Science.gov

Sample records for current pi0 production

  1. Neutral current pi0 production in MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.M.; /Virginia Tech.

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the analysis used to determine the neutral current {pi}{sup 0} production in MiniBooNE in bins of momentum. Additionally, a measurement of the relative coherent production of {pi}{sup 0}s is discussed. The coherent production rate is found to be (19.5 {+-}1.1 (stat) {+-}2.5 (sys))% of the total exclusive neutral current {pi}{sup 0} production rate.

  2. Improved measurement of neutral current coherent $\\pi^0$ production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Y.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; Brice, S.J.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D.A.; Franke, A.J.; /Columbia U. /INFN, Rome

    2010-05-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon by a muon neutrino beam with average energy 0.8 GeV. The separation of coherent from inclusive neutral pion production has been improved by detecting recoil protons from resonant neutral pion production. We measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent neutral pion production to total charged current cross sections to be (1.16 +/- 0.24) x 10-2. The ratio of charged current coherent pion to neutral current coherent pion production is calculated to be 0.14+0.30 -0.28, using our published charged current coherent pion measurement.

  3. Measurement of Neutral Current 1π0 production in νμ interaction on water with the Pi0 Detector at T2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallari, Zoya; T2K Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The T2K Experiment is a long baseline neutrino experiment which looks for νe appearance in νμ beam to measure the lepton sector mixing angle θ13 as it's primary goal. It has a baseline of 295 km, going from Tokai on the east coast to Kamioka mine on the west coast of Japan. The far detector, Super Kamiokande, is a Water Cherenkov detector. One of the dominant backgrounds for the far detector in the oscillation measurement is the Neutral Current Single π0 (NC1π0) interaction. In order to constrain this background, the π0 detector (P ∅D) was placed in the near detector complex, 280 meters from the beam origin. The P ∅D was constructed with a water target that can be filled and drained in order to perform a statistical subtraction to measure various cross sections on-water. This analysis presents the on-water NC1π0 rate measurement with a neutrino beam energy less than 1 GeV. The on-water interactions were extracted by comparing the interactions of water-in configuration with water-out configuration. The calculation of NC1π0 absolute cross-section on water is on-going, which when completed would be the first such measurement in the world.

  4. A Measurement of the Neutrino Neutral Current Pi0 Cross Section at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Raaf, Jennifer Lynne

    2005-05-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino beam and detector at Fermilab are used to study the production of neutral current {pi}{sup 0} events. The cross sections for neutrino interactions with mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) are reported for resonantly produced and coherently produced single {pi}{sup 0} events. We measure a resonant single {pi}{sup 0} cross section of {sigma}({nu}{sub {mu}} N {pi}{sup 0}) = (0.0129 {+-} 0.0011(stat.) {+-} 0.0043(syst.)) x 10{sup -36} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at a mean neutrino energy of 1.26 GeV. We measure a coherent single {pi}{sup 0} cross section of {sigma}({nu}{sub {mu}} A {yields} {nu}{sub {mu}} A {pi}{sup 0}) = (0.00077 {+-} 0.00016 (stat.) {+-} 0.00036 (syst.)) x 10{sup -36} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at mean neutrino energy 1.12 GeV.

  5. Double Helicity Asymmetry of Inclusive {pi}0 Production in Polarized pp Collisions at {radical}(s) = 62.4 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, K.

    2007-06-13

    The proton spin structure is not understood yet and there has remained large uncertainty on {delta}g, the gluon spin contribution to the proton. Double helicity asymmetry (A{sub LL}) of {pi}0 production in polarized pp collisions is used to constrain {delta}g. In this report, preliminary results of A{sub LL} of {pi}0 in pp collisions at {radical}(s) = 62.4 GeV measured by PHENIX experiment in 2006 is presented. It can probe higer x region than the previously reported {pi}0ALL at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV thanks to the lower center of mass energy.

  6. A Search for Neutrino Induced Coherent NC($\\pi^{0}$) Production in the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cherdack, Daniel David; /Tufts U.

    2010-11-01

    The production of single, highly forward {pi}{sup 0} mesons by NC coherent neutrino-nucleus interactions ({nu}{sub {mu}} + N {yields} {nu}{sub {mu}} + N + {pi}{sup 0}) is a process which probes fundamental aspects of the weak interaction. This reaction may also pose as a limiting background for long baseline searches for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations if the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} is very small. The high-statistics sample of neutrino interactions recorded by the MINOS Near Detector provides an opportunity to measure the cross section of this coherent reaction on a relatively large-A nucleus at an average E{sub {nu}} = 4.9 GeV. A major challenge for this measurement is the isolation of forward-going electromagnetic (EM) showers produced by the relatively rare coherent NC({pi}{sup 0}) process amidst an abundant rate of incoherently produced EM showers. The backgrounds arise from single {pi}{sup 0} dominated NC events and also from quasi-elastic-like CC scattering of electron neutrinos. In this Thesis the theory of coherent interactions is summarized, and previous measurements of the coherent NC({pi}{sup 0}) cross section are reviewed. Then, methods for selecting a sample of coherent NC({pi}{sup 0}) like events, extracting the coherent NC({pi}{sup 0}) event rate from that sample, estimating the analysis uncertainties, and calculating a cross section, are presented. A signal for neutrino-induced NC({pi}{sup 0}) production is observed in the relevant kinematic regime as an excess of events of three standard deviations above background. The reaction cross sections, averaged over an energy window of 2.5 {<=} E{sub {nu}} {<=} 9.0 GeV is determined to be (31.6{+-}10.5) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleus. The result is the first evidence obtained for neutrino-nucleus coherent NC({pi}{sup 0}) scattering on iron, and is the first measurement on an average nuclear target above A = 30. The cross section measurement is in agreement with NEUGEN3

  7. Separation of a single photon and products of the pi0,eta and K0s meson neutral decay channels using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurin, Dmitry V.; Skachkov, Nikolaj B.

    2004-04-01

    The artificial neural network approach is used for separation of signals from a single photon gamma and products of the pi0,eta and K0s meson neutral decay channels on the basis of the data from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter alone. Rejection values for the three types of mesons as a function of single photon selection efficiencies are obtained for two pseudorapidity regions and initial Et of 20, 40, 60 and 100 GeV.

  8. First Observation of Coherent pi0 Production in Neutrino Nucleus Interactions with E(nu) < 2-GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Columbia U. /Fermilab /Yale U.

    2008-03-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment at Fermilab has amassed the largest sample to date of {pi}{sup 0}s produced in neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interactions at low energy. This paper reports a measurement of the momentum distribution of {pi}{sup 0}s produced in mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) and the first observation of coherent {pi}{sup 0} production below 2 GeV. In the forward direction, the yield of events observed above the expectation for resonant production is attributed primarily to coherent production off carbon, but may also include a small contribution from diffractive production on hydrogen. Integrated over the MiniBooNE neutrino flux, the sum of the NC coherent and diffractive modes is found to be (19.5 {+-} 1.1 (stat) {+-} 2.5 (sys))% of all exclusive NC {pi}{sup 0} production at MiniBooNE. These measurements are of immediate utility because they quantify an important background to MiniBooNE's search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations.

  9. Double helicity asymmetry in inclusive midrapidity pi0 production for polarized p+p collisions at square root s = 200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Cussonneau, J P; d'Enterria, D; Das, K; David, G; Deák, F; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Finck, C; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Gadrat, S; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hidas, P; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Horaguchi, T; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inuzuka, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Katou, K; Kawabata, T; Kazantsev, A; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochetkov, V; Kohara, R; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Le Bornec, Y; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Penev, V; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Pierson, A; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qualls, J; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S; Rosnet, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Uam, T J; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Willis, N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L; Zong, X

    2004-11-12

    We present a measurement of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in inclusive pi(0) production in polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=200 GeV. The data were taken at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider with average beam polarizations of 0.27. The measurements are the first in a program to study the longitudinal spin structure of the proton, using strongly interacting probes, at collider energies. The asymmetry is presented for transverse momenta 1-5 GeV/c at midrapidity, where next-to-leading-order perturbative quantum chromodynamic (NLO pQCD) calculations well describe the unpolarized cross section. The observed asymmetry is small and is compared to a NLO pQCD calculation with a range of polarized gluon distributions. PMID:15600917

  10. Observation of the decay B+/--->pi+/-pi0, study of B+/--->K+/-pi0, and search for B0-->pi0pi0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Back, J J; Bellodi, G; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-07-11

    We present results for the branching fractions and charge asymmetries in B+/--->h(+/-)pi(0) (where h(+/-)=pi(+/-),K+/-) and a search for the decay B0-->pi(0)pi(0) using a sample of approximately 88 x 10(6) BBmacr; pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We measure B(B+/--->pi(+/-)pi(0))=(5.5(+1.0)(-0.9)+/-0.6)x10(-6), where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The B+/--->pi(+/-)pi(0) signal has a significance of 7.7sigma including systematic uncertainties. We simultaneously measure the K+/-pi(0) branching fraction to be B(B+/--->K+/-pi(0))=(12.8(+1.2)(-1.1)+/-1.0)x10(-6). The charge asymmetries are Api(+/-)(pi(0))=-0.03(+0.18)(-0.17)+/-0.02 and AK+/-(pi(0))=-0.09+/-0.09+/-0.01. We place a 90% confidence-level upper limit on the branching fraction B(B0-->pi(0)pi(0)) of 3.6 x 10(-6). PMID:12906470

  11. Suppressed pi(0) production at large transverse momentum in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2003-08-15

    Transverse momentum spectra of neutral pions in the range 1pi(0) multiplicity in central reactions is significantly below the yields measured at the same sqrt[s(NN)] in peripheral Au+Au and p+p reactions scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions. For the most central bin, the suppression factor is approximately 2.5 at p(T)=2 GeV/c and increases to approximately 4-5 at p(T) approximately 4 GeV/c. At larger p(T), the suppression remains constant within errors. The deficit is already apparent in semiperipheral reactions and increases smoothly with centrality. PMID:12935006

  12. Inclusive cross section and double-helicity asymmetry for $$\\pi^{0}$$ production at midrapidity in $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}=510$$ GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adare, A.

    2016-01-07

    PHENIX measurements are presented for the cross section and double-helicity asymmetry (ALL) in inclusive π⁰ production at midrapidity from p+p collisions at √s = 510 GeV from data taken in 2012 and 2013 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The next-to-leading-order perturbativequantum- chromodynamics theory calculation is in excellent agreement with the presented cross section results. The calculation utilized parton-to-pion fragmentation functions from the recent DSS14 global analysis, which prefer a smaller gluon-to-pion fragmentation function. The π⁰ALL results follow an increasingly positive asymmetry trend with pT and √s with respect to the predictions and are in excellent agreement with the latestmore » global analysis results. This analysis incorporated earlier results on π0 and jet ALL, and suggested a positive contribution of gluon polarization to the spin of the proton ΔG for the gluon momentum fraction range x > 0.05. The data presented here extend to a currently unexplored region, down to x 0.01, and thus provide additional constraints on the value of ΔG.« less

  13. Observation of a significant excess of pi0pi0 events in B meson decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; De La Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-12-12

    We present a study of the decay B0-->pi(0)pi(0) based on a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We observe 46+/-13+/-3 events, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, corresponding to a significance of 4.2 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties. We measure the branching fraction B(B0-->pi(0)pi(0))=(2.1+/-0.6+/-0.3)x10(-6), averaged over B0 and B(0) decays. PMID:14683107

  14. A New Measurement of the Pi0 Radiative Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Larin, I; Clinton, E; Ambrozewicz, P; Lawrence, D; Nakagawa, I; Prok, Y; Teymurazyan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Baker, K; Benton, L; Bernstein, A M; Burkert, V; Cole, P; Collins, P; Dale, D; Danagoulian, S; Davidenko, G; Demirchyan, R; Deur, A; Dolgolenko, A; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Ent, R; Evdokimov, A; Feng, J; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Gevorkyan, S; Glamazdin, A; Goryachev, V; Gyurjyan, V; Hardy, K; He, J; Ito, M; Jiang, L; Kashy, D; Khandaker, M; Kingsberry, P; Kolarkar, A; Konchatnyi, M; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kubarovsky, V; Li, X; Martel, P; Mecking, B; Milbrath, B; Minehart, R; Miskimen, R; Mochalov, V; Mtingwa, S; Overby, S; Pasyuk, E; Payen, M; Pedroni, R; Ritchie, B; Rodrigues, T E; Salgado, C; Shahinyan, A; Sitnikov, A; Sober, D; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W; Underwood, J; Vishnyakov, V; Wood, M

    2011-04-01

    High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for $\\pi^0$ photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, $^{12}$C and $^{208}$Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9 - 5.5 GeV to extract the ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall~B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is $\\Gamma{(\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma)} = 7.82 \\pm 0.14 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.17 ~({\\rm syst.}) ~{\\rm eV}$. With the 2.8\\% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current PDG average of this fundamental quantity and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions.

  15. Photon and Neutral Pi 0 production in (197)Au + (197)Au collisions at sqrt S(NN) = 130 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ian J.

    2002-09-16

    Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of photons and {pi}{sup 0}s at mid-rapidity are studied as a function of collision centrality for {sup 197}Au+ {sup 197}Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV. Photon pair conversions have been reconstructed from charged tracks measured by the main Time Project Chamber of the STAR experiment at the RHIC heavy ion facility. The transverse momentum resolution of photons with this method is estimated to be {Delta}p{sub t}/p{sub t} = 2% at 0.125 GeV/c and 5% at 2.5 GeV/c. Photon spectra were measured up to a transverse momentum of 2.4 GeV/c between {+-} 0.5 units of rapidity. The dominant photon production mechanism, the {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay, was measured between 0.25-2.5 GeV/c and {+-} 1 units of rapidity. Spectra are reported for the top 11%, 11-34% and 34-85% centrality classes. It was observed that in mid-central and central collisions the relative contribution of the {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay to the inclusive photon spectrum decreases above a transverse momentum of 1.65 GeV/c. In central collisions the magnitude of the decrease from p{sub t} = 1.65 GeV/c to 2.4 GeV/c is 20%. It is unlikely that contributions from other {pi}{sup 0} decay channels and other particle decays fully explain this decrease. The centrality dependence on the shapes of the {pi}{sup 0} spectra was analyzed with Boltmann and Bose-Einstein functions. In the transverse momentum windows of the spectra, the extracted temperatures are near 0.295 GeV. These temperatures are substantially higher than those extracted from {pi}{sup {+-}} spectra in a lower range of transverse momentum. This is an indication that the shapes of the pion spectra deviate from purely exponential shapes.

  16. Branching fractions and CP asymmetries in B0-->pi0pi0, B+-->pi+pi0, and B+-->K+pi0 decays and isospin analysis of the B-->pipi system.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-05-13

    Based on a sample of 227 x 10(6) BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, we measure the branching fraction B(B0-->pi(0)pi(0))=(1.17+/-0.32+/-0.10)x10(-6), and the asymmetry Cpi(0)(pi(0))=-0.12+/-0.56+/-0.06. The B0-->pi(0)pi(0) signal has a significance of 5.0 sigma. We also measure B(B+-->pi(+)pi(0))=(5.8+/-0.6+/-0.4)x10(-6), B(B+-->K+pi(0))=(12.0+/-0.7+/-0.6)x10(-6), and the charge asymmetries Api(+)(pi(0))=-0.01+/-0.10+/-0.02 and AK+(pi(0))=0.06+/-0.06+/-0.01. Using isospin relations, we find an upper bound on the angle difference |alpha-alpha(eff)| of 35 degrees at the 90% C.L. PMID:15904359

  17. Inclusive pi^0, eta, and direct photon production at high transverse momentum in p+p and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-07

    We report a measurement of high-p{sub T} inclusive {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and direct photon production in p + p and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV at midrapidity (0 < {eta} < 1). Photons from the decay {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} were detected in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay was also observed and constituted the first {eta} measurement by STAR. The first direct photon cross section measurement by STAR is also presented, the signal was extracted statistically by subtracting the {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and {omega}(782) decay background from the inclusive photon distribution observed in the calorimeter. The analysis is described in detail, and the results are found to be in good agreement with earlier measurements and with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

  18. Gluon-spin contribution to the proton spin from the double-helicity asymmetry in inclusive pi0 production in polarized p+p collisions at [sqrt]s=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chand, P; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Das, K; David, G; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Henni, A Hadj; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, K B; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niita, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunecka, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomásek, L; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wessels, J; White, S N; Williamson, S; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2009-07-01

    The double helicity asymmetry in neutral pion production for pT=1 to 12 GeV/c was measured with the PHENIX experiment to access the gluon-spin contribution, DeltaG, to the proton spin. Measured asymmetries are consistent with zero, and at a theory scale of micro2=4 GeV2 a next to leading order QCD analysis gives DeltaG[0.02,0.3]=0.2, with a constraint of -0.7

  19. Gluon-Spin Contribution to the Proton Spin from the Double-Helicity Asymmetry in Inclusive pi(0) Production in Polarized p plus p Collisions at s = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The double helicity asymmetry in neutral pion production for p{sub T} = 1 to 12 GeV/c was measured with the PHENIX experiment to access the gluon-spin contribution, {Delta}G, to the proton spin. Measured asymmetries are consistent with zero, and at a theory scale of {mu}{sup 2} = 4 GeV{sup 2} a next to leading order QCD analysis gives {Delta}G{sup [0.02,0.3]} = 0.2, with a constraint of -0.7 < {Delta}G{sup [0.02,0.3]} < 0.5 at {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} = 9 (-3{sigma}) for the sampled gluon momentum fraction (x) range, 0.02 to 0.3. The results are obtained using predictions for the measured asymmetries generated from four representative fits to polarized deep inelastic scattering data. We also consider the dependence of the {Delta}G constraint on the choice of the theoretical scale, a dominant uncertainty in these predictions.

  20. CLAS Measurement of the pi^0 Electroproduction Structure Functions

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Smith

    2003-05-01

    Electroproduction of the Delta(1232) is well suited for the study of mechanisms responsible for resonance formation and decay.The Q^2 dependence of the quadrupole electric (E_1+) and scalar (S_1+) multipoles in the gamma*N-->Delta-->Npi transition is especially sensitive to details of the quark wave functions and the evolution from pion to quark degrees of freedom.New pi^0 electroproduction data taken with CLAS at Jefferson Lab are compared to recent models which incorporate the dynamical effects of the pion cloud.The ratios E_1+ / M_1+ and S_1+ / M_1+ are extracted using a partial wave analysis over the interval Q^2=0.4-1.8 GeV^2.

  1. Measurement of CP Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in B0 -> pi+ pi-, B0 -> K+ pi-, B0 -> pi0 pi0, B0 -> K0 pi0 and Isospin Analysis of B -> pi pi Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, Bernard; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, Antimo; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, Bjarne; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, Robert N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Consorzio Milano Ricerche /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2008-08-01

    The authors present preliminary results of improved measurements of the CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions in the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. This update includes all data taken at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR experiment at the asymmetric PEP-II B-meson factory at SLAC, corresponding to 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs. They find S{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.03, C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.25 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.02, {Alpha}{sub K{sub {pi}}} = -0.107 {+-} 0.016{sub -0.004},{sup +0.006}, C{sub {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}} = -0.43 {+-} 0.26 {+-} 0.05, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.83 {+-} 0.21 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (10.1 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. They observe CP violation with a significance of 6.7{sigma} in B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -} and 6.1{sigma} in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Constraints on the Unitarity Triangle angle {alpha} are determined from the isospin relation between all B {yields} {pi}{pi} rates and asymmetries.

  2. Measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->K(0)(s)pi(0) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Leclerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Vetere, M Lo; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Diberder, F Le; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Nardo, G De; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Lodovico, F Di; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-09-24

    We present a measurement of the time-dependent CP-violating (CPV) asymmetries in B0-->K(0)(S)pi(0) decays based on 124x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. In a sample containing 122+/-16 signal decays, we obtain the magnitudes of the direct CPV asymmetry CK(0)(S)(pi(0))=0.40(+0.27)(-0.28)+/-0.09 and of the CPV asymmetry in the interference between mixing and decay SK(0)(S)(pi(0))=0.48(+0.38)(-0.47)+/-0.06 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. PMID:15524707

  3. Study of the D{sup 0{yields}{pi}+{pi}-{pi}0} decay at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspero, Mario

    2010-08-05

    The Dalitz-plot of the decay D{sup 0{yields}{pi}+{pi}-{pi}0} measured by the BABAR collaboration shows the structure of a final state having quantum numbers I{sup G}J{sup PC} = 0{sup -}0{sup --}. An isospin analysis of this Dalitz-plot finds that the fraction of the I = 0 contribution is about 96%. This high I = 0 contribution is unexpected because the weak interaction violates the isospin.

  4. Measurement of direct photon emission in K+-->pi(+)pi(0)gamma decay

    PubMed

    Adler; Aoki; Ardebili; Atiya; Bergbusch; Blackmore; Bryman; Chiang; Convery; Diwan; Frank; Haggerty; Inagaki; Ito; Kabe; Kettell; Kishi; Kitching; Kobayashi; Komatsubara; Konaka; Kuno; Kuriki; Kycia; Li; Littenberg

    2000-12-01

    We have performed a measurement of the K+-->pi(+)pi(0)gamma decay and have observed 2x10(4) events. The best fit to the decay spectrum gives a branching ratio for direct photon emission of (4.7+/-0.8+/-0. 3)x10(-6) in the pi(+) kinetic energy region of 55 to 90 MeV and requires no component due to interference with inner bremsstrahlung. PMID:11102135

  5. Measurement of the N ---> Delta+(1232) transition at high momentum transfer by pi0 electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ungaro; K. Joo; P. Stoler

    2006-06-01

    The measurement of the differential cross section of the exclusive electroproduction reaction gamma*p --> pi^0p in W region of the Delta^+(1232) resonance is reported. The magnetic form factor (G*_M) and ratios of electric to magnetic and scaler to magnetic multipole amplitudes R_EM = E_1+/M_1+ and R_SM = S_1+/M_1+ for the gamma*p --> Delta+(1232) transition are extracted in the framework of a unitary isobar model.

