Science.gov

Sample records for current knowledge awareness

  1. Current awareness

    PubMed

    Green; Feher; Catalan

    2000-07-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of diabetes/metabolism. Each bibliography is divided into 17 sections: 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Genetics; 4 Epidemiology; 5 Immunology; 6 Prediction; 7 Prevention; 8 Intervention: a&rpar General; b&rpar Pharmacology; 9 Pathology: a&rpar General; b&rpar Cardiovascular; c&rpar Neurological; d&rpar Renal; 10 Endocrinology & Metabolism; 11 Nutrition; 12 Animal Studies; 13 Techniques. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author (8 Weeks journals - Search completed at 19th Apr. 2000) PMID:10934459

  2. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  3. Awareness, Knowledge and Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university administrators, academics and marketers expend time and financial resources promoting postgraduate study options, yet scant scholarly research has addressed students' attraction to postgraduate study. This study examines awareness and knowledge of, and intentions to pursue postgraduate study from the perspective of current…

  4. Dental knowledge and awareness among grandparents

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Jyoti; Kathariya, Rahul; Panda, Anup; Garg, Iti; Raikar, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate grandparent’s knowledge and awareness about the oral health of their grandchildren. METHODS: Grandparents accompanying patients aged 4-8 years, who were living with their grandchildren and caring for them for a major part of the day, when both their parents were at work were included in the study. A 20-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, dietary and oral hygiene practices was distributed to them. The sample comprised of 200 grandparents (59 males, 141 females). χ2 analysis and Gamma test of symmetrical measures were applied to assess responses across respondent gender and level of education. RESULTS: Oral health related awareness was found to be low among grandparents. In most questions asked, grandparents with a higher level of education exhibited a better knowledge about children's oral health. Level of awareness was not related to their gender. CONCLUSION: Oral hygiene and dietary habits are established during childhood. There is a great need for dental education of grandparents as they serve as role models for young children. PMID:26862510

  5. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  6. Knowledge, awareness, and preparedness unlinked in layperson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Risk assessment is of importance for the reduction of natural disasters. By utilizing the risk information such as producing shake maps or tsunami hazard maps, people can learn what kind of natural hazards they have to deal with. Japanese government takes it as an effective strategy in mitigating earthquake disaster to transfer the basic knowledge of the tectonic background of Japan and of the latest research results. In fact, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion describes in their webpage that their basic concept is: to transfer the knowledge of research results such as long-term evaluation of large earthquake occurrence to the public, so that people will be aware and conscious of the existing risks, and then they take action to mitigate earthquake disaster. On the other hand, it goes without saying that there always exists a constant risk of earthquake disaster in Japan and every single person living in this earthquake prone country knows that. Moreover, residents know what will happen when a big earthquake occurs such as collapse of houses or tsunamis unlike cases for unknown infectious diseases. Thus they do not have to wait for the government's releasing latest research results of long-term evaluation and possibility of large earthquake occurrence to take action to mitigate disaster. Yet, people die from earthquakes of magnitude-7 class almost every year in Japan, and the causes of death are very common ones such as collapse of houses, falloff of furniture, fire or tsunamis. This fact tells us that the knowledge itself will not give serious awareness of earthquake risks or not motivate people to take action for disaster prevention. We have to have another look at the personnel risk management of earthquake disaster, for the concept of 3-steps; giving knowledge, giving awareness, and taking action would not work as expected. To examine this, we conducted experiments to see if knowledge of earthquake science helps people to be aware the risks or to

  7. Current awareness in the new millennium: RSS.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Carol A

    2006-01-01

    Keeping current is essential for both patrons and librarians in the health sciences. We receive electronic and photocopied tables of contents. We subscribe to relevant mailing lists, newspapers and magazines. We review Web sites, books and journals. Our desks are littered with current awareness items that more often get old than read. RSS or "Really Simple Syndication' is a means of organizing and simplifying current awareness efforts. Using RSS feeds from a variety of sources along with aggregator software, librarians can keep up-to-date without the clutter. This article will provide a starting point from which to take advantage of RSS and continue the process of active learning. PMID:16635958

  8. Phonological Awareness, Speech Development, and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations of speech skills and letter knowledge to the phonological awareness and early reading skills of 99 preschool children. Findings indicated that phoneme awareness, but not rhyme awareness, correlated with early reading measures and that phoneme manipulation was closely associated with letter knowledge and with…

  9. Electronic Current Awareness in the Corporate Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, Elizabeth

    Technological developments such as groupware and World Wide Web technology have opened up new opportunities for the delivery of information directly to the end-user's desktop. These advances have meant that suppliers are now producing a new breed of current awareness services (CAS), termed alerting services, which automatically filter newswires…

  10. Nursery Rhyme Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Laurie J.

    2011-01-01

    Phonological awareness is an important precursor in learning to read. This awareness of phonemes fosters a child's ability to hear and blend sounds, encode and decode words, and to spell phonetically. This quantitative study assessed pre-K children's existing Euro-American nursery rhyme knowledge and phonological awareness literacy, provided…

  11. On-line situation awareness and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, Janet; Gonsalves, Paul; Call, Catherine

    2005-05-01

    In dynamic environments (e.g. an Air Operations Center (AOC)), effective decision-making is highly dependent on situation awareness (SA). SA is formally defined as a person's "perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future". Belief networks (BNs) are an ideal tool for modeling and meeting the requirements of tactical situation awareness. BNs emulate a skilled human's information fusion and reasoning process in a multi-task environment in the presence of uncertainty. While belief networks offer significant advantages for SA, a key drawback to their use is the daunting issue of how the requisite knowledge is captured or elicited to both build the network and populate the Conditional Probability Tables (CPTs). To address this issue, we have built the Situation Awareness and Knowledge Acquisition (OSAKA) system. This system consists of two parts: development of a library of BN components that can be combined to describe different air operation situations and enhancing our BNet:Buildertoolkit to learn CPT values for these components based on data obtained from running an external simulation. This allows the initial CPT values obtained from our Subject Matter Expert to be tuned based on what actually happens. The ability to tune the network over time can aid in supplying information not initially available when constructing the network and to help ensure that it continues to provide current, useful, information.

  12. Sexual Assault Awareness Handbook. Knowledge is Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Emily

    The purpose of this handbook, created as a component of a sexual assault awareness program at Millikin University, is to provide information needed to assist victims of sexual assault. Information is included on several aspects of sexual assault, as well as references and websites available for additional information. Topics covered include:…

  13. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  14. PERKAM: Personalized Knowledge Awareness Map for Computer Supported Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yano, Yoneo

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a ubiquitous computing environment in order to support the learners while doing tasks; this environment is called PERKAM (PERsonalized Knowledge Awareness Map). PERKAM allows the learners to share knowledge, interact, collaborate, and exchange individual experiences. It utilizes the RFID ubiquities technology to detect the…

  15. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  16. Xhosa Indigenous Knowledge: Stakeholder Awareness, Value, and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of isiXhosa mother tongue-speaking science teachers', their pupils', and adult local community members' awareness of Xhosa indigenous knowledge. It also investigated what aspects of this knowledge they value and think should and could be integrated into the school science curriculum and their reasons for suggesting…

  17. Environmental Awareness: Relating Current Issues to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents examples of incorporating environmental issues into lesson plans to raise the level of students' environmental awareness. Topics include: ecology, taxonomy, biochemistry, energy reactions, cell structure and function, genetics and development, and human biology. (JRH)

  18. HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Women Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wigfall, L T; Bynum, S A; Brandt, H M; Hébert, J R

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer risk is increased among women living with HIV (WLH). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been shown to be safe and immunogenic among WLH. We examined HPV vaccine awareness and HPV knowledge among WLH. This cross-sectional study collected data from 145 WLH between March 2011 and April 2012. An interviewer-administered survey assessed HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Our sample was 90 % non-Hispanic black and 64 % earned <$10,000/year. Few (38 %) had heard of the HPV vaccine. Half (50 %) knew that HPV caused cervical cancer. HPV vaccine awareness was ten times higher among WLH who knew HPV caused cervical cancer (OR = 10.17; 95 % CI 3.82-27.06). HPV vaccine awareness is low among WLH. Cancer prevention efforts aimed at raising awareness about the HPV vaccine and increasing knowledge about HPV are necessary first steps in reducing cervical cancer disparities among WLH. PMID:26561426

  19. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  20. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  1. Improving Teacher Candidates' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness: A Multimedia Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…

  2. Effects of Phonological Awareness Training on Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge, Instructional Practice and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskolski, Jayne E.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a phonological awareness professional development program on teachers' phonological awareness knowledge, the impact phonological awareness knowledge had on the frequency and complexity of phonological awareness instruction, and the impact the instruction had on students' phonological awareness.…

  3. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22655256

  4. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  5. Knowledge and awareness about diabetes and periodontal health among Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef; Hammad, Mohammed M; Almuradi, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the awareness, perception, sources of information, and knowledge of diabetes mellitus and periodontal health among Jordanians, to examine the factors related to their knowledge, and organize effective education programs. A random sample of 500 diabetic patients was recruited from three hospitals and three comprehensive health centers that represent both urban and rural populations in Jordan between September 25, 2006, and February 20, 2007. Completed questionnaires with the answers were returned by 405 participants (response rate was 81%). Only 28% indicated that they followed up gum diseases with the dentist; 48% were aware that diabetic patients are more prone to gum diseases and oral health complications. About a third (38%) recognized that their periodontal health might affect their glycaemic level. Television and Internet were the main source of knowledge for dentists with the rate of 50%. Knowledge about diabetes and periodontal health among diabetic patients is low, and majority of patients were unaware of the oral health complications of their disease and the need for proper preventive care. Issues on education need to be addressed. Therefore, appropriate educational programs should be planned according to community needs, and the target of these programs should be patients with irregular visits to the dentist and physicians. The clinical implication of our findings is that dentists, physicians, and other health providers should inspect diabetic patients for gum diseases each time they come for care and recommend that diabetic patient see a dentist regularly. PMID:19628414

  6. Nuclear Reactor Safety: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.C.

    1985-01-15

    Nuclear Reactor Safety announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of fission reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures.

  7. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  8. Unconventional petroleum: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Grissom, M.C.

    1983-10-30

    The summaries in this bulletin cover both secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum and the following topics under Oil Shales and Tar Sands: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; and regulations. These summaries and older citations to information on petroleum, oil shales, and tar sands back to the 1960's are available for on-line searching and retrieval on the Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON system or commercial on-line retrieval systems. Retrospective searches can be made on any aspect of petroleum, oil shales, or tar sands, or customized profiles can be developed to provide current information for each user's needs.

  9. Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…

  10. Practical robotic self-awareness and self-knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    2011-05-01

    The functional software components of an autonomous robotic system express behavior via commands to its actuators, based on processed inputs from its sensors; we propose an additional set of "cognitive" capabilities for robotic systems of all types, based on the comprehensive logging of all available data, including sensor inputs, behavioral states, and outputs sent to actuators. A robot should maintain a "sense" of its own (piecewise) continuous existence through time and space; it should in some sense "get a life," providing a level of self-awareness and self-knowledge. Self-awareness includes the ability to survive and work through unexpected power glitches while executing a task or mission. Selfknowledge includes an extensive world model including a model of self and the purpose context in which it is operating (deontics). Our system must support proactive self-test, monitoring, and calibration, and maintain a "personal" health/repair history, supporting system test and evaluation by continuously measuring performance throughout the entire product lifecycle. It will include episodic memory, and a system "lifelog," and will also participate in multiple modes of Human Robotic interaction (HRI).

  11. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  12. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  13. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  14. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  15. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  16. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  17. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  18. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  19. User Perceptions of Current Awareness Services: A Faculty Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of a science faculty survey conducted at York University to determine researchers' use of current awareness services, including print and Web-based services. Considers differences between science disciplines and implications for future library services and includes a copy of the survey. (Author/LRW)

  20. Brief Report: Teachers' Awareness of the Relationship between Prior Knowledge and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The author examined the degree to which experienced teachers are aware of the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning. Interviews with teachers revealed that they were explicitly aware of when students made connections between prior knowledge and new learning, when they applied their prior knowledge to new contexts, and when they…

  1. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®). PMID:26355220

  2. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin®. PMID:26355220

  3. Transitivity performance, relational hierarchy knowledge and awareness: results of an instructional framing manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Ludwig, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The transitive inference (TI) paradigm has been widely used to examine the role of the hippocampus in generalization. Here we consider a surprising feature of experimental findings in this task: the relatively poor transitivity performance and levels of hierarchy knowledge achieved by adult human subjects. We focused on the influence of the task instructions on participants' subsequent performance--a single-word framing manipulation which either specified the relation between items as transitive (i.e., OLD-FRAME: choose which item is "older") or left it ambiguous (i.e., NO-FRAME: choose which item is "correct"). We show a marked but highly specific effect of manipulating prior knowledge through instruction: transitivity performance and levels of relational hierarchy knowledge were enhanced, but premise performance unchanged. Further, we show that hierarchy recall accuracy, but not conventional awareness scores, was a significant predictor of inferential performance across the entire group of participants. The current study has four main implications: first, our findings establish the importance of the task instructions, and prior knowledge, in the TI paradigm--suggesting that they influence the size of the overall hypothesis space (e.g., to favor a linear hierarchical structure over other possibilities in the OLD-FRAME). Second, the dissociable effects of the instructional frame on premise and inference performance provide evidence for the operation of distinct underlying mechanisms (i.e., an associative mechanism vs. relational hierarchy knowledge). Third, our findings suggest that a detailed measurement of hierarchy recall accuracy may be a more sensitive index of relational hierarchy knowledge, than conventional awareness score--and should be used in future studies investigating links between awareness and inferential performance. Finally, our study motivates an experimental setting that ensures robust hierarchy learning across participants

  4. Knowledge and Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Women

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jeon, Jiyeon; Victor, Marcia; Adler, Stuart P.; Arwady, Abigail; Demmler, Gail; Fowler, Karen; Goldfarb, Johanna; Keyserling, Harry; Massoudi, Mehran; Richards, Kristin; et al

    2006-01-01

    Bmore » ackground . Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of disabilities in children, yet the general public appears to have little awareness of CMV. Methods . Women were surveyed about newborn infections at 7 different geographic locations. Results . Of the 643 women surveyed, 142 ( 22 % ) had heard of congenital CMV. Awareness increased with increasing levels of education ( P < .0001 ). Women who had worked as a healthcare professional had a higher prevalence of awareness of CMV than had other women ( 56 % versus 16 % , P < .0001 ). Women who were aware of CMV were most likely to have heard about it from a healthcare provider ( 54 % ), but most could not correctly identify modes of CMV transmission or prevention. Among common causes of birth defects and childhood illnesses, women's awareness of CMV ranked last. Conclusion . Despite its large public health burden, few women had heard of congenital CMV, and even fewer were aware of prevention strategies.« less

  5. Exploration of Teachers' Awareness and Knowledge of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anita; Logue-Kennedy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore primary school teachers' awareness and knowledge of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD). Teachers' awareness and knowledge are crucial for initial recognition and appropriate referral of children suspected of having (C)APD. When a child is diagnosed with (C)APD, teachers have a role in…

  6. An Analysis of Teachers' Opinions about Their Knowledge of Curriculum Terms Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the teachers' awareness of curriculum terms and the level of their knowledge and to develop a valid and applicable measurement tool that can be used in determining the teachers' awareness of curriculum terms and the level of their knowledge. This research is in survey model. The data collection tool…

