paliperidone by loading into self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). Oleic acid, tween 80 and capmul MCM L8 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively and phase diagram was constructed and the region was identified for the formation of SEDDS. The stable formulations were analyzed for globule size,

Swetha Kanuganti; Raju Jukanti; Prabhakar R. Veerareddy; Suresh Bandari

2011-01-01

363

Ultrasonic Concentration of Drug Delivery Capsules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods, compositions and apparatus for localized delivery of compounds are provided. In certain embodiments, radiation force is used to direct carriers to a target site, and additional radiation is used to fragment the localized carriers, releasing assoc...

D. Dayton K. W. Ferrara M. Shortencarier S. Bloch

2004-01-01

364

An Engineering Approach to Biomedical Sciences: Advanced Strategies in Drug Delivery Systems Production  

PubMed Central

Development and optimization of novel production techniques for drug delivery systems are fundamental steps in the “from the bench to the bedside” process which is the base of translational medicine. In particular, in the current scenery where the need for reducing energy consumption, emissions, wastes and risks drives the development of sustainable processes, new pharmaceutical manufacturing does not constitute an exception. In this paper, concepts of process intensification are presented and their transposition in drug delivery systems production is discussed. Moreover, some examples on intensified techniques, for drug microencapsulation and granules drying, are reported.

Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo

2012-01-01

365

An engineering approach to biomedical sciences: advanced strategies in drug delivery systems production.  

PubMed

Development and optimization of novel production techniques for drug delivery systems are fundamental steps in the "from the bench to the bedside" process which is the base of translational medicine. In particular, in the current scenery where the need for reducing energy consumption, emissions, wastes and risks drives the development of sustainable processes, new pharmaceutical manufacturing does not constitute an exception. In this paper, concepts of process intensification are presented and their transposition in drug delivery systems production is discussed. Moreover, some examples on intensified techniques, for drug microencapsulation and granules drying, are reported. PMID:23905058

Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo

2012-10-11

366

Biomedical materials, devices and drug delivery systems by radiation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of radiation polymerization in a super-cooled state started in 1966 and has been applied to the immobilization of biofunctional materials since 1973. In the last twenty years, application has been concentrated to the immobilization of drugs and hormones for the purpose of drug delivery systems. Very recently, the author has proposed a concept of environmental signal responsive chemical delivery system, as a new generation of controlled release and delivery systems. The study and development of materials, devices and systems is described. The signal responsive delivery system consists of a sensor part and a controlled delivery part. Therefore, the use of immobilization techniques for the biochip sensor and the hydrogel actuator has been investigated. As a future goal, systems for the brain research are to be designed and studied.

Kaetsu, Isao

1996-03-01

367

NMR techniques in drug delivery: application to zein protein complexes.  

PubMed

Zein is a protein containing a large amount of nonpolar amino acids, which has shown the ability to form aggregates and entrap solutes, such as drugs and amino acids. NMR techniques were used to detect binding interactions and measure affinity between zein and three different drugs: tetracycline, amoxicillin and indomethacin. The release study of zein microparticle formulations containing any of these drugs was confronted with the affinity results, showing a remarkable correlation. The feasible methodology employed, focused in the functionality of the protein-drug interaction, can be very promising for the rational design of appropriate drug vehicles for drug delivery. PMID:23041651

Sousa, F F O; Luzardo-Álvarez, Asteria; Blanco-Méndez, José; Martín-Pastor, Manuel

2012-10-05

368

Mathematical modeling of polymer erosion: consequences for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Bioerodible polymers have been extensively used as carriers for drug delivery and as scaffolds for tissue engineering. The ability to model and predict erosion behavior can enable the rational design and optimization of biomaterials for various biomedical applications in vivo. This review examines critically the current approaches in mathematical modeling of the erosion of synthetic polymers. The models are classified broadly based on whether they use phenomenological, probabilistic, or empirical approaches. An analysis of the various physical, chemical, and biological factors affecting polymer erosion and the classes of bioerodible polymers to which these analyses have been applied are discussed. The key features and assumptions associated with each of the models are described, and information is provided on the limitations of the models and the various approaches. The review concludes with several directions for future models of polymer erosion. PMID:21130849

Sackett, Chelsea K; Narasimhan, Balaji

2010-12-03

369

Transdermal Drug Delivery: Penetration Enhancement Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in the skin as a site of drug application both for local and systemic effect. However, the skin, in particular the stratum corneum, poses a formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby limiting topical and transdermal bioavailability. Skin penetration enhancement techniques have been developed to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs for which topical and

Heather A. E. Benson

2005-01-01

370

Mobile Drug-Delivery for Ambient Assisted Living: Implantable and Extracorporeal Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniaturized smart drug delivery devices pave the way for a personalized treatment of many diseases by un- skilled persons outside the hospital. Many therapies require a repetitive delivery of a defined amount of drug in well defined time slots. Innovative drug delivery systems constitute an important prerequisite for ambient as- sisted living: The reliable delivery of drugs, in time and

S. Haeberle; R. Gronmaier; T. Goettsche; M Vosseler; A. Kain; M. Reiterer; D. Hradetzky; C. Mueller; S. Messner; R. Zengerle

371

Parameters influencing the stealthiness of colloidal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, colloidal drug delivery systems (CDDS) such as nano-structures have been developed in order to improve the efficiency and the specificity of drug action. Their small size permits them to be injected intravenously in order to reach target tissues. However, it is known that they can be rapidly removed from blood circulation by the immune system.

Arnaud Vonarbourg; Catherine Passirani; Patrick Saulnier; Jean-Pierre Benoit

2006-01-01

372

New biodegradable polymers for injectable drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biodegradable polymers were used for drug delivery and some are successful for human application. There remains fabrication problems, such as difficult processability and limited organic solvent and irreproducible drug release kinetics. New star-shaped block copolymers, of which the typical molecular architecture is presented, results from their distinct solution properties, thermal properties and morphology. Their unique physical properties are due

B. Jeong; Y. K. Choi; Y. H. Bae; G. Zentner; S. W. Kim

1999-01-01

373

Iontophoresis - an approach for controlled drug delivery: a review.  