  6. Measurement of branching fractions and charge asymmetries in B+/--->rho+/-pi0 and B+/--->rho0pi+/- decays, and search for B0-->rho0pi0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-07-30

    We present measurements of branching fractions and charge asymmetries in B-meson decays to rho(+)pi(0), rho(0)pi(+), and rho(0)pi(0). The data sample comprises 89x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BBmacr; decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We find the charge-averaged branching fractions B(B+-->rho(+)pi(0))=[10.9+/-1.9(stat)+/-1.9(syst)]x10(-6) and B(B+-->rho(0)pi(+))=(9.5+/-1.1+/-0.9)x10(-6), and we set a 90% confidence-level upper limit B(B0-->rho(0)pi(0))<2.9x10(-6). We measure the charge asymmetries ACP(pi(0))(rho(+))=0.24+/-0.16+/-0.06 and ACP(pi(+))(rho(0))=-0.19+/-0.11+/-0.02. PMID:15323685

  7. Measurement of CP violation parameters with a Dalitz plot analysis of B{+/-}-->D{pi{+}pi{-}pi{0}}K{+/-}.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-12-21

    We report the results of a CP violation analysis of the decay B{+/-}-->D{pi{+}pi{-}pi;{0}}K{+/-}, where D{pi{+}pi{-}pi{0}} indicates a neutral D meson detected in the final state pi{+}pi{-}pi{0}, excluding K{S}{0}pi{0}. The analysis makes use of 324 x 10{6}e{+}e{-}-->BB[over ] events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e;{+}e;{-} storage ring. Analyzing the pi;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0} Dalitz plot distribution and the B{+/-}-->D{pi{+}pi{-}pi{0}}K{+/-} branching fraction and decay rate asymmetry, we find the following one-standard-deviation constraints on the amplitude ratio and on the weak and strong phases: 0.06pi{+}pi{-}pi{0} decay amplitude. PMID:18233513

  8. Measurement of the N --> Delta^+ (1232) Transition at High-Momentum Transfer by pi^0 Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ungaro; P. Stoler; I. Aznauryan; V. D. Burkert; K. Joo; L. C. Smith; G. Adams; M. Amarian; P. Ambrozewicz; M. Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; G. Audit; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; J. P. Ball; N. A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; I. Bedliski; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B. L. Berman; A. S. Biselli; B. E. Bonner; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; R. Bradford; D. Branford; W. J. Briscoe; W. K. Brooks; S. Bültmann; C. Butuceanu; J. R. Calarco; S. L. Careccia; D. S. Carman; A. Cazes; S. Chen; P. L. Cole; P. Coltharp; D. Cords; P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; J. P. Cummings; E. De Sanctis; R. DeVita; P. V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; K. V. Dharmawardane; C. Djalali; G. E. Dodge; J. Donnelly; D. Doughty; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O. P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; K. S. Egiyan; L. Elouadrhiri; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; G. Feldman; R. J. Feuerbach; H. Funsten; M. Garçon; G. Gavalian; G. P. Gilfoyle; K. L. Giovanetti; F. X. Girod; J. Goetz; C. I. O. Gordon; R. W. Gothe; K. A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; R. S. Hakobyan; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F. W. Hersman; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; K. Hicks; C. E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D. G. Ireland; B. S. Ishkhanov; M. M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H. S. Jo; H. G. Juengst; J. D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; W. Kim; A. Klein; F. J. Klein; A. V. Klimenko; M. Kossov; L. H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S. E. Kuhn; J. Lachniet; J. M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; T. Lee; Ji Li; K. Livingston; C. Marchand; N. Markov; S. McAleer; B. McKinnon; J. W. C. McNabb; B. A. Mecking; S. Mehrabyan; J. J. Melone; M. D. Mestayer; C. A. Meyer; K. Mikhailov; R. Minehart; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; L. Morand; S. A. Morrow; J. Mueller; G. S. Mutchler; J. Napolitano; R. Nasseripour; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B. B. Niczyporuk; M. Niroula; R. A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G. V. O'Rielly; M. Osipenko; A. I. Ostrovidov; K. Park; E. Pasyuk; S. A. Philips; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; S. Pozdniakov; B. M. Preedom; J. W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L. M. Qin; B. A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B. G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; P. D. Rubin; F. Sabatié; C. Salgado; J. P. Santoro; V. Sapunenko; R. A. Schumacher; V. S. Serov; Y. G. Sharabian; A. V. Skabelin; E. S. Smith; D. I. Sober; A. Stavinsky; S. S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; B. E. Stokes; I. I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; D. J. Tedeschi; U. Thoma; A. Tkabladze; L. Todor; S. Tkachenko; C. Tur; M. F. Vineyard; A. V. Vlassov; L. B. Weinstein; D. P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M. H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; L. Zana; B. Zhang; J. Zhang; and B. Zhao

    2006-09-01

    We report a new measurement of the exclusive electroproduction reaction gamma*_p --> pi0_p to explore the evolution from soft nonperturbative physics to hard processes via the Q2 dependence of the magnetic (M1+), electric (E1+), and scalar (S1+) multipoles in the N --> Delta transition. 9000 differential cross section data points cover W from threshold to 1.4 GeV/c2, 4pi center-of-mass solid angle, and Q2 from 3 to 6 GeV2/c2, the highest yet achieved. It is found that the magnetic form factor G^*M decreases with Q2 more steeply than the proton magnetic form factor, the ratio E1+/M1+ is small and negative, indicating strong helicity nonconservation, and the ratio S1+/M1+ is negative, while its magnitude increases with Q2.

  9. Exclusive pi^0 electroproduction at W > 2 GeV with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Bedlinskiy, I; Kubarovsky, V; Niccolai, S; Stoler, P; Adhikari, K P; Anderson, M D; Pereira, S Anefalos; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bono, J; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, E; Phelps, W; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Procureur, S; Puckett, A J.R.; Raue, B A; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Senderovich, I; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Tang, W; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Yurov, M; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2014-08-01

    Exclusive neutral-pion electroproduction (ep-->e'p'pi0) was measured at Jefferson Lab with a 5.75-GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d4sigma/dtdQ2dxBdphipi and structure functions sigmaT+epsilonsigmaL,sigmaTT and σLT as functions of t were obtained over a wide range of Q2 and xB. The data are compared with Regge and handbag theoretical calculations. Analyses in both frameworks find that a large dominance of transverse processes is necessary to explain the experimental results. For the Regge analysis it is found that the inclusion of vector meson rescattering processes is necessary to bring the magnitude of the calculated and measured structure functions into rough agreement. In the handbag framework, there are two independent calculations, both of which appear to roughly explain the magnitude of the structure functions in terms of transversity generalized parton distributions.

  10. Measurement of ep-->ep[pi]0 beam spin asymmetries above the resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    De Masi, Rita; Garcon, Michel; Zhao, Bo; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, James; Baltzell, Nathan; Baturin, Vitaly; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Bertin, Pierre; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dashyan, Natalya; De Sanctis, Enzo; De Vita, Raffaella; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Donnelly, Joseph; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Gavalian, Gagik; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gonenc, Atilla; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klimenko, Alexei; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Lee, Tsung-Shung; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; Mazouz, Malek; McKinnon, Bryan; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Michel, Bernard; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Tur, Clarisse; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Voutier, Eric; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, Michael; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-04-01

    The beam spin asymmetry (BSA) in the exclusive reaction e-vector p-->eppi0 was measured with the CEBAF 5.77 GeV polarized electron beam and Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The xB,Q2,t, and phi dependences of the pi0 BSA are presented in the deep inelastic regime. The asymmetries are fitted with a sinphi function and their amplitudes are extracted. Overall, they are of the order of 0.04â 0.11 and roughly independent of t. This is the signature of a nonzero longitudinal-transverse interference. The implications concerning the applicability of a formalism based on generalized parton distributions, as well as the extension of a Regge formalism at high photon virtualities, are discussed.

  11. Single pi0 electro-production in the resonance region with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kyungseon Joo

    2009-12-01

    We report the analysis status of single π0 electroproduction in the resonance region to study the electromagnetic excitation of the nucleon resonances. The study is aimed at understanding of the internal structure and dynamics of the nucleon. The experiment was performed using an unpolarized cryogenic hydrogen target and 2.0 and 5.8 GeV polarized electron beam during the e1e and e1-6 run periods with CLAS at Jefferson Lab. The new measurements will produce a data base with high statistics and large kinematic coverage for the hadronic invariant mass (W) up to 2.0 GeV in the momentum transfer (Q2) range of 0.3—6.0 GeV2. Preliminary results will be presented and compared with the various model calculations.

  12. Virtuality Distributions in application to gamma gamma* to pi^0 Transition Form Factor at Handbag Level

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.

    2014-07-01

    We outline basics of a new approach to transverse momentum dependence in hard processes. As an illustration, we consider hard exclusive transition process gamma*gamma -> to pi^0 at the handbag level. Our starting point is coordinate representation for matrix elements of operators (in the simplest case, bilocal O(0,z)) describing a hadron with momentum p. Treated as functions of (pz) and z^2, they are parametrized through a virtuality distribution amplitude (VDA) Phi (x, sigma), with x being Fourier-conjugate to (pz) and sigma Laplace-conjugate to z^2. For intervals with z^+=0, we introduce transverse momentum distribution amplitude (TMDA) Psi (x, k_\\perp), and write it in terms of VDA Phi (x, \\sigma). The results of covariant calculations, written in terms of Phi (x sigma) are converted into expressions involving Psi (x, k_\\perp. Starting with scalar toy models, we extend the analysis onto the case of spin-1/2 quarks and QCD. We propose simple models for soft VDAs/TMDAs, and use them for comparison of handbag results with experimental (BaBar and BELLE) data on the pion transition form factor. We also discuss how one can generate high-k_\\perp tails from primordial soft distributions.

  13. Evidence for charged B meson decays to a1+/-(1260)pi0 and a1(0)(1260)pi+/-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-31

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0} and B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-} from a data sample of 232x10;{6} BB[over ] pairs produced in e;{+}e;{-} annihilation through the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0})xB(a_{1};{+/-}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+/-})=(13.2+/-2.7+/-2.1)x10;{-6} with a significance of 4.2sigma, and the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-})xB(a_{1};{0}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0})=(20.4+/-4.7+/-3.4)x10;{-6} with a significance of 3.8sigma, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18233566

  14. Q2 Dependence of quadrupole strength in the gamma*p --> Delta(+)(1232) --> p pi(0) transition.

    PubMed

    Joo, K; Smith, L C; Burkert, V D; Minehart, R; Aznauryan, I G; Elouadrhiri, L; Stepanyan, S; Adams, G S; Amaryan, M J; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Armstrong, D S; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Barrow, S; Bagdasaryan, H; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Brooks, W K; Calarco, J R; Capitani, G P; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Demirchyan, R A; Denizli, H; Dennis, L C; Deppman, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Efremenko, Y V; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Farhi, L; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Fissum, K; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gai, M; Gavrilov, V B; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Gyurjyan, V; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heisenberg, J; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Laget, J M; Lawrence, D; Longhi, A; Loukachine, K; Lucas, M; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; Matthews, S K; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Niculescu, G; Niczyporuk, B; Niyazov, R A; Ohandjanyan, M S; Opper, A; Patois, Y; Peterson, G A; Philips, S; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reolon, A R; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Salgado, C W; Sanzone, M; Sapunenko, V; Sargsyan, M; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Shuvalov, S M; Skabelin, A; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stoler, P; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tung, T Y; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A; Weller, H; Weinstein, L B; Welsh, R; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, S; Witkowski, M; Wolin, E; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhou, Z; Zhao, J

    2002-03-25

    Models of baryon structure predict a small quadrupole deformation of the nucleon due to residual tensor forces between quarks or distortions from the pion cloud. Sensitivity to quark versus pion degrees of freedom occurs through the Q2 dependence of the magnetic (M1+), electric (E1+), and scalar (S1+) multipoles in the gamma*p-->Delta(+)-->p pi(0) transition. We report new experimental values for the ratios E(1+)/M(1+) and S(1+)/M(1+) over the range Q2 = 0.4-1.8 GeV2, extracted from precision p(e,e(')p)pi(0) data using a truncated multipole expansion. Results are best described by recent unitary models in which the pion cloud plays a dominant role. PMID:11909446

  15. Experimental study of the decay K{sub L}{sup 0{yields}{pi}0{nu}{nu}}

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J. K.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Akune, Y.; Fujioka, Y.; Ishibashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Ogata, R.; Shimogawa, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Tsukamoto, T.; Baranov, V.; Kurilin, A. S.; Kuzmin, E.; Moisseenko, A.; Perov, S.; Podolsky, S.; Porokhovoy, S.; Stepanenko, Y.

    2010-04-01

    The first dedicated search for the rare neutral-kaon decay K{sub L}{sup 0{yields}{pi}0{nu}{nu}} has been carried out in the E391a experiment at the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. The final upper limit of 2.6x10{sup -8} at the 90% confidence level was set on the branching ratio for the decay.

  16. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil'kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  17. Nonfactorizable contribution to B{sub d}{sup 0{yields}{pi}0}D{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Leganger, Lars E.; Eeg, Jan O.

    2010-10-01

    The decay modes of the type B{yields}{pi}D are dynamically different. For the case B{sub d}{sup 0{yields}{pi}-}D{sup +} there is a substantial factorized contribution which dominates. In contrast, the decay mode B{sub d}{sup 0{yields}{pi}0}D{sup 0} has a small factorized contribution, being proportional to a very small Wilson coefficient combination. In this paper we calculate the relevant Wilson coefficients at one loop level in the heavy quark limits, both for the b quark and the c quark. We also emphasize that for the decay mode B{sub d}{sup 0{yields}{pi}0}D{sup 0} there is a sizeable nonfactorizable contribution due to long-distance interactions, which dominate the amplitude. We estimate the branching ratio for this decay mode within our framework, which uses the heavy quark limits, both for the b and the c quarks. In addition, we treat energetic light (u,d,s) quarks within a variant of large energy effective theory and combine this with a new extension of chiral quark models in order to estimate the effect of soft-gluon emission. For reasonable values of the model-dependent parameters of our model, we can account for at least 3/4 of the amplitude needed to explain the experimental branching ratio {approx_equal}2.6x10{sup -4}.

  18. Observation of the decay B0bar -> LambdaC antiproton pi0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Frascati /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-08-26

    In a sample of 467 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider at SLAC we have observed the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{bar p}{pi}{sup 0} and measured the branching fraction to be (1.94 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.50) x 10{sup -4}, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and the uncertainty on the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} branching fraction, respectively. We determine an upper limit of 1.5 x 10{sup -6} at 90% C.L. for the product branching fraction {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}{sup +}(2455){bar p}) x {Beta}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}). Furthermore, we observe an enhancement at the threshold of the invariant mass of the baryon-antibaryon pair.

  19. Calculated hydroxyl A2 sigma --> X2 pi (0, 0) band emission rate factors applicable to atmospheric spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Ha, Y. L.; Jiang, Y.; Morgan, M. F.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    A calculation of the A2 sigma --> X2 pi (0, 0) band emission rate factors and line center absorption cross sections of OH applicable to its measurement using solar resonant fluorescence in the terrestrial atmosphere is presented in this paper. The most accurate available line parameters have been used. Special consideration has been given to the solar input flux because of its highly structured Fraunhofer spectrum. The calculation for the OH atmospheric emission rate factor in the solar resonant fluorescent case is described in detail with examples and intermediate results. Results of this calculation of OH emission rate factors for individual rotational lines are on average 30% lower than the values obtained in an earlier work.

  20. Observation of a backward peak in the gamma d ---> pi0 d cross- section near the eta threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Yordanka Ilieva; Barry Berman; Alexander Kudryavtsev; I.I. Strakovsky; V.E. Tarasov; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; V. Batourine; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Angela Biselli; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Volker Crede; R. De Masi; Enzo De Sanctis; Raffaella De Vita; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Kawtar Hafidi; Rafael Hakobyan; F. Hersman; Kenneth Hicks; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; Marion MacCormick; Nikolai Markov; Bryan McKinnon; Bernhard Mecking; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; E. Munevar; Gordon Mutchler; Pawel Nadel-Turonski; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K. Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Brian Raue; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; Franck Sabatie; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Youri Sharabian; Nikolay Shvedunov; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Aleksey Stavinskiy; Samuel Stepanyan; Stepan Stepanyan; Burnham Stokes; Paul Stoler; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; David Tedeschi; Ulrike Thoma; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Lawrence Weinstein; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao

    2007-05-14

    High-quality cross sections for the reaction gamma+d->pi^0+d have been measured using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab over a wide energy range near and above the eta-meson photoproduction threshold. At backward c.m. angles for the outgoing pions, we observe a resonance-like structure near E_gamma=700 MeV. Our model analysis shows that it can be explained by eta excitation in the intermediate state. The effect is the result of the contribution of the N(1535)S_11 resonance to the amplitudes of the subprocesses occurring between the two nucleons and of a two-step process in which the excitation of an intermediate eta meson dominates.

  1. Measurement of the N-->Delta(+)(1232) transition at high-momentum transfer by pi(0) electroproduction.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, M; Stoler, P; Aznauryan, I; Burkert, V D; Joo, K; Smith, L C; Adams, G; Amarian, M; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Bedliski, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Cazes, A; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Cummings, J P; Sanctis, E De; Devita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hicks, K; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Juengst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Li, Ji; Livingston, K; Marchand, C; Markov, N; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Tkabladze, A; Todor, L; Tkachenko, S; Tur, C; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Zana, L; Zhang, B; Zhang, J; Zhao, B

    2006-09-15

    We report a new measurement of the exclusive electroproduction reaction gamma(*)p-->pi(0)p to explore the evolution from soft nonperturbative physics to hard processes via the Q(2) dependence of the magnetic (M(1+)), electric (E(1+)), and scalar (S(1+)) multipoles in the N-->Delta transition. 9000 differential cross section data points cover W from threshold to 1.4 GeV/c(2), 4pi center-of-mass solid angle, and Q(2) from 3 to 6 GeV(2)/c(2), the highest yet achieved. It is found that the magnetic form factor G(M)(*) decreases with Q(2) more steeply than the proton magnetic form factor, the ratio E(1+)/M(1+) is small and negative, indicating strong helicity nonconservation, and the ratio S(1+)/M(1+) is negative, while its magnitude increases with Q(2). PMID:17025879

  2. pi0 photoproduction on the proton for photon energies from 0.675 to 2.875-GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Dugger; Barry Ritchie; Jacques Ball; Patrick Collins; Evgueni Pasyuk; Richard Arndt; William Briscoe; Igor Strakovski; Ron Workman; Gary Adams; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Eric Anciant; Marco Anghinolfi; Burin Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; Gerard Audit; Harutyun Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Nathan Baltzell; Steve Barrow; Marco Battaglieri; Kevin Beard; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Mehmet Bektasoglu; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Barry Berman; Nicola Bianchi; Angela Biselli; Billy Bonner; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Bryan Carnahan; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Alan Coleman; Philip Coltharp; Dieter Cords; Pietro Corvisiero; Donald Crabb; Hall Crannell; John Cummings; Enzo De Sanctis; Raffaella De Vita; Pavel Degtiarenko; Haluk Denizli; Lawrence Dennis; Alexandre Deur; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Kalvir Dhuga; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; Steven Dytman; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Latifa Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; Paul Eugenio; Renee Fatemi; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Robert Feuerbach; John Ficenec; Tony Forest; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Matthieu Guillo; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Cynthia Hadjidakis; Rafael Hakobyan; John Hardie; D. Heddle; F. Hersman; Kenneth Hicks; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; J. Hu; Marco Huertas; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; Yordanka Ilieva; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Kui Kim; Kinney Kim; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Alexei Klimenko; Mike Klusman; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; Valery Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Viacheslav Kuznetsov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Tsung-shung Lee; Ana Lima; Kenneth Livingston; K. Lukashin; Joseph Manak; Claude Marchand; Leonard Maximon; Simeon McAleer; Bryan McKinnon; John McNabb; Bernhard Mecking; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Ralph Minehart; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; Valeria Muccifora; James Mueller; Gordon Mutchler; Pawel Nadel-Turonski; James Napolitano; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Grant O'Rielly; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K Park; Craig Paterson; Sasha Philips; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Dinko Pocanic; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; Barry Preedom; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Liming Qin; Brian Raue; Gregory Riccardi; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; David Rowntree; Philip Rubin; Franck Sabatie; Julian Salamanca; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Aziz Shafi; Youri Sharabian; J. Shaw; Sebastio Simionatto; Alexander Skabelin; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; M. Spraker; Aleksey Stavinskiy; Samuel Stepanyan; Stepan Stepanyan; Burnham Stokes; Paul Stoler; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; Simon Taylor; David Tedeschi; Ulrike Thoma; R. Thompson; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Luminita Todor; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Xue kai Wang; Lawrence Weinstein; Henry Weller; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; M.H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; Jae-Chul Yun; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang

    2007-07-23

    Differential cross sections for the reaction $\\gamma p \\to p \\pi^0$ have been measured with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) and a tagged photon beam with energies from 0.675 to 2.875 GeV. The results reported here possess greater accuracy in the absolute normalization than previous measurements. They disagree with recent CB-ELSA measurements for the process at forward scattering angles. Agreement with the SAID and MAID fits is found below 1 GeV. The present set of cross sections has been incorporated into the SAID database, and exploratory fits have been extended to 3 GeV. Resonance couplings have been extracted and compared to previous determinations.

  3. Measurement of the K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J. S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jain, V.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Ng, C.; Strand, R. C.; Witzig, C.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ito, M. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Stone, J. R.; Bergbusch, P. C.; Bryman, D. A.

    2010-05-01

    A measurement of the decay K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}has been performed with the E787 detector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Forty events were observed in the signal region with the background expectation of (16.5{+-}2.7) events. The branching ratio was measured to be (1.58{+-}0.46(stat.){+-}0.08(syst.))x10{sup -5} in the kinematic region E{sub {gamma}>}30 MeV and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}>}20 deg., where E{sub {gamma}}is the energy of the emitted photon and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}}is the angle between the muon and the photon in the K{sup +} rest frame. The results were consistent with theoretical predictions.

  4. Biogas production: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield. PMID:19777226

  5. Common suppression pattern of eta and pi0 mesons at high transverse momentum in Au + Au collisions at square root S(NN) = 200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; Chenawi, K El; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2006-05-26

    Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of eta mesons have been measured within p(T) = 2-10 GeV/c at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment in Au + Au collisions at square root S(NN) = 200 GeV. In central Au+Au the eta yields are significantly suppressed compared to peripheral Au + Au, d + Au, and p + p yields scaled by the corresponding number of nucleon-nucleon collisions. The magnitude, centrality, and p(T) dependence of the suppression is common, within errors, for eta and pi0. The ratio of eta to pi0 spectra at high p(T) amounts to 0.40 < R(eta/pi)0 < 0.48 for the three systems, in agreement with the world average measured in hadronic and nuclear reactions and, at large scaled momentum, in e+e- collisions. PMID:16803168

  6. Search for D0-D0 mixing and branching-ratio measurement in the decay D0-->K+ pi- pi0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P

    2006-12-01

    We analyze 230.4 fb;{-1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e;{+}e;{-} collider at SLAC to search for evidence of D0-D[over ];{0} mixing using regions of phase space in the decay D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0}. We measure the time-integrated mixing rate R_{M}=(0.023_{-0.014};{+0.018}(stat.)+/-0.004(syst.))%, and R_{M}<0.054% at the 95% confidence level, assuming CP invariance. The data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. We also measure the branching ratio for D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0} relative to D;{0}-->K;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0} to be (0.214+/-0.008(stat.)+/-0.008(syst.))%. PMID:17155794

  7. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  8. Onset of pi(0) suppression studied in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt S NN=22.4, 62.4, and 200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Das, K; David, G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y-S; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niita, T; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunecka, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomásek, L; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; vanHecke, H W; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L

    2008-10-17

    Neutral pion transverse momentum (p(T)) spectra at midrapidity (|y| less than or approximately 0.35) were measured in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=22.4, 62.4, and 200 GeV. Relative to pi_(0) yields in p+p collisions scaled by the number of inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions (N(coll) the pi_(0) yields for p(T) more than or approximately 2 GeV/c in central Cu+Cu collisions are suppressed at 62.4 and 200 GeV whereas an enhancement is observed at 22.4 GeV. A comparison with a jet-quenching model suggests that final state parton energy loss dominates in central Cu+Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV, while the enhancement at 22.4 GeV is consistent with nuclear modifications in the initial state alone. PMID:18999660

  9. Scalar mesons in the decays {eta}' {sup {yields}}3{pi}{sup 0} and {eta}' {sup {yields} {pi}0{pi}+{pi}-}

    SciTech Connect

    Likhoded, A. K. Luchinsky, A. V. Samoylenko, V. D.