  7. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  8. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake. PMID:26099846

  9. Degree and Correlates of Cardiac Knowledge and Awareness among Cardiac Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kayaniyil, Sheena; Ardern, Chris; Winstanley, Jane; Parsons, Cynthia; Brister, Stephanie; Oh, Paul; Stewart, Donna E.; Grace, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of CHD awareness as well as symptom, risk factor, and treatment knowledge in a broad sample of cardiac inpatients, and to examine its sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial correlates. Methods 1308 CHD inpatients (351 [27.0%] female), recruited from 11 acute care sites in Ontario, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were provided with a survey which included a knowledge questionnaire among other measures, and clinical data were extracted from medical charts. Results 855 (68.8%) respondents cited heart disease as the leading cause of death in men, versus only 458 (37.0%) in women. Participants with less than high school education (p<.001), an annual family income less than $50,000CAD (p=.022), low functional capacity (p=.042), who were currently smoking (p=.022), who had no family history of heart disease (p<.001), and who had a perception of low personal control (p=.033) had significantly lower CHD knowledge. Conclusions Awareness of CHD is not optimal, especially among women, South Asians, and those of low socioeconomic status. CHD patients have a moderate level of disease knowledge overall, but greater education is needed. Practice implications Tailored educational approaches may be necessary for those of low socioeconomic status, particularly with regard to the nature of CHD, tests and treatments. PMID:18952393

  10. Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

  11. The Contribution of Geography to Current Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerasimov, I. P.

    1975-01-01

    The three main principles on which geographical knowledge is based are regionalism, ecology, and anthropogenesis. The role that each of these principles has played in the development of geographical science is examined. Current and future trends in geography are also discussed. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  12. Evaluating a Cultural Competency Curriculum: Changes in Dental Students' Perceived Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Alrqiq, Hosam M; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana K

    2015-09-01

    In response to current and projected demographic changes in the United States, many dental schools have taken steps to increase the cultural competence of their students through various educational methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cultural competency curriculum at Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM). The curriculum was evaluated using a pre and post design, utilizing an instrument developed for pharmacy students and modified for dental students. The questionnaire was comprised of 11 items designed to assess changes in students' awareness, knowledge, and skills in providing culturally competent care. Data were collected for two classes of second-year DMD students and first-year Advanced Standing students. The total number of returned surveys was 485, for a response rate of 79.5%. The students' post-curriculum mean scores were all higher than their pre-curriculum scores for overall cultural competence (pre 26.5±6.3 to post 29.8±7.2) and for individual subscores on awareness (pre 5.3±1.4 to post 5.5±1.5), knowledge (pre 7.2±1.9 to post 8.1±2.1), and skills (pre 14.1±4.4 to post 16.2±4.4). The improvements on all scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001), with the exception of the awareness component. This evaluation suggests that the cultural competency curriculum at GSDM has been effective in producing improvements in these students' cultural competence in the domains of knowledge and skills. PMID:26329024

  13. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fat. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face ...

  14. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face...

  15. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  16. Student Affairs Professionals' Self-Report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…

  17. The Effect of Aging Awareness Training on Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards, Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mahoney, Berenice

    2003-01-01

    Before and 1 month after age awareness workshops, 200 British participants took the Palmore Aging Quiz and Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Palmore scores significantly improved but Fraboni scores were unchanged. Results suggest that increased awareness improves factual knowledge but does not change attitudes toward aging and older people. (Contains 18…

  18. An Exploration and Comparison of Multicultural Awareness and Knowledge between Undergraduates and Counseling Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Phyllis Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the researcher examined the levels of cultural awareness and knowledge among graduate students enrolled in a counseling program at Mississippi State University. A secondary purpose was to assess differences in the level of cultural awareness between Caucasian and African American graduate students enrolled in this counseling…

  19. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  20. Knowledge, awareness, attitudes and sources of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency in Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Alshamsan, Fatimah M.; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources among Saudi Arabian children. Methods: One hundred patients (vitamin D-deficient children) and 100 healthy children participated in the study. Participants were interviewed separately on topics including their awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D using multiple-choice, and short-answer questions. This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents between January 2011 and December 2011 at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Only 28% were aware of the sources of vitamin D, while 64% of healthy subjects were aware. Similarly, only 50% of patients and their parents knew of the health benefits of vitamin D, while 70% of healthy subjects had knowledge. Hence, our findings agree with previous findings that low levels of awareness and knowledge regarding vitamin D and its sources persist. Conclusion: Most vitamin D deficient cases were unaware of vitamin D sources. However, half of the patient/parents were aware of benefits of vitamin D. Hence, we recommend that an improved campaign for awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources are needed. PMID:27146624

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    PubMed

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715

  2. Crowdsourcing Awareness: Exploration of the Ovarian Cancer Knowledge Gap through Amazon Mechanical Turk

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Rebecca R.; DiFeo, Analisa; Bogie, Kath; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sun, Jiayang

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease in the United States, with more women dying from this cancer than all gynecological cancers combined. Ovarian cancer has been termed the “silent killer” because some patients do not show clear symptoms at an early stage. Currently, there is a lack of approved and effective early diagnostic tools for ovarian cancer. There is also an apparent severe knowledge gap of ovarian cancer in general and of its indicative symptoms among both public and many health professionals. These factors have significantly contributed to the late stage diagnosis of most ovarian cancer patients (63% are diagnosed at Stage III or above), where the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%. The paucity of knowledge concerning ovarian cancer in the United States is unknown. Methods The present investigation examined current public awareness and knowledge about ovarian cancer. The study implemented design strategies to develop an unbiased survey with quality control measures, including the modern application of multiple statistical analyses. The survey assessed a reasonable proxy of the US population by crowdsourcing participants through the online task marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk, at a highly condensed rate of cost and time compared to traditional recruitment methods. Conclusion Knowledge of ovarian cancer was compared to that of breast cancer using repeated measures, bias control and other quality control measures in the survey design. Analyses included multinomial logistic regression and categorical data analysis procedures such as correspondence analysis, among other statistics. We confirmed the relatively poor public knowledge of ovarian cancer among the US population. The simple, yet novel design should set an example for designing surveys to obtain quality data via Amazon Mechanical Turk with the associated analyses. PMID:24465580

  3. Knowledge and Awareness of Tuberculosis among Pre-University Students in Trinidad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrett, Fitzroy A.; Shurland, Simone M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed pre-university high school students in Trinidad regarding their awareness and knowledge of tuberculosis. Results indicated that while most students had heard of tuberculosis, knowledge levels were generally poor regarding the major presenting features of tuberculosis, vaccination and treatment, and the impact of overcrowded living…

  4. Current knowledge of Kangaroo Mother Intervention.

    PubMed

    Charpak, N; Ruiz-Peláez, J G; Figueroa de Calume, Z

    1996-04-01

    Kangaroo Mother Intervention (KMI) started in 1978 in Colombia as a way of dealing with overcrowding and scarcity of resources in hospitals caring for low birth weight infants. Currently the intervention comprises three components: kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact), kangaroo nutrition (exclusive or nearly exclusive breast-feeding), and kangaroo discharge policies (early discharge in kangaroo position regardless of weight or gestational age). Different authors have adopted and adapted diverse components of the KMI to suit the particular needs of their parents. We discuss different modalities of kangaroo care reported in developed and in developing countries and also describe in some detail the components of the whole KMI program. In addition, results from a systematic review of kangaroo-related papers published in English between 1991 and 1995 are provided, together with a summary of current knowledge (evidence-based) and research needs. PMID:8723803

  5. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. PMID:27591451

  6. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. PMID:27590656

  7. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dentistry students in Kerman towards evidence-based dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446

  8. Assessing awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry among secondary mathematics teachers in the United States and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suanrong

    Fractal geometry has gained great attention from mathematicians and scientists in the past three decades (Fraboni & Moller, 2008). As a new geometry language and subject, fractal geometry has significant value in teaching and learning secondary mathematics. The present study focused on investigating the current state of mathematics teachers' awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry in the United States (U.S.) and China, as well as the factors that influence them. The instrument of the study included a survey and a test designed by the researcher and validated by five experts. The results of the study indicated that secondary math teachers in the U.S. and China had very low levels of awareness of fractals and lack the knowledge and skills of solving fractal problems, but they had a higher level of interest in fractals related to classroom teaching and professional development as compared with their levels of awareness. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the factor 'experience of learning fractals' had the most positive effect on the average score of awareness. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most positive effect on the average score of interest. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most negative effect on the average score of knowledge.

  9. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lando, Amy M.; Zhang, Yuanting

    2011-04-15

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge. - Research highlights: {yields} We

  10. Knowledge, Awareness and Behavior: HIV/AIDS and Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Both males and females continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. They are often drug users or participate in street/drug subculture. Recent weather disasters have required identification of knowledge, beliefs, conduct norms and behavior patterns that are HIV/AIDS risk factors for disaster survivors. This paper examines patterns of behavior and common practices related to HIV among disaster survivors. Study background Data for this paper come from a three year renewal project which focused upon the processes by which illicit drug markets were reformulated after disasters and practices of risk behaviors for HIV/AIDS. Hurricanes Katrina, Gustav and Ike presented the opportunity to examine the impact of disasters upon risky behavior among illicit drug users and sellers. Methods From 2010-2013 ethnographic study was conducted in New Orleans, Louisiana, Houston and Galveston, Texas. Staff completed in-depth interviews with 132 focal respondents of drug users and sellers. There were 57 focus groups with 243 focus group participants; 350 drug using/selling respondents completed a survey protocol (CAPI), organized around their experiences during the hurricanes. Results In both cities respondents displayed knowledge about HIV, modes of transmission and knew that HIV infection can lead to AIDS. Knowledge about time between exposure and infection was mostly imprecise. Most respondents reported they had been tested for HIV multiple times. A large number of participants reported learning about HIV in school, older respondents (mid-40s to 60) reported their knowledge came from television or the streets. Participants expressed fatalistic attitudes toward HIV, believing the virus was fatal even with medication. Conclusion With the increase of disasters, more attention needs to be placed upon programs focused on drug consumers. Schools, clinics, public information sources, i.e., TV and radio can make understanding

  11. Women’s Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Assifi, Anisa R.; Berger, Blair; Tunçalp, Özge; Khosla, Rajat; Ganatra, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Background Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women’s access to safe, legal abortion services. Objective To provide a synthesis of evidence of women’s awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women’s knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country’s abortion law. Methods A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980–2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women’s awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis. Results Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women’s correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3% - 68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8% – 98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8% - 64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7% - 94% and 0% - 89.5% respectively. Conclusion This systematic review synthesizes literature on women’s awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary. PMID:27010629

  12. Tuberculosis Awareness Program and Associated Changes in Knowledge Levels of School Students

    PubMed Central

    Gothankar, Jayashree S

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of tuberculosis awareness program amongst school students. Methods: This school-based interventional study was done on 135 secondary school students. They were randomly selected in field practice area of Urban Health Training Center (UHTC) of a private medical college in Pune city. Health awareness session on tuberculosis was conducted by using various visual and audiovisual aids by the medical college undergraduate students. A pre-test and post-proforma was filled before and after the session. Paired t-test was used to assess the effectiveness of awareness program. Results: There was a highly significant (P = 0) increase in the knowledge of school students after the tuberculosis awareness program by medical undergraduate students. The mean pre-test scores were 6.31 (52.58%), and the mean post-test scores were 10.20 (85%). This activity also helped medical undergraduate students to acquire skills related to communication, working in a team, preparation and presentation of various visual aids for health awareness program; they also gained knowledge of research methodology. Conclusions: Health education program by medical students helped significantly to improve the knowledge of school students regarding tuberculosis. Thus, medical college students can be involved to some extent for conducting health-related behavioral change communication (BCC) activities in schools during their Community Medicine morning posting. Collaboration of private medical colleges, schools, and district tuberculosis units (DTUs) can be ideally achieved under public private partnership (PPP) for health awareness programs. PMID:23543900

  13. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Zhang, Yuanting

    2011-04-01

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge. PMID:21257163

  14. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  15. Awareness, knowledge and healthy lifestyle behaviors related to coronary heart disease among women: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Wang, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine recent literature on the awareness, knowledge, and healthy lifestyle behaviors related to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) among women. Literature published in the English language from 2004 to 2015 was reviewed. Of the 684 articles retrieved, 21 were deemed relevant. Being aware that CHD is the leading cause of death in women and knowledge of the risk factors of CHD were found to be generally suboptimal in the women studied. Awareness was seen to be positively associated with healthy lifestyle behaviors, though findings on the predictive relationship of knowledge of risk factors on healthy lifestyle behaviors in women seem to be divided. Diabetes was the prominent risk factor that most women did not associate with CHD. Translating these findings into clinical practice can help health care providers be more attuned when discussing CHD with their female patients so as to provide targeted education on CHD prevention. PMID:26961078

  16. Tuberculosis knowledge and awareness in tribal-dominant districts of Jharkhand, India: implications for ACSM

    PubMed Central

    Kudale, A.; Arasu, K.; Lab, M.; Darby, W.; Rangan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Forty hard-to-reach villages in the East and West Singhbhum Districts of Jharkhand State, India. Objectives: To document knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis (TB) among the general population, understand gender differences and inform intervention activities for the improvement of TB control programmes in tribal-dominant hard-to-reach areas in India. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out among 825 respondents using population proportionate sampling. Results: Most of the respondents were in the 18–35 years age group, tribal and married; 44% were illiterate. The study shows poor knowledge about TB symptoms, causes, modes of transmission and moderate awareness about government TB services. Correct knowledge about the cause of TB was negligible: half of the respondents reported local liquor as the cause, 61% considered TB as transmissible and one third considered sharing of food as the mode of transmission. Awareness about the availability of free treatment services at government health facilities was high, but awareness about DOTS was low. Significant gender differences were observed in knowledge and awareness levels. Conclusion: Study findings point to the importance of urgent intensification of culturally congruent and gender-sensitive advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities. PMID:26400809

  17. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students and nurses about dentistry in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals’ Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants’ biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. Results A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Conclusion Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health. PMID:27303588

  18. Context and task-aware knowledge-enhanced compressive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shankar; Ni, Kang-Yu; Owechko, Yuri

    2013-09-01

    We describe a foveated compressive sensing approach for image analysis applications that utilizes knowledge of the task to be performed to reduce the number of required measurements compared to conventional Nyquist sampling and compressive sensing based approaches. Our Compressive Optical Foveated Architecture (COFA) adapts the dictionary and compressive measurements to structure and sparsity in the signal, task, and scene by reducing measurement and dictionary mutual coherence and increasing sparsity using principles of actionable information and foveated compressive sensing. Actionable information is used to extract task-relevant regions of interest (ROIs) from a low-resolution scene analysis by eliminating the effects of nuisances for occlusion and anomalous motion detection. From the extracted ROIs, preferential measurements are taken using foveation as part of the compressive sensing adaptation process. The task-specific measurement matrix is optimized by using a novel saliency-weighted coherence minimization with respect to the learned signal dictionary. This incorporates the relative usage of the atoms in the dictionary. Therefore, the measurement matrix is not random, as in conventional compressive sensing, but is based on the dictionary structure and atom distributions. We utilize a patch-based method to learn the signal priors. A treestructured dictionary of image patches using KSVD is learned which can sparsely represent any given image patch with the tree-structure. We have implemented COFA in an end-to-end simulation of a vehicle fingerprinting task for aerial surveillance using foveated compressive measurements adapted to hierarchical ROIs consisting of background, roads, and vehicles. Our results show 113x reduction in measurements over conventional sensing and 28x reduction over compressive sensing using random measurements.

