Note: This page contains sample records for the topic current space exploration from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Space Exploration Initiative - Overview, current status, near term plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) describing current activities, accomplishemnts, and directions. The program is considered in terms of activities relevant to the three phases which are: manned robotic\\/precursor missions, manned lunar missions, and manned Mars missions. SEI is shown to be in the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission phase which is based on an early

Alan M. Adams; Carl M. Case

1992-01-01

2

Space Exploration Initiative - Overview, current status, near term plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) describing current activities, accomplishemnts, and directions. The program is considered in terms of activities relevant to the three phases which are: manned robotic/precursor missions, manned lunar missions, and manned Mars missions. SEI is shown to be in the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission phase which is based on an early manned lunar return, and development is described of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles, a translunar injection stage, and a lunar surface habitat. Two ETO vehicles are considered, and the translunar injection stage is illustrated. The FLO mission is also considered as an initiation of the design activity for the Mars mission so that the requirements and preliminary designs could be defined. The FLO program demonstrates the feasibility of a manned return to the moon as an initiation of subsequent SEI activities.

Adams, Alan M.; Case, Carl M.

1992-01-01

3

The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.  

PubMed

After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. PMID:16010757

Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

2005-01-01

4

The space elevator in the context of current space exploration policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space elevator is an advanced space transportation system that someday could replace chemical rockets as humanity's primary means of reaching Earth's orbit. However, before this can occur, a number of enabling technologies will need to be developed, and a variety of economic and policy questions must be addressed. The goal of this paper is to examine the feasibility of

Mark S. Avnet

2006-01-01

5

Muscle Research and Human Space Exploration: Current Progress and Future Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of human space flight, there has been serious concern over the exposure of human crewmembers to the microgravity of space due to the systemic effects on terrestrially-evolved creatures that are adapted to Earth gravity. Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our currently developed space vehicles, are exposed to various periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). Unloading of skeletal muscle both on Earth and during spaceflight results in remodeling of muscle (atrophic response) as an adaptation to the reduced loads placed upon it. As a result, there are decrements in skeletal muscle strength, fatigue resistance, motor performance, and connective tissue integrity. This normal adaptive response to the microgravity environment is for the most part of little consequence within the space vehicle per se but may become a liability resulting in an increased risk of crewmember physical failure during extravehicular activities or abrupt transitions to environments of increased gravity (such as return to Earth or landing on another planetary body).

Feedback, Daniel L.

2004-01-01

6

Biomimetics Applied to Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A review of the possible applications of biomimetic research and engineering to space exploration ,is presented. The review ,begins ,by briefly ,introducing biomimicry as an engineering discipline, and then, through considering the characteristics that typify current and future space exploration missions, along with the characteristics commonly associated with biological systems, it is argued that biomimicry,has a high ,degree of

Mark Ayre

7

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

8

Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of President Bush's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and it's three main components, Space Station Freedom, a Permanent Lunar Base, and a Manned Mission to Mars is provided. Computer simulations of the Space Station Freedom and Permanent Lunar Base are shown, and an animated sequence describes a Mars mission where heavy lift vehicle will bring components of a Mars Spacecraft into orbit, where it will be put together by astronauts using a robotic arm. The Mars spacecraft is shown orbiting Mars and discharging a lander to the surface, carrying human explorers. The video also details the SEI's Outreach Program, designed to garner interest in and ideas for Space Exploration.

1990-01-01

9

"Inside Einstein's Universe" Using current science to explore key questions about space and time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As educational organizations across the country celebrate the ideas of the Einstein Relativity Centennial in 2005, the NASA-Smithsonian UniverseForum will highlight the ongoing scientific research that helps us understand space, time, and our place in the cosmos. By connecting scientists across the country to our "Inside Einstein's Universe" resource portfolio and partners, we will promote connections between scientists and educators, and help bring current space scientific investigations to the museum-going public. This poster details the ways in which scientists can contribute to educational efforts over the next sixteen months and make use of new resources to teach audiences of all ages about the themes of the Einstein Centennial. Participating scientists will be able to make use of these resources in future endeavors well beyond 2005. The UniverseForum, located at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, is NASA's official partner in developing and sharing educational resources about the structure and evolution of the universe. Our "Inside Einstein's Universe" program will complement the educational efforts of the American Physics Society's "World Year of Physics 2005" celebration and NASA's "Beyond Einstein" program.