    2010-10-15

    The decays {eta} {sup {yields}}3{pi}{sup 0} and {eta} {sup {yields} {pi}0{pi}+{pi}-} are considered within the isobar model. It is shown that, in order to explain the branching ratio and the shape of the Dalitz plot for the decay {eta}' {sup {yields}}3{pi}{sup 0}, it is sufficient to take into account the contributions of the {sigma} and a{sub 0} mesons. The inclusion of the {sigma} meson is necessary for reproducing the shape of the distribution over the Dalitz plot. The branching ratio for the decay {eta}' {sup {yields} {pi}0{pi}+{pi}-} is obtained. The predictions for the distributions over the Dalitz plot for this decay are presented. These predictions depend strongly on model parameters.

  10. Current natural products with antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ren-Ren; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Jin-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Natural products have been an important source of new drugs, which also played a dominant role in the discovery and research of new drugs for the treatment of hypertension. This review article reviews the recent progress in the research and development of natural lead compounds with antihypertensive activity, including alkaloids, diterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids, and peptides. We summarized their structures, sources, as well as the antihypertensive mechanisms. These information provides instructive reference for the following structural modifications and optimization. PMID:26481372

  11. Photoproduction of 7pi0 on hydrogen with CLAS from 1.1 GeV - 5.45 GeV using e+e --gamma decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Michael C.

    Photoproduction of the pi0 meson was studied using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility using tagged incident photon energies spanning the range Egamma = 1.1 GeV - 5.45 GeV. The measurement is performed on a liquid hydrogen target in the reaction gammap → pe +e--(gamma). The final state of the reaction is the sum of two subprocesses for pi0 decay, the Dalitz decay mode of gamma0 → e +e--gamma and conversion mode where one photon from pi0 → gammagamma decay is converted into a e+e -- pair. This specific final state reaction avoided limitations caused by single prompt track triggering, while the span of incident photon energies allowed for measurements of gamma0 photoproduction to a domain never systematically measured before. We report the measurement of the gamma0 differential cross sections dsigma/dO and dsigma/dt. The angular distributions agree well with the SAID parametrization for incident beam energies below 3 GeV. As a result with this new data, the chi2/p.d.f. of the global fit in the SAID parametrization improved to 3.1 from 3.7. For incident beam energies greater than 3 GeV a comparison of a model based on Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) with experimental data shows significant discrepancy, requiring further model developments to describe the data.

  12. Relative Cross Section Measurement of the Inclusive Charged Current Multiple Pion Production to Inclusive Charged Current from nu mu at the Near Detector of the T2K Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott

    The Tokai-to-Kamiokande (T2K) experiment is an off-axis, long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based in Japan. One of the largest sources of systematic uncertainty in the oscillation analysis is the uncertainty on neutrino cross sections. In this thesis, we use the pi0 detector (POD) of the T2K Near Detector to measure one cross section of muon neutrinos. The POD is a scintillator based detector with a precision water target which allows for a measurement with water and without water. In particular, we measured the relative cross section of charged current multiple pion production to inclusive charged current production. The analysis is performed with a multi-variate template fit using two Monte Carlo neutrino generators, NEUT and GENIE. The relative ratio for NEUT(GENIE) is 0.126 +/- 0.024 +0.022-0.021(0.100 +/- 0.018+0.018 -0.017) for the Water-In configuration and 0.104 +/- 0.029 +0.030-0.035(0.121 +/- 0.021+0.034 -0.036) for the Water-Out configuration. The prospects for a precision water cross section measurement are also discussed.

  13. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for polarized e- polarized p --> e p pi0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Delta(1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, Angela; Burkert, Volker; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bosted, Peter; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dhamija, Seema; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feuerbach, Robert; Fersch, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hassall, Neil; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keller, Dustin; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kil; Park, Seungkyung; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, M.; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Yurov, Mikhail; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045204
    The exclusive channel polarized proton(polarized e,e prime p)pi0 was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q2 range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV2 at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the pi0 and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A_{1/2} and S_{1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P11, and the N(1535)S11 and N(1520)D13 states.

  14. Current and future management strategies in intensive crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root-knot nematode Control and Management Strategy chapter addresses the current and future developments in Meloidogyne spp. control in intensive crop production systems. Discussed are current nematode management strategies such as the use of cultural practices, host plant resistance, applicati...

  15. Strange particle production in neutrino-neon charged current interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Plano, R.; Baker, N.J.; Connolly, P.L.; Kahn, S.A.; Murtagh, M.J.; Palmer, R.B.; Samios, N.P.; Tanaka, M.; Baltay, C.; Bregman, M.

    1986-01-01

    Neutral strange particle production in charged-current muon-neutrino interactions have been studied in the Fermilab 15-foot neon bubble chamber. Associated production is expected to be the major source of strange particles in charged-current neutrino interactions. sigma-neutral and xi-minus production by neutrinos was observed. The dependence on various leptonic and hadronic variables is investigated. A fit to single and associated production of s, s/anti-s, and c quarks is described based on the number of single and double strange particle production events. Inclusive neutral strange particle decays (V/sup 0/) production rates as a fraction of all charged-current events are measured and are tabulated. The lambda/K ratio is found to be 0.39 +- 0.04 and the fraction of lambda coming from sigma-neutral is (16 +- 5)%. The single- and double V/sup 0/ production was used to determine the associated s anti-s production rate and single s-quark production rate. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs. (LEW)

  16. Observation of a narrow meson state decaying to D(+)(s)pi(0) at a mass of 2.32 GeV/c(2).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Aspinwall, M L; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartelt, J; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-06-20

    We have observed a narrow state near 2.32 GeV/c(2) in the inclusive D(+)(s)pi(0) invariant mass distribution from e(+)e(-) annihilation data at energies near 10.6 GeV. The observed width is consistent with the experimental resolution. The small intrinsic width and the quantum numbers of the final state indicate that the decay violates isospin conservation. The state has natural spin-parity and the low mass suggests a J(P)=0(+) assignment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 91 fb(-1) recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) storage ring. PMID:12857188

  17. Measurement of D{0}-D[-over]{0} mixing from a time-dependent amplitude analysis of D{0}-->K+pi{-}pi{0} decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Tico, J Garra; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Cahn, R N; Jacobsen, R G; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Nash, J A; Vazquez, W Panduro; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; da Costa, J Firmino; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Li, X; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Sanchez, P del Amo; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Pegna, D Lopes; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Esteve, L; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Gabareen, A M; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Ricca, G Della; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-11-20

    We present evidence of D{0}-D[-over ]{0} mixing using a time-dependent amplitude analysis of the decay D{0}-->K+pi{-}pi;{0} in a data sample of 384 fb{-1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e{-} collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Assuming CP conservation, we measure the mixing parameters x{Kpipi{0}}{'}=[2.61{-0.68}{+0.57}(stat)+/-0.39(syst)]%, y{Kpipi;{0}}{'}=[-0.06{-0.64}{+0.55}(stat)+/-0.34(syst)]%. This result is inconsistent with the no-mixing hypothesis with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations. We find no evidence of CP violation in mixing. PMID:20366027

  18. Measurement of the recoil polarization in the p(e-->, e'p-->)pi(0) reaction at the Delta(1232) resonance.

    PubMed

    Pospischil, T; Bartsch, P; Baumann, D; Bermuth, J; Böhm, R; Bohinc, K; Derber, S; Ding, M; Distler, M; Drechsel, D; Elsner, D; Ewald, I; Friedrich, J; Friedrich, J M; Geiges, R; Hedicke, S; Jennewein, P; Kahrau, M; Kamalov, S S; Klein, F; Krygier, K W; Lac, J; Liesenfeld, A; McIntyre, J; Merkel, H; Merle, P; Müller, U; Neuhausen, R; Potokar, M; Ransome, R D; Rohe, D; Rosner, G; Schmieden, H; Seimetz, M; Sirca, S; Sick, I; Süle, A; Tiator, L; Wagner, A; Walcher, T; Warren, G A; Weis, M

    2001-04-01

    The recoil proton polarization has been measured in the p(e-->,e'p-->)pi(0) reaction in parallel kinematics around W = 1232 MeV, Q2 = 0.121 (GeV/c)2, and epsilon = 0.718 using the polarized cw electron beam of the Mainz Microtron. All three proton polarization components, Px/P(e) = (-11.4+/-1.3+/-1.4)%, P(y) = (-43.1+/-1.3+/-2.2)%, and P(z)/P(e) = (56.2+/-1.5+/-2.6)%, could be measured simultaneously. The Coulomb quadrupole to magnetic dipole ratio, CMR = (-6.4+/-0.7(stat)+/-0.8(syst))%, was determined from Px in the framework of the Mainz Unitary Isobar Model. The consistency among the reduced polarizations and the extraction of the ratio of longitudinal-to-transverse response is discussed. PMID:11290082

  19. Probability currents and entropy production in nonequilibrium lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Tomé, Tânia; Borsos, István

    2010-07-01

    The structure of probability currents is studied for the dynamical network after consecutive contraction on two-state, nonequilibrium lattice systems. This procedure allows us to investigate the transition rates between configurations on small clusters and highlights some relevant effects of lattice symmetries on the elementary transitions that are responsible for entropy production. A method is suggested to estimate the entropy production for different levels of approximations (cluster sizes) as demonstrated in the two-dimensional contact process with mutation.

  20. Statistical Profile of Currently Available CD-ROM Database Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul Travis

    1988-01-01

    Survey of currently available CD-ROM products discusses: (1) subject orientation; (2) database type; (3) update frequency; (4) price structure; (5) hardware configuration; (6) retrieval software; and (7) publisher/marketer. Several graphs depict data in these areas. (five references) (MES)

  1. Production regimes in four eastern boundary current systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. E.; Kearns, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    High productivity (maxima 3 g C m(sup -2)day(sup -1)) of the Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs), i.e. the California, Peru-Humboldt, Canary and Benguela Currents, is driven by a combination of local forcing and large-scale circulation. The characteristics of the deep water brought to the surface by upwelling favorable winds depend on the large-scale circulation patterns. Here we use a new hydrographic and nutrient climatology together with satellite measurements ofthe wind vector, sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration, and primary production modeled from ocean color to quantify the meridional and seasonal patterns of upwelling dynamics and biological response. The unprecedented combination of data sets allows us to describe objectively the variability for small regions within each current and to characterize the governing factors for biological production. The temporal and spatial environmental variability was due in most regions to large-scale circulation, alone or in combination with offshore transport (local forcing). The observed meridional and seasonal patterns of biomass and primary production were most highlycorrelated to components representing large-scale circulation. The biomass sustained by a given nutrient concentration in the Atlantic EBCs was twice as large as that of the Pacific EBCs. This apparent greater efficiency may be due toavailability of iron, physical retention, or differences in planktonic community structure.

  2. Biotechnological production of muconic acid: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Xie, Neng-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Muconic acid (MA), a high value-added bio-product with reactive dicarboxylic groups and conjugated double bonds, has garnered increasing interest owing to its potential applications in the manufacture of new functional resins, bio-plastics, food additives, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. At the very least, MA can be used to produce commercially important bulk chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid and trimellitic acid. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of biotechnological routes for MA production. This present review provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of recent advances and challenges in biotechnological production of MA. Various biological methods are summarized and compared, and their constraints and possible solutions are also described. Finally, the future prospects are discussed with respect to the current state, challenges, and trends in this field, and the guidelines to develop high-performance microbial cell factories are also proposed for the MA production by systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24751381

  3. Production, detection, storage and release of spin currents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: Quantum rings connected to ballistic circuits couple strongly to external magnetic fields if the connection is not symmetric. Moreover, properly connected rings can be used to pump currents in the wires giving raise to a number of interesting new phenomena. At half filling using a time-dependent magnetic field in the plane of the ring one can pump a pure spin current, excited by the the spin–orbit interaction in the ring. Results: Such a magnetic current is even under time reversal and produces an electric field instead of the usual magnetic field. Numerical simulations show that one can use magnetizable bodies as storage units to concentrate and save the magnetization in much the same way as capacitors operating with charge currents store electric charge. The polarization obtained in this way can then be used on command to produce spin currents in a wire. These currents show interesting oscillations while the storage units exchange their polarizations. Conclusion: The magnetic production of spin currents can be a useful alternative to optical excitation and electric field methods. PMID:25821714

  4. Relative phases in Dalitz plot amplitudes for D{sup 0{yields}}K{sub S{pi}}{sup +{pi}-} and D{sup 0{yields}{pi}0}K{sup +}K{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2010-10-01

    Relative phases of amplitudes for D meson decays to a light pseudoscalar meson P and a light vector meson V decaying to two pseudoscalar mesons will lead to characteristic interferences on the three-body Dalitz plot. These phases may be compared with predictions of a flavor-symmetric treatment which extracts contributing amplitudes and their relative phases from a fit to D{yields}PV decay rates. Good agreement was found previously for the cases of B{sup 0{yields}}K{sup +{pi}-{pi}0} and D{sup 0{yields}{pi}+{pi}-{pi}0}. The present work is devoted to the decays D{sup 0{yields}}K{sub S{pi}}{sup +{pi}-} and D{sup 0{yields}{pi}0}K{sup +}K{sup -}, for which agreement is not found. Several suggestions are offered for this discrepancy.

  5. Current Status of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.; Ciren, P.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The VIIRS AOT is expected to provide continuity to the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products that the air quality and public health community has been using. The VIIRS aerosol product suite also includes less mature products such as Suspended Matter (SM) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP). An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 AERONET data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. Analysis of SM shows that the algorithm predominantly picks smoke both over land and ocean which is not in agreement with retrievals from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Space Observations (CALIPSO). Similarly, the Angstrom Exponent (AE) retrieval used as a proxy for particle size has no skill over land and only a marginal skill over ocean when compared to AERONET; although a bias of ~0.2 for over ocean retrievals meets specification (0.3), the correlation is low and the standard deviation is ~0.6 and does not meet specification (0.3). This evaluation places the VIIRS AOT product at the provisional maturity level (product is validated, may contain some errors, and ready for operational evaluation). However, several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance are forthcoming. Current status of the aerosol

  6. Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Md. Sarfaraj; Fareed, Sheeba; Ansari, Saba; Rahman, Md. Akhlaquer; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Saeed, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the tremendous source for the discovery of new products with medicinal importance in drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs, which are currently used in one or more countries in the world. Secondary metabolites are economically important as drugs, flavor and fragrances, dye and pigments, pesticides, and food additives. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of tissue culture technology. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be established routinely under sterile conditions from explants, such as plant leaves, stems, roots, and meristems for both the ways for multiplication and extraction of secondary metabolites. In vitro production of secondary metabolite in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants, and bioreactors are the key step for their commercial production. Based on this lime light, the present review is aimed to cover phytotherapeutic application and recent advancement for the production of some important plant pharmaceuticals. PMID:22368394

  7. Satellite anomaly assessments: operations, history, databasing, and current product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    2003-04-01

    The current operational process for assessing space environmental effects on satellite anomalies in near-real time has a history of significant constraints. It has been troubled by lacks in: personnel experience, applicable data and model availability, consistency, automation, and database sharing. In an effort to alleviate such problems, the Air Force Research Laboratory, in-conjunction with the Space and Missile Systems Center's Technology Applications Division, has initiated the process of developing an all-inclusive satellite operations environment product that would automate the various aspects of satellite anomaly post-assessment, "nowcasting" (or warning), and forecasting. It will include satellite-specific, hazardous region-specific, and orbit-specific processes and related output products. Satellite charging, single event upsets, communications effects, and drag are considered with a suite of real-time data and state-of-the-art models that specify and forecast the radiation belts, ionosphere, neutral atmosphere, and more. Focused on radiation belt effects, each aspect of our current satellite anomaly assessment process and products will be presented, along with future development considerations, concerns, and solicitations.

  8. Measurement of $$K^{+}$$ production in charged-current $$\

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marshall, C. M.

    2016-07-14

    Production of K+ mesons in charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is measured using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI beam at Fermilab. Timing information is used to isolate a sample of 885 charged-current events containing a stopping K+ which decays at rest. The differential cross section in K+ kinetic energy, dσ/dTK, is observed to be relatively flat between 0 and 500 MeV. As a result, its shape is in good agreement with the prediction by the genie neutrino event generator when final-state interactions are included, however the data rate is lower than the prediction by 15%.

  9. Energetic ion production in high current hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John; Kovach, Yao; Arthur, Neil; Viges, Eric; Davis, Chris

    2015-09-01

    High power Hall and gridded ion thrusters are being considered as a propulsion option supporting human operations (cargo or tug) to Mars. These engines utilize hollow cathodes for plasma production and beam neutralization. It has now been well documented that these cathodes produce energetic ions when operated at high current densities. Such ions are observed with peak energies approaching 100 eV. Because these ions can drive erosion of the cathode assembly, they represent a credible failure mode. An understanding of energetic ion production and approaches to mitigation is therefore desired. Presented here are data documenting the presence of energetic ions for both a barium oxide and a lanthanum hexaboride cathode as measured using a retarding potential analyzer. Also presented are energetic ion mitigation approaches, which are designed to eliminate the ion energy transfer mechanism. NASA SBIR Contract NNX15CP62P.

  10. Limitations for current production in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, P Sebastian; Bradley, Dan F; Schrott, Germán D; Busalmen, Juan Pablo

    2013-04-01

    Devices that exploit electricity produced by electroactive bacteria such as Geobacter sulfurreducens have not yet been demonstrated beyond the laboratory scale. The current densities are far from the maximum that the bacteria can produce because fundamental properties such as the mechanism of extracellular electron transport and factors limiting cell respiration remain unclear. In this work, a strategy for the investigation of electroactive biofilms is presented. Numerical modeling of the response of G. sulfurreducens biofilms cultured on a rotating disk electrode has allowed for the discrimination of different limiting steps in the process of current production within a biofilm. The model outputs reveal that extracellular electron transport limits the respiration rate of the cells furthest from the electrode to the extent that cell division is not possible. The mathematical model also demonstrates that recent findings such as the existence of a redox gradient in actively respiring biofilms can be explained by an electron hopping mechanism but not when considering metallic-like conductivities. PMID:23417889

  11. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production. PMID:18205018

  12. Japanese regulation of biosimilar products: past experience and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Arato, Teruyo

    2016-07-01

    Seven biosimilar products have been approved in Japan since the March 2009 publication of the 'Guideline for quality, safety and efficacy assurance of biosimilar products' by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). Four years previously, the 'Guideline on similar biological medicinal products' was issued in the European Union (EU), and 13 products as of February 2016 have been approved as biosimilar. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first biosimilar product in the US in March 2015 and final Guidance was issued at the end of April 2015. Over the past decade, the challenges regarding the development of biosimilar products have been discussed extensively. In this article, the data packages of biosimilar products in Japan are compared with those overseas in order to clarify the concepts used by the Japanese regulatory authority, i.e., the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The challenges in the development of biosimilar products in Japan are also addressed. PMID:26987746

  13. Production of relativistic electron bunch with tunable current distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Rihaoui, M.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb

    2008-11-01

    We propose a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion.We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  14. Production of Relativistic Electron Bunch with Tunable Current Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E; Rihaoui, M.

    2009-01-22

    We proposed a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  15. Diatom cultivation and biotechnologically relevant products. Part II: current and putative products.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, T; Robert, J-M

    2003-02-01

    While diatoms are widely present in terms of diversity and abundance in nature, few species are currently used for biotechnologically applications. Most studies have focussed on intracellularly synthesised eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) used for pharmaceutical applications. Applications for other intracellular molecules, such as total lipids for biodiesel, amino acids for cosmetic, antibiotics and antiproliferative agents, are at the early stage of development. In addition, the active principle component must be identified amongst the many compounds of biotechnological interest. Biomass from diatom culture may be applied to: (1). aquaculture diets, due to the lipid- and amino-acid-rich cell contents of these microorganisms, and (2). the treatment of water contaminated by phosphorus and nitrogen in aquaculture effluent, or heavy metal (bioremediation). The most original application of microalgal biomass, and specifically diatoms, is the use of silicon derived from frustules in nanotechnology. The competitiveness of biotechnologically relevant products from diatoms will depend on their cost of production. Apart from EPA, which is less expensive when obtained from Phaeodactylum tricornutum than from cod liver, comparative economic studies of other diatom-derived products as well as optimisation of culture conditions are needed. Extraction of intracellular metabolites should be also optimised to reduce production costs, as has already been shown for EPA. Using cell immobilisation techniques, benthic diatoms can be cultivated more efficiently allowing new, biotechnologically relevant products to be investigated. PMID:12664140

  16. Current development in regulation of similar biotherapeutic products in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Laura Gomes; Barbano, Dirceu Brás Aparecido; Rech, Norberto

    2011-09-01

    Because of the recent expiry of a large number of patents on the originator biological products, interest in the production and marketing of similar biotherapeutic products in Brazil has been increasing. The national producers have significant interest in this market and have been making a large amount of investments in these kinds of products. Since biotherapeutic products consume a large amount of the government health budget, the Brazilian government also has a big interest in the possibility that more affordable biotherapeutic products could be introduced into the market to improve access, but always is concerned with the quality, safety and efficacy of these products Accordingly, it was necessary to review the biological product regulations in Brazil and to establish specific pathways to license similar biotherapeutic products. The new Brazilian regulations, Resolution no. 55/2010, are based on different regulations and guidelines from around the world, including the WHO SBP Guidelines. They follow the same scientific principles as the WHO Guidelines but also have some differences which are due to specific country needs. PMID:21868247

  17. Neutral currents production in LHC for 331 models

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.; Ochoa, F.

    2010-07-29

    A brief review about the production of a Z' resonance in the framework of the 331 models is given. Their signatures at CERN LHC is highlighted by studying the Z' production and decay features, including different final states and one-loop corrections.

  18. [Current situations and the future prospect of monoclonal antibody products].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody products and monoclonal antibody-based biopharmaceuticals have shown considerable effectiveness in the treatment for variety of diseases; cancer, auto-immune/auto-inflammation diseases and so on. Significant advance in monoclonal antibody products for cancer treatments was made with antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), and antibodies for blockade of immune checkpoints. Already 3 ADCs and 2 anti-immune-checkpoint antibodies products have been approved, and these monoclonal antibody-related product pipelines reach over 30. On the other hand, EU approved first monoclonal-antibody biosimilar, RemsimaTM (infliximab), suggesting that other monoclonal-antibody biosmilars will follow to the market. In this paper, several new issues about monoclonal antibody products will be discussed. PMID:25707201

  19. Geosensors to Support Crop Production: Current Applications and User Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Thessler, Sirpa; Kooistra, Lammert; Teye, Frederick; Huitu, Hanna; Bregt, Arnold K.

    2011-01-01

    Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data interoperability and management tools as well as data and measurement services in a way that requirements can be met, and potential benefits and added value can be realized in the farms in terms of higher yields, improved quality of yields, decreased input costs and production risks, and less work time and load. PMID:22163978

  20. Drift distance survey in DPIS for high current beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-09-20

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which uses a laser ion source and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at the beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration like several tens of mA, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that the matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  1. Current concepts in wound management and wound healing products.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jacqueline R

    2015-05-01

    Current concepts in wound management are summarized. The emphasis is on selection of the contact layer of the bandage to promote a moist wound environment. Selection of an appropriate contact layer is based on the stage of wound healing and the amount of wound exudate. The contact layer can be used to promote autolytic debridement and enhance wound healing. PMID:25744144

  2. How to Improve Your Productivity. The Best of CASE Currents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia Carter, Ed.; Said, Carolyn, Ed.