  19. Local newspapers, drinking water pathways, and dimensions of knowledge: Public awareness amid the hydrofracking debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Weston

    Studies on determinants of pro-environmental behavior have found environmental knowledge to be a prerequisite for public participation. While much has been written on correlations between media coverage and environmental knowledge in general, a gap exists concerning the linkages between media coverage and knowledge of an individual's local environment. This study measures public awareness of local drinking water supplies in urban communities, using a face-to-face survey of 90 respondents in three upstate New York cities. The findings show no significant correlation between newspaper coverage of local water issues and awareness of one's drinking water source; however, the surveys revealed high correlations between such awareness and home ownership (as opposed to renting) and between awareness and receiving a water bill. In addition, there was a positive correlation between reading about a local water-related issue (in this case, hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale) in a local newspaper and possessing basic knowledge of that issue. These findings contribute to previous research on environmental knowledge, and have practical applications in efforts addressing: civic engagement, public understanding of science, citizen participation, and democratic practices. Keywords: Public understanding, environmental communication, water resources management, hydraulic fracturing, schema theory

  20. Increased Performance Variability as a Marker of Implicit/Explicit Interactions in Knowledge Awareness.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil

    2015-01-01

    Only some, but not all, individuals who practice tasks with dual structure, overt and covert, are able to comprehend consciously a hidden regularity. The formation of implicit representations of regularity has been proposed to be critical for subsequent awareness. However, explicit knowledge also has been predicted by the activation of executive control systems during task encoding. The present study analyzed performance patterns in participants who could comprehend task regularity and those who could not at delayed recall. Specifically, the role of practice-based knowledge of sequence for individual awareness was focused on. A lateralized variant of the visual serial response time task (SRTT) comprising structured and random blocks was practiced in implicit conditions by 109 participants before and after 10-h retention, with explicit knowledge about covert sequence tested thereafter. Sequence learning was quantified using the normalized difference between response speed in regular and subsequent random blocks. Patterns of performance dynamics were evaluated using response speed, response variability, and error rate. Major results demonstrate that (1) All participants who became aware of the sequence (solvers), gained practice-based sequence knowledge at learning or after retention, (2) Such knowledge also was accumulated during learning by participants who remained fully unaware about covert task structure, (3) Only in explicit solvers, however, was sequence-specific learning accompanied by a prominent increase in performance variability. (4) Specific features and dynamics of performance patterns distinguished different cognitive modes of SRTT processing, each of which supported subsequent knowledge awareness. It is concluded that a behavioral precursor of sequence awareness is the combination of speeded sequence processing and increased performance variability, pointing to an interaction between implicit and explicit processing systems. These results may

  1. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT®. Results: Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Conclusions: Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. PMID:27057381

  2. Pupils' Environmental Awareness and Knowledge: A Springboard for Action in Primary Schools in Kenya's Rift Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutisya, Sammy M.; Barker, Miles

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with 276 standard eight pupils in eleven primary schools in the rural town of Narok in Kenya's Rift Valley. It evaluated their awareness of key environmental issues in their local area and their knowledge about the causes, effects and solutions pertaining to these environmental issues. A descriptive research design was…

  3. Plurilingual Awareness and Intercomprehension in the Professional Knowledge and Identity Development of Language Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinho, Ana Sofia; Andrade, Ana Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article is part of a research project which intended to attain a more comprehensive understanding of the growth and transformations of the professional identity and knowledge of a group of four future language teachers, as they expanded their awareness about plurilingualism and intercomprehension. Based on a central…

  4. Awareness, Knowledge and Exercise of Individual Employment Rights. Employment Relations Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meager, Nigel; Tyers, Claire; Perryman, Sarah; Rick, Jo; Willison, Rebecca

    Recent employment law reforms in England precipitated a telephone survey of a stratified random sample of 5,120 employed people (1,000 respondents) that was intended to find their levels of awareness and knowledge of employment rights and their exercise of those rights. Survey results included the following: (1) nearly 70% of those questioned…

  5. Collaboration and Co-Construction of Knowledge during Language Awareness Activities in Canadian Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagenais, Diane; Walsh, Nathalie; Armand, Francoise; Maraillet, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on Language Awareness (LA) approaches developed for francophone classrooms and a sociocultural theoretical perspective on language and learning that posits the genesis of new knowledge construction is situated in social interactions and shaped by socio-historical context, we conducted a small-scale case study of the implementation of LA…

  6. Creating Multicultural Classrooms. Developing Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: Diversity Training Makes a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Camille; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    As the population becomes more diverse, social work educators will bear a larger responsibility for educating culturally competent practitioners. To enhance student learning, research should consider those factors that influence students' multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. This information potentially can help students better prepare…

  7. Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

  8. The Development of Knowledge and Awareness of Environmental Laws and Participation in Environmental Conservation of Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanlu, Somchai; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop knowledge and awareness about environmental laws and participation in environmental conservation of probationers in MahaSarakham Province, Thailand. This study was divided into 3 stages. Stage 1: was the development of a training manual and construction of training evaluation instruments which consisted of a…

  9. Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…

  10. Primary School Teachers' Knowledge and Awareness of Dyslexia in Kuwaiti Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladwani, Amel M.; Al Shaye, Shaye S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Kuwaiti primary school teachers' knowledge and awareness of early signs of dyslexia among Kuwaiti students. To achieve this purpose, a survey was developed to collect data randomly from more than 700 participants of primary language teachers across Kuwait's six educational districts. The results showed that the majority of…

  11. Phonological Awareness, Letter Knowledge, and Literacy Development in Indonesian Beginner Readers and Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather; Widjaja, Vivilia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the grain size predominantly used by children learning to read and spell in Indonesian. Indonesian is an orthographically transparent language, and the syllable is a salient unit. Tasks assessing various levels of phonological awareness as well as letter knowledge, reading familiar words and…

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Empathy: Their Relation to Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Gainor, Kathy A.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the relationship among school counselors' emotional intelligence, empathy, and self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness. Findings revealed that school counselors' previous multicultural education, emotional intelligence scores, and personal distress empathy scores accounted for significant variance in their…

  13. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  14. Effect of Integrating a Sportfishing Curriculum into a Camp Program on the Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes of Participating Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koupal, Keith; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a 1-week sportfishing and environmental curriculum on participants' (aged 9-14) knowledge of fishing and biology/ecology, awareness of ethical behavior, and attitudes was assessed with 127 completed pre-/post-surveys. The program developed fishing and biology/ecology knowledge, but did not affect ethical behavior awareness or…

  15. Language Structures Used by Kindergartners with Cochlear Implants: Relationship to Phonological Awareness, Lexical Knowledge and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Sansom, Emily; Low, Keri; Rice, Caitlin; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Listeners use their knowledge of how language is structured to aid speech recognition in everyday communication. When it comes to children with congenital hearing loss severe enough to warrant cochlear implants (CIs), the question arises of whether these children can acquire the language knowledge needed to aid speech recognition, in spite of only having spectrally degraded signals available to them. That question was addressed in the current study. Specifically there were three goals: (1) to compare the language structures used by children with CIs to those of children with normal hearing (NH); (2) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness and lexical knowledge; and (3) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by factors related to the hearing loss itself and subsequent treatment. Design Language samples were obtained and transcribed for 40 children who had just completed kindergarten: 19 with NH and 21 with CIs. Five measures were derived from Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT): (1) mean length of utterance in morphemes, (2) number of conjunctions, excluding and, (3) number of personal pronouns, (4) number of bound morphemes, and (5) number of different words. Measures were also collected on phonological awareness and lexical knowledge. Statistics examined group differences, as well as the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness, lexical knowledge, and factors related to hearing loss and its treatment for children with CIs. Results Mean scores of children with CIs were roughly one standard deviation below those of children with NH on all language measures, including lexical knowledge, matching outcomes of other studies. Mean scores of children with CIs were closer to two standard deviations below those of children with NH on two out of three measures of phonological awareness (specifically those related to phonemic

  16. Knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students in Malaysia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Elkalmi, Ramadan M.; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Srikanth, Akshaya B.; Abdurhaman, Norny Syafinase; Jamshed, Shazia Q.; Awad, Ammar Ihsan; Binti Ab Hadi, Hazrina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students of a public sector university in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among senior pharmacy students. The pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants over the period of 1-month. The questionnaire was divided into four sections, for gathering the information about students’ demographic data, and their knowledge, attitudes, and perception toward contraception. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20. Findings: The response rate was 68.6%. The results showed that the contraceptive knowledge was comparatively higher in year four students (P < 0.001), married respondents (P < 0.001) and those taking elective courses (P = 0.022) as compared to their respective counterparts. Majority of the students were well aware and had a positive perception about contraception. Conclusion: Overall findings reflect that the majority of the students had good knowledge, perception, and awareness about contraception. The study recommends future studies to be conducted covering different pharmacy schools across the country to further establish the results. PMID:25984548

  17. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Often people responsible for the oral care of children feel or believe that since primary teeth will eventually shed, it is not worthwhile to spend time/money on providing good oral health to children. Parents are the ones who take care of their children and make decisions for them. Hence, they should have knowledge about primary teeth, their health and caring in order to build confidence in their children through tiny teeth. Aim: To assess the knowledge of primary teeth and their importance among parents with children below 12 years. Materials and methods: A total of 1,000 questionnaires containing questions written both in English and in the local language (Kannada) were prepared for data collection and were personally distributed to parents visiting dental clinics for their children’s dental treatment. Statistical analysis: Both descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used. Results: Complaints related to dental caries constituted 82% of children visiting dental clinics among children in Bengaluru city. Only 39% of respondents were aware of all functions of primary teeth. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the parents of Bengaluru city had superficial or partial knowledge of primary teeth and that there is a need to improve this awareness. How to cite this article: Setty JV, Srinivasan I. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):56-61. PMID:27274157

  18. Public awareness and knowledge of the National Health Insurance in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Setswe, Geoffrey; Muyanga, Samson; Witthuhn, Jacqueline; Nyasulu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals residing in Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape provinces who had access to public health services were surveyed to determine public knowledge and awareness of the new National Health Insurance (NHI). Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 748 adult respondents were sampled using a two-stage systematic sampling design. Data were collected using mobile phone assisted personal interviews. Results The study found that 80.3% of the respondents were aware of the NHI and slightly less than half (49.8%) of the respondents did not have knowledge of how the NHI works and 71.8% lacked awareness about the origin of the development of the NHI concept in South Africa. The knowledge of what the NHI would pay for was poor and 48.1% knew that the NHI Fund would pay for medical expenses if a person got sick and 45.7% knew that with health insurance, basic health requirement is ensured and that if one becomes ill, medical treatment would be paid for by the NHI Fund, 50.9% of respondents did not understand how the NHI Fund will pay for health care received, only 44.8% understood how the NHI will pay for health care services received. Conclusion The public education campaigns to increase knowledge and understanding of the NHI scheme might have been inadequate hence might not have penetrated many communities. It is recommended that a comprehensive community consultation plan be established to increase awareness and knowledge of the NHI among community members targeting clinics, schools, pension pay points and other community sites. PMID:26600918

  19. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM–REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness. PMID:26441730

  20. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Jaspal Singh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Gupta, Aparna; Singh, Jaswinder; Chahal, Udeybir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. Materials and Methods: 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean − ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies

  1. Women's awareness of liberalization of abortion law and knowledge of place for obtaining services in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Shyam; Sharma, Sharad K

    2015-03-01

    In Nepal, following the liberalization of the abortion law, expansion and scaling up of services proceeded in parallel with efforts to create awareness of the legalization status of abortion and provide women with information about where services are available. This article assesses the effectiveness of these programmatic interventions in the early years of the country's abortion program. Data from a 2006 national survey are analyzed with 2 outcome measures-awareness of the legal status of abortion and knowledge of places to obtain abortion services among women ages 15 to 44 years. The variations in the outcomes are analyzed by ecological-development subregion, residence, education, household wealth quintile, age, and number of living children. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques are used. Overall 32.3% (95% confidence interval = 31.4% to 33.2%) of the respondents were aware of the legal status of abortion and 56.5% (95% confidence interval = 55.5% to 57.4%) knew of a place where they could obtain an abortion. Both outcome measures showed considerable variations by the covariates. Women with secondary or higher level of education had the highest odds ratio of being aware of the law and having knowledge of a source for abortion services. Ecological-development subregions showed the second highest levels of odds ratios. Significant disparities among the population subgroups existed in the diffusion of awareness of the legal status of abortion and having knowledge of a place for abortion services in Nepal. The results point to which population subgroups to focus on and also serve as a baseline for assessing future progress in the diffusion process. PMID:23000795

  2. Knowledge and awareness of informed consent among orthodontists and patients: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Alagesan, Anitha; Vaswani, Vina; Vaswani, Ravi; Kulkarni, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite fixed professional opinion of what might constitute optimal treatment, patients must be informed of the various treatment options available in orthodontics to manage their clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the knowledge and awareness among practicing orthodontists and patients with regard to informed consent in clinical practice and research. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five orthodontists and 25 patients were enrolled in a questionnaire study which was descriptive and cross-sectional in the nature. The questionnaire focused on the following aspects; contents of informed consent, at what age and who can give consent. Results: The study showed a majority of orthodontists (79.14%) were aware of knowledge regarding informed consent when compared to patients(35.14%). Conclusion: The overall result showed the huge gap that exists between orthodontists and patients and thus making it categorical for patients to be more involved in the decision-making process. PMID:26604580

  3. Knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Gurminder; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Gambhir, Jaskaran; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Forensic dentistry involves the processing, review, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence with the purpose of contributing scientific and objective data to legal processes. The present, systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge, awareness, and practical application of forensic odontology among dentists in India. Four out of 129 studies were finally included in the present review after conducting a search of both electronic and manual scientific databases. Potential biases were addressed and the relevant data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Almost all the subjects were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology in one of the study reports. Only 12% of dentists were maintaining complete dental records in the findings of another study. Only 4% of dentists reported to have contributed to the identification of victims in a mass disaster in yet another study. The findings of another study revealed that 40% of dental practitioners did not have the expertise to identify child abuse. The results of the present review showed that the knowledge and awareness level of subjects was inadequate and that there is considerable variation in the practice of forensic odontology among dentists. It is necessary to expose dentists to the basic principles and techniques of the subject. PMID:27051215

  4. Knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Gurminder; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Gambhir, Jaskaran; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Forensic dentistry involves the processing, review, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence with the purpose of contributing scientific and objective data to legal processes. The present, systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge, awareness, and practical application of forensic odontology among dentists in India. Four out of 129 studies were finally included in the present review after conducting a search of both electronic and manual scientific databases. Potential biases were addressed and the relevant data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Almost all the subjects were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology in one of the study reports. Only 12% of dentists were maintaining complete dental records in the findings of another study. Only 4% of dentists reported to have contributed to the identification of victims in a mass disaster in yet another study. The findings of another study revealed that 40% of dental practitioners did not have the expertise to identify child abuse. The results of the present review showed that the knowledge and awareness level of subjects was inadequate and that there is considerable variation in the practice of forensic odontology among dentists. It is necessary to expose dentists to the basic principles and techniques of the subject. PMID:27051215