PubMed

The recent approval of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine combined iontophoretic patch (Lidosite Vysteris Inc.) for localized pain treatment by FDA has invigorated the gaining interest in iontophoretic drug delivery systems for the transdermal delivery of drugs. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference, is one of the most promising physical skin penetration enhancing method. The rationale behind using this technique is the capability of this method to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability, which is otherwise achieved only when parentral route of administration is used. Recently, good permeation of larger peptides like insulin has been achieved through this technique in combination with chemical enhancers. This review briefly describes the factors which affect iontophoretic drug delivery and summarizes the studies conducted recently using this technique in order to achieve higher systemic absorption of the drugs having low passive diffusion otherwise. The effect of permeation enhancers (chemical enhancers) on iontophoretic flux of drugs has also been described. Present review also provides an insight into reverse iontophoresis. Various parameters which affect the transdermal absorption of drugs through iontophoresis like drug concentration, polarity of drugs, pH of donor solution, presence of co-ions, ionic strength, electrode polarity etc. have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:17269912

Dixit, Nitin; Bali, Vikas; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed

2007-01-01

374

Transdermal Absorption of Nitroglycerin from Microseal Drug Delivery (MDD) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent important advance in biopharmaceutics has been the utilization of controlled delivery of drugs to the systemic circulation through the intact skin. With the conventional tablet and capsule dosage forms, the amount of drug absorbed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract varies depending on the quan tity and types of food in the stomach, on the GI motility and transit

Aziz Karim

1983-01-01

375

Formulation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are mixtures of oils and surfactants, ideally isotropic, sometimes including cosolvents, which emulsify under conditions of gentle agitation, similar to those which would be encountered in the gastro-intestinal tract. Hydrophobic drugs can often be dissolved in SEDDS allowing them to be encapsulated as unit dosage forms for peroral administration. When such a formulation is released

Colin W. Pouton

1997-01-01

376

Mathematical models describing polymer dissolution: consequences for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer dissolution is an important phenomenon in polymer science and engineering that has found applications in areas like microlithography, controlled drug delivery, and plastics recycling. This review focuses on the modeling efforts to understand the physics of the drug release process from dissolving polymers. A brief review of the experimentally observed dissolution behavior is presented, thus motivating the modeling of

Balaji Narasimhan

2001-01-01

377

Polymorphism of 17-? estradiol in a transdermal drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusions in a typical transdermal drug delivery system (TDS) containing estradiol drug were characterized using microscopic, spectroscopic and thermal analytical techniques. Optical and scanning electron microcscopy were used to determine the locations and morphologies of the crystals in the matrix. Two different types of crystals randomly distributed laterally inside the patch were observed. Solid aggregates were found surrounding needle-like

N. E. Variankaval; K. I. Jacob; S. M. Dinh

2002-01-01

378

Is transdermal drug delivery research still important today?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When measured by the number of medicines consumed or prescriptions written, the topical and transdermal routes of drug delivery pale into insignificance compared with oral therapy. Industrial colleagues, therefore, occasionally adopt a somewhat utilitarian stance and question the value of academic research into skin treatment and drug permeation, with the rather parochial argument that it is of limited use to

Brian W Barry

2001-01-01

379

A method for intracochlear drug delivery in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of two rapidly emerging research arenas – development of mouse models of human deafness and inner ear drug therapy for treatment and prevention of hearing loss – provides an opportunity for unprecedented approaches to study and treat deafness. Toward such goals, we have developed a method for intracochlear drug delivery in the mouse. The bulla was exposed using

Zhiqiang Chen; Anthony A. Mikulec; Michael J. McKenna; William F. Sewell; Sharon G. Kujawa

2006-01-01

380

Modeling of transdermal drug delivery with a microneedle array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery is generally limited by the extraordinary barrier properties of the stratum corneum, the outer 10–15 m layer of skin. A conventional needle inserted across this barrier and into deeper tissues could effectively deliver drugs. However, it would lead to infection and cause pain, thereby reducing patient compliance. In order to administer a frequent injection of insulin and

Y-G Lv; J Liu; Y-H Gao; B Xu

2006-01-01

381

A parametric study of iontophoretic transdermal drug-delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of iontophoretic transdermal drug delivery was applied to study the effects of physical parameters on the cumulative amount of amitriptyline HCl collected. A graphical method, based on an analytical solution of the system, was first used to estimate the drug diffusion coefficient in the membrane and its surface concentration in the absence of an electric potential difference.

Laurent Simon; Alison Nickol Weltner; Yiping Wang; Bozena Michniak

2006-01-01

382

Generation of Multiphase Pulsed Voltages for Transdermal Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first reviews the mechanism of transdermal drug delivery (TDD) and then presents the method for generating multiphase pulsed voltages (MPPVs) for TDD applications. In TDD applications, it offers many potential advantages over conventional methods, such as oral and injection treatments, and it avoids drug degradation through the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Due to the energy stored in an

Sheng-Yu Tseng; Tsai-Fu Wu; Shu-Yuan Fan

2008-01-01

383

Modeling of transdermal drug delivery with a microneedle array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery is generally limited by the extraordinary barrier properties of the stratum corneum, the outer 10-15 µm layer of skin. A conventional needle inserted across this barrier and into deeper tissues could effectively deliver drugs. However, it would lead to infection and cause pain, thereby reducing patient compliance. In order to administer a frequent injection of insulin and

Y.-G. Lv; J. Liu; Y.-H. Gao; B. Xu

2006-01-01

384

Nanotechnology: A Focus on Nanoparticles as a Drug Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will provide an in-depth discussion on the previous development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) and discuss original research data that includes the therapeutic enhancement of antiretroviral therapy. The use of nanoparticle DDS will allow practitioners to use drugs to target specific areas of the body. In the treatment of malignancies, the use of nanoparticles as a DDS

Jeffrey D. Kingsley; Huanyu Dou; Justin Morehead; Barrett Rabinow; Howard E. Gendelman; Christopher J. Destache

2006-01-01

385

Mathematical modeling and simulation of drug release from microspheres: Implications to drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of existing mathematical models and simulations of drug release from polymeric microspheres and of drug transport in adjacent tissues. In drug delivery systems, mathematical modeling plays an important role in elucidating the important drug release mechanisms, thus facilitating the development of new pharmaceutical products by a systematic, rather than trial-and-error, approach. The