    Ideas on increasing personal and professional productivity for institutional advancement staff are provided in 25 articles. Techniques are outlined for getting organized, setting deadlines, delegating responsibilities, motivating staff members, and meeting the demands of one- or two-person compus offices. Some of the titles and authors of the…

  3. Stochastic protein production and time-dependent current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorissen, Mieke; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Translation is the cellular process in which ribosomes make proteins from information encoded on messenger RNA. We model this process using driven lattice gases and take into account the finite lifetime of mRNA. The stochastic properties of the translation process can then be determined from the time-dependent current fluctuations of the lattice gas model. We illustrate our ideas with a totally asymmetric exclusion process with extended objects.

  4. Heat production by diffusion of pure spin current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Saslow, Wayne M.

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical investigation of the dissipation due to a pure spin current generated by spin pumping in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayer is studied. The analytical solution of the dissipation is specifically derived. We show that the dissipation becomes zero when the spin diffusion length of the nonmagnet becomes sufficiently longer than its thickness. We also show that the second law of the thermodynamics is guaranteed.

  5. Study of the decays D0-->pi{-}e{+}nu{e}, D{0}-->K{-}e{+}nu{e}, D{+}-->pi{0}e{+}nu{e}, and D{+}-->K0e{+}nu{e}.

    PubMed

    Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K

    2008-06-27

    By using 1.8x10{6} DDpairs, we have measured B(D{0}-->pi{-}e{+}nu{e})=0.299(11)(9)%, B(D{+}-->pi{0}e{+}nu{e})=0.373(22)(13)%, B(D{0}-->K{-}e{+}nu{e})=3.56(3)(9)%, and B(D{+}-->K{0}e{+}nu{e})=8.53(13)(23)% and have studied the q;{2} dependence of the form factors. By combining our results with recent lattice calculations, we obtain |V{cd}|=0.217(9)(4)(23) and |V{cs}|=1.015(10)(11)(106). PMID:18643653

  6. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes. PMID:23828605

  7. Mass spectrometry of Natural Products: Current, Emerging and Future Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Sanchez, Laura M; Garg, Neha; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2014-01-01

    Although mass spectrometry is a century old technology, we are entering into an exciting time for the analysis of molecular information directly from complex biological systems. In this viewpoint article, we highlight emerging mass spectrometric methods and tools used by the natural product community and give a perspective of future directions where the mass spectrometry field is migrating towards over the next decade. PMID:24801551

  8. Production of arabitol by yeasts: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kordowska-Wiater, M

    2015-08-01

    Arabitol belongs to the pentitol family and is used in the food industry as a sweetener and in the production of human therapeutics as an anticariogenic agent and an adipose tissue reducer. It can also be utilized as a substrate for chemical products such as arabinoic and xylonic acids, propylene, ethylene glycol, xylitol and others. It is included on the list of 12 building block C3-C6 compounds, designated for further biotechnological research. This polyol can be produced by yeasts in the processes of bioconversion or biotransformation of waste materials from agriculture, the forest industry (l-arabinose, glucose) and the biodiesel industry (glycerol). The present review discusses research on native yeasts from the genera Candida, Pichia, Debaryomyces and Zygosaccharomyces as well as genetically modified strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are able to utilize biomass hydrolysates to effectively produce L- or D-arabitol. The metabolic pathways of these yeasts leading from sugars and glycerol to arabitol are presented. Although the number of reports concerning microbial production of arabitol is rather limited, the research on this topic has been growing for the last several years, with researchers looking for new micro-organisms, substrates and technologies. PMID:25809659

  9. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. Objective The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Methods Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. Results The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers’ expectations. Conclusion ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest

  10. HIGH CURRENT D- PRODUCTION BY CHARGE EXCHANGE IN SODIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.; Poulsen, P.; Pincosy, P.A.

    1981-02-01

    A beam of D{sup -} ions has been produced at 7-13 keV, with currents up to 2.2 {angstrom}, using charge exchange in sodium vapor. The beam profile is bi-Gaussian with angular divergence 0.7{sup o} x 2.8{sup o} and peak current density 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. The characteristics of the beam are in excellent agreement with predictions based on atomic cross sections. The sodium vapor target is formed by a jet directed across the beam. The sodium density drops rapidly in the beamline downstream from the charge exchange region, decreasing three orders of magnitude in 15 cm. Measurement and analysis of the plasma accompanying the beam demonstrate that plasma densities nearly equal to the beam density are obtained 1 m from the charge exchange medium. The plasma produced in the sodium is thus well confined to the charge exchange region and does not propagate along the beam.

  11. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  12. [Current situation and issues for analyzing illegal drug products].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-two psychotropic substances (31 compounds and one plant) have been controlled as designated substances (Shitei-yakubutsu) in Japan by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law since April 2007. Although the trafficking of these drugs has decreased because of this regulation, new designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones) have appeared, one after the other. As of October 2011, 40 compounds had been newly added to this category. Analytical methods have become more complicated due to this increase in the number of designated substances. Moreover, many reference substances for such designated substances and other new designer drugs are not commercially available. For the reasons stated above, a lot of time and effort is required to analyze the illegal drug products available on the market. PMID:23292013

  13. Successive bioanode regenerations to maintain efficient current production from biowaste.

    PubMed

    Bridier, A; Desmond-Le Quemener, E; Bureau, C; Champigneux, P; Renvoise, L; Audic, J-M; Blanchet, E; Bergel, A; Bouchez, T

    2015-12-01

    The long-term operation of efficient bioanodes supplied with waste-derived organics is a key challenge for using bioelectrochemical systems as a waste valorization technology. Here, we describe a simple procedure that allowed maintaining highly efficient bioanodes supplied with biowaste. Current densities up to 14.8 A/m(2) were obtained with more than 40% of the electrons introduced as biowaste being recovered in the electrical circuit. Three fed-batch reactors were started at different biowaste loading rates. A decline of coulombic efficiencies between 22 and 31% was recorded depending on the reactor over the first 3 weeks of operation. A renewal procedure of the anode was thereafter implemented, which led to a recovery of initial performances. The second and the third renewal, allowed maintaining stable high level performances with coulombic efficiency of approximately 40% over at least 3 weeks. Electroactive biofilm dynamics were monitored using 16S rRNA-gene amplicon sequencing. Retrieved sequences were dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens-related reads (37% of total sequences), which proportion however varied along the experiment. Interestingly, sequences affiliated to various Bacteroidetes groups were also abundant, suggesting an adaptation of the anodic biofilm to the degradation of biowaste through metabolic interactions between microbial community members. PMID:26026839

  14. Branching Ratio Measurements of B ---> J/psi eta K and B+- ---> D0 K+- with D0 ---> pi+ pi- pi0

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Qinglin; /Colorado State U.

    2006-03-08

    Results are presented for the decays of B {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K and B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}}, respectively, with experimental data collected with BABAR detector at PEP-II, located at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). With 90 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, we obtained branching fractions of {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}) = [10.8 {+-} 2.3(stat) {+-} 2.4(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sub S}{sup 0}) = [8.4 {+-} 2.6(stat) {+-} 2.7(syst)] x 10{sup -5}; and we set an upper limit of {Beta}[B{sup {+-}} {yields} X(3872)K{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}] < 7.7 x 10{sup -6} at 90% confidence level. The branching fraction of decay chain {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}}) = [5.5 {+-} 1.0(stat) {+-} 0.7(syst)] x 10{sup -6} with 229 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, here D represents the neutral D meson. The decay rate asymmetry is A = 0.02 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) for this full decay chain. This decay can be used to extract the unitarity angle {gamma}, a weak CP violation phase, through the interference of decay production of D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}.

  15. To eat or not to eat. A comparison of current and former animal product limiters.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, Katie; Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2012-06-01

    In this exploratory study, we compared current and former pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans on a number of variables including the motivations for their food choices. Participants were recruited via online message boards as well as through snowball sampling. Of the 247 participants, 196 were currently limiting animal products and 51 were former animal product limiters. Current limiters were more likely to have made a gradual rather than abrupt transition to animal product limitation and were more likely to have joined a vegetarian or vegan group than former limiters. Furthermore, current limiters indicated that their eating pattern was a part of their self identity. These findings shed light on the differences among current and former vegans and vegetarians and can inform individuals interested in promoting animal product limitation for health or ethical reasons. PMID:22387715

  16. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts. PMID:26024722

  17. Determination of Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationships of Current Use Pesticides and Transformation Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of current use organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos methyl, diazinon, fipronil) and selected transformation products (chlorpyrifos oxon, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) were determined at multiple...

  18. Vaccine industry perspective of current issues of good manufacturing practices regarding product inspections and stability testing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, T R

    2001-12-15

    I address 2 important topics of current good manufacturing practices as they apply to vaccine products: product inspections and stability testing. The perspective presented is that of regulated industry. There are 2 major categories of product/facility inspections: those occurring before licensure of a vaccine product and those occurring after a vaccine product is licensed. The logistics and focus of each inspection type, the preapproval inspection, and the required biennial inspection are discussed, as are guidance and recommendations for achieving successful inspections. The requirements, guidance, and recommendations regarding the type, amount, and extensiveness of stability data for vaccine products are presented. The discussion details the potential differences in the amount and type of data required for products that are not yet licensed versus marketed products. Guidance, from a regulated industry perspective, regarding the design and implementation of a successful stability program is also discussed. PMID:11709773

  19. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-07

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  20. Trends in primary production in the California Current detected with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Kudela, Raphael; Manzano-Sarabia, Marlenne; Mitchell, B. Greg

    2009-02-01

    Several ocean primary production algorithms using satellite data were evaluated on a large archive of net primary production (NPP) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements collected by the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigations program in the California Current. The best algorithm matching in situ data was found by empirically adjusting the Behrenfeld-Falkowski Vertically Generalized Production Model. Satellite-derived time series of NPP were calculated for the California Current area. Significant increase in NPP and Chl-a annual peak levels, i.e., the "bloom magnitude," were found along the coasts of the California Current as well as other major eastern boundary currents for the period of modern ocean color data (1997-2007). The reasons for this increase are not clear but are associated with various environmental conditions.

  1. Neutral current induced {pi}{sup 0} production and neutrino magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Athar, M. Sajjad; Chauhan, S.; Singh, S. K.

    2008-08-01

    We have studied the total cross section, Q{sup 2}, momentum and angular distributions for pions in the {nu}({nu}) induced {pi}{sup 0} production from nucleons. The calculations have been done for the weak production induced by the neutral current in the standard model and the electromagnetic production induced by neutrino magnetic moment. It has been found that with the present experimental limits on the muon neutrino magnetic moment {mu}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}, the electromagnetic contribution to the cross section for the {pi}{sup 0} production is small. The neutrino induced neutral current production of {pi}{sup 0}, while giving an alternative method to study the magnetic moment of neutrino {mu}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}, does not provide any improvement over the present experimental limit on {mu}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}} from the observation of this process in future experiments at T2K and NO{nu}A.

  2. Visualizing Current-Dependent Morphology and Distribution of Discharge Products in Sodium-Oxygen Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Daniel; Bender, Conrad L; Osenberg, Markus; Hilger, André; Manke, Ingo; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the spatial distribution of discharge product (NaO2) in the carbon cathode of sodium-oxygen batteries. Various batteries were discharged galvanostatically and their cathodes were analyzed. We observe a particle density gradient along the cathode that scales with the current density applied. Besides, we show that the particle size and shape of discharge product strongly depend on current density, and on whether the particles are deposited close to the oxygen reservoir or near the separator. We correlate our findings to transport limitations for the supplied oxygen and gain crucial information for optimal operation of sodium-oxygen batteries. Our findings imply that for low current densities pore clogging might occur, and that for elevated current densities small high surface area particles with limited electric conductivity form; both phenomena can decrease the available discharge and charge capacity significantly. PMID:27068448

  3. Visualizing Current-Dependent Morphology and Distribution of Discharge Products in Sodium-Oxygen Battery Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Daniel; Bender, Conrad L.; Osenberg, Markus; Hilger, André; Manke, Ingo; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the spatial distribution of discharge product (NaO2) in the carbon cathode of sodium-oxygen batteries. Various batteries were discharged galvanostatically and their cathodes were analyzed. We observe a particle density gradient along the cathode that scales with the current density applied. Besides, we show that the particle size and shape of discharge product strongly depend on current density, and on whether the particles are deposited close to the oxygen reservoir or near the separator. We correlate our findings to transport limitations for the supplied oxygen and gain crucial information for optimal operation of sodium-oxygen batteries. Our findings imply that for low current densities pore clogging might occur, and that for elevated current densities small high surface area particles with limited electric conductivity form; both phenomena can decrease the available discharge and charge capacity significantly. PMID:27068448

  4. Simulating net particle production and chiral magnetic current in a C P -odd domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    To address a question of whether the chiral magnetic current is a static polarization or a genuine flow of charged particles, we elucidate the numerical formulation to simulate the net production of right-handed particles and anomalous currents with C P -breaking background fields which cause an imbalance between particles and antiparticles. For a concrete demonstration we numerically impose pulsed electric and magnetic fields to confirm our answer to the question that the produced net particles flow in the dynamical chiral magnetic effect. The rate for the particle production and the chiral magnetic current generation is quantitatively consistent with the axial anomaly, while they appear with a finite response time. We emphasize the importance to quantify the response time that would suppress observable effects of the anomalous current.

  5. Visualizing Current-Dependent Morphology and Distribution of Discharge Products in Sodium-Oxygen Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Daniel; Bender, Conrad L.; Osenberg, Markus; Hilger, André; Manke, Ingo; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the spatial distribution of discharge product (NaO2) in the carbon cathode of sodium-oxygen batteries. Various batteries were discharged galvanostatically and their cathodes were analyzed. We observe a particle density gradient along the cathode that scales with the current density applied. Besides, we show that the particle size and shape of discharge product strongly depend on current density, and on whether the particles are deposited close to the oxygen reservoir or near the separator. We correlate our findings to transport limitations for the supplied oxygen and gain crucial information for optimal operation of sodium-oxygen batteries. Our findings imply that for low current densities pore clogging might occur, and that for elevated current densities small high surface area particles with limited electric conductivity form; both phenomena can decrease the available discharge and charge capacity significantly.

  6. EP and CD-ROM products - Current trends of production and market development -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiko

    The printed books and magazines/journals have been, and still even now are, dominant materials for public reading and reference usage. Microform publications have been also adopted for library collection build-up, but it is still within a very limited scale and coverage. As the first "new media" product, we should approve the fact that "CD-ROM" keeps amazingly large information storage capacity and also quite flexible application utility. So far, among the firstly released CD-ROMS, bibliographic databases, both for Japanese and English publications, look already quite widely purchased and now installed in many workstations of libraries. The users should evaluate its cost-effectiveness not only by its great data storage capacity but also by its frequent usage merit for library work rationalization. Multiple applied usage of CD-ROM will surely serve to such library routine works as searching, cataloguing, reading list preparation, inventory checking and new order placing, etc. 'CD-ROM' is the first EP product for quite wide usage.

  7. Heavy pair production currents with general quantum numbers in dimensionally regularized nonrelativistic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    We discuss the form and construction of general color singlet heavy particle-antiparticle pair production currents for arbitrary quantum numbers, and issues related to evanescent spin operators and scheme dependences in nonrelativistic QCD in n=3-2{epsilon} dimensions. The anomalous dimensions of the leading interpolating currents for heavy quark and colored scalar pairs in arbitrary {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} angular-spin states are determined at next-to-leading order in the nonrelativistic power counting.

  8. Production of highly ionized species in high-current pulsed cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Sangines, R.; Israel, A. M.; Falconer, I. S.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2010-05-31

    Time resolved optical diagnostic techniques were used to study the production of highly ionized species in aluminum plasma produced by a centered-triggered high-current pulsed cathodic arc. Controlling the spacing between cathode spots enabled a correlation between a reduction in the mean charge state and an increase in the spacing of cathode spots to be observed. As the cathode current was increased, the distances between spots were reduced and these charge states were produced for longer times. Strong cathode spot coupling is proposed as a mechanism for the production of high charge states.

  9. Partial decoupling of primary productivity from upwelling in the California Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Lionel; Deutsch, Curtis; McWilliams, James C.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Liang, Jun-Hong; Colas, François

    2016-07-01

    Coastal winds and upwelling of deep nutrient-rich water along subtropical eastern boundaries yield some of the ocean's most productive ecosystems. Simple indices of coastal wind strength have been extensively used to estimate the timing and magnitude of biological productivity on seasonal and interannual timescales and underlie the prediction that anthropogenic climate warming will increase the productivity by making coastal winds stronger. The effect of wind patterns on regional net primary productivity is not captured by such indices and is poorly understood. Here we present evidence, using a realistic model of the California Current system and satellite measurements, that the observed slackening of the winds near the coast has little effect on near-shore phytoplankton productivity despite a large reduction in upwelling velocity. On the regional scale the wind drop-off leads to substantially higher production even when the total upwelling rate remains the same. This partial decoupling of productivity from upwelling results from the impact of wind patterns on alongshore currents and the eddies they generate. Our results imply that productivity in eastern boundary upwelling systems will be better predicted from indices of the coastal wind that account for its offshore structure.

  10. Link between capacity for current production and syntrophic growth in Geobacter species

    PubMed Central

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Woodard, Trevor L.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes are unnatural electron acceptors, and it is yet unknown how some Geobacter species evolved to use electrodes as terminal electron acceptors. Analysis of different Geobacter species revealed that they varied in their capacity for current production. Geobacter metallireducens and G. hydrogenophilus generated high current densities (ca. 0.2 mA/cm2), comparable to G. sulfurreducens. G. bremensis, G. chapellei, G. humireducens, and G. uraniireducens, produced much lower currents (ca. 0.05 mA/cm2) and G. bemidjiensis was previously found to not produce current. There was no correspondence between the effectiveness of current generation and Fe(III) oxide reduction rates. Some high-current-density strains (G. metallireducens and G. hydrogenophilus) reduced Fe(III)-oxides as fast as some low-current-density strains (G. bremensis, G. humireducens, and G. uraniireducens) whereas other low-current-density strains (G. bemidjiensis and G. chapellei) reduced Fe(III) oxide as slowly as G. sulfurreducens, a high-current-density strain. However, there was a correspondence between the ability to produce higher currents and the ability to grow syntrophically. G. hydrogenophilus was found to grow in co-culture with Methanosarcina barkeri, which is capable of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), but not with Methanospirillum hungatei capable only of H2 or formate transfer. Conductive granular activated carbon (GAC) stimulated metabolism of the G. hydrogenophilus – M. barkeri co-culture, consistent with electron exchange via DIET. These findings, coupled with the previous finding that G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens are also capable of DIET, suggest that evolution to optimize DIET has fortuitously conferred the capability for high-density current production to some Geobacter species. PMID:26284037

  11. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P.; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50–1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p value < 0.001). Among lower-income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

  12. Oak Ridge Isotope Products and Services - Current and Expected Supply and Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, W.S.; Alexander, C.W.; Cline, R.L.; Collins, E.D.; Klein, J.A.; Knauer, J.B., Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1999-08-29

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been a major center of isotope production research, development, and distribution for over 50 years. Currently, the major isotope production activities include (1) the production of transuranium element radioisotopes, including 252 Cf; (2) the production of medical and industrial radioisotopes; (3) maintenance and expansion of the capabilities for production of enriched stable isotopes; and, (4) preparation of a wide range of custom-order chemical and physical forms of isotope products, particularly in accelerator physics research. The recent supply of and demand for isotope products and services in these areas, research and development (R&D), and the capabilities for future supply are described in more detail below. The keys to continuing the supply of these important products and services are the maintenance, improvement, and potential expansion of specialized facilities, including (1) the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), (2) the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and Radiochemical Development Laboratory (RDL) hot cell facilities, (3) the electromagnetic calutron mass separators and the plasma separation process equipment for isotope enrichment, and (4) the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) equipment for preparation of specialized chemical and physical forms of isotope products. The status and plans for these ORNL isotope production facilities are also described below.

  13. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Behaviour and Electrophysiology of Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced effects of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the left…

  14. Effects of current velocity on byssal thread production in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.; McMahon, R.F.

    1995-06-01

    Effect of current velocity on byssal thread production by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) was investigated. Number of threads produced by samples of 20 mussels at 25{degrees}C exposed to currents velocities of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.27 m/s were counted over 21 days. Mussels were removed from current daily and number of new threads counted over a period of 21 days after which mussels were removed and their shell length measured. Increased current velocity significantly elevated rates of byssal thread production between 0.1 m/s and 0.2 m/s. velocities of 0.27 m/s suppressed production. Suppression may be due to agitation, interfering with the mussels ability to successfully produce a byssal thread. Mean byssal thread number in a newly formed byssal complex after 21 days exposure was 52.5, 63.8, 73.3 and 60.4 at current velocities of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.27 m/s respectively. Some of these results are consistent with observations made on the intertidal bivalve Mytilus edulis, others conflict. Results support contention that characteristics of byssal attachment may vary between freshwater and marine species.

  15. Evidence for neutral-current diffractive π0 production from hydrogen in neutrino interactions on hydrocarbon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolcott, J.

    2016-04-06

    Here, the MINERvA experiment observes an excess of events containing electromagnetic showers relative to the expectation from Monte Carlo simulations in neutral-current neutrino interactions with mean beam energy of 4.5 GeV on a hydrocarbon target. The excess is characterized and found to be consistent with neutral-current π0 production with a broad energy distribution peaking at 7 GeV and a total cross section of 0.26more » $$\\pm$$ 0.02 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.08 (sys) x $$10^{-39} cm^{2}$$. The angular distribution, electromagnetic shower energy, and spatial distribution of the energy depositions of the excess are consistent with expectations from neutrino neutral-current diffractive neutral pion production from hydrogen in the hydrocarbon target. These data comprise the first direct experimental observation and constraint for a reaction that poses an important background process in neutrino oscillation experiments searching for $$\

  16. Turbidity currents and turbidites: towards quantitative interpretation and prediction of process and product.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Cartigny, M.; de Leeuw, J.; Pohl, F.

    2015-12-01

    Many decades of studies of deposits and seascapes formed by turbidity currents have established a robust observational framework that demonstrates that depositional and morphological patterns are repeated through time and space. The process-modeling community has similarly made progress in the understanding of the distribution of suspended sediment, velocity, and turbulence in turbidity currents, together shaping the "flow structure". Thus, now is the time to integrate, and investigate in more detail how the process of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition by turbidity currents is related to observed systematics in the physical products preserved in the geological record. Here we review recent breakthroughs in theoretical understanding of turbulent suspended sediment transport capacity. These breakthroughs allow us to understand the coupling between the flow field of turbidity currents, the kinematics of which have long been established, and the carrying capacity of sediment. This leads to robust first order estimators of the velocity and suspended sediment distribution within turbidity currents. These estimators can be applied straightforwardly to investigate natural systems. Two types of examples are explored: application to modern seafloor systems results in sediment budget estimations of natural turbidity current channels and canyons. Application to ancient turbidite deposits in the rock record displays how the present state of understanding can be used for quantitative process inversion from the product. This should ultimately lead to predictive capabilities of rock-body characteristics in the subsurface.

  17. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed. PMID:27556042

  18. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed. PMID:27556042

  19. Inclusive vector meson production in nuµD charged current interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C. C.; Mann, W. A.; Napier, A.