  5. Sexualization of Awareness: Catchy, but Does It Actually Increase Knowledge of Breast Cancer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Murray, Ashley B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, in the United States, there exist numerous public awareness campaigns about breast cancer. Many of these campaigns are highly sexualized, focusing on the breasts as an object of fun, as opposed to focusing on information about prevention/diagnosis/treatment. In spite of their popularity, it is unknown what effect they actually have on…

  6. ParticipACTION: Awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults - Examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM), this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b) confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c) to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted), outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status. Methods A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%). The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM). Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy), intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424). Results Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were greater if they were more

  7. Poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Utah Latinas overdue for recommended cancer screenings.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Brynn; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Dyer, Jane; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-08-01

    Individuals overdue for recommended cancer screenings may not be receiving adequate cancer prevention education. Since Latinas have the highest incidence of cervical cancer among all racial/ethnic groups, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination education is especially important for this population. The correlates of HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge were assessed among Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings. N = 206 Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings were recruited by health educators from local community groups. Bivariate analyses and multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among participants as well as to assess correlates of HPV vaccine receipt for eligible children of participants. In multivariable regression analyses, years living in the U.S. (p = 0.05) and health insurance status (p = 0.03) were significantly related to HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures. Age (p < 0.01), birthplace (p = 0.02), years living in the U.S. (p = 0.05), annual household income (p = 0.05), cervical cancer screening status (p = 0.03), and HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with HPV vaccination outcomes for eligible daughters of participants. Cervical cancer screening status (p = 0.02) and HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with HPV vaccination outcomes for eligible sons of participants. Results indicate poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Latinas. Interventions to improve HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in Utah's growing Latino population should target vulnerable individuals (e.g., not employed outside the home, less educated, less acculturated, poor, uninsured, overdue for cervical cancer screening) by using materials that are culturally sensitive, linguistically appropriate, and easily accessible. PMID

  8. Current Awareness in Health Education. Experimental Issue No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This annotated bibliography on health education contains citations of current journal articles, monographs, conference proceedings, reports, and nonpublished items. The following topics are covered: community health education; health education methodology; health education policy issues; health education training and development; health promotion/…

  9. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method. PMID:22872940

  10. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  11. Increasing fertility knowledge and awareness by tailored education: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Women of reproductive age have insufficient fertility knowledge and awareness. Reproductive lifespan and assisted reproduction are the primary areas in which awareness is lacking. Relatively simple interventions can be used to increase knowledge among university students; however, no intervention has been tested to date in a population with more varied education levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate which intervention most improved fertility knowledge in women attending a fertility centre for oocyte donation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention groups: tailored, untailored and control. A questionnaire was administered on the day of the first consultation, and again at the oocyte retrieval. Two hundred and one women were enrolled and completed the pre-test, 109 started the cycle and 90 completed the post-test. The effect of the intervention was measured as the difference between the groups in their score from the pre-test to the post test. Only the tailored group showed a significant increase (+2.5; 95% CI [1.8, 3.3]; P = 0.001). Information relating to a woman's most fertile age and limits for childbearing were the most useful. Tailored oral education, therefore, increases fertility knowledge in young women, particularly in relation to their fertility lifespan. PMID:26611499

  12. [Genetics of depression. Current knowledge and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Maier, W

    2004-05-01

    Depression is a common disorder (lifetime prevalence nearly 20% in industrialized countries) that presents in two etiologically different forms (unipolar depression, bipolar disorder). Both forms are subject to a genetic influence, which is stronger in bipolar disorder. Unipolar depression is also strongly influenced by nongenetic environmental factors (e. g., traumas, socialization, critical life events). There is strong evidence for a gene-- environmental interaction in unipolar depression. The search for genes was recently very successful in bipolar disorder. There is currently no evidence for disposition genes with strong effects. The prediction of response to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) by genetic markers presents currently the best confirmed molecular-genetic findings for unipolar depression. Complicating factors are gene--environmental interaction, only small to modest effects of disposition genes, and putative epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:15205762

  13. Energy and the Environment: a current awareness journal

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on environmental/biological aspects of energy. The subject areas covered include the atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments with emphasis on impacts of any energy-related activities on these environments. This includes transport, fate, and ecological-biological consequences of various pollutants such as flue gas, NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, hydrocarbons, CO/sub 2/, thermal effluents, and radioactive isotopes. (ACR)

  14. Screening for hepatitis B during pregnancy. Awareness of current recommendations among Washington hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, T. R.; Borges, M. L.; Harlin, V. K.; Kobayashi, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acute care hospitals in Washington State that reported births (n = 77) were surveyed regarding their awareness of and compliance with the Centers for Disease Control recommendations for hepatitis B screening of pregnant women. Of these, 62 hospitals (81%) were aware of the recommendations and 39 (51%) routinely screened pregnant women who did not have a history of prenatal care at the time of delivery. In all, 68 hospitals (88%) had hepatitis B vaccine and 54 (70%) had hepatitis B immune globulin available on site. Despite awareness of the current recommendations for hepatitis B screening, barriers exist that prevent many hospitals from fully implementing them. PMID:1667448

  15. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools. PMID:26909229

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of Croatian dentists concerning patients' confidentiality and privacy.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Vice; Cerjan-Letica, Gordana; Budimir, Jozo; Macan, Darko

    2013-03-01

    Confidentiality and privacy have always been a vital part of the health care provider-patient relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of dentists in Croatia concerning patients' confidentiality and privacy and to determine the degree to which they were protecting patients' confidentiality and privacy in everyday practice. Survey data were collected from seventy of the approximately 4,000 dentists in Croatia who had been randomly selected using the registry of the Croatian Chamber of Dental Medicine. Our strategy for data collection included visits to the dental offices and clinics. The data showed that dentists displayed a lack of awareness and had a poor attitude toward respecting patients' rights to confidentiality and privacy. This study indicated the need to educate dentists about their responsibilities and legal obligations. PMID:23486904

  17. Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Dengue Fever among the Adult Population of Dengue Hit Cosmopolitan

    PubMed Central

    Itrat, Ahmed; Khan, Abdullah; Javaid, Sunniya; Kamal, Mahwash; Khan, Hassan; Javed, Sannia; Kalia, Saira; Khan, Adil Haleem; Sethi, Muhammad Imran; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2008-01-01

    Background The World health Organization (WHO) declares dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever to be endemic in South Asia. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evidence exists in Pakistan which reveals the awareness and practices of the country's adult population regarding dengue fever, its spread, symptoms, treatment and prevention. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever in people visiting tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted among people visiting tertiary care hospitals in Karachi. Through convenience sampling, a pre-tested and structured questionnaire was administered through a face-to-face unprompted interview with 447 visitors. Knowledge was recorded on a scale of 1–3. Results About 89.9% of individuals interviewed had heard of dengue fever. Sufficient knowledge about dengue was found to be in 38.5% of the sample, with 66% of these in Aga Khan University Hospital and 33% in Civil Hospital Karachi. Literate individuals were relatively more well-informed about dengue fever as compared to the illiterate people (p<0.001). Knowledge based upon preventive measures was found to be predominantly focused towards prevention of mosquito bites (78.3%) rather than eradication of mosquito population (17.3%). Use of anti- mosquito spray was the most prevalent (48.1%) preventive measure. Television was considered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease. Conclusion Adult population of Karachi has adequate knowledge related to the disease ‘dengue’ on isolated aspects, but the overall prevalence of ‘sufficient knowledge’ based on our criteria is poor. We demonstrated adequate prevalence of preventive practices against the disease. Further studies correlating the association between knowledge and its effectiveness against dengue will be helpful in demonstrating the implications of awareness campaigns. PMID

  18. Awareness, knowledge, and barriers to low vision services among eye care practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Judy; Thomas, Jyothi; Bhakat, Premjit; Krithica, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eyesight plays an important role in our day today life. When the vision gets hampered, daily activities of an individual will be affected. The prevalence of visual impairment is increasing across the globe, with more burdens on the developing world. The uptake of low vision services remains to be low in developing countries like India. Methods: A newly constructed questionnaire using information from previously conducted telephonic interviews and article search was administered among 50 eye care practitioners from Kerala, India for the pilot study. Modifications were made in the questionnaire, based on the responses obtained from the pilot study. From their responses, awareness, knowledge, and barriers for the low vision services among eye care practitioners were assessed. Results: (1) Pilot study - the Cronbach's alpha values obtained for knowledge, awareness and barrier questions were 0.814, 0.297, and 0.810, respectively, and content validity index was found to be 0.64. (2) Main study - 211 eye care practitioners from 12 states of India took part in the study that accounted for a response rate of 16.7%. The participants included were 95 (45%) men and 116 (55%) women with a mean age of 28.18 ± 7.04 years. The lack of awareness was found to be the major barrier in the provision and uptake of low vision services from the practitioner's perspective. Conclusion: The study results showed that there is a lack of awareness among eye care practitioners about low vision services, which acts as a major barrier in the effective delivery of these services. PMID:27013827

  19. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches. PMID:27507630

  20. Does Language Moderate the Influence of Information Scanning and Seeking on HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Awareness and Initiation among Hispanics?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Clare F.; Caughy, Margaret O.; Lee, Simon Craddock; Bishop, Wendy P.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether language moderates associations between three communication variables: media use, information scanning (attending to and remembering information) and seeking (actively looking for information), and three HPV outcomes: knowledge, vaccine awareness and vaccine initiation among Hispanics. Participants Hispanic mothers of females aged 8–22 years (N=288) were surveyed. Methods Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions investigated associations between communication variables and HPV outcomes. To examine moderation by language, we compared main effects and interaction models using the likelihood ratio test. Results For English- and Spanish-speakers, Internet use was associated with more HPV knowledge and vaccine awareness, but not initiation. Scanning and seeking were associated with more knowledge, vaccine awareness, and initiation. Language moderated effects of scanning and seeking only on vaccine awareness. Spanish speakers who scanned for information were more likely to be aware of the vaccine than those who did not (80% vs 26%); Spanish speakers who sought information were also more likely to be aware (95% vs 55%). For English speakers, vaccine awareness did not differ between those who scanned and sought and those who did not. Conclusions Effects of information scanning and seeking on HPV vaccine awareness were much greater for Spanish than for English speakers. Providers, therefore, should not assume that Spanish-speaking mothers are already aware of the vaccine. Our findings call attention to heterogeneity within Hispanics which could be particularly important when examining health communication and cancer prevention behaviors. PMID:23495629

  1. Current animal models of bladder cancer: Awareness of translatability (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DING, JIE; XU, DING; PAN, CHUNWU; YE, MIN; KANG, JIAN; BAI, QIANG; QI, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models are crucial in the study of biological behavior and pathological development of cancer, and evaluation of the efficacy of novel therapeutic or preventive agents. A variety of animal models that recapitulate human urothelial cell carcinoma have thus far been established and described, while models generated by novel techniques are emerging. At present a number of reviews on animal models of bladder cancer comprise the introduction of one type of method, as opposed to commenting on and comparing all classifications, with the merits of a certain method being explicit but the shortcomings not fully clarified. Thus the aim of the present study was to provide a summary of the currently available animal models of bladder cancer including transplantable (which could be divided into xenogeneic or syngeneic, heterotopic or orthotopic), carcinogen-induced and genetically engineered models in order to introduce their materials and methods and compare their merits as well as focus on the weaknesses, difficulties in operation, associated problems and translational potential of the respective models. Findings of these models would provide information for authors and clinicians to select an appropriate model or to judge relevant preclinical study findings. Pertinent detection methods are therefore briefly introduced and compared. PMID:25120584

  2. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Awareness and Its Relations to Vocabulary Knowledge in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct of morphological awareness and its relations to vocabulary knowledge in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. Morphological awareness has emerged as an important predictor of children's and ABE students' reading comprehension abilities; however, there has been a dearth of research…

  3. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rabovsky, Milena; Stein, Timo; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-01-01

    It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS). Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS. PMID:27119743

  4. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  5. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rabovsky, Milena; Stein, Timo; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-01-01

    It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS). Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS. PMID:27119743

  6. The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

  7. Knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer among the general public in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kabore, Fasnéwindé Aristide; Kambou, Timothé; Zango, Barnabé; Ouédraogo, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The lack of awareness about prostate cancer and other prostate-related issues has been identified as a cause of low survival and higher mortality rates among black men. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer (PCa) among men in the general public, in the main city of Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). The targeted population was black African men aged 25 years and older, with no history of PCa. Six hundred men who provided informed consent were invited to participate in a PCa knowledge questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was composed of multiple-choice items designed to ascertain participant's characteristics (age, profession, and level of education) and knowledge of prostate and PCa (risk factors, diagnosis tests, and curative treatments). The average age of men was 42 (min 25, max 80), and 63% reported primary school or less. Sixty-two percent admitted they did not know the terms prostate and prostate cancer. Only two respondents (0.3%) cited race as a risk factor, when 90 (15%) perceived too much sexual activity as a risk factor. A majority of respondents (70.3%, n = 422) stated that they were unaware of any diagnosis tests for PCa. The level of education was strongly correlated with PCa knowledge (p < 0.001). Men in the city of Ouagadougou have poor knowledge of PCa. Educational interventions should target the entire populations to improve self-informed decision about early diagnostic possibilities of PCa. PMID:24057691

  8. Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Taiwo A.; Osungbade, Kayode O.; Ademokun, Oluwakemi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Conclusions: Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers’ knowledge based on NSHP.