Davis Yohanes Arifin; Lai Yeng Lee; Chi-Hwa Wang

2006-01-01

386

Chronopharmaceutics based modern colon specific drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Colon-targeted delivery of bioactives has recently gained importance in addressing specific needs in the therapy of colon based diseases. Many approaches have been attempted for the development of colon-specific delivery systems, with not much success in the past. With the advancement in the field of chronobiology, modern drug delivery approaches have elevated to a new concept of chronopharmacology i.e. the ability to deliver the therapeutic agent to a patient in a staggered profile. The increasing research interest surrounding this delivery system has widened the areas of pharmaceutics in particular with many more sub-disciplines expected to coexist in the near future. Chronopharmaceutics based technology has eliminated the drawbacks associated with the conventional colon specific delivery systems. This review on chronopharmaceutics based delivery lays emphasis on the existing technologies and future development. PMID:22564168

Tiwari, Akanksha; Shukla, Raj Kumar; Tiwari, Suresh; Naazneen, Surti

2012-12-01

387

Current Drug Shortages O - R  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... 3 mMol/mL, 15 mL vial (NDC 00517-2315-25), Unavailable. 3 mMol/mL, 50 mL vial (NDC 00517-2350-25), Unavailable. Procainamide HCL Injection ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugshortages

388

Novel mechanisms and devices to enable successful transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Optimisation of drug delivery through human skin is important in modern therapy. This review considers drug-vehicle interactions (drug or prodrug selection, chemical potential control, ion pairs, coacervates and eutectic systems) and the role of vesicles and particles (liposomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, niosomes). We can modify the stratum corneum by hydration and chemical enhancers, or bypass or remove this tissue via microneedles, ablation and follicular delivery. Electrically assisted methods (ultrasound, iontophoresis, electroporation, magnetophoresis, photomechanical waves) show considerable promise. Of particular interest is the synergy between chemical enhancers, ultrasound, iontophoresis and electroporation. PMID:11500256

Barry, B W

2001-09-01

389

The use of shear stress for targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Stenosed segments of arteries significantly alter the blood flow known from healthy vessels. In particular, the wall shear stress at critically stenosed arteries is at least an order of magnitude higher than in healthy situations. This alteration represents a change in physical force and might be used as a trigger signal for drug delivery. Mechano-sensitive drug delivery systems that preferentially release their payload under increased shear stress are discussed. Therefore, besides biological or chemical markers, physical triggers are a further principle approach for targeted drug delivery. We hypothesize that such a physical trigger is much more powerful to release drugs for vasodilation, plaque stabilization, or clot lysis at stenosed arteries than any known biological or chemical ones. PMID:23645574

Saxer, Till; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Müller, Bert

2013-05-02

390

Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Unique microneedle arrays prepared from crosslinked polymers, which contain no drug themselves, are described. They rapidly take up skin interstitial fluid upon skin insertion to form continuous, unblockable, hydrogel conduits from attached patch-type drug reservoirs to the dermal microcirculation. Importantly, such microneedles, which can be fabricated in a wide range of patch sizes and microneedle geometries, can be easily sterilized, resist hole closure while in place, and are removed completely intact from the skin. Delivery of macromolecules is no longer limited to what can be loaded into the microneedles themselves and transdermal drug delivery is now controlled by the crosslink density of the hydrogel system rather than the stratum corneum, while electrically modulated delivery is also a unique feature. This technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional microneedle designs and greatly increase the range of the type of drug that is deliverable transdermally, with ensuing benefits for industry, healthcare providers and, ultimately, patients.

Donnelly, Ryan F; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Garland, Martin J; Migalska, Katarzyna; Majithiya, Rita; McCrudden, Cian M; Kole, Prashant Laxman; Mahmood, Tuan Mazlelaa Tuan; McCarthy, Helen O; Woolfson, A David

2012-01-01

391

Drug Therapy of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Trends  

PubMed Central

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as ?-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future.

De Sousa, Avinash; Kalra, Gurvinder

2012-01-01

392

Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: current trends.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as ?-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future. PMID:22654382

De Sousa, Avinash; Kalra, Gurvinder

2012-01-01

393

Use of microwave in processing of drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave. PMID:18393808

Wong, T W

2008-04-01

394

A new probe for targeting drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Recently, TDDS (Targeting drug delivery system) plays an important role in enhancing the bioavailability and targeting of anti-tumor drugs. How to transport drugs quickly and precisely to their target sites of action has not been solved fundamentally. A large number of researches have identified artemisinin and its analogs have the merit of precisely targeting to cancer cell, and low side effects to healthy tissue. Thus, if these compounds could be attached to established anti-tumor drugs with probe, a novel targeting anti-tumor drugs will be put into practice in the future. The novel drugs delivery system will be a powerful weapon against cancer disease for their unique targeting. PMID:18829175

Yu, Zhengwen; Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Feng, Yingzhu; Zheng, Chao

2008-09-30

395

Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.  

SciTech Connect

We are currently investigating the use of magnetic particles--polymeric-based spheres containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline phases--for the precise delivery of drugs via the human vasculature. According to this review, meticulously prepared magnetic drug targeting holds promise as a safe and effective method of delivering drugs to specific organ, tissue or cellular targets. We have critically examined the wide range of approaches in the design and implementation of magnetic-particle-based drug delivery systems to date, including magnetic particle preparation, drug encapsulation, biostability, biocompatibility, toxicity, magnetic field designs, and clinical trials. However, we strongly believe that there are several limitations with past developments that need to be addressed to enable significant strides in the field. First, particle size has to be carefully chosen. Micrometer-sized magnetic particles are better attracted over a distance than nanometer sized magnetic particles by a constant magnetic field gradient, and particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m show a much better accumulation with no apparent side effects in small animal models, since the smallest blood vessels have an inner diameter of 5-7 {micro}m. Nanometer-sized particles <70 nm will accumulate in organ fenestrations despite an effective surface stabilizer. To be suitable for future human applications, our experimental approach synthesizes the magnetic drug carrier according to specific predefined outcome metrics: monodisperse population in a size range of 100 nm to 1.0 {micro}m, non-toxic, with appropriate magnetic properties, and demonstrating successful in vitro and in vivo tests. Another important variable offering possible improvement is surface polarity, which is expected to prolong particle half-life in circulation and modify biodistribution and stability of drugs in the body. The molecules in the blood that are responsible for enhancing the uptake of particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) prefer to associate with hydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, we will tackle this challenge by modifying the particles with hydrophilic coatings such as PEG or poloxamer (co-polymers containing hydrophobic polyoxypropylene segments and repetitive polyoxyethylene hydrophilic groups), which have a proven ability to mask recognition by the RES. Modeling is needed to help optimize the performance of targeted magnetic-particle delivery, enhance its medicinal value, and expedite its medical application. To this end, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, working with The University of Chicago and Cleveland Clinic Hospital, are working on an effective magnetic drug targeting system based on custom magnetic field designs coupled to a three-dimensional imaging platform that addresses all associated physical and theoretical problems. Furthermore, while our clinical trial results are encouraging with regard to the tolerance and applicability of the system, more improvements must be made with respect to future study designs and systems being used. Given the technical hurdles in developing this potentially important technology, we believe we have made great progress and that we have a strong developmental plan.