    1980-01-01

    From hadronic systems induced in 3571 charged-current neutrino-deuterium interactions in the FNAL 15-foot diameter bubble chamber, invariant mass distributions (..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/) and (K/sub s//sup 0/..pi../sup + -/) have been used to study inclusive production of vector meson resonances. Inclusive rates from a pure isoscalar target are determined to be 0.05 +- 0.01 K*/sup +/(890) per charged-current event and 0.19 +- 0.04 rho/sup 0/ per charged-current event. Inclusive K*(890)/sup + -/ production is found to be predominantly K*/sup +/(890) in the current fragmentation region. The ratios (rho/sup 0//event) from neutron targets and from proton targets separately are, respectively, 0.18 +- 0.06 and 0.21 +- 0.08. For deuteron targets, trends in the dependence of (rho/sup 0//event) on variables Y/sub R/, W, p/sub T/, and Q/sup 2/ are found to be similar to those observed in rho/sup 0/ production from anti ..nu../sub ..mu../p collisions.

  20. A review of the current state of biodiesel production using enzymatic transesterification.

    PubMed

    Fjerbaek, Lene; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-04-01

    Enzymatic biodiesel production has been investigated intensively, but is presently employed industrially only in a 20,000 tons/year pilot plant in China (Du et al. [2008] Appl Microbiol Technol 79(3):331-337). This review presents a critical analysis of the current status of research in this area and accentuates the main obstacles to the widespread use of enzymes for commercial biodiesel transesterification. Improved results for enzymatic catalysis are seen with respect to increased yield, reaction time and stability, but the performance and price of the enzymes need further advances for them to become attractive industrially for biodiesel production. Critical aspects such as mass transfer limitations, use of solvents and water activity are discussed together with process considerations and evaluation of possible reactor configurations, if industrial production with enzymes is to be carried out. Results of published studies on the productivity of enzymes are also presented and compared to the use of chemical catalysts. PMID:19215031

  1. Biotechnological production of alpha-keto acids: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-keto (α-keto) acids are used widely in feeds, food additives, pharmaceuticals, and in chemical synthesis processes. Although most α-keto acids are currently produced by chemical synthesis, their biotechnological production from renewable carbohydrates is a promising new approach. In this mini-review, we first present the different types of α-keto acids as well as their applications; next, we summarize the recent progresses in the biotechnological production of some important α-keto acids; namely, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, α-ketoisovalerate, α-ketoisocaproate, phenylpyruvate, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyrate, and 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate. Finally, we discuss the future prospects as well as favorable directions for the biotechnological production of keto acids that ultimately would be more environment-friendly and simpler compared with the production by chemical synthesis. PMID:27575335

  2. Measurement of CP Asymmetries in B0->Ks Pi0 Pi0 Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-08-24

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry for the neutral B-meson decay into the CP = +1 final state K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, with K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. They use a sample of approximately 227 million B-meson pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC. From a maximum likelihood fit they extract the mixing-induced CP-violation parameter S{sub K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}} = 0.84 {+-} 0.71(stat) {+-} 0.08(syst) and the direct CP-violation parameter C{sub K{sub S}{sup 0}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} = 0.27 {+-} 0.52(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  3. Observation of the Rare Decay B^+ to K^+ \\pi^0 \\pi^0

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /more authors..

    2010-06-11

    We report an analysis of charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, using a data sample of 470.9 {+-} 2.8 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. We observe an excess of signal events with a significance above 10 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties and measure the branching fraction to be {Beta}(B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (15.5 {+-} 1.1 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup -6}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  4. Measurement of CP Asymmetry in B0 to Ks pi0 pi0 Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2007-02-06

    We present a measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry for the neutral B-meson decay into the CP = +1 final state K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, with K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. We use a sample of approximately 227 million B-meson pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC. From an unbinned maximum likelihood fit we extract the mixing-induced CP-violation parameter S = 0.72 {+-} 0.71 {+-} 0.08 and the direct CP-violation parameter C = 0.23 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.13, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  5. Search for the Rare Decay $K_L \\to \\pi^0 \\pi^0 \\mu^+ \\mu^-$

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, David Graham

    2009-05-01

    This thesis describes the search for KL → π0π0μ+μ-, which was conducted using data collected by the KTeV Experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. Although this decay mode is possible within the Standard Model, it is limited to a very narrow band of phase space. The HyperCP Experiment has recently observed three Σ+ → pμ+μ- events within a narrow dimuon mass range of 213.8 MeV/c2 to 214.8 MeV/c2. This suggests that the process could occur via a neutral intermediary particle, Σ+ → pX0 → pμ+μ-, with an X0 mass of 214.3 MeV/c2 ± 0.5 MeV/c2 . Since the X0 has a light mass and a low interaction probability, then it is most likely a new neutral boson that exists beyond the Standard Model. Recent theoretical predictions suggest that the decay mode KL → π0π0μ+μ- can also occur via the aforementioned neutral boson: KL → π0π0X0→ π0π0μ+μ-. Therefore, in addition to a Standard Model measurement, the search for KL → π0π0μ+μ- is also carried out in an effort to address the viability of X0 in explaining the HyperCP phenomena. Measurement of the upper limits presented in this thesis were performed using blind analysis techniques. The upper limit of the decay KL → π0π0μ+μ- has been measured in this thesis to be BR(KL → π0π0μ+μ-) < 8.63 x 10-11 at 90% confidence level. In addition, this thesis has measured the upper limit of the decay KL → π0π0X0 → π0π0μ+μ- to be Br(KL → π0π0X0 → π0π0μ+μ-) < 9.44 x 10-11 at the 90% confidence level.

  6. Search For the Rare Decay K(L) ---> pi0 pi0 gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David Edward; /Virginia U.

    2006-08-01

    This thesis describes a search for the rare decay K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} using data from the KTeV experiment, using the topology K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sub D}{sup 0}{gamma} (where {pi}{sub D}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -}). Due to Bose statistics and the real nature of the photon, the K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} decay can proceed at lowest order only by the Cp conserving direct emission of an E2 photon. The decay vanishes to O(p{sup 4}) in chiral perturbation theory and is a probe of the theory to the sixth order. The primary background to this decay consists of K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sub D}{sup 0} events with one lost photon. The upper limit for the decay K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} presented in this thesis is 2.32 x 10{sup -7} at the 90% confidence level. This upper limit was derived from both 1997 and 1999 data, using a blind analysis. The upper limit was derived from a Feldman-Cousins method, based on a weighted total of 0.53 data events in the signal region with an expected K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sub D}{sup 0} background of 0.37 {+-} 0.28 events. The previous upper limit for this decay was 5.6 x 10{sup -6} at the 90% confidence level.

  7. Search for the Rare Decay K(L) ---> pi0 pi0 gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Arenton, M.; Barker, A.R.; Bellantoni, L.; Blucher, E.; Bock, G.J.; Cheu, E.; Coleman, R.; Corcoran, M.D.; Corti, G.; Cox, B.; /Arizona U. /UCLA /Campinas State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Colorado U. /Elmhurst Coll. /Fermilab /Osaka U. /Rice U. /Sao Paulo U. /Virginia U.

    2007-08-01

    The KTeV E799 experiment has conducted a search for the rare decay K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{sup 0}{gamma} via the topology K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{sub D}{gamma} (where {pi}{sup 0}{sub D} {yields} {gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -}). Due to Bose statistics of the {pi}{sup 0} pair and the real nature of the photon, the K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} decay is restricted to proceed at lowest order by the CP conserving direct emission (DE) of an E2 electric quadrupole photon. The rate of this decay is interesting theoretically since chiral perturbation theory predicts that this process vanishes at level O(p{sup 4}). Therefore, this mode probes chiral perturbation theory at O(p{sup 6}). In this paper we report a determination of an upper limit of 2.43 x 10{sup -7} (90% CL) for K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}. This is approximately a factor of 20 lower than previous results.

  8. Measurement of the D+ -> pi+pi0 and D+ -> K+pi0Branching Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-07-21

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for the Cabbibo suppressed decays D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 124.3 fb{sup -1}. The data were taken with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory operating on and near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. We find {Beta}(D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.25 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04) x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(D{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) = (2.52 {+-} 0.47 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -4}, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the last error is due to the uncertainties in the absolute branching fraction scale for D{sup +} mesons. This represents the first observation of the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed D{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay mode and a new measurement of the D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} branching fraction.

  9. Bio-production of lactobionic acid: current status, applications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Lactobionic acid has appeared on the commercial scene as a versatile polyhydroxy acid with numerous promising applications in the food, medicine, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemical industries. This high value-added bio-product has recently received growing attention as a bioactive compound, providing an excellent chemical platform for the synthesis of novel potentially biocompatible and biodegradable drug delivery vehicles. Recent advances in tissue engineering and nanomedicine have also underlined the increased importance of this organic acid as a key biofunctionalization agent. The growing commercial relevance of lactobionic acid has therefore prompted the development of novel systems for its biotechnological production that are both sustainable and efficient. The present review explores recent advances and studies related to lactobionic acid bio-production, whether through microbial or enzymatic approaches, highlighting the key bioprocessing conditions for enhanced bio-production. Detailed overviews of the current microbial cell factories as well as downstream processing methodologies for lactobionic acid production are also presented. Furthermore, the potential prospects and current applications of this polyhydroxy acid are also discussed, with an emphasis on the role of lactobionic acid as a key platform in the development of novel drugs, biomaterials, nanoparticles and biopolymer systems. PMID:23651661

  10. Temperature-dependence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product in Metallization Lines: A Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-04-01

    One of the important phenomena in Electromigration (EM) is Blech Effect. The existence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product or EM Threshold has such fundamental and technological consequences in the design, manufacture, and testing of electronics. Temperature-dependence of Blech Product had been thermodynamically established and the real behavior of such interconnect materials have been extensively studied. The present paper reviewed the temperature-dependence of EM threshold in metallization lines of different materials and structure as found in relevant published articles. It is expected that the reader can see a big picture from the compiled data, which might be overlooked when it was examined in pieces.

  11. Outdoor cultivation of microalgae for carotenoid production: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, José A; García-González, Mercedes; Guerrero, Miguel G

    2007-04-01

    Microalgae are a major natural source for a vast array of valuable compounds, including a diversity of pigments, for which these photosynthetic microorganisms represent an almost exclusive biological resource. Yellow, orange, and red carotenoids have an industrial use in food products and cosmetics as vitamin supplements and health food products and as feed additives for poultry, livestock, fish, and crustaceans. The growing worldwide market value of carotenoids is projected to reach over US$1,000 million by the end of the decade. The nutraceutical boom has also integrated carotenoids mainly on the claim of their proven antioxidant properties. Recently established benefits in human health open new uses for some carotenoids, especially lutein, an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of a variety of degenerative diseases. Consumers' demand for natural products favors development of pigments from biological sources, thus increasing opportunities for microalgae. The biotechnology of microalgae has gained considerable progress and relevance in recent decades, with carotenoid production representing one of its most successful domains. In this paper, we review the most relevant features of microalgal biotechnology related to the production of different carotenoids outdoors, with a main focus on beta-carotene from Dunaliella, astaxanthin from Haematococcus, and lutein from chlorophycean strains. We compare the current state of the corresponding production technologies, based on either open-pond systems or closed photobioreactors. The potential of scientific and technological advances for improvements in yield and reduction in production costs for carotenoids from microalgae is also discussed. PMID:17277962

  12. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2009-10-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of the {pi}{sup 0} decay photons, with an additional muon in the final state for CC processes. In this poster, I will present how we reconstruct and select charged-current muon neutrino interactions producing {pi}{sup 0}'s in SciBooNE.

  13. Measurement of Charged Current Charged Single Pion Production in SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, K.

    2008-10-01

    The SciBooNE experiment is designed to measure neutrino cross sections on carbon around one GeV region. Charged current single charged pion production is a dominant background process for {nu}{sub {mu}} to {nu}{sub x} oscillation experiments with a few-GeV neutrino beam, and thus a precision measurement of the cross section is essential. This article reports preliminary results on this process from SciBooNE.

  14. Wnt5a inhibits K(+) currents in hippocampal synapses through nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Varas, Rodrigo; Alfaro, Iván E; Serrano, Felipe G; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco J; Cerpa, Waldo; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal synapses play a key role in memory and learning processes by inducing long-term potentiation and depression. Wnt signaling is essential in the development and maintenance of synapses via several mechanisms. We have previously found that Wnt5a induces the production of nitric oxide (NO), which modulates NMDA receptor expression in the postsynaptic regions of hippocampal neurons. Here, we report that Wnt5a selectively inhibits a voltage-gated K(+) current (Kv current) and increases synaptic activity in hippocampal slices. Further supporting a specific role for Wnt5a, the soluble Frizzled receptor protein (sFRP-2; a functional Wnt antagonist) fully inhibits the effects of Wnt5a. We additionally show that these responses to Wnt5a are mediated by activation of a ROR2 receptor and increased NO production because they are suppressed by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of ROR2 and by 7-nitroindazole, a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS. Together, our results show that Wnt5a increases NO production by acting on ROR2 receptors, which in turn inhibit Kv currents. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which Wnt5a may regulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons. PMID:26311509

  15. High current proton beams production at Simple Mirror Ion Source 37.

    PubMed

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Golubev, S; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of high current proton beam production at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP RAS). In this experimental setup, the plasma is created and the electrons are heated by 37.5 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW in a simple mirror trap fulfilling the ECR condition. Latest experiments at SMIS 37 were performed using a single-aperture two-electrode extraction system. Proton beams with currents up to 450 mA at high voltages below 45 kV were obtained. The maximum beam current density was measured to be 600 mA/cm(2). A possibility of further improvement through the development of an advanced extraction system is discussed. PMID:24593436

  16. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  17. Current methodology to assess bioequivalence of levothyroxine sodium products is inadequate.

    PubMed

    Blakesley, Vicky A

    2005-01-01

    Levothyroxine sodium is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index for which an individual patient must have his or her dose carefully titrated to achieve the necessary therapeutic effect. In addition, exogenous levothyroxine cannot be distinguished from the endogenously produced hormone. Since 2004, generic formulations have been approved for the most frequently prescribed brands of levothyroxine sodium. This review examines the methodology and statistical acceptance criteria and summarizes findings of a previously published relative bioavailability study that brings into question the use of standard criteria to assess bioequivalence of levothyroxine sodium. The key findings reviewed were the following: (1) in the absence of baseline correction for endogenous T4 levels, products that differed by as much as 25% to 33% would be declared bioequivalent; (2) the use of baseline correction reduced the likelihood of declaring products bioequivalent when they actually differed by 25% to 33%; (3) even with baseline correction, products that differed by 12.5% would be declared bioequivalent; and (4) there was evidence of significant carryover from one dosing period to the next even with washout periods of up to 53 days. In conclusion, the current recommended methodology in the United States to assess bioequivalence for levothyroxine sodium products is inadequate to differentiate products that differ by 12.5%, a clinically relevant difference. Recommendations are made for modifications to the criteria that could improve the likelihood that products that differ by a clinically significant amount in their bioavailability would not be accepted as bioequivalent. PMID:16146348

  18. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T.

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  19. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter ``EXCEED 3000AH Evo2''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T.

    2011-01-01

    High productivity medium current ion implanter "EXCEED 3000AH Evo2" is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The "Evo2" has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The "Evo2" increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called "V-lens" installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  20. Current Trends in Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Substrate, Inhibitor Reduction, Growth Variables, Coculture, and Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol is one of the most commonly used biofuels in transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gases. S. cerevisiae is the most employed yeast for ethanol production at industrial level though ethanol is produced by an array of other yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. This paper reviews the current and nonmolecular trends in ethanol production using S. cerevisiae. Ethanol has been produced from wide range of substrates such as molasses, starch based substrate, sweet sorghum cane extract, lignocellulose, and other wastes. The inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by repeated sequential fermentation, treatment with reducing agents and activated charcoal, overliming, anion exchanger, evaporation, enzymatic treatment with peroxidase and laccase, in situ detoxification by fermenting microbes, and different extraction methods. Coculturing S. cerevisiae with other yeasts or microbes is targeted to optimize ethanol production, shorten fermentation time, and reduce process cost. Immobilization of yeast cells has been considered as potential alternative for enhancing ethanol productivity, because immobilizing yeasts reduce risk of contamination, make the separation of cell mass from the bulk liquid easy, retain stability of cell activities, minimize production costs, enable biocatalyst recycling, reduce fermentation time, and protect the cells from inhibitors. The effects of growth variables of the yeast and supplementation of external nitrogen sources on ethanol optimization are also reviewed. PMID:27379305

  1. Anomalous soft photon production from the induced currents in Dirac sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loshaj, Frasher; Kharzeev, Dmitri

    2013-10-01

    The propagation of a high energy quark distrurbs the confining vacuum inducing the currents in Dirac sea. Since quarks possess electric charge, these induced vacuum currents act as a source of soft photon radiation. This can lead to the enhancement of the soft photon production above the expectations based on the charged hadron yields and the Low theorem. We illustrate the phenomenon by using the exactly soluble 1 + 1 dimensional massless Abelian gauge model that shares with QCD all of the ingredients involved in this mechanism: confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, axial anomaly, and the periodic θ-vacuum. We show that the propagating quark throughout the process of hadronization induces in the vacuum charged transition currents that lead to a strong resonant enhancement of the soft photon yield; the Low theorem however remains accurate in the limit of very soft momenta. We then construct on the basis of our result a simple phenomenological model and apply it to the soft photon production in the fragmentation of jets produced in Z0 decays. We find a qualitative agreement with the recent result from the DELPHI Collaboration.

  2. Anomalous soft photon production from the induced currents in Dirac sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Loshaj, Frashër

    2014-04-01

    The propagation of a high-energy quark disturbs the confining QCD vacuum inducing the currents in Dirac sea. Since quarks possess electric charge, these induced vacuum quark currents act as a source of soft photon radiation. This can lead to the enhancement of the soft photon production above the expectations based on the charged hadron yields and the Low theorem. We illustrate the phenomenon by using the exactly soluble 1+1 dimensional massless Abelian gauge model that shares with QCD all of the ingredients involved in this mechanism: confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, axial anomaly, and the periodic θ vacuum. We show that the propagating quark throughout the process of hadronization induces in the vacuum charged transition currents that lead to a strong resonant enhancement of the soft photon yield; the Low theorem, however, remains accurate in the limit of very soft momenta. We then construct on the basis of our result a simple phenomenological model and apply it to the soft photon production in the fragmentation of jets produced in Z0 decays. We find a qualitative agreement with the recent result from the DELPHI Collaboration.

  3. Current state of sludge production, management, treatment and disposal in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Hongchen

    2015-07-01

    Large amount of sludge has been a great trouble and raised significant concerns in China. This paper reviewed the current situation of sludge production, management, treatment and disposal in China. Total sludge production in China had an average annual growth of 13% from 2007 to 2013, and 6.25 million tons dry solids was produced in 2013. Per Capita sludge production in China is lower than that in developed countries. However, sludge management is poor in China. Administrative agents of sludge are not in accordance with each other. Laws and regulations of sludge management are incomplete and sometimes unrealistic. As to sludge treatment and disposal, many technical routes have been applied in China. Thickening, conditioning, and dewatering are three most used treatment methods, while application ratios of stabilization and drying are low in China. More than 80% of sludge is disposed by improper dumping in China. Regarding proper disposal, sanitary landfill is the commonest, followed by land application, incineration and building materials. According to the overall situation of China, "thickening-anaerobic digestion-dewatering-land application" is the priority technical route of sludge treatment and disposal. Good changes, current challenges and future perspectives of this technical route in China were analyzed and discussed in details. PMID:25912250

  4. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  5. Production of aromatics through current-enhanced catalytic conversion of bio-oil tar.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peiyan; Yuan, Yanni; Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

    2013-05-01

    Biomass conversion into benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) can provide basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, which also serve as the most important aromatic platform molecules for development of high-end chemicals. Present work explored a new route for transformation of bio-oil tar into BTX through current-enhanced catalytic conversion (CECC), involving the synergistic effect between the zeolite catalyst and current to promote the deoxygenation and cracking reactions. The proposed transformation shows an excellent BTX aromatics selectivity of 92.9 C-mol% with 25.1 wt.% yield at 400 °C over usual HZSM-5 catalyst. The study of the model compounds revealed that the groups such as methoxy, hydroxyl and methyl in aromatics can be effectively removed in the CECC process. Present transformation potentially provides an important approach for production of the key petrochemicals of BTX and the overall use of bio-oil tar derived from bio-oil or biomass. PMID:23567684

  6. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    PubMed

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  7. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Ma, Haile; Dai, Chunhua; Zhang, Henan; Li, Kexin; Li, Yunliang

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound was studied. Effect of static probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (SPUE) and counter-current probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (CCPUE) on the biodiesel conversion were compared. The results indicated that CCPUE was a better method for enhancing transesterification. The working conditions of CCPUE were studied by single-factor experiment design and the results showed that the optimal conditions were: initial temperature 25 °C, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 10:1, flow rate 200 mL/min, catalyst content 1.8%, ultrasound working on-time 4 s, off-time 2 s, total working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the average biodiesel conversion of three experiments was 96.1%. PMID:25199445

  8. Measurement of K+ production in charged-current νμ interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, C. M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Filkins, A.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Griswold, S.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Majoros, I.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Shadler, L. A.; Simon, C.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wang, Z.; Watkins, P.; Wiley, K.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zhang, D.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Production of K+ mesons in charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is measured using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI beam at Fermilab. Timing information is used to isolate a sample of 885 charged-current events containing a stopping K+ which decays at rest. The differential cross section in K+ kinetic energy, d σ /d TK, is observed to be relatively flat between 0 and 500 MeV. Its shape is in good agreement with the prediction by the genie neutrino event generator when final-state interactions are included, however the data rate is lower than the prediction by 15%.

  9. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He(2+) by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm(2) and power density of 0.52 mA/cm(2)/W. He(2+) ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He(2+) ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He(2+) ions with the layered-glow DC discharge. PMID:24593635

  10. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  11. Current practices and reform proposals for the regulation of advanced medicinal products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Bubela, Tania

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Canadian regulatory framework for evaluating advanced medicinal products based on current policies, guidance documents and regulations and analyze proposed reforms. Our analysis is based on a documentary review supplemented by discussions with Health Canada officials. We present an overview of the Canadian regulatory framework for cell and gene therapy, medical devices and manufacturing facilities. We use the approval of Prochymal™ to highlight Canada's conditional marketing approval system. Finally, we discuss proposed changes to the regulatory framework in response to identified gaps, stakeholder consultations and international harmonization initiatives. Based on our analyses, we suggest that Canadian regulators have taken a reasonable approach in applying their regulatory framework without compromising on product safety. PMID:26237706

  12. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Griffin, Emilia; Hallman, Guy J.; Griffin, Robert L.

    2012-08-01

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products by identifying best possibilities for expanding both the number and volume of commodities for irradiation and then applying appropriate business criteria in a general analysis of the commodities, commercial scenarios, and geographic regions where the greatest potential exists for expansion. The results show that fresh fruits such as mango, papaya, citrus, grapes, and vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, asparagus, garlic, and peppers from Asia and the Americas show the greatest potential. Substantial opportunities for additional growth exist, especially as regulatory conditions become more favorable.