  9. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. PMID:27579002

  10. Knowledge, Awareness and Self-Care Practices of Hypertension among Cardiac Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Lashkerwala, Sehan Siraj; Zahid, Ibrahim; Siddiq, Khadijah; Saad, Muhammad; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Shahnawaz, Waqas; Ahmed, Bilal; Yaqub, Aimen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most prevalent form of hypertension is systolic blood pressure (SBP) and it is considered to be predisposing risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to assess self-care practices, knowledge and awareness of hypertension, especially related to SBP among cardiac hypertensive patients. Methodology: A Cross sectional study was conducted on 664 cardiac hypertensive patients, which were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from cardiology outpatient department of three tertiary care hospitals. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pre designed questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS (V17). Results: 81.8%, did not know that hypertension is defined as high blood pressure. 97.1% of the sample population did not know that top measurement of blood pressure was referred to as systolic and only 25.0% correctly recognized normal systolic blood pressure to be less than 140mmHg. 7.4% of the patients consulted their doctor for hypertension once or twice in a month. Risk factor for high blood pressure most commonly identified by the participants was too much salt intake Conclusions: The results state that there is an inadequate general knowledge of hypertension among cardiac patients and they do not recognise the significance of elevated SBP levels. There is a need to initiate programs that create community awareness regarding long term complications of uncontrolled hypertension, particularly elevated SBP levels so that there is an improvement in self-care practices of the cardiacpatients. PMID:26383212

  11. Knowledge and Awareness of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia among Registered Medical Practitioners in Tamil Nadu: Are They Suboptimal?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Shanthi; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of people with FH are undiagnosed and under treated. Aim To determine awareness, knowledge and practices of registered medical practitioners regarding FH in India. Materials and Methods Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH. Results A total of 133 physicians were surveyed, 27.9% perceived themselves to have above average familiarity with FH and 71.4% correctly described FH. 41.4% of physicians were unaware and unsure whether they had FH patients under their care. The awareness of specific aspects of FH were as follows: heritability 35.3%, prevalence 31.6%, typical lipid profile 34.6%, CVD relating to FH13.5%, genetic testing 33.1%, cascade screening 41.4%, preventive, management and referral services for FH 12.8%, 49.6% of them thought that the age for screening young people for FH should be 13 to 18 years. 84.2% selected GP’s as the most effective health care provider for the early detection and care of FH as being useful. 69.2% selected interpretive commenting on lipid profile to highlight patients at risk of FH. 91.7% and 19.5% of physicians identified statins as monotherapy and statin with ezetimibe as combination therapy for FH, respectively. Conclusion The study identified substantial deficit in the awareness and knowledge of FH among primary care physicians in Tamil Nadu. Extensive and continuous medical education programs are required to close the gap in coronary prevention. PMID:27437273

  12. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L; Holmes, Laurens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers' self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers' cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population. PMID:26703672

  13. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L.; Holmes, Laurens

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers’ self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers’ cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon’s signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population. PMID:26703672

  14. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology. PMID:25965277

  15. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  16. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  17. Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim The main objective of this study was to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine among the health professionals working in the teaching hospitals of Puducherry Region of India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among various healthcare professionals using a proper sampling frame obtained from a list of teaching hospitals located in Puducherry Union Territory, India. A total of 120 teaching faculties and practitioners from the preclinical, para-clinical and clinical departments were taken up for the study. A pre-validated self-administered questionnaire was used for the survey to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine. The questionnaires were mailed to the respondents and the completed questionnaires were analysed as per the study objectives using descriptive statistics for the quantitative data and content analysis for the qualitative data. Results The knowledge level of the respondents was found to be good with 41% of the respondents, 35% possess fair knowledge and 24% don’t have adequate knowledge of telemedicine. With regard to the attitude towards telemedicine 39% of the respondents possess high attitude, 31% possess moderate attitude and 30% possess low level of attitude. Investigations on the skills of the respondents on telemedicine showed that 19% respondents are highly skilled or experts, 25% are moderately skilled which includes learners or beginners, and 56% are unskilled in handling telemedicine and its related equipments. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that although the respondents experience and knowledge are limited in telemedicine technology a fair

  18. Knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and its early symptoms among medical and non-medical students of Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Mamoona; Murad, Sheeba; Furqan, Muhammad; Sultan, Aneesa; Bloodsworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally but has an even more significant impact in developing countries. Pakistan has the highest prevalence among Asian countries. A general lack of public awareness regarding the disease often results in late diagnosis and poor treatment outcomes. The literacy rate of the Southern Punjab (Pakistan) is low compared to its Northern part. It is therefore vital that university students and especially medical students develop a sound knowledge about the disease so that they can spread awareness to others who may be less educated. This study therefore considers current knowledge and understanding about the early signs of breast cancer amongst a study group of medical and non-medical university students of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of the university students was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of breast cancer from March to May 2014. A total of 566 students participated in this study, out of which 326 were non-medical and 240 were from a medical discipline. Statistical analysis was carried out using Graph Pad Prism Version 5 with a significance level set at p<0.05. The mean age of the non medical and medical participants was 23 (SD 2.1) and 22 (SD 1.3) years, respectively. Less than 35% students were aware of the early warning signs of the breast cancer development. Knowledge of medical students about risk factors was significantly better than the non medical ones, but on the whole was insufficient. Our study indicated that knowledge regarding breast cancer was generally insufficient amongst the majority of the university students (75% non-medical and 55% medical) of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. This study highlights the need to formulate an awareness campaign and to organize conferences to promote breast cancer awareness among students in this region. PMID:25735392

  19. Knowledge, attitude and awareness among healthcare professionals about influenza vaccination in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Ali, Iftikhar; Wu, David Bin-Chia

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCPs in Northwest General Hospital & Research Centre, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, awareness and attitude of HCPs towards influenza vaccination. A total of N=170 questionnaires were distributed among the staff. There was a 97% response rate to this survey (n=165). The median age of the respondents was 30 years and most of them, 98 (59.0%), were from age group of 24-30 years. The majority of the HCPs that participated in this study were male 106 (64.2%), and by profession, the majority were physicians 77 (46.7%), followed by pharmacists and nurses. A majority 114 (69.1%) believed that it was not compulsory for HCPs to get vaccinated for influenza. Top three identified barriers to vaccination were: not everyone is familiar with the availability of the influenza vaccination at their institution (Relative importance weight factors (RIWF)=0.71), due to needle fear I do not like to get vaccinated (RIWF=0.70) and it is not compulsory for healthcare professionals to get vaccinated for influenza (RIWF=0.64). The logistic regression analysis has revealed association for job experience and profession with the most of the eleven knowledge item. However, when overall sum of eleven items were tested to identify the factors affecting the knowledge score, along with profession (-0.215 [-0.389 to 0.040]; p=0.016) and job experience (0.823 [0.521-1.125]; p<0.001) HCPs age (-0.409 [-0.755 to -0.064]; p=0.020) was found to be another significant factor affecting the total knowledge score of HCPs. Overall, scoring of the correct responses revealed that nurses have better knowledge and understanding about influenza and the influenza vaccination (6.5±0.8, p<0.001*), followed by pharmacists (6.3±1.14) and physicians. In spite of the published guidelines and recommendations, a very low percentage of the healthcare professionals in our hospital were vaccinated against influenza, and the

  20. Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

  1. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  2. Current Awareness Services--Observations of the Past and Present, and Implications for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandli, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Library's current awareness service shows the progression from manual participation, to an on-line system, and finally to access of the State University of New York's Automatic MEDLARS service. (Author)

  3. Development of a Computerized Current Awareness Service Using "Chemical Abstracts" Condensates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Anita B.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The experiences in developing current awareness services for selective dissemination of information from Chemical Abstracts'' Condensates data base are described. File standardization, the weighted-term method of searching, and the algorithm used to perform the search on the CDC 6600 computer and a user survey are discussed. (2 references)…

  4. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake. PMID:26005740

  5. Communications Media and Current-Events Knowledge Among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Christopher J.; Schmitz, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 863 college students in a large Midwestern university were polled to ascertain what media sources they might use most extensively for current events, to gauge their actual knowledge of current events, and to compare responses obtained with reported types of media exposure. (Author/MSE)

  6. The Use of Online Current Awareness Services by Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty at Western Michigan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherman, Carrie C.; Eckel, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every commercial database that covers natural sciences and engineering offers some type of current awareness (CA) service that provides regular updates to users on current literature in a selected field of interest. Current awareness services include e-mail alerts, tables of contents, and RSS feeds. This study was designed to find out what…

  7. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarmugam, Rani; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge. PMID:25470377

  8. Knowledge and awareness of heat-related morbidity among adult recreational endurance athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Alexander, Melannie S.; Lorentzson, Lauren; McCarty, Frances A.

    2010-07-01

    Adults have been increasingly motivated to compete in recreational endurance sports events. Amateurs may lack a complete understanding of recommended strategies for handling heat and humidity, making heat-related illnesses increasingly possible. This is compounded by global climate change and increasing average surface and air temperatures, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America that have hosted most events to date. We conducted an on-line, secure survey at the 2nd Annual ING Georgia Marathon and Half-Marathon in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2008. We included previously validated questions on participant socio-demographics, training locations, and knowledge and awareness of heat-related illnesses. Participants were aware of heat illnesses, and of heat stroke as a serious form of heat stress. However, the majority, across age and gender, did not understand the potential severity of heat stroke. Furthermore, 1-in-5 participants did not understand the concept of heat stress as a form of heat-related illness, and how heat stress may result from buildup of muscle-generated heat in the body. Adult recreational endurance athletes are another susceptible, vulnerable population sub-group for applied research and public health educational interventions, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America.

  9. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Avulsion and Its Immediate Treatment in School Teachers in Bangalore City (South)

    PubMed Central

    Prathyusha, P; Harshini, T; Haripriya, B; Pramod, I John; Swathi, K; Samyuktha, C Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental traumas are most common in children in school environment. Teachers often come across such emergency situations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate aware-ness of teachers regarding traumas & emergency management. Material and Methods: A total of 123 teachers participated in this survey. Questionnaire forms were distributed among teachers. The data was collected and analysed. Results: Results showed that 97.5%of teachers received no orientation regarding this, 33.3% of them felt they cannot identify the tooth, 52% opined they would not pick up the tooth, 62.6% felt they should clean with water, 44.7% said they would take the child to dental office, 38.2% would seek professional help immediately, 63.4% of them said they would not be able to replace the tooth back & 40.7% of them felt they prefer water to store the tooth. Conclusion: Overall the knowledge in this regard is grossly inadequate. Their answers were based on intuition rather than information. This study suggests urgent need for campaigns & training programs for instructors who are usually the first to witness traumas in schools. PMID:26464548

  10. A Pilot Randomized Trial of Text-Messaging for Symptom Awareness and Diabetes Knowledge in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Fritz, Heather; Fadoju, Doris; Muir, Andrew; Abowd, Gregory D.; Head, Lauren; Arriaga, Rosa I.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes typically receive clinical care every 3 months. Between visits, diabetes-related issues may not be frequently reflected, learned, and documented by the patients, limiting their self-awareness and knowledge about their condition. We designed a text-messaging system to help resolve this problem. In a pilot, randomized controlled trial with 30 adolescents, we examined the effect of text messages about symptom awareness and diabetes knowledge on glucose control and quality of life. The intervention group that received more text messages between visits had significant improvements in quality of life. PMID:25720675

  11. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    PubMed Central

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C.; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Perez, Cristina; Omar, Maizurah; Hummel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 35%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), Brazil (3%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)). Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e

  12. Leveraging Social Media to Promote Public Health Knowledge: Example of Cancer Awareness via Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Kaitlin L; Xing, Cathleen Y; Demissie, Kitaw

    2016-01-01

    Background As social media becomes increasingly popular online venues for engaging in communication about public health issues, it is important to understand how users promote knowledge and awareness about specific topics. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the frequency of discussion and differences by race and ethnicity of cancer-related topics among unique users via Twitter. Methods Tweets were collected from April 1, 2014 through January 21, 2015 using the Twitter public streaming Application Programming Interface (API) to collect 1% of public tweets. Twitter users were classified into racial and ethnic groups using a new text mining approach applied to English-only tweets. Each ethnic group was then analyzed for frequency in cancer-related terms within user timelines, investigated for changes over time and across groups, and measured for statistical significance. Results Observable usage patterns of the terms "cancer", "breast cancer", "prostate cancer", and "lung cancer" between Caucasian and African American groups were evident across the study period. We observed some variation in the frequency of term usage during months known to be labeled as cancer awareness months, particularly September, October, and November. Interestingly, we found that of the terms studied, "colorectal cancer" received the least Twitter attention. Conclusions The findings of the study provide evidence that social media can serve as a very powerful and important tool in implementing and disseminating critical prevention, screening, and treatment messages to the community in real-time. The study also introduced and tested a new methodology of identifying race and ethnicity among users of the social media. Study findings highlight the potential benefits of social media as a tool in reducing racial and ethnic disparities. PMID:27227152

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Phonemic Awareness: Relationship to Perceived Knowledge, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Exposure to a Multimedia-Enhanced Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Ferrari, Julia; Aitken, Madison; Willows, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations among perceived and actual knowledge of phonemic awareness (PA), exposure to PA instruction during practicum, and self-efficacy for teaching PA in a sample of 54 teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a 1-year Bachelor of Education program in a Canadian university. It also assessed the effects of a brief…

  14. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J; Acree, Mike; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Stewart, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Background Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients. Methods We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures. Results Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development. Conclusion Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current low back pain and mind–body trained individuals, suggesting further research is warranted on the question whether mind–body therapies can alter interoceptive attentional styles with pain. The MAIA may be useful in assessing changes in aspects of interoceptive awareness and in exploring the mechanism of action in trials of mind–body interventions in pain patients. PMID:23766657

  15. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  16. Genre-Based Tasks in Foreign Language Writing: Developing Writers' Genre Awareness, Linguistic Knowledge, and Writing Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how novice foreign language (FL) writers develop their genre awareness, linguistic knowledge, and writing competence in a genre-based writing course that incorporates email-writing tasks. To define genre, the study draws on systemic functional linguistics (SFL) that sees language as a resource for making meaning in a particular…

  17. Pre-service teachers' knowledge of phonemic awareness: relationship to perceived knowledge, self-efficacy beliefs, and exposure to a multimedia-enhanced lecture.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Ferrari, Julia; Aitken, Madison; Willows, Dale

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relations among perceived and actual knowledge of phonemic awareness (PA), exposure to PA instruction during practicum, and self-efficacy for teaching PA in a sample of 54 teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a 1-year Bachelor of Education program in a Canadian university. It also assessed the effects of a brief multimedia-enhanced lecture on TCs' actual knowledge of PA and efficacy ratings. Prior to the lecture, teacher candidates' scores on the PA assessment were relatively low with a mean percentage correct of 56.3%. Actual knowledge was not significantly correlated with perceived knowledge or self-efficacy ratings. Perceived knowledge was significantly and positively correlated with efficacy ratings and students' rating of their exposure to PA instruction during their practicum experience. A path analysis revealed that the relationship between exposure to PA instruction and self-efficacy beliefs was mediated by perceived knowledge controlling for actual knowledge and general prior experience working with young children. Analyses also revealed that TCs made significant gains in self-efficacy as well as actual knowledge when re-assessed after the lecture with a mean post-lecture score of 71.4%. Written feedback from the TCs indicated that the digital video clips included in the lecture provided clarity regarding the type of instructional practices that teachers could use to support phonemic awareness development in children. Implications for practice and future research on teacher preparation are discussed. PMID:26024995

  18. Risk perception and knowledge about osteoporosis: well informed but not aware? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half percent identified most risk factors adequately, and almost all (97.9 %) had received some sort of information about OP. Sixty-six and a half percent of subjects perceived OP as a serious disease; 51.5 % considered themselves to be personally responsible for acquiring it; 50.2 % were concerned about suffering from it; and 47.1 % considered it likely they would develop it. The most important variables associated with the perception of risk were age (<45 years), gender (female), and family history of OP. Subjects considered it more likely, more serious, and felt more worried and personally responsible about developing a heart condition or cancer than OP; they felt less concerned, less personally responsible, and less likely to contract AIDS or develop Alzheimer's. Individuals know a lot about OP, but they engage in risky behaviors and lack perception of their risk in developing it. Interventions should aim at raising awareness about personal responsibility and about the likelihood of developing this condition. PMID:25096762

  19. Collaborative knowledge acquisition for the design of context-aware alert systems

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Erel; Havakuk, Ofer; Herskovic, Jorge R; Patel, Vimla L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a framework for combining implicit knowledge acquisition from multiple experts with machine learning and to evaluate this framework in the context of anemia alerts. Materials and Methods Five internal medicine residents reviewed 18 anemia alerts, while ‘talking aloud’. They identified features that were reviewed by two or more physicians to determine appropriate alert level, etiology and treatment recommendation. Based on these features, data were extracted from 100 randomly-selected anemia cases for a training set and an additional 82 cases for a test set. Two staff internists assigned an alert level, etiology and treatment recommendation before and after reviewing the entire electronic medical record. The training set of 118 cases (100 plus 18) and the test set of 82 cases were explored using RIDOR and JRip algorithms. Results The feature set was sufficient to assess 93% of anemia cases (intraclass correlation for alert level before and after review of the records by internists 1 and 2 were 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). High-precision classifiers were constructed to identify low-level alerts (precision p=0.87, recall R=0.4), iron deficiency (p=1.0, R=0.73), and anemia associated with kidney disease (p=0.87, R=0.77). Discussion It was possible to identify low-level alerts and several conditions commonly associated with chronic anemia. This approach may reduce the number of clinically unimportant alerts. The study was limited to anemia alerts. Furthermore, clinicians were aware of the study hypotheses potentially biasing their evaluation. Conclusion Implicit knowledge acquisition, collaborative filtering and machine learning were combined automatically to induce clinically meaningful and precise decision rules. PMID:22744961