Kaminski, M. D.; Ghebremeskel, A. N.; Nunez, L.; Kasza, K. E.; Chang, F.; Chien, T.-H.; Fisher, P. F.; Eastman, J. A.; Rosengart, A. J.; McDonald, L.; Xie, Y.; Johns, L.; Pytel, P.; Hafeli, U. O.

2004-02-16

396

Calcium phosphate ceramic systems in growth factor and drug delivery for bone tissue engineering: A review  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphates (CaPs) are the most widely used bone substitutes in bone tissue engineering due to their compositional similarities to bone mineral and excellent biocompatibility. In recent years, CaPs, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have attracted significant interest in simultaneous use as bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle, adding a new dimension to their application. CaPs are more biocompatible than many other ceramic and inorganic nanoparticles. Their biocompatibility and variable stoichiometry, thus surface charge density, functionality, and dissolution properties, make them suitable for both drug and growth factor delivery. CaP matrices and scaffolds have been reported to act as delivery vehicles for growth factors and drugs in bone tissue engineering. Local drug delivery in musculoskeletal disorder treatments can address some of the critical issues more effectively and efficiently than the systemic delivery. CaPs are used as coatings on metallic implants, CaP cements, and custom designed scaffolds to treat musculoskeletal disorders. This review highlights some of the current drug and growth factor delivery approaches and critical issues using CaP particles, coatings, cements, and scaffolds towards orthopedic and dental applications.

Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman

2012-01-01

397

Development of a Microfluidics-Based Intracochlear Drug Delivery Device  

PubMed Central

Background Direct delivery of drugs and other agents into the inner ear will be important for many emerging therapies, including the treatment of degenerative disorders and guiding regeneration. Methods We have taken a microfluidics/MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) technology approach to develop a fully implantable reciprocating inner-ear drug-delivery system capable of timed and sequenced delivery of agents directly into perilymph of the cochlea. Iterations of the device were tested in guinea pigs to determine the flow characteristics required for safe and effective delivery. For these tests, we used the glutamate receptor blocker DNQX, which alters auditory nerve responses but not cochlear distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Results We have demonstrated safe and effective delivery of agents into the scala tympani. Equilibration of the drug in the basal turn occurs rapidly (within tens of minutes) and is dependent on reciprocating flow parameters. Conclusion We have described a prototype system for the direct delivery of drugs to the inner ear that has the potential to be a fully implantable means for safe and effective treatment of hearing loss and other diseases.

Sewell, William F.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Fiering, Jason; Handzel, Ophir; Holmboe, Maria; Kim, Ernest S.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.; Mescher, Mark M.; Murphy, Brian; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Peppi, Marcello; Tao, Sarah

2009-01-01

398

Controlled-release drug delivery systems in cardiovascular medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release drug delivery technology has had a significant effect on the pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases. Oral and transcutaneous controlled-release systems allow relatively short-acting drugs to be administered once or twice daily with comparable therapeutic efficacy and fewer adverse reactions compared with standard formulations. They can provide decreased fluctuations in drug concentrations in plasma while possibly reducing the total amount of

Baruch Katz; Andrew Rosenberg; William H. Frishman

1995-01-01

399

Gastroretentive floating drug-delivery systems: a critical review.  

PubMed

The oral delivery of drugs with a narrow absorption window in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often limited by poor bioavailability with conventional dosage forms due to incomplete drug release and short residence time at the site of absorption. To overcome this drawback and to maximize the oral absorption of these drugs, gastroretentive systems such as mucoadhesive, high-density, expandable, and floating systems have been developed. These systems provide controlled delivery of drugs with prolonged gastric residence time. However, in humans, differences in various physiological and biological factors can affect the gastric residence time and drug-delivery behavior from gastroretentive systems. Some floating drug-delivery systems (FDDS) have shown the capability to accommodate these variations without affecting drug release. This review mainly focuses on various physiological considerations for development of FDDS, and highlights recent technological developments including new dosage forms and their production techniques (e.g., holt-melt extrusion, melt pelletization, and pulsed plasma-irradiation processes). Alternatives to the existing in vitro compendial methods for evaluating floating dosage forms will be discussed, and a critical analysis of the existing literature on FDDS, identifying the potential areas for future research, is provided. PMID:21395515

Kotreka, Udaya K; Adeyeye, Moji Christianah

2011-01-01

400

The Role of Cavitation in Acoustically Activated Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Pluronic P105 micelles are potential candidates as chemotherapy drug delivery vehicles using ultrasonic stimulation as a release trigger. Acoustic power has been previously shown to release two anthracycline agents from these polymeric carriers. In this study, an ultrasonic exposure chamber with fluorescence detection was used to examine the mechanism of doxorubicin release from P105 micelles. Acoustic spectra were collected and analyzed, at the same spatial position as fluorescence data, to probe the role of cavitation in drug release. Our study showed a strong correlation between percent drug release and subharmonic acoustic emissions, and we attribute the drug release to collapse cavitation that perturbs the structure of the micelle and releases drug.

Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Diaz de la Rosa, Mario A.; Richardson, Eric S.; Christensen, Douglas A.; Pitt, William G.