  13. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Attrill, Martin J.; Becker, Peter H.; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W.; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. PMID:27531154

  14. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Grecian, W James; Witt, Matthew J; Attrill, Martin J; Bearhop, Stuart; Becker, Peter H; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W; Godley, Brendan J; González-Solís, Jacob; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Patrick, Samantha C; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A; Stenhouse, Iain J; Votier, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. PMID:27531154

  15. Continuous counter-current chromatography for capture and polishing steps in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The economic advantages of continuous processing of biopharmaceuticals, which include smaller equipment and faster, efficient processes, have increased interest in this technology over the past decade. Continuous processes can also improve quality assurance and enable greater controllability, consistent with the quality initiatives of the FDA. Here, we discuss different continuous multi-column chromatography processes. Differences in the capture and polishing steps result in two different types of continuous processes that employ counter-current column movement. Continuous-capture processes are associated with increased productivity per cycle and decreased buffer consumption, whereas the typical purity-yield trade-off of classical batch chromatography can be surmounted by continuous processes for polishing applications. In the context of continuous manufacturing, different but complementary chromatographic columns or devices are typically combined to improve overall process performance and avoid unnecessary product storage. In the following, these various processes, their performances compared with batch processing and resulting product quality are discussed based on a review of the literature. Based on various examples of applications, primarily monoclonal antibody production processes, conclusions are drawn about the future of these continuous-manufacturing technologies. PMID:27376629

  16. Late Pleistocene temperature and productivity variations in the Benguela Current System (ODP Leg 175, Site 1082)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, C.; Rullkötter, J.

    2003-04-01

    Site 1082 (Walvis Basin) is located close to the major upwelling cells along the Southwest African coast with a year-round upwelling activity. Sediment samples spanning the last 770 kyr were investigated to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions in the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia. Alkenone-derived paleo-sea surface temperatures (calculated from the Uk'37index) roughly follow the 18O variations of planktonic foraminifera. The core shows warmer SST values (18-20°C) during interglacial stages and colder SST values (14-16°C) during glacial stages. Two long-term trends were observed: a decrease in SST values by 1°C from 770 kyr to 450 kyr and an increase in SST values by 2°C for the last 450 kyr. SST values in the northern Benguela System confirm the onset of the dominant 100 ka cycles associated with Northern Hemisphere glaciation over the past 650 kyr. One important result is the observed warming trend in the Benguela Current region over the last 450 kyr. In this period, the trend to warmer sea surface temperatures is more evident during glacials, suggesting a southward migration of the polar and subpolar frontal systems and an intensification of the influence of the warm Agulhas Current on the Benguela Current System during glacial stages 10, 8, 6 and 4. Another possible mechanism that could be responsible for such a warming trend of the eastern South Atlantic is a weakening of the cross-equatorial heat transport from the South to the North Atlantic as a result of a weakening of the thermohaline circulation. The accumulation profile of the alkenones indicates an elevated marine surface productivity may have fluctuated over time due to the upwelling activity in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. The fluctuations in marine productivity are not related to the glacial-interglacial cycles which exhibit increased productivity during glacials at other locations. The marine biomarker distributions indicate that periods of higher

  17. The value of Operational Ocean SST and Current products in glider deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.; Proctor, R.; Hollings, B.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Suthers, I.

    2009-04-01

    On November 26, 2008 a Slocum Glider was launched with the mission to explore near-shore processes off southern New South Wales, Australia, then return to the coast. This study contributed to regional activity of the Integrated Marine Observing System (www.imos.org.au), an AU100m 5-year project to establish an ocean and regional ocean observing system for Australia. The planned mission got into difficulties due to the strength of the East Australian Current and the glider began to track offshore and away from the region of interest. In order not to lose the glider to the ocean the mission was redefined to circumnavigate a warm-core eddy evident in satellite imagery. CSIRO routinely generates maps of sea surface temperature from satellite AVHRR imagery and geostrophic currents derived from sea surface height anomalies measured by satellite altimetry. By tracking the development of the SST and geostrophic circulation against the glider reported positions the satellite data helped to guide the glider into the eddy and thus continue the study, even though the satellite SST data quality was low during much of the deployment due to heavy cloud cover, and there being only two altimeters presently useful for estimating currents. The glider was successfully retrieved on December 11, 2008 40km off Jervis Bay after travelling 1002.84 km in 15 days, an average of 0.76m/s, or 1.5kt. This was achieved principally by drifting with the current, and using the glider's 0.25m/s horizontal glide velocity to go sideways with respect to the currents, to get into water thought to be going in the desired direction. The glider was saved and 2374 CTD casts produced giving a valuable dataset for understanding warm-core eddy processes, a dataset which would not have been obtained without the use of operational products.

  18. B-group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria--current knowledge and potential applications.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J G; Laiño, J E; del Valle, M Juarez; Vannini, V; van Sinderen, D; Taranto, M P; de Valdez, G Font; de Giori, G Savoy; Sesma, F

    2011-12-01

    Although most vitamins are present in a variety of foods, human vitamin deficiencies still occur in many countries, mainly because of malnutrition not only as a result of insufficient food intake but also because of unbalanced diets. Even though most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are auxotrophic for several vitamins, it is now known that certain strains have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B-group (folates, riboflavin and vitamin B(12) amongst others). This review article will show the current knowledge of vitamin biosynthesis by LAB and show how the proper selection of starter cultures and probiotic strains could be useful in preventing clinical and subclinical vitamin deficiencies. Here, several examples will be presented where vitamin-producing LAB led to the elaboration of novel fermented foods with increased and bioavailable vitamins. In addition, the use of genetic engineering strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will also be discussed. This review will show that the use of vitamin-producing LAB could be a cost-effective alternative to current vitamin fortification programmes and be useful in the elaboration of novel vitamin-enriched products. PMID:21933312

  19. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-07-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global ‘99 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35¢/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8¢/mCi to 15.0¢/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S.

  20. Coenzyme Q10 production in plants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Sanjay Singh; Jaiwal, Anjali; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or Ubiquinone10 (UQ10), an isoprenylated benzoquinone, is well-known for its role as an electron carrier in aerobic respiration. It is a sole representative of lipid soluble antioxidant that is synthesized in our body. In recent years, it has been found to be associated with a range of patho-physiological conditions and its oral administration has also reported to be of therapeutic value in a wide spectrum of chronic diseases. Additionally, as an antioxidant, it has been widely used as an ingredient in dietary supplements, neutraceuticals, and functional foods as well as in anti-aging creams. Since its limited dietary uptake and decrease in its endogenous synthesis in the body with age and under various diseases states warrants its adequate supply from an external source. To meet its growing demand for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, there is a great interest in the commercial production of CoQ10. Various synthetic and fermentation of microbial natural producers and their mutated strains have been developed for its commercial production. Although, microbial production is the major industrial source of CoQ10 but due to low yield and high production cost, other cost-effective and alternative sources need to be explored. Plants, being photosynthetic, producing high biomass and the engineering of pathways for producing CoQ10 directly in food crops will eliminate the additional step for purification and thus could be used as an ideal and cost-effective alternative to chemical synthesis and microbial production of CoQ10. A better understanding of CoQ10 biosynthetic enzymes and their regulation in model systems like E. coli and yeast has led to the use of metabolic engineering to enhance CoQ10 production not only in microbes but also in plants. The plant-based CoQ10 production has emerged as a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach capable of supplying CoQ10 in ample amounts. The current strategies, progress and constraints of

  1. Development of blood transfusion product pathogen reduction treatments: a review of methods, current applications and demands.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk; Seghatchian, Jerard; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) have been greatly reduced in numbers due to the strict donor selection and screening procedures, i.e. the availability of technologies to test donors for endemic infections, and routine vigilance of regulatory authorities in every step of the blood supply chain (collection, processing and storage). However, safety improvement is still a matter of concern because infection zero-risk in transfusion medicine is non-existent. Alternatives are required to assure the safety of the transfusion product and to provide a substitution to systematic blood screening tests, especially in less-developed countries or at the war-field. Furthermore, the increasing mobility of the population due to traveling poses a new challenge in the endemic screening tests routinely used, because non-endemic pathogens might emerge in a specific population. Pathogen reduction treatments sum a plethora of active approaches to eliminate or reduce potential threatening pathogen load from blood transfusion products. Despite the success of pathogen reduction treatments applied to plasma products, there is still a long way to develop and deploy pathogen reduction treatments to cellular transfusion products (such as platelets, RBCs or even to whole blood) and there is divergence on its acceptance worldwide. While the use of pathogen reduction treatments in platelets is performed routinely in a fair number of European blood banks, most of these treatments are not (or just) licensed in the USA or elsewhere in the world. The development of pathogen reduction treatments for RBC and whole blood is still in its infancy and under clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the available and emerging pathogen reduction treatments and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of characterizing standard transfusion products with current and emerging approaches (OMICS) and clinical outcome, and integrating this information on a database

  2. Characterising primary productivity measurements across a dynamic western boundary current region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jason D.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2015-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of primary production (PP) in a changing ocean is a major research challenge. Thousands of estimates of marine PP exist globally, but there remain significant gaps in data availability, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In situ PP estimates are generally single-point measurements and therefore we rely on satellite models of PP in order to scale up over time and space. To reduce the uncertainty around the model output, these models need to be assessed against in situ measurements before use. This study examined the vertically-integrated productivity in four water-masses associated with the East Australian Current (EAC), the major western boundary current (WBC) of the South Pacific. We calculated vertically integrated PP from shipboard 14C PP estimates and then compared them to estimates from four commonly used satellite models (ESQRT, VGPM, VGPM-Eppley, VGPM-Kameda) to assess their utility for this region. Vertical profiles of the water-column show each water-mass had distinct temperature-salinity signatures. The depth of the fluorescence-maximum (fmax) increased from onshore (river plume) to offshore (EAC) as light penetration increased. Depth integrated PP was highest in river plumes (792±181 mg C m-2 d-1) followed by the EAC (534±116 mg C m-2 d-1), continental shelf (140±47 mg C m-2 d-1) and cyclonic eddy waters (121±4 mg C m-2 d-1). Surface carbon assimilation efficiency was greatest in the EAC (301±145 mg C (mg Chl-a)-1 d-1) compared to other water masses. All satellite primary production models tested underestimated EAC PP and overestimated continental shelf PP. The ESQRT model had the highest skill and lowest bias of the tested models, providing the best first-order estimates of PP on the continental shelf, including at a coastal time-series station, Port Hacking, which showed considerable inter-annual variability (155-2957 mg C m-2 d-1). This work provides the first estimates of depth integrated PP associated with the

  3. The effect of flavin electron shuttles in microbial fuel cells current production.

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P; Scott, Keith; Lloyd, Jonathan R; von Canstein, Harald

    2010-02-01

    The effect of electron shuttles on electron transfer to microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodes was studied in systems where direct contact with the anode was precluded. MFCs were inoculated with Shewanella cells, and flavins used as the electron shuttling compound. In MFCs with no added electron shuttles, flavin concentrations monitored in the MFCs' bulk liquid increased continuously with FMN as the predominant flavin. The maximum concentrations were 0.6 microM for flavin mononucleotide and 0.2 microM for riboflavin. In MFCs with added flavins, micro-molar concentrations were shown to increase current and power output. The peak current was at least four times higher in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins (4.5-5.5 microM) than in MFCs with low concentrations (0.2-0.6 microM). Although high power outputs (around 150 mW/m(2)) were achieved in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins, a Clostridium-like bacterium along with other reactor limitations affected overall coulombic efficiencies (CE) obtained, achieving a maximum CE of 13%. Electron shuttle compounds (flavins) permitted bacteria to utilise a remote electron acceptor (anode) that was not accessible to the cells allowing current production until the electron donor (lactate) was consumed. PMID:19697021

  4. Current technologies, economics, and perspectives for 2,5-dimethylfuran production from biomass-derived intermediates.

    PubMed

    Saha, Basudeb; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-04-13

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a perspective article that described the potential of the top ten biomass-derived platform chemicals as petroleum replacements for high-value commodity and specialty chemicals, researchers around the world have been motivated to develop technologies for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived intermediates into chemicals and fuels. Among several biorefinery processes, the conversion of biomass carbohydrates into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) has received significant attention because of its low oxygen content, high energy content, and high octane value. DMF can further serve as a petroleum-replacement, biorenewable feedstock for the production of p-xylene (pX). In this review, we aim specifically to present a concise and up-to-date analysis of DMF production technologies with a critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics, which includes sensitivity analysis, so that more effective catalysts can be designed. Special emphasis has been given to bifunctional catalysts that improve DMF yields and selectivity and the synergistic effect of the bifunctional sites. Process economics for the current processes and the scope for further improvement are discussed. It is anticipated that the chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes to enable the economic production of bio-based DMF. Processes for the upgrade of DMF to pX are also described. PMID:25703838

  5. Production of Biopharmaceuticals in E. coli: Current Scenario and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baeshen, Mohammed N; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Bora, Roop S; Ahmed, Mohamed M M; Ramadan, Hassan A I; Saini, Kulvinder S; Baeshen, Nabih A; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli is the most preferred microorganism to express heterologous proteins for therapeutic use, as around 30% of the approved therapeutic proteins are currently being produced using it as a host. Owing to its rapid growth, high yield of the product, cost-effectiveness, and easy scale-up process, E. coli is an expression host of choice in the biotechnology industry for large-scale production of proteins, particularly non-glycosylated proteins, for therapeutic use. The availability of various E. coli expression vectors and strains, relatively easy protein folding mechanisms, and bioprocess technologies, makes it very attractive for industrial applications. However, the codon usage in E. coli and the absence of post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and proteolytic processing, limit its use for the production of slightly complex recombinant biopharmaceuticals. Several new technological advancements in the E. coli expression system to meet the biotechnology industry requirements have been made, such as novel engineered strains, genetically modifying E. coli to possess capability to glycosylate heterologous proteins and express complex proteins, including full-length glycosylated antibodies. This review summarizes the recent advancements that may further expand the use of the E. coli expression system to produce more complex and also glycosylated proteins for therapeutic use in the future. PMID:25737124

  6. Natural Products in Caries Research: Current (Limited) Knowledge, Challenges and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, J.-G; Rosalen, P.L.; Falsetta, M.L.; Koo, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Virulent biofilms firmly attached to tooth surfaces are prime biological factors associated with this disease. The formation of an exopolysaccharide-rich biofilm matrix, acidification of the milieu and persistent low pH at the tooth-biofilm interface are major controlling virulence factors that modulate dental caries pathogenesis. Each one offers a selective therapeutic target for prevention. Although fluoride, delivered in various modalities, remains the mainstay for the prevention of caries, additional approaches are required to enhance its effectiveness. Available antiplaque approaches are based on the use of broad-spectrum microbicidal agents, e.g. chlorhexidine. Natural products offer a rich source of structurally diverse substances with a wide range of biological activities, which could be useful for the development of alternative or adjunctive anticaries therapies. However, it is a challenging approach owing to complex chemistry and isolation procedures to derive active compounds from natural products. Furthermore, most of the studies have been focused on the general inhibitory effects on glucan synthesis as well as on bacterial metabolism and growth, often employing methods that do not address the pathophysiological aspects of the disease (e.g. bacteria in biofilms) and the length of exposure/retention in the mouth. Thus, the true value of natural products in caries prevention and/or their exact mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, natural substances potentially active against virulent properties of cariogenic organisms have been identified. This review focuses on gaps in the current knowledge and presents a model for investigating the use of natural products in anticaries chemotherapy. PMID:21576957

  7. Natural products in caries research: current (limited) knowledge, challenges and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J-G; Rosalen, P L; Falsetta, M L; Koo, H

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Virulent biofilms firmly attached to tooth surfaces are prime biological factors associated with this disease. The formation of an exopolysaccharide-rich biofilm matrix, acidification of the milieu and persistent low pH at the tooth-biofilm interface are major controlling virulence factors that modulate dental caries pathogenesis. Each one offers a selective therapeutic target for prevention. Although fluoride, delivered in various modalities, remains the mainstay for the prevention of caries, additional approaches are required to enhance its effectiveness. Available antiplaque approaches are based on the use of broad-spectrum microbicidal agents, e.g. chlorhexidine. Natural products offer a rich source of structurally diverse substances with a wide range of biological activities, which could be useful for the development of alternative or adjunctive anticaries therapies. However, it is a challenging approach owing to complex chemistry and isolation procedures to derive active compounds from natural products. Furthermore, most of the studies have been focused on the general inhibitory effects on glucan synthesis as well as on bacterial metabolism and growth, often employing methods that do not address the pathophysiological aspects of the disease (e.g. bacteria in biofilms) and the length of exposure/retention in the mouth. Thus, the true value of natural products in caries prevention and/or their exact mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, natural substances potentially active against virulent properties of cariogenic organisms have been identified. This review focuses on gaps in the current knowledge and presents a model for investigating the use of natural products in anticaries chemotherapy. PMID:21576957

  8. Search for Charged Current Coherent Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, K.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; Brice, S.J.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dore, U.; Finley, David A.; Franke, A.J.; /Columbia U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati

    2008-11-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration has performed a search for charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, nu{sub {mu}}{sup 12}C- {yields} {mu}{sup 12}Cpi{sup +}, with two distinct data samples. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged current coherent pion production to the total charged current cross section at 0.67 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 1.1 GeV and 1.36 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 2.2 GeV.

  9. Neutrino induced charged current 1{pi}{sup +} production at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Shakeb; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2006-10-01

    The charged current one pion production induced by {nu}{sub {mu}} from nucleons and nuclei like {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei has been studied. The calculations have been done for the incoherent and the coherent processes from nuclear targets assuming the {delta} dominance model and taking into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion of the nucleon, and renormalization of {delta} properties in a nuclear medium. The effect of final state interactions of pions has been taken into account. The theoretical uncertainty in the total cross sections due to various parametrizations of the weak transition form factors used in literature has been studied. The numerical results for the total cross sections are compared with the recent preliminary results from the MiniBooNE collaboration on {sup 12}C and could be useful in analyzing future data from the K2K collaboration.

  10. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  11. Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A·m−3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A·m−3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  12. The operator product expansion between the 16 lowest higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Man Hea

    2016-07-01

    Some of the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in an extension of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra were constructed in N=4 superconformal coset SU(5)/SU(3) theory previously. In this paper, by rewriting these OPEs in the N=4 superspace developed by Schoutens (and other groups), the remaining undetermined OPEs in which the corresponding singular terms possess the composite fields with spins s =7/2, 4, 9/2, 5 are completely determined. Furthermore, by introducing arbitrary coefficients in front of the composite fields on the right-hand sides of the above complete 136 OPEs, reexpressing them in the N=2 superspace, and using the N=2 OPEs Mathematica package by Krivonos and Thielemans, the complete structures of the above OPEs with fixed coefficient functions are obtained with the help of various Jacobi identities. We then obtain ten N=2 super OPEs between the four N=2 higher spin currents denoted by (1, 3/2, 3/2, 2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), and (2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) (corresponding 136 OPEs in the component approach) in the N=4 superconformal coset SU(N+2)/SU(N) theory. Finally, we describe them as one single N=4 super OPE between the above 16 higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace. The fusion rule for this OPE contains the next 16 higher spin currents of spins of (2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 4) in addition to the quadratic N=4 lowest higher spin multiplet and the large N=4 linear superconformal family of the identity operator. The various structure constants (fixed coefficient functions) appearing on the right-hand side of this OPE depend on N and the level k of the bosonic spin-1 affine Kac-Moody current. For convenience, the above 136 OPEs in the component approach for generic ( N, k) with simplified notation are given.

  13. How stratification changes affect primary production in the California Current System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Miller, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Warming of the California Current for the recent several decades was observed and buoyancy frequency increased by the warming, which might alter the upwelling cell and nutrient supply in the California Current System (CCS). Coastal upwelling plays an important role in bringing nutrients into euphotic zone for photosynthesis in the CCS. It is well known that bottom stress plays a significant role for the coastal upwelling. However, Lentz and Chapman (2004) proposed a new theory that nonlinear cross-shelf momentum flux can be more important than the bottom stress so onshore returning flow in the bottom boundary layer is less than interior cross-shelf momentum flux. The importance of interior flow depends on Burger number, which is a function of buoyancy frequency. Thus, we hypothesized that intensified stratification observed in the CCS, consequently increased Burger number can result in stronger interior return flow, which has less nutrient than bottom boundary return flow, and presumably less primary production and zooplankton biomass. To address this hypothesis modeling effort has been conducted using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with biological tracers.

  14. Weak charged and neutral current induced one pion production off the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Chauhan, S.; Singh, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    We present a study of neutrino/antineutrino induced charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) single pion production (SPP) off the nucleon. For this, we have considered P33(1232) resonance, nonresonant background (NRB) terms, other higher resonances like P11(1440), S11(1535), D13(1520), S11(1650) and P13(1720). For the NRB terms a microscopic approach based on SU(2) nonlinear sigma model has been used. The vector form factors for the resonances are obtained by using the relationship between the electromagnetic resonance form factors and helicity amplitudes provided by MAID. Axial coupling C5A(0) in the case of P33(1232) resonance is obtained by fitting the ANL and BNL ν-deuteron reanalyzed scattering data. The results are presented with and without deuteron effect for the total scattering cross-sections for all possible channels, viz. νl(ν¯l)+N → l-(l+)+N‧+πi and νl(ν¯l)+N → νl(ν¯l)+N‧ + πi, where N,N‧ = p,n, πi = π± or π0 and l = e,μ.

  15. Hybridization of photoanode and bioanode to enhance the current production of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huajun; Liang, Yuxiang; Guo, Kun; Li, Na; Shen, Dongsheng; Cong, Yanqing; Zhou, Yuyang; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial extracellular electron transfer is one of the main bottlenecks in determining the efficiency of bioelectrochemical systems. Here, we report a photobioanode that combines carbon material with a photocatalyst (α-Fe2O3), utilizing visible light to accelerate biofilm formation and extracellular electron transfer in bioelectrochemical systems. Cyclic voltammetric studies of this photobioanode revealed active electron transfer at the anode/biofilm interface. The charge-transfer resistance of the anode/biofilm was ca. 46.6 Ω, which is half that of the unmodified anode. In addition, the results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and bacterial community analysis indicate that the photobioanode and light can accelerate biofilm formation and enrich exoelectrogens. When equipped in photo-bioelectrochemical systems, the start-up time was shortened from about 2.5 days to 1.1 days. The maximum current density of photo-bioelectrochemical systems was almost twice that of a control bioelectrochemical system. In addition, the current density of the photo-bio-electrochemical cell (PBEC) showed almost no decrease after being subjected to 40 d of illumination. This photobioanode is therefore a cost-effective, energy-clean, environment-friendly anode with high electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability, which has broad prospects in various processes, including wastewater treatment, bioelectricity generation, bioelectricity synthesis, and hydrogen production. PMID:27395027

  16. Current challenges in the discovery of novel antibacterials from microbial natural products.

    PubMed

    Genilloud, Olga

    2012-12-01

    Microbial natural products have been for decades one of the most successful sources of drugs to treat infectious diseases. The high occurrence of resistances to all major classes of known antibiotics represents today a new challenge and new classes of antibacterial compounds are urgently needed to respond to this unmet clinical need. While natural products discovery programs have been gradually abandoned by big pharma, smaller biotechnology companies and other research organizations are taking the lead in the discovery of novel antibacterials. A survey of recent patents has shown that in spite of the efforts, few novel compounds are being developed that can overcome most of the emerging multi-resistant and pan-resistant pathogens. In order to respond to the current challenges of discovering novel antibiotics, new approaches are required to be developed to further exploit the microbial resources and their biosynthetic potential as an untapped source of novel metabolites. Strategies to mine microbial collections for orphan biosynthetic pathways and novel species thought to be uncultivable, are emerging as a need within antibacterial drug discovery programs, in combination with high throughput screening and chemical dereplication of novel compounds. Different innovative methods that are being developed to respond to the new challenges that are faced today by drug discovery programs will ensure the evolution of these strategies into a completely new framework that will address the renovated interest in the discovery of novel classes of antibiotics. PMID:22963258

  17. Biohydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bielen, Abraham A. M.; Verhaart, Marcel R. A.; van der Oost, John; Kengen, Servé W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is one of the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known to date. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium ferments a broad spectrum of mono-, di- and polysaccharides to mainly acetate, CO2 and hydrogen. With hydrogen yields approaching the theoretical limit for dark fermentation of 4 mol hydrogen per mol hexose, this organism has proven itself to be an excellent candidate for biological hydrogen production. This review provides an overview of the research on C. saccharolyticus with respect to the hydrolytic capability, sugar metabolism, hydrogen formation, mechanisms involved in hydrogen inhibition, and the regulation of the redox and carbon metabolism. Analysis of currently available fermentation data reveal decreased hydrogen yields under non-ideal cultivation conditions, which are mainly associated with the accumulation of hydrogen in the liquid phase. Thermodynamic considerations concerning the reactions involved in hydrogen formation are discussed with respect to the dissolved hydrogen concentration. Novel cultivation data demonstrate the sensitivity of C. saccharolyticus to increased hydrogen levels regarding substrate load and nitrogen limitation. In addition, special attention is given to the rhamnose metabolism, which represents an unusual type of redox balancing. Finally, several approaches are suggested to improve biohydrogen production by C. saccharolyticus. PMID:25371332

  18. Paths Forward: Current International and US Initiatives to Support More Sustainable Options for Uranium Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmann, M.; Rood, C.; Keefe, M.