  20. Staff Knowledge, Awareness, Perceptions, and Beliefs About Infection Prevention in Pediatric Long-term Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Løyland, Borghild; Wilmont, Sibyl; Hessels, Amanda J.; Larson, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of healthcare-associated infection worldwide is considerable, and there is a need to improve surveillance and infection control practices such as hand hygiene. Objectives The aims of this study were to explore direct care providers’ knowledge about infection prevention and hand hygiene, their attitudes regarding their own and others’ hand hygiene practices, and their ideas and advice for improving infection prevention efforts. Methods This exploratory study included interviews with direct care providers in three pediatric long-term care facilities. Two trained nurse interviewers conducted semistructured interviews using an interview guide with open-ended questions. Two other nurse researchers independently transcribed the audio recordings and conducted a thematic analysis using a strategy adapted from the systematic text condensation approach. Results From 31 interviews, four major thematic categories with subthemes emerged from the analysis: (a) hand hygiene products; (b) knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and beliefs; (c) barriers to infection prevention practices; and (d) suggested improvements. There was confusion regarding hand hygiene recommendations, use of soap or sanitizer, and isolation precaution policies. There was a robust “us” and “them” mentality between professionals. Discussion One essential driver of staff behavior change is having expectations that are meaningful to staff, and many staff members stated that they wanted more in-person staff meetings with education and hands-on, practical advice. Workflow patterns and/or the physical environment need to be carefully evaluated to identify systems and methods to minimize cross-contamination. Further studies need to evaluate if personal sized containers of hand sanitizer (e.g., for the pocket, attached to a belt or lanyard) would facilitate improvement of hand hygiene in these facilities. PMID:26938362

  1. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    PubMed Central

    Awosanya, Emmanuel J.; Akande, H. O.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5%) were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70%) who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7%) engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42) had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%); ectoparasites (81%) and vaccination against diseases (73.8%). Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1%) have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3%) was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%), the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04) with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza. PMID:27047163

  2. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  3. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers. PMID:26285361

  4. Clinical management of dilated cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Cannatá, Antonio; Vitagliano, Alice; Zambon, Elena; Lardieri, Gerardina; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive dilation and dysfunction of either the left or both ventricles. The management of DCM is currently challenging for clinicians. The persistent lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease continues to determine important fields of uncertainty in managing this condition. Molecular cardiology and genetics currently represent the most crucial horizon of increasing knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease allows clinicians to treat this disease more effectively and to further improve outcomes of DCM patients through advancements in etiologic characterization, prognostic stratification and individualized therapy. Left ventricular reverse remodeling predicts a lower rate of major cardiac adverse events independently from other factors. Optimized medical treatment and device implantation are pivotal in inducing left ventricular reverse remodeling. Newly identified targets, such as angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition and calcium sensitizing are important in improving prognosis in patients affected by DCM. PMID:26606394

  5. Knowledge and awareness of personal sickle cell genotype among parents of children with sickle cell disease in southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, O U; Chukwu, B F; Ikefuna, A N; Hunt, A T; Keane, J; Emodi, I J; Ezeanolue, E E

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT; HbAS), the heterozygous state for the sickle cell allele of the beta globin gene, is carried by as many as 100 million individuals worldwide. Nigeria has the highest prevalence of SCT, impacting an estimated 25 % of adult population. This study was designed to assess timing of awareness, knowledge of SCT status and preferred method of education among parents of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents of children with SCD from June 2013-March 2014. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire to assess (1) awareness of personal sickle cell genotype, (2) timing of awareness of personal sickle cell genotype, and (3) knowledge of SCT. One hundred and fifty-five participants completed the survey. Seventy-eight percent were females, and 87 % (135/155) were aware of their own sickle cell genotype. Timing of awareness varied as follows: following birth of a child with sickle cell disease (45 %); during marriage (21.5 %); school admission (9.6 %); during pregnancy (9.6 %); and other times (14 %). Approximately 35.5 % of participants thought that sickle cell trait was a mild form of sickle cell disease. Radio (43.9 %), informational community meetings (27.7 %), and television (21.9 %) were identified by participants as the most effective method of increasing sickle cell trait awareness. Innovative approaches are needed to increase the proportion of individuals who are aware of their own sickle cell genotype prior to having a child with sickle cell anemia in line with the Healthy People 2020 objective. PMID:25869330

  6. Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…

  7. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

  8. EduGeoPark: international students exchanges for promoting Earth Science knowledge and Geoheritage awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Dellarole, Edoardo; Kiuttu, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    Geoparks are the ideal destination for international study tours based on the sustainable tourism concept, in which the travel is conceived as an opportunity for sharing both scientific knowledge and intangible and tangible culture. Equally, they are the appropriate places for testing and practicing innovative educational strategies, shareable in an international context. The innovative idea of EduGeoPark project is to involve students and teachers in research activities in Geoparks, including sampling and digital mapping: practical field and laboratory activities for stimulating the geological interpretation of an unknown territory. An approach devoted to improve teamwork and problem solving competences. By means of a partnerships between the Rokua (Finland) and the Sesia-Val Grande (Italy) Geoparks, an exchange program for Secondary School's students started during 2014 (Vaala High School; I.I.S. Luigi Cobianchi High School in Verbania). The study and the visit of both territories was an opportunity for students to observe some relevant geological elements and processes that do not exist in their own country. Moreover, the hosting in families allowed them to feel the culture of the area. Teachers and staff of the Geoparks led field trips to the main geological and cultural attractions of both areas. During the activities, students used mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) and GPS to track field trips, to catch and gather georeferenced data and pictures. They acted as researchers, by using both digital and traditional tools: they observed, asked questions, gathered data, and made hypothesis. By sharing ideas, together with the local guides, they reconstructed the cultural and geological history of the area. Students appreciated the experience: not only they had the opportunity of visiting a different country, but also of deepening the geological awareness on their own territory. EduGeoPark project is opening the participation to other Geoparks, in order to

  9. Enhancing knowledge and awareness of dengue during a prospective study of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Charmagne G; Kosasih, Herman; Tan, Ratna; Widjaja, Susana; Listianingsih, Erlin; Ma'roef, Chairin; Wuryadi, Suharyono; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Rudiman, Irani; McArdle, James L; Porter, Kevin R

    2004-09-01

    In 1992, the Indonesian CDC implemented strategies to control and prevent dengue fever (DF) by including community involvement to reduce larva breeding sites and a mass health education program. To contribute to this effort, we incorporated an educational component into a prospective study of DF conducted at two textile factories in Bandung. This education provided: a lecture on the signs and symptoms of dengue and ways to prevent the disease, posters in the health clinic at each factory and handouts given to each volunteer with an explanation of symptoms. Upon enrollment, each participant completed a questionnaire to gather demographic information. Additionally they were given a brief (non-standardized) test (PRE-test) of their dengue knowledge, which was verbally administered by the study physicians. Five questions (15 point system) were designed to assess the participant's ability to recognize and describe aspects of dengue in lay terms. The subject material included: the symptoms of acute DF, transmission of dengue virus, and basic steps for disease prevention. The same questionnaire was re-administered 18 months later (POST-test), and the results were compared. A total of 2,340 participants completed both the PRE- and POST-tests; there were 1,373 males and 967 females, median age 36 years (range 18-59). Only 0.3% of participants scored EXCELLENT (15-14 points) on the PRE-test whereas 8.4% scored EXCELLENT on the POST-test. Fewer participants scored VERY BAD (2-0 points) on the POST-test compared to the PRE-test (1.4% vs 4.0%). The average raw scores for the PRE- and POST-tests were 7.8 and 10.1, respectively. Improvement of individual scores correlated highly with educational level. No significant correlation was identified for gender, age, factory location or a diagnosis of dengue during the study. These findings demonstrate that our prospective study enhanced knowledge and awareness of dengue in the volunteers. PMID:15689076

  10. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gallè, Francesca; Dallolio, Laura; Marotta, Manfredo; Raggi, Alessandra; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Liguori, Giorgio; Toni, Francesco; Leoni, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being. PMID:27213417

  11. Patient awareness, knowledge and use of colchicine: an exploratory qualitative study in the Counties Manukau region, Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Caraliese; Thomson, Maree; Bassett-Clarke, Deborah; Martini, Nataly

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Treatment of gout, specifically with colchicine, varies globally. Colchicine can be fatal due to its narrow therapeutic index and potential for interactions. In New Zealand, cases of intentional and unintentional colchicine overdose have been documented. AIMS To explore patients' knowledge on the use of gout medicines, and in particular their awareness of the maximum dose of colchicine, the dangers of colchicine overdose, and their opinions on restricting colchicine dispensing. The study also investigates where patients receive gout information. METHODS Thirty people with gout presenting to their regular gout clinic in Auckland currently or previously taking colchicine were invited to participate in a 30-min semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a general inductive thematic approach. FINDINGS Overall, participants had a lack of knowledge regarding colchicine and used variable doses during an acute gout attack. Participants were unsure of the maximum dose of colchicine and several took more than prescribed. The prophylactic use of colchicine and allopurinol varied from 3 weeks to 15 years. Mixed views were reported on restricting colchicine supply. Most participants received gout information from their general practitioner (GP). CONCLUSION Poor understanding of colchicine contributed to inappropriate use and highlights the need for targeted patient education. Considerable inter-patient variability exists in the use of colchicine for acute gout, suggesting the efficacy of low dose regimens be explored. The length of adjunctive colchicine use, as part of a prophylaxis regimen, needs to be regularly reviewed and tailored to each patient. Further research is required on limiting the amount of colchicine dispensed. PMID:27477556

  12. Clostridium perfringens in animal disease: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Niilo, L

    1980-05-01

    The diseases caused by various types of Clostridium perfringens are critically reviewed in the light of current knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed on information concerning these diseases in Canadian livestock. There are two etiologically clearly-defined acute C. perfringens diseases recognized in Canada: hemorrhagic enteritis of the new born calf, caused by C. perfringens type C, and enterotoxemia of sheep, caused by type D. Clostridium perfringens type A may play a role as a secondary pathological agent in various disease conditions, such as necrotic enteritis of chickens. It may also cause wound infections and may provide a source for human food poisoning outbreaks. There appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the distribution of C. perfringens types, their pathogenesis, diagnosis and the incidence of diseases caused by this organism. PMID:6253040

  13. Epigenetics of Addiction: Current Knowledge, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Walton, Esther; Viding, Essi

    2016-09-01

    Addiction to psychoactive substances is a debilitating condition underpinned by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. At present, a key challenge for research is to delineate how, at a molecular level, these influences become "biologically embedded," contributing to the onset and persistence of addictive behaviors. Recently, epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression have emerged as a potential mechanism of interest. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of epigenetics to addiction research, starting with the current state of knowledge, what challenges we have yet to overcome, and what the future may hold in terms of research methodology and translational potential. PMID:27588525

  14. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted. PMID:18605649

  15. Web-based Recruiting for a Survey on Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Young Women Living in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Results Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16–25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of high knowledge scores about HPV included awareness of HPV vaccine (P < 0.001) and self-reported HPV vaccination (P < 0.05). Conclusions The SNS and homepage are efficient methods to recruit young women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women

  16. Gay and bisexual men's awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention: findings from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Allison; Lachowsky, Nathan; Rich, Ashleigh; Forrest, Jamie I; Sereda, Paul; Cui, Zishan; Roth, Eric; Kaida, Angela; Moore, David; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention (TasP) was assessed among HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Baseline cross-sectional survey data were analyzed for GBMSM enrolled, via respondent-driven sampling (RDS), in the Momentum Health Study. TasP awareness was defined as ever versus never heard of the term “TasP.” Multivariable logistic regression identified covariates of TasP awareness. Among those aware of TasP, men's level of knowledge of TasP was explored through an examination of self-perceived knowledge levels, risk perceptions and short-answer definitions of TasP which were coded as “complete” if three TasP-related components were identified (i.e. HIV treatment, viral suppression and prevention of transmission). Information source was also assessed. Analyses were stratified by HIV status and RDS adjusted. Results Of 719 participants, 23% were HIV-positive, 68% Caucasian and median age was 33 (Interquartile range (IQR) 26,47). Overall, 46% heard of TasP with differences by HIV status [69% HIV-positive vs. 41% HIV-negative GBMSM (p<0.0001)]. In adjusted models: HIV-positive GBMSM were more likely to have heard of TasP if they were Canadian born, unemployed, not using party drugs and had higher CD4 counts; HIV-negative GBMSM were more likely to have heard of TasP if they were Caucasian (vs. Aboriginal), students, had higher education, a regular partner and multiple sexual partners. Among those aware of TasP 91% of HIV-positive and 69% of HIV-negative GBMSM (p<0.0001) felt they knew “a lot” or “a bit in general” about TasP; 64 and 41% (p=0.002) felt HIV treatment made the risk of transmission “a lot lower”; and 21 and 13% (p<0.0001) demonstrated “complete” TasP definitions. The leading information source was doctors (44%) for HIV-positive GBMSM and community agencies (38%) for HIV-negative GBMSM, followed by gay media for both

  17. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  18. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60 months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. PMID:26745710

  19. Awareness and perceptions on prevention, first aid and treatment of snakebites among Sri Lankan farmers: a knowledge practice mismatch?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. In Sri Lanka, snakebite is mainly an occupational health hazard associated with farming. Understanding awareness and perceptions in risk populations on the preventive measures, first aid and treatment for snakebite becomes pivotal in designing snakebite prevention and control programs. Using an investigator assisted self completed questionnaire, we assessed the awareness and perceptions of 176 part-time and full-time, Chena and paddy farmers from three dry zone districts of Sri Lanka where agriculture is the main economic activity. Findings High percentages of the participants were aware of practices that minimize snakebites in houses and outside, available treatments and most of the recommended first aid measures. Western medical treatment was preferred by the vast majority of the farmers over the traditional treatment. Conclusion Some of the protective measures that the farmers were aware of are not practiced generally in Sri Lanka, suggesting a knowledge-practice mismatch. We suggest studies to understand the effects of socioeconomic and cultural determinants on snakebite prevention in Sri Lanka. PMID:24847375

  20. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential. PMID:26580631

  1. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential. PMID:26580631

  2. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  3. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  4. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana’s Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission. Methods This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235) and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10. Results The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients. Conclusion We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts. PMID:26889683

  5. Knowledge and Awareness Concerning Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Continuing Education Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Molly A.; Larrimore, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Nurses, physicians, and nursing and medical students (n=291) were surveyed about their awareness of chemical and biological terrorism. Infection control personnel and nurse educators (n=24) were surveyed about terrorism preparation. Fewer than one-quarter of questions were answered correctly, and only about 23% reported confidence in the ability…

  6. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Retrieving Teaching Materials for Context-Aware Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication and sensor technologies, ubiquitous learning has become a promising solution to educational problems. In context-aware ubiquitous learning environments, it is required that learning content is retrieved according to environmental contexts, such as learners' location. Also, a learning content…

  7. Using Instructional Technology to Improve Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Williams, Mira Cole; Ely, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers' understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called…

  8. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of Geosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Chris; Garcia, Sonia; Torres, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs. We describe and report the preliminary results of a 1-wk Geosciences Exploration Summer Program in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M…