2006-01-01

401

Pocketed Microneedles for Drug Delivery to the Skin  

PubMed Central

Drug delivery to the skin is limited by the strong barrier properties of skin’s outer layer of stratum corneum. Micron-scale needles have been developed to deliver drugs across this barrier layer and into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. One method of delivery involves coating these microneedles with a drug that rapidly dissolves off within the skin. As a variation on this approach, this study examines microneedles with holes cut through their shafts to form “pockets” that can be filled with drug formulations using a dip-coating method. Our results (i) demonstrated the filling of microneedle pockets having a variety of different sizes and shapes, (ii) quantified the amount of drug that can be filled into pockets and coated onto microneedle surfaces, (iii) developed composite microneedle structures that sequester one model drug within the microneedle pocket and coat another model drug on the microneedle surface and (iv) showed that pocketed microneedles can deliver a model drug to a targeted depth within the skin. We conclude that pocketed microneedles offer unique capabilities for controlled drug delivery to the skin.

Gill, Harvinder S.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2010-01-01

402

Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, ‘peripheral’ functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

2002-03-01

403

Development of a Gas Empowered Drug Delivery system for peptide delivery in the small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to design a novel Gas Empowered Drug Delivery (GEDD) system for CO2 forced transport of peptide drugs together with mucoadhesive polymers to the surface of the small intestine. The GEDD effect of the core tablet was achieved using CO2 gas to push insulin together with the mucoadhesive excipients poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) and the permeation enhancer

A. M. M. Sadeghi; M. R. Avadi; Sh. Ejtemaimehr; Sh. Abashzadeh; A. Partoazar; F. Dorkoosh; M. Faghihi; M. Rafiee-Tehrani; H. E. Junginger

2009-01-01

404

Hydrogel-Based Colloidal Polymeric System for Protein and Drug Delivery: Physical and Chemical Characterization, Permeability Control and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of polymeric nanoparticles as drug carriers is receiving an increasing amount of attention both in academia and industry.\\u000a The development of suitable delivery systems for protein drugs with high molecular weights and short half-lives is of current\\u000a interest. In addition, nanoparticles have a number of potential applications in drug and vaccine delivery as well as gene\\u000a therapy applications.

Ales Prokop; Evgenii Kozlov; Gianluca Carlesso; Jeffrey M. Davidson

405

EMERGING MICROTECHNOLOGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL DRUG DELIVERY DEVICES  

PubMed Central

The development of oral drug delivery platforms for administering therapeutics in a safe and effective manner across the gastrointestinal epithelium is of much importance. A variety of delivery systems such as enterically coated tablets, capsules, particles, and liposomes have been developed to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. However, orally administered drugs suffer from poor localization and therapeutic efficacy due to various physiological conditions such as low pH, and high shear intestinal fluid flow. Novel platforms combining controlled release, improved adhesion, tissue penetration, and selective intestinal targeting may overcome these issues and potentially diminish the toxicity and high frequency of administration associated with conventional oral delivery. Microfabrication along with appropriate surface chemistry, provide a means to fabricate these platforms en masse with flexibility in tailoring the shape, size, reservoir volume, and surface characteristics of microdevices. Moreover, the same technology can be used to include integrated circuit technology and sensors for designing sophisticated autonomous drug delivery devices that promise to significantly improve point of care diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. This review sheds light on some of the fabrication techniques and addresses a few of the microfabricated devices that can be effectively used for controlled oral drug delivery applications.

Chirra, Hariharasudhan D.; Desai, Tejal A.

2012-01-01

406

Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications.  

PubMed

The first closed bilayer phospholipid systems, called liposomes, were described in 1965 and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. The pioneering work of countless liposome researchers over almost 5 decades led to the development of important technical advances such as remote drug loading, extrusion for homogeneous size, long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes, triggered release liposomes, liposomes containing nucleic acid polymers, ligand-targeted liposomes and liposomes containing combinations of drugs. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas as the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs, the delivery of gene medicines, and the delivery of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of liposomes (lipidic nanoparticles) are on the market, and many more are in the pipeline. Lipidic nanoparticles are the first nanomedicine delivery system to make the transition from concept to clinical application, and they are now an established technology platform with considerable clinical acceptance. We can look forward to many more clinical products in the future. PMID:23036225

Allen, Theresa M; Cullis, Pieter R

2012-10-01

407

Drug delivery through soft contact lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical studies were conducted on 466 patients waiting for senile cataract surgery and receiving chloromycetin, gentamicin, or carbenicillin subconjunctivally and through New Sauflon 70 and New Sauflon 85 lenses. The aqueous drug levels were biologically estimated at various time intervals. Soft contact lenses provided significantly higher drug penetration than subconjunctival therapy. Both modes of treatment provided therapeutically effective levels against

M. R. Jain

1988-01-01

408

Nanocrystal technology, drug delivery and clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology will affect our lives tremendously over the next decade in very different fields, including medicine and pharmacy. Transfer of materials into the nanodimension changes their physical properties which were used in pharmaceutics to develop a new innovative formulation principle for poorly soluble drugs: the drug nanocrystals. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market. The industrially relevant production technologies, pearl milling and high pressure homogenization, are reviewed. The physics behind the drug nanocrystals and changes of their physical properties are discussed. The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects of nanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product. Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview.

Junghanns, Jens-Uwe A H; Muller, Rainer H

2008-01-01

409

Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An obstacle for successful drug therapy for cancer is the existence of drug delivery barriers, which causes insufficient drug delivery to the tumor tissue. Because of inadequate drug delivery to the tumor tissue, the drug dose has to be increased, which l...

B. Chen C. He

2006-01-01

410

Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An obstacle to successful cancer drug therapy is the existence of drug delivery barriers, which causes insufficient drug delivery to the tumor tissue. Because of the inadequate drug delivery, the drug dose has to be increased, which leads to normal tissue...

B. Chen

2009-01-01

411

Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An obstacle to successful cancer drug therapy is the existence of drug delivery barriers, which causes insufficient drug delivery to the tumor tissue. Because of the inadequate drug delivery, the drug dose has to be increased, which leads to normal tissue...

B. Chen C. He

2008-01-01

412

Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An obstacle for successful drug therapy for cancer is the existence of drug delivery barriers, which causes insufficient drug delivery to the tumor tissue. Because of inadequate drug delivery to the tumor tissue, the drug dose has to be increased, which l...

B. Chen C. He

2007-01-01

413

Biologically inspired approaches to drug delivery for nerve regeneration.  