    2008-07-01

    With the nuclear renaissance, the uranium mining industry has undergone a dramatic renaissance, as well. This has been evidenced in the past 2 years with forums such as those organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and in the United States (US) the National Mining Association/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NMA/NRC) workshops drawing record attendance by established and junior uranium mining firms. In addition, IAEA meetings, as well as meetings of the NMA, industry, and agencies have begun to focus, not on only on site closure - but on the growing industry and plans for permitting new uranium recovery facilities. Finally, the International Forum on Sustainable Options for Uranium Production (IFSOUP) has emerged to carry forward many recent cooperative dialogs and concepts developed in sustainability initiatives, bringing together industry, agencies and NGOs - with the view to developing more sustainable, socially-acceptable uranium recovery practices. In this context, this paper will present current international and US initiatives which are intended to support more sustainable options for uranium production. First, we will describe a new initiative for international cooperative dialogues, to build industry, agency and NGO cooperation for enhancing global sustainability in uranium production operations, and avoid the legacy issues found in past operations: the inaugural meeting of the International Forum on Sustainable Options for Uranium Production, or IFSOUP. IFSOUP will carry forward discussions of recent and present initiatives including the Global Mining Initiative; the Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development Initiative (MMSD); the International Council on Mining and Metals; and the sustainable development initiatives of the US National Mining Association. Consistent with the process of ensuring development of a sustainable uranium recovery industry, while factoring in stakeholder concerns, an initiative to promote strong regulation in

  19. Metabolic Investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Its Bacterial Cellulose Production under a Direct Current Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Zhong, Cheng; Zhang, Yu Ming; Xu, Ze Ming; Qiao, Chang Sheng; Jia, Shi Ru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a direct current (DC) electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC) production was promoted in 12 h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field). At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18-24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid, and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth. PMID:27014248

  20. Metabolic Investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Its Bacterial Cellulose Production under a Direct Current Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Zhong, Cheng; Zhang, Yu Ming; Xu, Ze Ming; Qiao, Chang Sheng; Jia, Shi Ru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a direct current (DC) electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC) production was promoted in 12 h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field). At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18–24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid, and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth. PMID:27014248

  1. Discrepancy in climatic zoning of the current soil productivity evaluation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuchma, Filip; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    Pedologic-ecological estimation in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) means determination of land agronomic productivity and its economical pricing and is expressed as a five position numeral code and mapped as iso-lines. The first position of the code is the climatic region representing approximately the same conditions for agricultural plant growth and development. This climatic regionalization was based on the climatic data from 1901-1950. Currently, there is the need to update their existing zoning due to the technological progress of measurement and development of climate models including estimation of future climate. The aim of the paper is (i) to apply actual climatic data to climatic regionalization and (ii) to estimate what climatic conditions are relevant for actually valid climatic regions. The original methodology currently enables us to unequivocally classify only 17% of the entire territory of the Czech Republic (and 18% of Czech agricultural land). A substantial part of the territory does not fit neatly into individual climatic regions. Subsequently the actually valid ranges of climatic characteristics of individual climatic regions were determined. The GIS layers of individual climatic variables computed with data from 1961-2010 were one by one covered by GIS layers of individual climatic regions based on data from 1901-1950. Interval ranges of climatic region variables determined in this way are valid for the period 1961-2010. The upper limit of air temperature sum above 10 °C and annual air temperature in most of the climatic regions was significantly shifted up in 1961-2010. An increase in precipitation is noticeable in wet climatic regions. Moisture certainty in vegetation season and probability of dry vegetation are the most problematic in terms of Estimated Pedologic-Ecological Units (EPEU) climatic zoning. This should be taken into account when fixing the official soil price.

  2. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:21083425

  3. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Production of an Oncolytic Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Viral Vector for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, M.; Derecho, I.; Lopez, P.; Knoblauch, C.; McMahon, R.; Anderson, J.; Dunphy, N.; Quezada, V.; Khan, R.; Huang, P.; Dang, W.; Luo, M.; Hsu, D.; Woo, S.L.C.; Couture, L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 109 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 1010 PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 1013 PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:21083425

  4. Decadal variations of Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation from multiple ocean products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Wang, Qingye; Wang, Fujun; Hu, Dunxin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we examine the decadal variations of the Pacific North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NBL) averaged over upper 100 m and underlying dynamics over the past six decades using 11 ocean products, including seven kinds of ocean reanalyzes based on ocean data assimilation systems, two kinds of numerical simulations without assimilating observations and two kinds of objective analyzes based on in situ observations only. During the period of 1954-2007, the multiproduct mean of decadal NBL anomalies shows maxima around 1965/1966, 1980/1981, 1995/1996, and 2003/2004, and minima around 1958, 1971/1972, 1986/1987, and 2000/2001, respectively. The NBL decadal variations are related to the first Empirical Orthogonal Function mode of decadal anomalies of sea surface height (SSH) in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean, which shows spatially coherent variation over the whole region and explains most of the total variance. Further regression and composite analyzes indicate that northerly/southerly NBL corresponds to negative/positive SSH anomalies and cyclonic/anticyclonic gyre anomalies in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. These decadal circulation variations and thus the decadal NBL variations are governed mostly by the first two vertical modes and attribute the most to the first baroclinic mode. The NBL decadal variation is highly positively correlated with the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) around the zero time lag. With a lead of about half the decadal cycle the NBL displays closer but negative relationship to TPDV in four ocean products, possibly manifesting the dynamical role of the circulation in the northwestern tropical Pacific in the phase-shifting of TPDV.

  5. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand. PMID:23849753

  6. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  7. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Janet J; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  8. A Measurement of Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Neutral Pion Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current neutral pion production (CCπ0) off a nuclear target. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) and Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) are discussed in detail. MiniBooNE is a high-statistics (~ 1, 000, 000 interactions) low-energy (Evϵ 2 0.5 - 2.0 GeV) neutrino experiment located at Fermilab. The method for selecting and reconstructing CCπ0 events is presented. The π0 and μ- are fully reconstructed in the final state allowing for the measurement of, among other things, the neutrino energy. The total observable CCπ0 cross-section is presented as a function of neutrino energy, along with five differential cross-sections in terms of the final state kinematics and Q2. The results are combined to yield a flux-averaged total cross-section of <σ>Φ = (9.2 ± 0.3stat. ± 1.5syst.) × 10-39 cm2/CH2 at energy 965 MeV. These measurements will aid future neutrino experiments with the prediction of their neutrino interaction rates.

  9. Investigation into the dosage form attributes of currently UK licensed cardiovascular and Parkinson's disease drug products.

    PubMed

    Hanning, S M; Muhamed, J; Orlu-Gul, M

    2015-02-01

    Globally, there is a continuous rise in the older population (over 65 years), particularly in developed countries. As many diseases are age-related, older adults represent a highly heterogeneous cohort. This presents a major challenge for both the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this research was to attract attention towards the appropriateness of geriatric formulations by investigating the dosage form attributes of currently UK licensed cardiovascular and Parkinson's disease drug products. Medication available in the UK for cardiovascular disorders and Parkinson's disease were screened and the available formulations, packaging and patient information leaflets of these medicines were analysed, with the goal of raising awareness of the need to cater for elderly patients with increasing difficulty in managing their medication. It emerged that although cardiovascular disorders and Parkinson's disease are more prevalent in older people, many treatment options have not been optimised for this cohort. In particular, older patient centred dosage forms, specific dosing requirements, excipients, patient-friendly packaging and easy-to-follow patient information were highlighted as areas to be considered in order to optimise health outcomes in the ageing population. PMID:25556052

  10. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja California, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Gaxiola-Castro, G.; Zamudio, L.; Cervantes-Duarte, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Gulf of Ulloa, a highly productive area off the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, is examined for five successive years (2003-2007) by using satellite data and seasonal net primary productivity (NPP) estimates obtained from a vertical generalised production model. The results identify that northwestern winds blow parallel to the coast throughout the year. However, highest NPP occurs from March to June. During this period, an equatorward coastal current transports water from neighbouring upwelling areas to the northern Gulf of Ulloa and in combination with local upwelling, which injects nutrients into the euphotic zone, produce the observed increase in NPP. The opposite situation occurs in late summer when a warm poleward current of tropical characteristics arrives and inhibits the productivity in the whole region and generates the yearly lowest NPP levels. Our findings reveal the importance of lateral advection in the modulation of the primary productivity in this subtropical upwelling region.

  11. Excess Heat Production in Pd/D during Periodic Pulse Discharge Current in Various Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabut, A. B.

    2006-02-01

    Experimental data from low-energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. Excess heat from a high current glow discharge reaction in D2, Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess heat up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. Excess heat up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess heat was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, and 115In) with the efficiency up to 1013 at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides ware quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H2, D2, Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 106 photons, with up to 105 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2-2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess heat and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels is considered.

  12. Use of Yohkoh SXT in Measuring the Net Current and CME Productivity of Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In our investigation of the correlation of global nonpotentiality of active regions to their CME productivity (Falconer, D.A. 2001, JGR, in press, and Falconer, Moore, & Gary, 2000, EOS 82, 20 S323), we use Yohkoh SXT images for two purposes. The first use is to help resolve the 180 degree ambiguity in the direction of the observed transverse magnetic field. Resolution of the 180 degree ambiguity is important, since the net current, one of our measures of global nonpotentiality, is derived from integrating the dot product of the transverse field around a contour (I(sub N)=(integral)BT(raised dot)dl). The ambiguity results from the observed transverse field being determined from the linear polarization, which gives the plane of the direction, but leaves a 180 degrees ambiguity. Automated methods to resolve the ambiguity ranging from the simple acute angle rule (Falconer, D.A. 2001) to the more sophisticated annealing method (Metcalf T.R. 1994). For many active regions, especially ones that are nearly potential these methods work well. But for very nonpotential active regions where the shear angle (the angle between the observed and potential transverse field) is near 90 degrees throughout large swaths along the main neutral line, both methods can resolve the ambiguity incorrectly for long segments of the neutral line. By determining from coronal images, such as those from Yohkoh/SXT, the sense of shear along the main neutral line in the active region, these cases can be identified and corrected by a modification of the acute angle rule described here. The second use of Yohkoh/SXT in this study is to check for the cusped coronal arcades of long-duration eruptive flares. This signature is an excellent proxy for CMEs, and was used by Canfield, Hudson, and McKenzie (1999 GRL V26, 6, 627-630). This work is funded by NSF through the Space Weather Program and by NASA through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  13. Production of conidia of Beauveria bassiana in solid-state culture: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Perez, M; Rodriguez-Gomez, D; Loera, O

    2015-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus widely commercialized in the world. Recent progress and achievements on conidia production have focused on a yield goal of 10(9) to 10(10) conidia per gram of dry substrate. Due to cost-competitive perspectives, these yields should be associated with better production rates or productivities. This study presents a review of relevant studies of B. bassiana conidia production on solid-state cultures and the parameters that should be taken into account to maintain constant quality in the product to be commercialized. Conditions for maximizing production and infectivity of B. bassiana conidia are also analysed. PMID:24494702

  14. EVOLUTION OF CURRENTS OF OPPOSITE SIGNS IN THE FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Bhattacharyya, R. E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in E-mail: ramit@prl.res.in

    2011-10-10

    Analysis of a time series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 10930 available from the Solar Optical Telescope SpectroPolarimeter on board Hinode revealed that there is a mixture of upward and downward currents in the two footpoints of an emerging flux rope. The flux emergence rate is almost the same in both the polarities. We observe that along with an increase in magnetic flux, the net current in each polarity increases initially for about three days after which it decreases. This net current is characterized by having exactly opposite signs in each polarity while its magnitude remains almost the same most of the time. The decrease of the net current in both the polarities is due to the increase of current having a sign opposite to that of the net current. The dominant current, with the same sign as the net current, is seen to increase first and then decreases during the major X-class flares. Evolution of non-dominant current appears to be a necessary condition for flare initiation. The above observations can be plausibly explained in terms of the superposition of two different force-free states resulting in a non-zero Lorentz force in the corona. This Lorentz force then pushes the coronal plasma and might facilitate the magnetic reconnection required for flares. Also, the evolution of the net current is found to follow the evolution of magnetic shear at the polarity inversion line.

  15. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  16. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, Katsuki

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged

  17. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from

  18. Spatial forecasting of switchgrass productivity under current and future climate change scenarios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating the potential of alternative energy crops across large geographic regions and over time is necessary to determine if feedstock production is feasible and sustainable in the face of growing production demands and climatic change. Panicum virgatum L., a perennial herbaceous grass, is a prom...

  19. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59254). At the request of the State agency and a... Employment and Training Administration Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood... Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division, including on- site...

  20. Field Evaluations of Commercial Humic Products: Current Knowledge and Future Needs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic products are extracts of lignite or leonardite, which are immature coals. Humic products are sold commercially; their advertisements claim they will improve plant growth when applied to plants or soil. They are bought by small proportions of row crop farmers and growers of flowers, vegetables,...

  1. Monitoring the tobacco use epidemic II. The Agent: Current and Emerging Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Stellman, Steven D.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This Agent paper summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Agent (product) Working Group of the November, 2002, National Tobacco Monitoring, Research and Evaluation Workshop. Methods The Agent Working Group evaluated the need to develop new surveillance systems for quantifying ingredients and emissions of tobacco and tobacco smoke and to improve methods to assess uptake and metabolism of these constituents taking into account variability in human smoking behavior. Results The toxic properties of numerous tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents are well known, yet systematic monitoring of tobacco products has historically been limited to tar, nicotine, and CO in mainstream cigarette smoke using a machine-smoking protocol that does not reflect human smoking behavior. Toxicity of smokeless tobacco products has not been regularly monitored. Tobacco products are constantly changing and untested products are introduced into the marketplace with great frequency, including potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs). The public health impact of new or modified tobacco products is unknown. Conclusions Systematic surveillance is recommended for mainstream smoke constituents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), total and free-base nicotine, volatile organic compounds, aromatic amines, and metals; and design attributes including tobacco blend, additives, and filter ventilation. Research on smoking topography is recommended to help define machine-smoking protocols for monitoring emissions reflective of human smoking behavior. Recommendations are made for marketplace product sampling and for population monitoring of smoking topography, emissions of toxic constituents, biomarkers of exposure and, eventually, risk of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:18848577

  2. Needs assessment for future US pear rootstock directions based on the current state of pear production and rootstock research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear acreage in the United States (U.S.) is declining due to lack of precocity and high cost of production. The U.S. pear industry currently lacks “modern” orchard systems characterized by compact trees that produce early, high yields of large, high quality fruit. Tall, shaded canopies are not eco...

  3. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin A.

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  4. R-parity violating effects in top quark flavor-changing neutral-current production at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Junjie; Heng Zhaoxia; Yang Jinmin; Wu Lei

    2009-03-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric model the R-parity violating top quark interactions, which are so far weakly constrained, can induce various flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) productions for the top quark at the large hadron collider (LHC). In this work we assume the presence of the B-violating couplings and examine their contributions to the FCNC productions proceeding through the parton processes cg{yields}t, gg{yields}tc, cg{yields}t{gamma}, cg{yields}tZ and cg{yields}th. We find that all these processes can be greatly enhanced relative to the R-parity preserving predictions. In the parameter space allowed by current experiments, all the production channels except cg{yields}th can reach the 3{sigma} sensitivity, in contrast to the R-parity preserving case in which only cg{yields}t can reach the 3{sigma} sensitivity.

  5. Study of the Tau- to Pi- Pi+ Pi- Pi0 Nu/Tau And Tau- to Pi- Pi- Pi+ Eta Nu/Tau Decays Using the BaBar Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sobie, Randall; /Victoria U.

    2007-11-14

    The {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays have been studied with the BABAR detector. Preliminary branching fractions on the two modes are presented. The {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta}{nu}{sub {tau}} mode is found to have a large contribution from the {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay. The {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay is studied using the {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} mode and the {tau}{sup -} f{sub 1}(1285){pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay is seen to be the primary source of these decays. A 90% confidence level upper limit is placed on the {tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}{prime}(958){pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay which proceeds through a second-class current and is expected to be forbidden in the limit of perfect isospin symmetry.

  6. Exploration and comparison of inborn capacity of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for microbial electrical current production

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses numerous advantageous biological features, such as being robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic and having high catabolic rates, etc., which can be considered as merits for being used as a promising biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. Previous studies have developed efficient MFC configurations to convert metabolic electron shuttles, such as cytoplasmic NADH, into usable electric current. However, no studies have elucidated the maximum potential of S. cerevisiae for current output and the underlying metabolic pathways, resulting from the interaction of thousands of reactions inside the cell during MFC operation. To address these two key issues, this study used in silico metabolic engineering techniques, flux balance analysis (FBA), and flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN), to model the metabolic perturbation of S. cerevisiae under the MFC-energy extraction. The FBA results showed that, in the cytoplasmic NADH-dependent mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, S. cerevisiae had a potential to produce currents at up to 5.781 A/gDW for the anaerobic and 6.193 A/gDW for the aerobic environments. The FATMIN results showed that the aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are resilient, relying on six and five contributing reactions respectively for high current production. Two reactions, catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.4.1.3) and methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.5), were shared in both current-production modes and contributed to over 80% of the identified maximum current outputs. It is also shown that the NADH regeneration was much less energy costly than biomass production rate. Taken together, our finding suggests that S. cerevisiae should receive more research effort for MFC electricity production. PMID:23969939

  7. Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a boundary current system

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Coulson, Peter G.; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J.; Waite, Anya M.; Wakefield, Corey B.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin Current, a poleward-flowing, eastern boundary current. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin Current. The Leeuwin Current influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong current favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin Current strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats. PMID:25761975

  8. Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a boundary current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Coulson, Peter G.; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J.; Waite, Anya M.; Wakefield, Corey B.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin Current, a poleward-flowing, eastern boundary current. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin Current. The Leeuwin Current influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong current favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin Current strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats.

  9. Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a boundary current system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Coulson, Peter G; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J; Waite, Anya M; Wakefield, Corey B; Meekan, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin Current, a poleward-flowing, eastern boundary current. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin Current. The Leeuwin Current influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong current favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin Current strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats. PMID:25761975

  10. Using High Fluoride Concentration Products in Public Policy: A Rapid Review of Current Guidelines for High Fluoride Concentration Products.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Gail V A; Ramsdale, Martin P; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Csikar, Julia I

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in dental caries levels since the widespread introduction of fluoride toothpastes, it is still a disease which is considered to be a priority in many countries around the world. Individuals at higher risk of caries can be targeted with products with a high fluoride concentration to help reduce the amount and severity of the disease. This paper compares guidance from around the world on the use of products with a high fluoride concentration and gives examples of how guidance has been translated into activity in primary care dental practice. A rapid review of electronic databases was conducted to identify the volume and variation of guidance from national or professional bodies on the use of products with a high fluoride concentration. Fifteen guidelines published within the past 10 years and in English were identified and compared. The majority of these guidelines included recommendations for fluoride varnish use as well as for fluoride gels, while a smaller number offered guidance on high fluoride strength toothpaste and other vehicles. Whilst there was good consistency in recommendations for fluoride varnish in particular, there was sometimes a lack of detail in other areas of recommendation for other vehicles with a high fluoride concentration. There are good examples within the UK, such as the Childsmile project and Delivering Better Oral Health, which highlight that the provision of evidence-based guidance can be influential in directing scarce resources towards oral health improvements. Policy can be influenced by evidence-based national recommendations and used to help encourage dental professionals and commissioners and third-party payers to adopt higher levels of practices aimed at oral health improvement. PMID:27100106

  11. Self-vapor cooled targets for production of I-123 at high current accelerators. [using Xe-123 production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W.; Scholz, K. L.; Sodd, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    The basic elements of the vapor cooled target system are shown. This system can be operated as a heat pipe or as a conventional condenser. The choice of target fluid is based on the specific nuclear reaction chosen to produce Xe-123. The reaction using I-127 was studied and shown to have a significant yield for bombarding energies from 47 to 63 MeV. The Cs-133 reaction is also included. Xenon-123 is applied to I-123 production in a purer form for thyroid studies.

  12. Current progress in high cell density yeast bioprocesses for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Westman, Johan O; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2015-08-01

    High capital costs and low reaction rates are major challenges for establishment of fermentation-based production systems in the bioeconomy. Using high cell density cultures is an efficient way to increase the volumetric productivity of fermentation processes, thereby enabling faster and more robust processes and use of smaller reactors. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the application of high cell density yeast bioprocesses for first and second generation bioethanol production. High biomass concentrations obtained by retention of yeast cells in the reactor enables easier cell reuse, simplified product recovery and higher dilution rates in continuous processes. High local cell density cultures, in the form of encapsulated or strongly flocculating yeast, furthermore obtain increased tolerance to convertible fermentation inhibitors and utilize glucose and other sugars simultaneously, thereby overcoming two additional hurdles for second generation bioethanol production. These effects are caused by local concentration gradients due to diffusion limitations and conversion of inhibitors and sugars by the cells, which lead to low local concentrations of inhibitors and glucose. Quorum sensing may also contribute to the increased stress tolerance. Recent developments indicate that high cell density methodology, with emphasis on high local cell density, offers significant advantages for sustainable second generation bioethanol production. PMID:26211654

  13. Toward production from gas hydrates: Current status, assessment of resources, and simulation-based evaluation of technology and potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Koh, C.; Sloan, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production. Copyright 2008, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  14. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  15. Production and supply of radioisotopes with high-energy particle accelerators current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.