  9. Paederus Outbreaks in Human Settings: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-07-01

    Although rove beetles (Paederus spp.) play a beneficial role as biological control agents to manage crop pests in agro-ecosystems, their high prevalence in human settings has elevated them to pest status in urban areas. Rove beetles neither bite nor sting, but accidental crushing on human skin causes them to release the toxin paederin, which causes dermatitis linearis. This review integrates currently available knowledge about the issues pertaining to Paederus infestation. For instance, the results of life history studies conducted under different food and temperature regimes are summarized, as they indicate how large a population can be in a habitat to cause massive and widespread infestation and illustrate the physiological traits required to maintain the population at the maximum level even under adverse conditions. In contrast to what is generally reported, we speculate that climatic factors do not necessarily result in Paederus dispersal in temperate regions; instead, habitat disturbance and site unsuitability may be the main factors that lead to massive dispersal to human settings. Factors such as whether dispersers are adaptable to xeric conditions in human settings, the probability that dispersed Paederus mate with the opposite sex, and whether dispersers have adequate nutrient intake to reproduce are considered to evaluate their potential to reproduce in human settings. Finally, the effectiveness of current commercial insecticides, challenges faced in managing infestations, and sustainable management practices are discussed to provide information for long-term control programs. PMID:26335457

  10. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention. PMID:22739824

  11. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  12. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

  13. Knowledge and Awareness of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Mobile App-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Missed Public Health Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sanchez, Travis; Sineath, R. Craig; Grey, Jeremy; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    In a national online survey, we assessed awareness and knowledge of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection manifestation among 1748 men who have sex with men (MSM). Only 39% of respondents were aware that acute HIV infection may be accompanied by symptoms. Education and increased access to acute HIV testing may facilitate MSM to appropriately seek acute HIV testing. PMID:26034766

  14. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with

  15. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics; state of current knowledge and implementation in practice.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Payman; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the science that examines how an individual's genetic make-up affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. PGx of response to cardiovascular (CV) medications is of the most successfully translated branches of PGx into the clinical workout. However, the clinical implementation of PGx of CV drugs is yet far beyond the growth of our understanding of the role of genetics in drug therapy. A considerable amount of efforts have been devoted by the regulatory agents like the food and drug administration (FDA) as well as the expert-based networks such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) to overcome the existing barriers. This has been done, at least in part, for some of the most widely prescribed CV drugs, including clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin for which the PGx knowledge have been satisfactorily robust to provoke the CPIC to issue the guidelines for these drugs and the FDA to update the drugs' labeling, both strongly recommended the use of genotype-guided dosing for these medications, provided that the genetic data are available. For other drugs, however, studies have produced contradictory results and further large and well-designed clinical trials are required to expand and confirm the clinical utility of their PGx data. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge in the field of PGx of CV medications and describes the facilities assisting to the translation of PGx data into the clinical practice. Afterward, the existing body of PGx literature of the most-commonly used CV medications is comprehensively discussed. PMID:25838112

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections on Awareness and Knowledge Following Active Learning in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the pre-service teachers' reflection on an environmental knowledge questionnaire administered in an introductory environmental education course. Reflection sheets that addressed pre-/post-course knowledge questionnaires were collected from 75 students who took the course in three consecutive years. The students represented…

  17. Are Participants Aware of the Type and Intensity of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation?

    PubMed

    Tang, Matthew F; Hammond, Geoffrey R; Badcock, David R

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is commonly used to alter cortical excitability but no experimental study has yet determined whether human participants are able to distinguish between the different types (anodal, cathodal, and sham) of stimulation. If they can then they are not blind to experimental conditions. We determined whether participants could identify different types of stimulation (anodal, cathodal, and sham) and current strengths after experiencing the sensations of stimulation during current onset and offset (which are associated with the most intense sensations) in Experiment 1 and also with a prolonged period of stimulation in Experiment 2. We first familiarized participants with anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulation at both 1 and 2 mA over either primary motor or visual cortex while their sensitivity to small changes in visual stimuli was assessed. The different stimulation types were then applied for a short (Experiment 1) or extended (Experiment 2) period with participants indicating the type and strength of the stimulation on the basis of the evoked sensations. Participants were able to identify the intensity of stimulation with shorter, but not longer periods, of stimulation at better than chance levels but identification of the different stimulation types was at chance levels. This result suggests that even after exposing participants to stimulation, and ensuring they are fully aware of the existence of a sham condition, they are unable to identify the type of stimulation from transient changes in stimulation intensity or from more prolonged stimulation. Thus participants are able to identify intensity of stimulation but not the type of stimulation. PMID:26863314

  18. Self-Efficacy, Media Use as Predictors of Current-Events Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhagen, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that current-affairs knowledge among journalism students was correlated to newspaper use but that, when student self-efficacy was taken into account, newspaper use no longer served as a robust predictor of current-affairs knowledge. (SR)

  19. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude towards Emergency Management of Dental Trauma among the Parents of Kolkata-An Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Parul; Angrish, Paras; Saha, Subrata; Patra, Tamal Kanti; Saha, Nilanjana; Mitra, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic dental injuries are one of the commonly encountered dental emergencies. Missing anterior tooth in children due to any injury can be a source of considerable physical and psychological discomfort for the child. The prognosis of some dental injuries depends to a great extent on parents’ knowledge of correct and prompt emergency measures. Aim The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness level of parents regarding the emergency management of dental trauma and to find out the relation of the responses to social variables. Materials and Methods A total of 2000 parents were surveyed over a period of three months using a pretested close ended questionnaire prepared in English, Hindi as well as in the regional language which was divided into three parts: Part 1 contained questions on personal information, Part 2 on an imaginary case of trauma to assess their knowledge regarding trauma management and Part 3 related to their attitude towards dental trauma management education. The data was statistically analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results The overall knowledge of parents regarding emergency management of trauma was not satisfactory. Although most of the people were in favour of taking professional consultation for emergency management of trauma but most of them were unaware of the steps that need to be taken on their part so as to minimize complications and improve prognosis. Conclusion Educational campaigns are the need of the day to increase the knowledge of parents regarding emergency management of dental trauma.

  20. Evaluation of Awareness on Radiation Protection and Knowledge About Radiological Examinations in Healthcare Professionals Who Use Ionized Radiation at Work

    PubMed Central

    Yurt, Ayşegül; Çavuşoğlu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work. PMID:24963445

  1. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-03-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  2. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D.; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L.; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W. Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J.; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E.; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K.; Saliki, Jeremy T.; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. PMID:25533658

  3. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. PMID:25533658

  4. Centipede Venom: Recent Discoveries and Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  5. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  6. The knowledge, awareness, and acceptability of renal transplantation among patients with end-stage renal disease in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Takure, A O; Jinadu, Y O; Adebayo, S A; Shittu, O B; Salako, B L; Kadiri, S

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is well established in the USA, Europe, India, and South Africa. However, it is still in its infancy in Nigeria. The objective of our study is to determine the knowledge, awareness, and acceptability of renal transplant among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the factors which are responsible for the low level of transplantation in Ibadan, Nigeria. A 15-item pilot-tested questionnaire was administered to willing patients with ESRD seen at the medical outpatient clinic of the University Teaching Hospital, from January to December 2011. There was 81% participation rate of the respondents. Exactly 90.1% had formal education and 44% earned <50,000 naira per month. Seventy-nine percent of respondents was aware of renal transplantation, 70.4% would recommend it to others, and 66.7% accepted renal transplantation; 77.8% would maintain a close relationship with their donors. About 61.7% considered it very expensive, while 33.3% did not know the cost for transplantation. Of the reason for the low level of kidney transplantation in Nigeria, 39.5% had no idea and in 27.2% of the respondents, the fear of death by potential donors may be responsible. Eleven percent of responded that recipients had no money for kidney transplantation and another 11% thought the potential donors would like to be paid for donating their kidneys. Most of the respondents with ESRD were knowledgeable, aware of, and accepted renal transplantation as the next step to treat chronic renal failure. However, majority of these patients could not afford the cost for renal transplantation. PMID:27424696

  7. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation. PMID:26059777

  8. Evaluation of a Computer-Based Current Awareness Service for Swedish Social Scientists. Research Report No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle; Hoglund, Lars

    This report presents results from an evaluation of a current awareness service for Swedish social scientists. The service was based on the computerized version of Social Science Citation Index (SSCI). For the study an evaluation model was developed where the interaction between user and system is evaluated according to specific criteria for each…

  9. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amu, E O; Adegun, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4%) respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%); teachers (68.1%); and print media (44.9%). Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0%) and gonorrhea (23.0%). More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%), painful micturition (68.9%), and genital ulcer (54.1%). On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified. PMID:26345225

  10. Awareness and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amu, E. O.; Adegun, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents in Ado, South Western Nigeria. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design. Five hundred and fifty adolescents selected from public and private secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State were recruited using a multistage sampling technique. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine (92.4%) respondents had heard about sexually transmitted infections before, the three most important sources of information being electronic media (68.7%); teachers (68.1%); and print media (44.9%). Eighty percent of the respondents knew only one STI and the two most commonly mentioned ones were HIV/AIDS (78.0%) and gonorrhea (23.0%). More than 75% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of STIs while some of them equally had misconceptions. The most important symptoms mentioned were weight loss (77.4%), painful micturition (68.9%), and genital ulcer (54.1%). On the whole, only 6.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of STIs; the rest had fair and poor knowledge. Conclusion. Secondary school adolescents in Ado Local Government Area have only a fair knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. STI studies should be inculcated into the school curriculum and media publicity/enlightenment campaigns about them should be intensified. PMID:26345225

  11. Breast Cancer Screening Awareness, Knowledge, and Practice among Arab Women in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Elobaid, Yusra E.; Aw, Tar Ching; Grivna, Michal; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the survival rate for this malignancy. Low participation in screening programs has been attributable to many factors including lack of knowledge. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and practices among women of screening age (≥40 years old) in the city of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 using the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM). Four out of twelve cultural and religious community centers in Al Ain city were randomly selected. Two hundred and forty seven women were interviewed. Chi Square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Despite the increase in the uptake of screening modalities in our study group, a lack of knowledge about breast cancer screening is still evident. Almost half (44.8%) of women who never had a Clinical Breast Exam (CBE) and 44.1% of women who never had a mammography expressed a lack of knowledge about the existence of these screening techniques. Nearly one third of the participants interpreted the presence of a breast lump incorrectly and, moreover, expressed fewer worries about the nature of the lump than would normally be expected. Conclusions The National screening program needs to be improved and directed towards more efficient and targeted utilization of resources. Healthcare professionals play a major role in alerting women to the importance of periodic screening. PMID:25265385

  12. Enhancing evacuation plans with a situation awareness system based on end-user knowledge provision.

    PubMed

    Morales, Augusto; Alcarria, Ramon; Martin, Diego; Robles, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating. PMID:24961212

  13. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Augusto; Alcarria, Ramon; Martin, Diego; Robles, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating. PMID:24961212

  14. College Knowledge: An Assessment of Urban Students' Awareness of College Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Douglas A.; Hallett, Ronald E.; Park, Daniel K.

    2008-01-01

    The contemporary college or university campus is a complex and dynamic environment that requires students to navigate myriad institutional processes. College preparedness is not simply a matter of being academically ready for postsecondary-level work, but also requires that students have a procedural knowledge of other university processes--what…

  15. Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess…

  16. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  17. Preventing Undesirable Effects of Mutual Trust and the Development of Skepticism in Virtual Groups by Applying the Knowledge and Information Awareness Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Tanja; Kolodziej, Richard; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have proven the effectiveness of the knowledge and information awareness approach of Engelmann and colleagues for improving collaboration and collaborative problem-solving performance of spatially distributed group members. This approach informs group members about both their collaborators' knowledge structures and their…

  18. Potential and Impact Factors of the Knowledge and Information Awareness Approach for Fostering Net-Based Collaborative Problem-Solving: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    For effective communication and collaboration in learning situations, it is important to know what the collaboration partners know. However, the acquisition of this knowledge is difficult, especially in collaborating groups with spatially distributed members. One solution is the "Knowledge and Information Awareness" approach developed by…

  19. Impact of a Mental Illness Stigma Awareness Intervention on Pharmacy Student Attitudes and Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bamgbade, Benita A; Ford, Kentya H; Barner, Jamie C

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To determine if exposure to an intervention course impacts pharmacy students' mental health stigma (MHS) and mental health knowledge (MHK). Methods. A one-group pre/posttest intervention study of third-year pharmacy students (N=120) was conducted. Dependent variables were subdomains of MHS (recovery, safety, disclosure, separation, comfort) which were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree). Mental health knowledge was measured with 10 true/false questions. The 2.5-hour intervention included presentations, videos, discussions, and active-learning exercises. Pre/posttests were administered, and data were analyzed using paired t tests and McNemar's tests. Results. Among responding students (n=88; 73.3% response rate), the following stigma subdomains significantly decreased after the intervention for depression and schizophrenia: recovery, safety, separation, and comfort. Mental health knowledge scores significantly increased from 5.9 (1.5) to 6.8 (1.5). Conclusion. Pharmacy students' MHS and MHK related to depression and schizophrenia can be improved through a brief and interactive anti-stigma intervention. PMID:27402983

  20. Impact of a Mental Illness Stigma Awareness Intervention on Pharmacy Student Attitudes and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Bamgbade, Benita A.; Barner, Jamie C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if exposure to an intervention course impacts pharmacy students’ mental health stigma (MHS) and mental health knowledge (MHK). Methods. A one-group pre/posttest intervention study of third-year pharmacy students (N=120) was conducted. Dependent variables were subdomains of MHS (recovery, safety, disclosure, separation, comfort) which were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree). Mental health knowledge was measured with 10 true/false questions. The 2.5-hour intervention included presentations, videos, discussions, and active-learning exercises. Pre/posttests were administered, and data were analyzed using paired t tests and McNemar’s tests. Results. Among responding students (n=88; 73.3% response rate), the following stigma subdomains significantly decreased after the intervention for depression and schizophrenia: recovery, safety, separation, and comfort. Mental health knowledge scores significantly increased from 5.9 (1.5) to 6.8 (1.5). Conclusion. Pharmacy students’ MHS and MHK related to depression and schizophrenia can be improved through a brief and interactive anti-stigma intervention. PMID:27402983

  1. Family planning, fertility awareness and knowledge about Italian legislation on assisted reproduction among Italian academic students.