PubMed

As the biological processes governing nerve regeneration have become elucidated over the past decades, interest has developed in manipulating these processes to improve nerve regeneration. Drug delivery to the regenerating nerve has the potential for major clinical applications in neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord injury and peripheral nerve injury or sacrifice. This article reviews the evolution of the field of drug delivery to the regenerating nerve, from simple local applications of neurotrophic agents in solution and osmotic pump delivery, to the existing approaches involving novel biomaterials and genetically manipulated cell populations. A discussion of the various known nerve growth-promoting agents, and the chemical considerations involved in their delivery, is included. A perspective on the role of tissue engineering approaches for nerve regeneration in the future is offered. PMID:17049009

Hadlock, Tessa; Sundback, Cathryn

2006-11-01

414

Tripartite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents into selected populations of CNS (Central Nervous System) neurons is an extremely compelling goal. Currently, systemic methods are generally used for delivery of pain medications, anti-virals for treatment of dermatomal infections, anti-spasmodics, and neuroprotectants. Systemic side effects or undesirable effects on parts of the CNS that are not involved in the pathology limit efficacy

Aaron G Filler; Garth T Whiteside; Mark Bacon; Martyn Frederickson; Franklyn A Howe; Miri D Rabinowitz; Alan J Sokoloff; Terrence W Deacon; Chris Abell; Raj Munglani; John R Griffiths; B Anthony Bell; Andrew ML Lever

2010-01-01

415

Biologically erodable microspheres as potential oral drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologically adhesive delivery systems offer important advantages1-5 over conventional drug delivery systems6. Here we show that engineered polymer microspheres made of biologically erodable polymers, which display strong adhesive interactions with gastrointestinal mucus and cellular linings, can traverse both the mucosal absorptive epithelium and the follicle-associated epithelium covering the lymphoid tissue of Peyer's patches. The polymers maintain contact with intestinal epithelium

Edith Mathiowitz; Jules S. Jacob; Yong S. Jong; Gerardo P. Carino; Donald E. Chickering; Pravin Chaturvedi; Camilla A. Santos; Kavita Vijayaraghavan; Sean Montgomery; Michael Bassett; Craig Morrell

1997-01-01

416

Piezoelectric control of needle-free transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery occurs primarily through hypodermic needle injections, which cause pain, require a trained administrator, and may contribute to the spread of disease. With the growing number of pharmaceutical therapies requiring transdermal delivery, an effective, safe, and simple needle-free alternative is needed. We present and characterize a needle-free jet injector that employs a piezoelectric actuator to accelerate a micron-scale

Jeanne C. Stachowiak; Marcio G. von Muhlen; Thomas H. Li; Laleh Jalilian; Sapun H. Parekh; Daniel A. Fletcher

2007-01-01

417

Thiomers for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs.  

PubMed

In recent years thiolated polymers (thiomers) have appeared as a promising new tool in oral drug delivery. Thiomers are obtained by the immobilisation of thio-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By the formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of thiomers are up to 130-fold improved compared with the corresponding unmodified polymers. Owing to the formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, matrix tablets and particulate delivery systems show strong cohesive properties, resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled drug release. The permeation of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs through the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa can be improved by the use of thiomers. Furthermore, some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards GI peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in oral drug delivery has been demonstrated by various in vivo studies. A pharmacological efficacy of 1%, for example, was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Furthermore, tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Low-molecular-weight heparin embedded in thiolated polycarbophil led to an absolute bioavailability of > or = 20% after oral administration to rats. In these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. These results indicate drug carrier systems based on thiomers appear to be a promising tool for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs. PMID:16296722

Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Hoffer, Martin H; Kafedjiiski, Krum

2004-11-01

418

Liposomes in drug delivery: a patent review (2007 - present).  

PubMed

Introduction: Drug therapy is frequently limited by the widespread biodistribution of the active agents and the little specificity for non-healthy cells. Therefore, inadequate drug concentrations result into the site of action, and severe toxicity may also arise. To address the problem, liposome-based medicines have tried to improve pharmacotherapy. Areas covered: The review provides an updated revision of the lately published patents covering recent advances in liposome-based drug delivery. They are principally related to the control of drug biodistribution by using stealth, stimuli-sensitive and/or liposomal structures surface modified for ligand-mediated delivery. The contribution further highlights liposome-based theranosis. Expert opinion: Liposomes have received great attention given their biocompatibility, biodegradability and targetability. From 2007 to present date, patent publications related to their use in drug delivery have shown the move towards more stable structures with optimized drug delivery capabilities, further combining passive and active targeting concepts to gain control of the in vivo fate. However, the introduction of all these liposomal structures in the disease arena is still a challenge. Two key aspects are the difficulty of identifying easy and economic synthesis conditions which can be scaled up in the pharmaceutical industry, and the need for complementary investigations illustrating risks of toxicity/immunogenicity. PMID:23957267

Arias, José L

2013-08-19

419

Oral Delivery of Nucleic Acid Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid molecules have emerged as versatile tools with promising utility in a variety of biochemical, diagnostic, and\\u000a therapeutic applications. A parenteral administration of a nucleic acid is inconvenient because of pain, fear, and risks being\\u000a associated with this type of application. The intestinal epithelium is considered to be an attractive site for oral delivery\\u000a of therapeutic genes.\\u000a \\u000a The successful

Ronny Martien

420

N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population  

PubMed Central

Background: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of l-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural l-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops. Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. Patients or other participants: The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C™ eye drops since December 2001. Intervention: Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued repurchase behavior program, including testimonials from buyers. With these figures, researchers judged on the patients’ compliance rate to self-administer NAC eye-drops. Main outcome measure and results: The ophthalmic drug showed potential for the non-surgical treatment of age-related cataracts for participants after controlling for age, gender and daily activities and on a combined basis of repurchases behavior reports in more than 50,000 various cohort survivors, has been demonstrated to have a high efficacy and good tolerability for prevention and treatment of visual impairment determined for the older population with relative stable pattern of causes for blindness and visual impairment. The mechanisms of prevention and reversal of cataracts with NAC ophthalmic drug are considered which include prevention by the intraocular released carnosine of free-radical-induced inactivation of proprietary lens antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase); prevention of carbohydrate and metal-catalyzed autooxidation of ascorbic acid-induced cross-linking glycation reactions to the lens proteins; transglycation properties of carnosine, allowing it to compete for the glycating agent, protecting proteins (lens crystallins) against modification; universal antioxidant and scavenging activity towards lipid hydroperoxides, aldehydes and oxygen radicals; activation with l-carnosine ingredient of proteasome activity in the lens; chaperone-like disaggregating to lens crystallins activity of NAC and of its bioactivated principal carnosine. Blindness incidence increased with advancing age, such as cataract and glaucoma, which are by far the commonest causes of blindness in our sample and in all age groups, glaucomatous neurodegeneration can be treated with developed NAC autoinduction prodrug eye drops equipped with corneal absorption promoters. The common blinding affections presenting in developed countries such as, senile macular degeneration, hereditary chorioretinal dystrophies, diabetic retinopathy are poorly represented in our current summary of vital

Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

2009-01-01

421

Drug-inorganic-polymer nanohybrid for transdermal delivery.  