    1994-03-01

    Although the production of radioisotopes in reactors or in low to medium energy cyclotrons appears to be relatively well established, especially for those isotopes that are routinely used and have a commercial market, certain isotopes can either be made only in high-energy particle accelerators or their production is more cost effective when made this way. These facilities are extremely expensive to build and operate, and isotope production is, in general, either not cost-effective or is in conflict with their primary mandate or missions which involve physics research. Isotope production using high-energy accelerators in the US, therefore, has been only an intermittent and parasitic activity. However, since a number of isotopes produced at higher energies are emerging as being potentially useful for medical and other applications, there is a renewed concern about their availability in a continuous and reliable fashion. In the US, in particular, the various aspects of the prediction and availability of radioisotopes from high-energy accelerators are presently undergoing a detailed scrutiny and review by various scientific and professional organizations as well as the Government. A number of new factors has complicated the supply/demand equation. These include considerations of cost versus needs, reliability factors, mission orientation, research and educational components, and commercial viability. This paper will focus on the present status and projected needs of radioisotope production with high-energy accelerators in the US, and will compare and examine the existing infrastructure in other countries for this purpose.

  16. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    PubMed

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design. PMID:26872494

  17. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of carboxylic acids: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Derek A; Zelle, Rintze M; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2009-12-01

    To meet the demands of future generations for chemicals and energy and to reduce the environmental footprint of the chemical industry, alternatives for petrochemistry are required. Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks has a huge potential for cleaner, sustainable industrial production of fuels and chemicals. Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for production of chemical building blocks that can replace their petrochemically derived equivalents. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not naturally produce organic acids in large quantities, its robustness, pH tolerance, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse make it an excellent candidate biocatalyst for such processes. Genetic engineering, along with evolution and selection, has been successfully used to divert carbon from ethanol, the natural endproduct of S. cerevisiae, to pyruvate. Further engineering, which included expression of heterologous enzymes and transporters, yielded strains capable of producing lactate and malate from pyruvate. Besides these metabolic engineering strategies, this review discusses the impact of transport and energetics as well as the tolerance towards these organic acids. In addition to recent progress in engineering S. cerevisiae for organic acid production, the key limitations and challenges are discussed in the context of sustainable industrial production of organic acids from renewable feedstocks. PMID:19566685

  18. Transverse Single Spin Asymmetries and Cross-Sections for Forward pi0 and eta Mesons at Large Feynman-x in sqrt(s)=200 GeV polarized p+p Collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    of more than a factor of ten for a 20 polygonal case with strict turning requirements. This increase in performance came with a 99% certainty of receiving the best found solution over the course of 100 runs. With only a 1% chance for error in this particular case, the hybridized method has been shown to be quite powerful. While no comparison is currently possible for MDPVDMTSP solutions, UNCLE SCROOGE was found to develop promising results. On average, it takes the code 25.62 seconds to approximately solve a 200 polygon, 4 depot, 5 UAV's per depot problem. This polygon count was increased even up to 2,500, with a solution taking 9.8 hours. It has been shown that UNCLE SCROOGE performs well in solving the MDPVDMTSP and has acceptable scalability.

  19. Fuel Ethanol Production from Agricultural Residues: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, the U.S. produced 10.6 billion gallons of fuel ethanol from corn starch. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires that 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel be produced in 2022 of which cellulosic biofuel is to contribute 16 billion gallons. Currently, there is no commerci...

  20. FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CROP RESIDUES: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, about 5 billion gallons of ethanol were produced from corn starch in the U.S.A. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks for conversion to fuel ethanol. In this presentation, current state...

  1. Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet.

    PubMed

    Lau, Bryan; Kedem, Ofer; Ratner, Mark A; Weiss, Emily A

    2016-06-01

    Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. This paper describes the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By examining the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron. PMID:27415229

  2. Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bryan; Kedem, Ofer; Ratner, Mark A.; Weiss, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. This paper describes the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By examining the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.

  3. Muon neutrino charged current inclusive charged pion (CCπ{sup ±}) production in MINERνA

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, B.

    2015-05-15

    The production of charged pions by neutrinos interacting on nuclei is of great interest in nuclear physics and neutrino oscillation experiments. The MINERνA experiment is working towards releasing the world’s first high statistics neutrino pion production measurements in a few-GeV neutrino beam. We describe MINERνA’s CCπ{sup ±} analysis event selection in both the neutrino and antineutrino beams, noting reconstruction resolutions and kinematic limits. We also show area-normalized data-simulation comparisons of the reconstructed muon and charged pion kinetic energy distributions.

  4. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  5. Oleaginous yeasts for biodiesel: current and future trends in biology and production.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Garay, Luis A; Sestric, Ryan; Levin, David; Block, David E; German, J Bruce; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-11-15

    Production of biodiesel from edible plant oils is quickly expanding worldwide to fill a need for renewable, environmentally-friendly liquid transportation fuels. Due to concerns over use of edible commodities for fuels, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils including microbial oils is being developed. Microalgae biodiesel is approaching commercial viability, but has some inherent limitations such as requirements for sunlight. While yeast oils have been studied for decades, recent years have seen significant developments including discovery of new oleaginous yeast species and strains, greater understanding of the metabolic pathways that determine oleaginicity, optimization of cultivation processes for conversion of various types of waste plant biomass to oil using oleaginous yeasts, and development of strains with enhanced oil production. This review examines aspects of oleaginous yeasts not covered in depth in other recent reviews. Topics include the history of oleaginous yeast research, especially advances in the early 20th century; the phylogenetic diversity of oleaginous species, beyond the few species commonly studied; and physiological characteristics that should be considered when choosing yeast species and strains to be utilized for conversion of a given type of plant biomass to oleochemicals. Standardized terms are proposed for units that describe yeast cell mass and lipid production. PMID:25172033

  6. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lütken, Henrik; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-07-01

    Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduction of chemicals applied during production of ornamental plants. Numerous chemicals used in modern plant production have negative impacts on human health and are hazardous to the environment. In Europe, several compounds have lost their approval and further legal restrictions can be expected. This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed as alternative to growth retardants, comprising recombinant DNA approaches targeting relevant hormone pathways, e.g. the gibberellic acid (GA) pathway. A reduced content of active GAs causes compact growth and can be facilitated by either decreased anabolism, increased catabolism or altered perception. Moreover, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors. In conclusion, molecular breeding approaches are dealt with in a way allowing a critical biological assessment and enabling the scientific community and public to put genetic engineering of ornamental plants into a perspective regarding their usefulness in plant breeding. PMID:22527196

  7. [Current impact of natural products in the discovery of anticancer drugs].

    PubMed

    Monneret, C

    2010-07-01

    Since the middle of 1990s, the development of combinatorial chemistry along with the high throughput screening have led to some lack of interest for natural products from the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, purification and optimization of natural compounds are very often difficult and animal experimentations need enough supply of natural sources or alternatively need sophisticated total synthesis. In oncology, this increased disinterest was also closely connected with the rapid expansion of monoclonal antibodies and synthetic protein kinase inhibitors. However since 2005, with the approval of five new drugs by the FDA (trabectedin, ixabepilone, temsirolimus, everolimus and Vinflunine), it appears that natural products are still present as direct or indirect sources of drugs. On the other hand, a third generation of natural product has arisen, which relies upon bioengineering using genetically altered producer organisms. This is particularly true of the polyketides where bioengineering harnesses their natural flexibility to expand their structural diversity. Several programs are going on to produce antibiotics, anticancer drugs or immunosuppressant. This combinatorial approach makes drug discovery by bioengineering complementary with conventional medicinal chemistry. With the approval of Mylotarg by the FDA, increased interest has also been devoted to immunoconjugates, which represent a way by which highly cytotoxic natural products such as dolastatin, calicheamycin, duocarmycin and maytansin may be targeted to cancer cells while limiting their side-effects. PMID:20637355

  8. Do biological medicinal products pose a risk to the environment?: a current view on ecopharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Kühler, Thomas C; Andersson, Mikael; Carlin, Gunnar; Johnsson, Ann; Akerblom, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of active pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of growing concern. The vast majority of the compounds in question are of low molecular weight, intended for oral use and designed to tolerate, for example, the digestive enzymes in the upper alimentary tract, the harsh milieus found in the acidic stomach, or the microbe rich intestine. Accordingly, these xenobiotic compounds may, due to their inherent biological activity, constitute a risk to the environment. Biological medicinal products, for example recombinant human insulin or monoclonal antibodies, however, are different. They are primarily made up of oligomers or polymers of amino acids, sugars or nucleotides and are thus readily metabolized. They are therefore generally not considered to pose any risk to the environment. Certain classes of biological medicinal products, however, are associated with specific safety issues. Genetically modified organisms as vectors in vaccines or in gene therapy products have attracted much attention in this regard. Issues include the degree of attenuation of the live recombinant vaccine, replication restrictions of the vaccine vector, alteration of the host and tissue tropism of the vector, the possibility of reversion to virulence, and risk to the ecosystem. In this review we discuss the fate and the potential environmental impact of biological medicinal products following clinical use from an ecopharmacovigilance point of view, and review relevant policy documents and regulatory statements. PMID:19810773

  9. [Current concept for the microbiological safety of cell-based medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Schurig, Utta; Karo, Jan-Oliver; Sicker, U; Spindler-Raffel, E; Häckel, L; Spreitzer, I; Bekeredjian-Ding, I

    2015-11-01

    Ensuring microbiological safety in advanced-therapy medicinal products is still a big challenge for manufacturers. There are fundamental problems, especially in cell-based medicinal products, regarding sterility of source materials, short shelf-life of final products, and the selection of suitable microbiological methods. Different from classical medicinal products, there is the need to evaluate a large number of possible risks and to calculate the risk-benefit balance. Depending on the source material, the presence of micro-organisms with specific growth requirements has to be considered. They cannot be detected by conventional testing methods, but may replicate after the application of the preparation in the recipient. Mycoplasmas are the primary representatives of these contaminants and specific testing procedures are required. Additionally, depending on the source and processing of the biological material, specific testing methods for mycobacteria and other contaminants should be included. Alternative microbiological methods (e.g. NAT, flow cytometry) should be applied in order to reduce the time to detection and to provide reliable results before application of a preparation, but should be also assessed for their possible use for the detection of conventionally undetectable micro-organisms. PMID:26369764

  10. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.; Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Picciotto, A.; Serra, E.; Giuffrida, L.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; and others

    2012-02-15

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  11. Unsupervised Classification of Surface Defects in Wire Rod Production Obtained by Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Saludes-Rodil, Sergio; Baeyens, Enrique; Rodríguez-Juan, Carlos P.

    2015-01-01

    An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors. PMID:25938201

  12. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  13. Search for top-quark production via flavor-changing neutral currents in W+1 jet events at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-04-17

    We report on a search for the non-standard-model process u(c) + g --> t using pp[over ] collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector corresponding to 2.2 fb;{-1}. The candidate events are classified as signal-like or backgroundlike by an artificial neural network. The observed discriminant distribution yields no evidence for flavor-changing neutral current top-quark production, resulting in an upper limit on the production cross section sigma(u(c) + g --> t) < 1.8 pb at the 95% C.L. Using theoretical predictions we convert the cross section limit to upper limits on flavor-changing neutral current branching ratios: B(t --> u + g) < 3.9 x 10;{-4} and B(t --> c + g) < 5.7 x 10;{-3}. PMID:19518617

  14. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  15. Surpassing the current limitations of biohydrogen production systems: The case for a novel hybrid approach.

    PubMed

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Lakatos, Gergely; Pap, Bernadett; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2016-03-01

    The steadily increase of global energy requirements has brought about a general agreement on the need for novel renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources and carriers. Among the alternatives to a fossil fuel-based economy, hydrogen gas is considered a game-changer. Certain methods of hydrogen production can utilize various low-priced industrial and agricultural wastes as substrate, thus coupling organic waste treatment with renewable energy generation. Among these approaches, different biological strategies have been investigated and successfully implemented in laboratory-scale systems. Although promising, several key aspects need further investigation in order to push these technologies towards large-scale industrial implementation. Some of the major scientific and technical bottlenecks will be discussed, along with possible solutions, including a thorough exploration of novel research combining microbial dark fermentation and algal photoheterotrophic degradation systems, integrated with wastewater treatment and metabolic by-products usage. PMID:26790867

  16. Measurement of the nu(mu) Charged Current pi+ Production to Quasi-elastic Scattering Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    Using high statistics samples of charged current interactions, MiniBooNE reports a model independent measurement of the single charged pion production to quasi-elastic cross section ratio on mineral oil without corrections for pion re-interactions in the target nucleus [1]. The result is provided as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E < 2.4 GeV with 11% precision in the region of highest statistics.

  17. Photostability and breakdown products of pigments currently used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Urs; Hohl, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos fade with time. Part of this fading can be attributed to the photodegradation of pigments. When people get tired of their tattoos, removal by laser irradiation is the method of choice. In vivo laser irradiation of tattoos on mice has shown that the degradation of pigments can result in toxic compounds. Various in vitro studies on photodegradation by sunlight or laser have shown similar degradation products for both irradiations. Even visible light was shown to be able to decompose some pigments to toxic degradation products in vitro. Whereas the investigated phthalocyanins (C.I. 74160, 74260), quinacridones (C.I. 73915) or dioxazines (C.I. 51319) were fairly photostable in vitro, all azo pigments exposed to sunlight or laser were degraded into a variety of products, some of which were toxic or even carcinogenic, such as 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and o-toluidine. Up to now, the absence of specific toxicological data is the reason why legal restrictions for tattoo inks are derived from those for cosmetics, toys and textiles. Photodegradation has not been considered. In light of the present analytical findings, even with their possible shortcomings, the evidence weighs heavily enough to consider banning azo pigments containing carcinogenic aromatic amines or allergens in their structure from use in tattoo inks. PMID:25833639

  18. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2015-01-01

    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement. PMID:26252377

  19. Current perspectives on stability of protein drug products during formulation, fill and finish operations.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Nitin; Rajan, Rahul S

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization of protein-based therapeutics is a challenging task in part due to the difficulties in maintaining protein solutions safe and efficacious throughout the drug product development process, storage, transportation and patient administration. Bulk drug substance goes through a series of formulation, fill and finish operations to provide the final dosage form in the desired formulation and container or delivery device. Different process parameters during each of these operations can affect the purity, activity and efficacy of the final product. Common protein degradation pathways and the various physical and chemical factors that can induce such reactions have been extensively studied for years. This review presents an overview of the various formulation-fill-finish operations with a focus on processing steps and conditions that can impact product quality. Various manufacturing operations including bulk freeze-thaw, formulation, filtration, filling, lyophilization, inspection, labeling, packaging, storage, transport and delivery have been reviewed. The article highlights our present day understanding of protein instability issues during biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides guidance on process considerations that can help alleviate these concerns. PMID:18484778

  20. Current Status of the SOLIS Program: Improved and New Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Britanik, John; Callahan, Lorraine; Gosain, Sanjay; Harker, Brian; Harvey, J. W.; Hughes, A.; Marble, A.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Wentzel, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Over the past year the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) team has made significant improvements to the data products provided to the solar and heliospheric community. In particular, a considerable effort has been dedicated to reprocess the archive of vector and longitudinal photospheric magnetograms, from 2003 to present, using the latest production code. This endeavor is now near completion and will assure that all derived magnetic products, such as synoptic maps and flux time series, are consistently calibrated. In addition, new products have been recently developed. For example, time series of daily averages of the Sun's polar magnetic field derived from full-disk photospheric FeI 630.15 nm longitudinal magnetograms are now available from the SOLIS website at solis.nso.edu/0/vsm/vsm_plrfield.html.New intensity calibration of high resolution Ca II K & H spectra from the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS) led to significant reduction in daily variations of parameters derived from these spectra. The SOLIS team will soon also release Carrington synoptic maps for the three components of the photospheric magnetic field derived from vector measurements taken in the Fe I 630.15 nm spectral line. The addition, in late 2015, of a new Ca II 854.2 nm full-Stokes polarimeter into the SOLIS core program of magnetic observations will make available to the community daily chromospheric measurements of the complete Stokes polarization vector.We present here a summary of these improvements, with particular emphasis on the new products that can be accessed from the SOLIS data page at solis.nso.edu/0/solis_data.html. For a description of the diagnostic capability of the new Ca II 854.2 nm spectro-polarimeter and preliminary results we refer to other presentations by SOLIS team members at this meeting.This work utilizes SOLIS data obtained by the NSO Integrated Synoptic Program (NISP), managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by the

  1. The HST Frontier Fields: Current Status and Complete Science Data Products Release for the First Two Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hilbert, Bryan; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Mountain, Matt

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status and data release from the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program, a large Director's Discretionary program to carry out ultra-deep observations of up to six lensing galaxy clusters and parallel deep blank fields, aimed at probing the most distant galaxies currently observable. Observations of the first two clusters in this program, Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403, are now complete, each having been observed to 140 orbits on the main cluster and its parallel field, using ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). Current progress of observations on the third and fourth clusters are also described. We present the design of the science data pipeline for the processing and calibration, including a new approach to ACS self-calibration, as well as improvements to WFC3/IR processing to mitigate time-variable background sky and persistence. We describe the high-level science products that we are distributing through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at STScI, including full-depth distortion-corrected mosaics in all the filters, as well as associated products. We deliver these high-level science products to the community on a rapid timescale to enable the widest, most timely scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  2. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the superscaling model including quasielastic, pion production and meson-exchange contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Megias, G. D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Moreno, O.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-08-01

    Charged current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections are evaluated using the superscaling model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region. The contribution of two-particle-two-hole vector meson-exchange current excitations is also considered within a fully relativistic model tested against electron scattering data. The results are compared with the inclusive neutrino-nucleus data from the T2K and SciBooNE experiments. For experiments where < {E}ν > ∼ 0.8 {{GeV}}, the three mechanisms considered in this work provide good agreement with the data. However, when the neutrino energy is larger, effects from beyond the Δ also appear to be playing a role. The results show that processes induced by vector two-body currents play a minor role in the inclusive cross sections at the kinematics considered.

  3. Coherent production of pions and rho mesons in neutrino charged current interactions on neon nuclei at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Willocq, S.

    1992-05-01

    The coherent production of single pions and and {rho} mesons in charged current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos on neon nuclei has been studied. The data were obtained using the Fermilab 15-foot Bubble Chamber, filled with a heavy Ne-H{sub 2} mixture and exposed to the Quadrupole Triplet neutrino beam produced by 800 GeV protons from the Tevatron. The average beam energy was 86 GeV. In a sample of 330000 frames, 1032 two-prong {nu}{sub {mu}} + {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} charged current interactions were selected. The goal of this study was to investigate the low Q{sup 2} high {nu} region where the hadron dominance model can be tested. In this model, the vector and axial-vector parts of the weak hadronic current are dominated by the {rho} and a{sub 1} mesons respectively. Moreover, the Partially Conserved Axial Current (PCAC) hypothesis can be tested by studying the coherent production of single pions.

  4. Current Concepts for the IND-Directed Development of Microbicide Products to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Karen W; Furlan-Freguia, Christian; Ham, Anthony S; Buckheit, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, topical microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Topical microbicides are chemical and physical agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment to prevent the sexual transmission of infectious organisms. Although a microbicide product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective therapeutic agents, the microbicide development pathway has significant differences which reflect the complex biological environment in which the products must act. These challenges to the development of an effective microbicide are reflected in the recently released FDA Guidance document which defines the microbicide development algorithm and includes the evaluation of preclinical efficacy and toxicity, and safety and toxicology, and indicates the necessity of testing of the active pharmaceutical product as well as an optimal formulation for delivery of the microbicide product. The microbicide development algorithm requires evaluation of the potential microbicidal agent and final formulated product in assays which mimic the microenvironment of the vagina and rectum during the sexual transmission of HIV, including the evaluation of activity and cytotoxicity in the appropriate biological matrices, toxicity testing against normal vaginal flora and at standard vaginal pH, testing in ectocervical and colorectal explant tissue, and irritation studies to vaginal, rectal and penile tissue. Herein, we discuss currently accepted practices required for the development of a successful microbicide product which will prevent virus transmission in the vaginal and rectal vaults. PMID:26324047

  5. Measurement of the gamma gamma* -> pi0 transition form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2009-06-02

    We study the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} in the single tag mode and measure the differential cross section d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2} and the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {pi}{sup 0} transition form factor in the mometum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. At Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} the measured form factor exceeds the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative QCD. The analysis is based on 442 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  6. Evidence for the Rare Decay B+ to Ds+ pi0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-11-17

    The authors have searched for the rare decay B{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}. The analysis is based on a sample of 232 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. They find 19.6 signal events, corresponding to a significance of 4.7 {sigma}. The extracted signal yield including statistical and systematic uncertainties is 20.1{sub -6.0-1.5}{sup +6.8+0.4}, and they measure {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.5{sub -0.4}{sup +0.5} {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -5}, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the last is due to the uncertainty on the D{sub s}{sup +} decay and its daughter decay branching fractions.

  7. Current concepts in the prevention of pathogen transmission via blood/plasma-derived products for bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Minno, Giovanni; Perno, Carlo Federico; Tiede, Andreas; Navarro, David; Canaro, Mariana; Güertler, Lutz; Ironside, James W

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen safety of blood/plasma-derived products has historically been a subject of significant concern to the medical community. Measures such as donor selection and blood screening have contributed to increase the safety of these products, but pathogen transmission does still occur. Reasons for this include lack of sensitivity/specificity of current screening methods, lack of reliable screening tests for some pathogens (e.g. prions) and the fact that many potentially harmful infectious agents are not routinely screened for. Methods for the purification/inactivation of blood/plasma-derived products have been developed in order to further reduce the residual risk, but low concentrations of pathogens do not necessarily imply a low level of risk for the patient and so the overall challenge of minimising risk remains. This review aims to discuss the variable level of pathogenic risk and describes the current screening methods used to prevent/detect the presence of pathogens in blood/plasma-derived products. PMID:26381318

  8. Growth and production of the copepod community in the southern area of the Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, R.; Bustos-Ríos, E.; Hidalgo, P.; Morales, C. E.

    2015-02-01

    Zooplankton production is a critical issue for understanding marine ecosystem structure and dynamics, however, its time-space variations are mostly unknown in most systems. In this study, estimates of copepod growth and production (CP) in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (∼35-37° S) were obtained from annual cycles during a 3 year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006) at a fixed shelf station and from spring-summer surveys during the same years. C-specific growth rates (g) varied extensively among species and under variable environmental conditions; however, g values were not correlated to either near surface temperature or copepod size. Copepod biomass (CB) and CP were higher within the coastal upwelling zone (<50 km) and both decreased substantially from 2004 to 2006. Annual CP ranged between 24 and 52 g C m-2 year-1 with a~mean annual P/B ratio of 2.7. We estimated that CP could consume up to 60% of the annual primary production (PP) in the upwelling zone but most of the time is around 8%. Interannual changes in CB and CP values were associated with changes in the copepod community structure, the dominance of large-sized forms replaced by small-sized species from 2004 to 2006. This change was accompanied by more persistent and time extended upwelling during the same seasonal period. Extended upwelling may have caused large losses of CB from the upwelling zone due to an increase in offshore advection of coastal plankton. On a larger scale, these results suggest that climate-related impacts of increasing wind-driven upwelling in coastal upwelling systems may generate a negative trend in zooplankton biomass.

  9. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI.

    PubMed

    Adonin, A; Barth, W; Heymach, F; Hollinger, R; Vormann, H; Yakushev, A

    2016-02-01

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH3(+),C2H4(+),C3H7(+)) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted. PMID:26932072

  10. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine). PMID:24679256