    PubMed

    Rovei, Valentina; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Lantieri, Teresa; Casano, Simona; Revelli, Alberto; Massobrio, Marco

    2010-06-01

    Over the last century, most industrialized countries have experienced a progressive increase in maternal age at first pregnancy and a reduction of fertility rate, with important social and economic consequences. Moreover in Italy a very restrictive law on assisted reproductive technologies was introduced in 2004, limiting its effectiveness and causing a strong public debate that unfortunately focused more on the political and ethical implications of the law than on the medical and technical aspects of assisted reproduction. The present study performed an epidemiological investigation among the students of Turin University in the year 2006/07 in order to assess three aspects: the factors affecting the decision to become parents, their level of consciousness about human reproduction and their level of knowledge about the legal rules that regulate assisted reproduction in Italy. The study also wanted to clarify how the sex (male or female) and the type of education (sciences or humanities) could affect their opinions and knowledge in this area. It was observed that young people consider parenthood an important part of their life, but knowledge about human fertility and legal rules regulating assisted reproduction is rather poor, regardless of sex and type of education. PMID:20418165

  2. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women and mothers about feeding habits and infant oral health. Materials and methods: A total of 230 study subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included pregnant women and group B were mothers of child up to 1 year of age. Each group comprised of 170 subjects. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of total 23 questions on infant feeding practices, nocturnal bottle feeding, correct age of eruption of first teeth and first dental visit. Two separate questionnaires were framed for both the groups. Results: There was a lack of knowledge among both the groups about infant feeding and weaning. Nocturnal bottle feeding was more prevalent. Conclusion: The present study reflects a need for maternal counseling on infant oral health. How to cite this article: Nagaraj A, Pareek S. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):167-172. PMID:25206162

  3. A survey of pet ownership, awareness and public knowledge of pet zoonoses with particular reference to roundworms and hookworms in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Chipunga, S L; Dinginya, L; Matenga, E

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Harare to assess pet ownership and public awareness with regard to pet zoonoses. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on pet ownership, health and welfare of pets, pet owners' knowledge and awareness of pet zoonoses with particular emphasis on hookworms and roundworms. The results demonstrated that the proportion of pet owners who knew helminths as zoonoses in dogs (21.3%) and cats (1.1%) was low compared to rabies (95.7%) with ancylostomosis (4.3%) and toxocariosis (2.1%) being the specific parasitic zoonoses known to occur in dogs and toxoplasmosis (2.1%) in cats. More than 50% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians never discussed the potential hazards of zoonoses or discussed it only when asked and 33% indicated that veterinarians initiated discussion of the subject whenever zoonoses were diagnosed in pets. Over 90% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians should discuss zoonoses with them. Further investigations are necessary to determine the current prevalence of intestinal nematode infections in dogs and cats in the various regions of the country. PMID:19688308

  4. Using survey results regarding hepatitis B knowledge, community awareness and testing behavior among Asians to improve the San Francisco Hep B Free campaign.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Rita; Bove, Fred; Henne, Jeff; Zola, Janet; Fang, Ted; Fernyak, Susan

    2012-04-01

    Asians are disproportionately affected by chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection and its fatal consequences. The Hep B Free campaign was launched to eliminate HBV in San Francisco by increasing awareness, testing, vaccination and linkage to care. The campaign conducted 306 street intercept and telephone interviews of San Francisco Asians to assess current levels of HBV knowledge, testing behaviors and effectiveness of existing campaign media materials. One-third of respondents ranked HBV as a key health issue in the Asian community, second to diabetes. General HBV awareness is high (85%); however, a majority could not name an effective prevention method. Sixty percent reported having been tested for HBV; provider recommendation was the most often cited reason for testing. Respondents reported a high level of trust in their providers to correctly assess which health issues they may be at risk for developing and test accordingly, confirming that efforts to increase HBV testing among Asians must simultaneously mobilize the public to request testing and compel providers to test high-risk patients. Regarding community awareness, more than half reported hearing more about HBV recently; younger respondents were more likely to have encountered campaign materials and recall correct HBV facts. Assessment of specific campaign materials found that while upbeat images and taglines captured attention and destigmatized HBV, messages that emphasize the pervasiveness and deadly consequence of infection were more likely to drive respondents to seek education and testing. The campaign used survey results to focus efforts on more intensive provider outreach and to create messages for a new public outreach media campaign. PMID:21874365

  5. Knowledge representations in ambient assisted living--context awareness in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Zilm, Franz-Albert; Scharnweber, Corinna; Haux, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a knowledge representation for smart home rules and scenarios. We have created a rule base based on the rules found during a literature review. Following this, a general rule concept was derived from the identified categories. Furthermore, subcategories for certain contexts in the smart home environment were identified and illustrated in the results by means of an extract of the rules found in the literature. Based on this information, a hierarchically structured nomenclature with four axes has been developed and evaluated. PMID:25160196

  6. Awareness and knowledge of prophylaxis for infective endocarditis in patients with severe rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, B; Vayej, A C

    2013-03-01

    Prevention of infective endocardit s (IE) is mportant because it has a high mortalty rate.This study sets out to to gather information from patients who were at risk of developing IE of their knowledge of the need for prophylaxis for the disease. Forty-one black patients suffering from severe rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were interviewed. Only one patient (2.4%) was regularly visiting a dentist to maintain good oral health and only five (12.2%) had received advice about the need for antibiotic cover prior to dental extraction. The vast majority of patients (97.5%) visited a dentist only when driven by dental pain, 36.6 % had to travel for more than an hour to reach their nearest dentist, and 87.8% indicated that they brushed their teeth. It may be concluded that in this group of black patients with severe RHD there was a lack of knowledge of the need for and of measures recommended for prophylaxs against IE. In addition, attempts by the health care team to ensure good oral health and access to dental care for these patients were inadequate, if not non-existent. PMID:23951767

  7. Dietary selection by domestic grazing ruminants: Current state of knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminants grazing biodiverse pasture face many choices, including when and where to graze and how much herbage to consume. Scientific research has led to considerable knowledge about some of these choices (e.g. herbage DMI), but other aspects of the complex decision-making process of a grazing rumin...

  8. Earthquake ethics through scientific knowledge, historical memory and societal awareness: the experience of direct internet information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A

  9. Persulfides: Current Knowledge and Challenges in Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung-Min; Weerasinghe, Laksiri; Day, Jacob J.; Fukuto, Jon M.; Xian, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling have revealed potential importance of persulfides (RSSH) in redox biology. The inherent instability of RSSH makes these species difficult to study and sometimes controversial results are reported. In this review article we summarize known knowledge about both small molecule persulfides and protein persulfides. Their fundamental physical and chemical properties such as preparation/formation and reactivity are discussed. The biological implications of persulfides and their detection methods are also discussed. PMID:25969163

  10. Current and future trends in metagenomics : Development of knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takuji; Kurokawa, Ken

    Microbes are essential for every part of life on Earth. Numerous microbes inhabit the biosphere, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects against surrounding environments. Metagenome analysis provides a radically new way of examining such complex microbial community without isolation or cultivation of individual bacterial community members. In this article, we present a brief discussion about a metagenomics and the development of knowledge bases, and also discuss about the future trends in metagenomics.

  11. Depression and Parkinson’s Disease: Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and influence many other clinical aspects of the disease. In addition to causing inherent emotional distress, depressive disorders negatively impact quality of life, motor and cognitive deficits, functional disability, and other psychiatric comorbidities in patients with PD. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of PD depression remains limited. However, clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of medications and psychotherapies for PD depression, underscoring the importance of their timely detection and concerted management. PMID:24190780

  12. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan. PMID:26513940

  13. A neurocognitive theory of higher mental emergence: from anoetic affective experiences to noetic knowledge and autonoetic awareness.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    This essay provides an overview of evolutionary levels of consciousness, with a focus on a continuum of consciousness: from primarily affective to more advanced cognitive forms of neural processing-from anoetic (without knowledge) consciousness based on affective feelings, elaborated by brain networks that are subcortical- and can function without neocortical involvement, to noetic (knowledge based) and autonoetic (higher reflective mental) processes that permits conscious awareness. An abundance of such mind-brain linkages have been established using standard neuropsychological and brain-imaging procedures. Much of the characterization of human mental landscapes has been achieved with long accepted psychometric procedures that often do not adequately tap the lived anoetic experiential phenomenological aspects of mind. Without an understanding of affective based anoetic forms of consciousness, an adequate characterization of the human mind may never be achieved. A full synthesis will require us to view mental-experiential processes concurrently at several distinct neurophysiological levels, including foundational affective-emotional issues that are best probed with cross-species affective neuroscience strategies. This essay attempts to relate these levels of analysis to the neural systems that constitute lived experience in the human mind. PMID:21530586

  14. Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes about Research Ethics among Dental Faculty in the Middle East: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Dessouky, Hadir F.; Abdel-Aziz, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Chadi; Moni, Malini; Abul Fadl, Reham; Silverman, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of dental faculty regarding research ethics and research ethics committees (RECs). Design. Through convenience sampling, we distributed a survey to academics at dental faculties at two universities in the Middle East. We used descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression statistics to analyze the data. Results. Our response rate was 62.5%. A large majority (>90%) held positive attitudes towards RECs; however, almost half (44.0%) thought that RECs would delay research. Less than half (36.8%) had received prior training in research ethics, and the average score they achieved on the questions on research ethics was only 40.2%. Most (>90%), however, were favorable towards research ethics education. Finally, some faculty held attitudes regarding certain research ethics practices that were not optimal. Conclusions. We conclude that among the dental faculties participating in our study, there is broad-based acceptance of RECs and training in research ethics, while there are knowledge gaps in research ethics. We recommend further studies to determine the generalizability of our findings to other institutions. PMID:21754933

  15. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  16. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  17. Inflammation in AKI: Current Understanding, Key Questions, and Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Rabb, Hamid; Griffin, Matthew D; McKay, Dianne B; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Pickkers, Peter; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a complex biologic response that is essential for eliminating microbial pathogens and repairing tissue after injury. AKI associates with intrarenal and systemic inflammation; thus, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response has high potential for identifying effective therapies to prevent or ameliorate AKI. In the past decade, much knowledge has been generated about the fundamental mechanisms of inflammation. Experimental work in small animal models has revealed many details of the inflammatory response that occurs within the kidney after typical causes of AKI, including insights into the molecular signals released by dying cells, the role of pattern recognition receptors, the diverse subtypes of resident and recruited immune cells, and the phased transition from destructive to reparative inflammation. Although this expansion of the basic knowledge base has increased the number of mechanistically relevant targets of intervention, progress in developing therapies that improve AKI outcomes by modulation of inflammation remains slow. In this article, we summarize the most important recent developments in understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of AKI, highlight key limitations of the commonly used animal models and clinical trial designs that may prevent successful clinical application, and suggest priority approaches for research toward clinical translation in this area. PMID:26561643

  18. Type 1 diabetes: Awareness, management and challenges: Current scenario in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K.M. Prasanna; Saboo, Banshi; Rao, P.V.; Sarda, Archana; Viswanathan, Vijay; Kalra, Sanjay; Sethi, Bipin; Shah, Nalini; Srikanta, S.S.; Jain, Sunil M; Raghupathy, P.; Shukla, Rishi; Jhingan, Ashok; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jabbar, P.K.; Kanungo, Alok; Joshi, Rajesh; Kumar, Surendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chadha, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has a wide presence in children and has a high mortality rates. The disease, if left unmanaged, poses various challenges to the patient and healthcare providers, including development of diabetic complications and thus decreasing the life expectancy of the affected child. The challenges of T1DM include awareness of the disease that is very poor among the general public and also in parents of T1DM children along with the health care professionals. The challenge of lack of awareness of T1DM can be met by increasing public awareness programs, conducting workshops for diabetes educators regarding T1DM in children, newsletters, CMEs, online courses, and by structured teaching modules for diabetes educators. Diagnosis of T1DM was a challenge a few decades ago but the situation has improved today with diagnostic tests and facilities, made available even in villages. Investigation facilities and infrastructure, however, are very poor at the primary care level, especially in rural areas. Insulin availability, acceptability, and affordability are also major problems, compounded by the various types of insulin that are available in the market with a varied price range. But effective use of insulin remains a matter of utmost importance. PMID:25941655

  19. Type 1 diabetes: Awareness, management and challenges: Current scenario in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K M Prasanna; Saboo, Banshi; Rao, P V; Sarda, Archana; Viswanathan, Vijay; Kalra, Sanjay; Sethi, Bipin; Shah, Nalini; Srikanta, S S; Jain, Sunil M; Raghupathy, P; Shukla, Rishi; Jhingan, Ashok; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jabbar, P K; Kanungo, Alok; Joshi, Rajesh; Kumar, Surendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chadha, Manoj

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has a wide presence in children and has a high mortality rates. The disease, if left unmanaged, poses various challenges to the patient and healthcare providers, including development of diabetic complications and thus decreasing the life expectancy of the affected child. The challenges of T1DM include awareness of the disease that is very poor among the general public and also in parents of T1DM children along with the health care professionals. The challenge of lack of awareness of T1DM can be met by increasing public awareness programs, conducting workshops for diabetes educators regarding T1DM in children, newsletters, CMEs, online courses, and by structured teaching modules for diabetes educators. Diagnosis of T1DM was a challenge a few decades ago but the situation has improved today with diagnostic tests and facilities, made available even in villages. Investigation facilities and infrastructure, however, are very poor at the primary care level, especially in rural areas. Insulin availability, acceptability, and affordability are also major problems, compounded by the various types of insulin that are available in the market with a varied price range. But effective use of insulin remains a matter of utmost importance. PMID:25941655

  20. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  1. PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT FORMATION: OVERVIEW OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND EMERGING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite 1-1/2 decades of control effort, the photochemical ozone problem continues to plague human society and ecology in the U.S. One reason alleged for the difficulty in achieving the established ozone air quality standard is that current understanding of the science underlying...

  2. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives. PMID:25432627

  3. Immunotherapies Targeting Fish Mucosal Immunity - Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Koshio, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, studies on the mucosal immunity in fish species have shown much progress. Although there are some organs such as skin, gills, and gut are directly associated with the mucosal immunity of fish species, this mini review emphasizes the general knowledge on the role and production figures of skin mucus and factors affecting the secretion of skin mucus of fish species. As the skin mucus of fish species is the first defense line for protection against invading microorganisms such as pathogens (bacteria, virus), parasites, etc., the information for understanding the roles of the skin mucus is very important. Furthermore, the information in the review will shed light on the development of high quality aquafeeds for the sustainable aquaculture field as well. PMID:26779184

  4. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  5. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Daniluk, J.C.; Koert, E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these

  6. The level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer in the Turkish male and the relevant effective factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Doğan, Faruk; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Çolak, Aslıhan; Kalkan, Mehmet; Şahin, Çoşkun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the general knowledge and awareness levels, information sources, and the state of medical check-up for prostate cancer (PCa) and relevant effective factors. Material and methods The participants were asked to answer to 14 questions of a questionnaire about age, education, economic and social condition, knowledge about PCa, state of being examined and their related factors. According to demographic characteristics of the participants, levels of awareness about PCa, sources of information, affecting factors and their interrelationships were examined. Two groups were formed according to age (<60 years, >60 years) and variations according to ages were investigated. Results Two hundred and ninety-three men with an average age of 57 years (range 40–85) were included in the study. Our findings showed that 68.3% of the participants were thinking that PCa is a frequently seen disease, 88.4% were thinking that it can be treated and 62.8% of men specified that their information sources are doctors. We also found that 60.8% of the participants had not undergone prostate examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) control. The most reason for not having annual examinations was (44.4%) “negligence”. Significantly greater number of men with higher education (high school/university) were highly informed about PCa (p=0.037). Check-up rates were statistically significantly higher among men with intermediate income (p=0.041). Curability of PCa diagnosed at an early stage was acknowledged by statistically higher number of individuals under the age 60 (p<0.05). Health control, prostate examination and/or PSA control rates were higher in men with a family history of PCa and in the group of >60 years. Conclusion Although PCa has a high prevalence and mortality rates, personal and social information and sensitivity levels must be increased as it can be treated if diagnosed at an early stage. We think that social and medical impact of the

  7. Arrhythmogenic KCNE gene variants: current knowledge and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Shawn M.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking, and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances. PMID:24478792

  8. Arrhythmogenic KCNE gene variants: current knowledge and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking, and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances. PMID:24478792

  9. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Seizures: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures. PMID:26943929

  10. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables. PMID:9143729