PubMed

For transdermal drug delivery, we prepared a drug-inorganic nanohybrid (FB-LDH) by intercalating a transdermal model drug, flurbiprofen (FB), into the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via coprecipitation reaction. The X-ray diffraction patterns and FT-IR spectra of the FB-LDH indicated that the FB molecules were successfully intercalated via electrostatic interaction within the LDH lattices. The in vitro drug release revealed that the Eudragit(®) S-100 in release media could facilitate the drug out-diffusion by effectively replacing the intercalated drug and also enlarging the lattice spacing of the FB-LDH. In this work, a hydrophobic gel suspension of the FB-LDH was suggested as a transdermal controlled delivery formulation, where the suspensions were mixed with varying amounts of Eudragit(®) S-100 aqueous solution. The Frantz diffusion cell experiments using mouse full-skins showed that a lag time and steady-state flux of the drug could be controlled from 12.8h and 3.28?gcm(-2)h(-1) to less than 1h and 14.57?gcm(-2)h(-1), respectively, by increasing the mass fraction of Eudragit(®) S-100 solution in gel suspensions from 0% to 20% (w/w), respectively. Therefore, we conclude gel formulation of the FB-LDH have a potential for transdermal controlled drug delivery. PMID:23357253

Kim, Myung Hun; Park, Dae-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Hun; Choy, Young Bin; Choy, Jin-Ho

2013-01-26

422

Microneedles for intradermal and transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, impose significant limitations for successful systemic delivery of broad range of therapeutic molecules particularly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle (MN) has been proposed as a strategy to breach the stratum corneum barrier function in order to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. This strategy involves use of micron sized needles fabricated of different materials and geometries to create transient aqueous conduits across the skin. MN, alone or with other enhancing strategies, has been demonstrated to dramatically enhance the skin permeability of numerous therapeutic molecules including biopharmaceuticals either in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo experiments. This suggested the promising use of MN technology for various possible clinical applications such as insulin delivery, transcutaneous immunisations and cutaneous gene delivery. MN has been proved as minimally invasive and painless in human subjects. This review article focuses on recent and future developments for MN technology including the latest type of MN design, challenges and strategies in MNs development as well as potential safety aspects based on comprehensive literature review pertaining to MN studies to date. PMID:23680534

Tuan-Mahmood, Tuan-Mazlelaa; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Torrisi, Barbara M; McAlister, Emma; Garland, Martin J; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Donnelly, Ryan F

2013-05-13

423

Macromolecular drug delivery: basic principles and therapeutic applications.  

PubMed

Macromolecular drugs hold great promise as novel therapeutics of several major disorders, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, their use is limited by lack of efficient, safe, and specific delivery strategies. Successful development of such strategies requires interdisciplinary collaborations involving researchers with expertise on e.g., polymer chemistry, cell biology, nano technology, systems biology, advanced imaging methods, and clinical medicine. This poses obvious challenges to the scientific community, but also provides opportunities for the unexpected at the interface between different disciplines. This review summarizes recent studies of macromolecular delivery that should be of interest to researchers involved in macromolecular drug synthesis as well as in vitro and in vivo drug delivery studies. PMID:19475521

Belting, Mattias; Wittrup, Anders

2009-05-28

424

Constructing tunable nanopores and their application in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Inspired by biological cell membranes, various "smart" and efficient gating nanoporous devices have been proposed to imitate and to understand life processes. Nanodevices under development with enhanced gating efficiency could play pivotal roles in biosensing and drug delivery. In this Perspective, we highlight an important development by Willner and colleagues that is detailed in this issue of ACS Nano. They designed a new "smart" nanodevice with both "sense" and "release" functionalities for drug delivery based on a nanoporous material, mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We outline recent progress in designing intelligently gated nanoporous devices in material science and nanotechnology. We also summarize new strategies designed for drug delivery based on mesoporous materials. With continuing efforts, we expect more powerful nanodevices to be developed and used in clinical and other real-word applications. PMID:24143925

Duan, Ruixue; Xia, Fan; Jiang, Lei

2013-10-22

425

Connecting drug delivery reality to smart materials design.  

PubMed

Inflated claims to both design and mechanistic novelty in drug delivery and imaging systems, including most nanotechnologies, are not supported by the generally poor translation of these systems to clinical efficacy. The "form begets function" design paradigm is seductive but perhaps over-simplistic in translation to pharmaceutical efficacy. Most innovations show few clinically important distinctions in their therapeutic benefits in relevant preclinical disease and delivery models, despite frequent claims to the contrary. Long-standing challenges in drug delivery issues must enlist more realistic, back-to-basics approaches to address fundamental materials properties in complex biological systems, preclinical test beds, and analytical methods to more reliably determine fundamental pharmaceutical figures of merit, including drug carrier purity and batch-batch variability, agent biodistribution, therapeutic index (safety), and efficacy. PMID:23624177

Grainger, David W

2013-04-24

426

LDH nanocontainers as bio-reservoirs and drug delivery carriers.  

PubMed

This review outlines research and patents relating to the use of inorganic nanomaterial, layered double hydroxide, as nanocontainers for drug delivery and gene reservoirs. Various intercalative synthetic routes including coprecipitation, ion exchange, reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly have been explored to incorporate drug or gene molecules. Its unique two-dimensional structure allows layered double hydroxide to act as a nanospace for the stabilization, targeted delivery or controlled release of gene or drug molecules. Intercalative hybrid nanomaterials have uses such as pharmaceutically active ingredients, in oral- or cellular delivery systems, cosmetic ingredients, molecular coding units and etc. Toxicological studies have found layered double hydroxides to be biocompatible compared with widely used nanoparticles such as iron oxide, silica, and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Due to their versatile functionality and biocompatibility, layered double hydroxides have been widely studied and their applicability can be expanded to other nanoparticle based bio-medical applications. PMID:22747720

Oh, Jae-Min; Park, Dae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Jin; Choy, Jin-Ho

2012-11-01

427

Microbubbles in Ultrasound-Triggered Drug and Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound contrast agents, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles, are becoming popular in perfusion monitoring; they are employed as molecular imaging agents. Microbubbles are manufactured from biocompatible materials, they can be injected intravenously, and some are approved for clinical use. Microbubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound irradiation. This destruction phenomenon can be applied to targeted drug delivery and enhancement of drug action. The ultrasonic field can be focused at the target tissues and organs; thus, selectivity of the treatment can be improved, reducing undesirable side effects. Microbubbles enhance ultrasound energy deposition in the tissues and serve as cavitation nuclei, increasing intracellular drug delivery. DNA delivery and successful tissue transfection is observed in the areas of the body where ultrasound is applied after intravascular administration of microbubbles and plasmid DNA. Accelerated blood clot dissolution in the areas of insonation by cooperative action of thrombolytic agents and microbubbles is demonstrated in several clinical trials.

Hernot, Sophie; Klibanov, Alexander L.

2008-01-01

428

Ocular Drug Delivery; Impact of in vitro Cell Culture Models  

PubMed Central

Normal vision depends on the optimal function of ocular barriers and intact membranes that selectively regulate the environment of ocular tissues. Novel pharmacotherapeutic modalities have aimed to overcome such biological barriers which impede efficient ocular drug delivery. To determine the impact of ocular barriers on research related to ophthalmic drug delivery and targeting, herein we provide a review of the literature on isolated primary or immortalized cell culture models which can be used for evaluation of ocular barriers. In vitro cell cultures are valuable tools which serve investigations on ocular barriers such as corneal and conjunctival epithelium, retinal pigment epithelium and retinal capillary endothelium, and can provide platforms for further investigations. Ocular barrier-based cell culture systems can be simply set up and used for drug delivery and targeting purposes as well as for pathological and toxicological research.

Barar, Jaleh; Asadi, Masoud; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Omidi, Yadollah

2009-01-01

429

Pressure Waves in Medicine: From Tissue Injury to Drug Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure waves have the potential to cause injury to cells and tissue or enable novel therapeutic modalities, such as fragmentation of kidney stones and drug delivery. Research on the biological effects of pressure waves have shown that the biological response on depends the pressure-wave characteristics. One of the most prominent effects induced by pressure waves is the permeabilization of a number of barrier structures (cell plasma membrane, skin and microbial biofilms) and facilitate the delivery of macromolecules. The permeabilization of the barrier structure is transient and the barrier function recovers. Thus, pressure waves can induce delivery of molecular species that would not normally cross the barrier structure.

Doukas, Apostolos G.

2004-07-01

430

Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Medicines for Inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mankind has inhaled substances for medical and other reasons for thousands of years, notably resulting in the cultural manifestations\\u000a of tobacco and opium smoking. Over the course of time concepts of pulmonary application, including inhalation devices and\\u000a drug formulations, have been and still are being continuously developed. State of the art instruments even allow for individualized\\u000a drug application by adaption

Andreas Henning; Stephanie Hein; Marc Schneider; Michael Bur; Claus-Michael Lehr

431

Physical enhancement of transdermal drug application: is delivery technology keeping up with pharmaceutical development?  

PubMed

Advances in molecular biology have given us a wide range of protein and peptide-based drugs that are unsuitable for oral delivery because of their high degree of first-pass metabolism. Though parenteral delivery is the obvious answer, for the successful development of commercial chronic and self-administration usage formulations it is not the ideal choice. Transdermal delivery is emerging as the biggest application target for these agents, however, the skin is extremely efficient at keeping out such large molecular weight compounds and therapeutic levels are never going to be realistically achieved by passive absorption. Physical enhancement mechanisms including: iontophoresis, electroporation, ultrasound, photomechanical waves, microneedles and jet-propelled particles are emerging as solutions to this topical delivery dilemma. Adding proteins and peptides to the list of other large molecular weight drugs with insufficient passive transdermal fluxes to be therapeutically useful, we have a collection of pharmacological agents waiting for efficient delivery methods to be introduced. This article reviews the current state of physical transdermal delivery technology, assesses the pros and cons of each technique and summarises the evidence-base of their drug delivery capabilities. PMID:16305373

Cross, S E; Roberts, M S

2004-01-01

432

Hollow copper sulfide nanoparticle-mediated transdermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

A photothermal ablation-enhanced transdermal drug delivery methodology is developed based on hollow copper sulfide nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) with intense photothermal coupling effects. Application of nanosecond-pulsed near-infrared laser allows rapid heating of the nanoparticles and instantaneous heat conduction. This provides very short periods of time but extremely high temperatures in local regions, with focused thermal ablation of the stratum corneum. The depth of skin perforations can be controlled by adjusting the laser power. Skin disruption by HCuSNP-mediated photothermal ablation significantly increases the permeability of human growth hormone. This technique offers compelling opportunities for macromolecular drug and vaccine delivery. PMID:22829400

Ramadan, Samy; Guo, Liangran; Li, Yajuan; Yan, Bingfang; Lu, Wei

2012-07-25

433

Pulmonary drug delivery. Part II: The role of inhalant delivery devices and drug formulations in therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications  

PubMed Central

Research in the area of pulmonary drug delivery has gathered momentum in the last several years, with increased interest in using the lung as a means of delivering drugs systemically. Advances in device technology have led to the development of more efficient delivery systems capable of delivering larger doses and finer particles into the lung. As more efficient pulmonary delivery devices and sophisticated formulations become available, physicians and health professionals will have a choice of a wide variety of device and formulation combinations that will target specific cells or regions of the lung, avoid the lung's clearance mechanisms and be retained within the lung for longer periods. It is now recognized that it is not enough just to have inhalation therapy available for prescribing; physicians and other healthcare providers need a basic understanding of aerosol science, inhaled formulations, delivery devices, and bioequivalence of products to prescribe these therapies optimally.

Labiris, N R; Dolovich, M B

2003-01-01

434

Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering: From Discovery to Applications  

PubMed Central

The application of nanotechnology in medicine, referred to as nanomedicine, is offering numerous exciting possibilities in healthcare. Herein, we discuss two impor