Reinfeld, E. L.; Dussault, M. E.; Gould, R. R.; Grier, J. A.; Steel, S. J.

2004-12-01

10

On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

2011-01-01

11

Space Exploration Initiative: Chronology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chronology gives an overview of the human space exploration initiative from 1956 through 1989. Details are given for the political milestones of the initiative, including information on presidential mandates and NASA Administrator appointments.

McCurdy, Howard E.

1992-01-01

12

History of Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can choose from an extensive selection of links to resources for use in the study of the history of space exploration. The links provide access to historic information and publications, chronologies, and mission summaries for American, Russian, European, and other space missions. For educators, there are links to guides to robotic spacecraft and to observing the space shuttle in orbit. Links are also provided to a variety of spacecraft homepages and to other topics such as a primer on the basics of space flight, the Apollo lunar surface journals, and the NASA historic archives.

13

Explorers from space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The statement that a new era in exploration is opening will almost surely bring to mind the venturing of man into space and the ever more imminent exploration of the moon. The reference here, however, is to exploration of earth itself and to the unique capabilities for study of the earth that space technology will provide. Demands for water, minerals, energy, food, and for working, living and recreational space are outrunning our ability to meet them by traditional methods. In order to satisfy these demands, it is necessary now, just as it has been in the past, to look to the activities, the instruments, and the technologies that in part create the pressures for aid in meeting them. Studies being made at the U.S. Geological Survey and elsewhere of the potential applications of remote sensors in space to earth resources research indicate that now, at last, it will be possible to approach solutions on a regional or global basis. This paper discusses the plans for an Earth Resources Observational Satellites Program which will be designed for that purpose.

Fary, Raymond W., Jr.

1967-01-01

14

Space exploration in neglect.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the gaze as well as the head and the eye-in-head movements of neglect patients while they were exploring their surroundings. A random configuration of letters was presented on the inner surface of a sphere that surrounded the subject, requiring free exploratory eye and head movements. The subjects were requested to search for a single (non-existent) target letter. The co-ordination of eye and head movements in patients with neglect resembled the pattern usually observed in healthy subjects orienting to eccentric visual targets. They performed hypometric head movements with additional shifts of eye-in-head position. Moreover, like healthy subjects, the patients with neglect explored space with gaze, with head and eye-in-head movements that were symmetrically distributed around preferred orientations in space. However, in contrast to controls, these centres of exploration were shifted towards the right. The average horizontal position of gaze and of head movements lay right of the body's mid-sagittal plane, the average eye-in-head position right of the head midline. The preferred orientations were located far away from the anatomical limits of horizontal gaze, head and eye-in-head movements. The decrease of exploration towards more eccentric locations left and right of these orientations thus could not be explained by anatomical restrictions. The results argue against a model of neglect that proposes a lateral gradient of attentional orienting towards the ipsilesional side. Exploring the surroundings, the patients did not orient gaze, the head or the eyes in the head towards the extreme ipsilesional side, nor even close to it. The results favour a deviation model suggesting a shift of the whole frame for exploratory behaviour towards the ipsilesional side. In addition to this shift, we found a second component of altered visual exploration in neglect. The patients' head and gaze movements exhibited a reduced variability around the deviated centre of exploration. The variability was not generally reduced but rather concerned specifically the horizontal dimension. The latter was found even when the area of exploration was paralleled between the groups, requiring the control subjects to search only in that part of the letter array that the neglect patients had explored spontaneously. Possible mechanisms, such as a disturbed ability to update the spatial representation of visual targets or an altered neural representation of space in the horizontal dimension, are discussed. PMID:9874486

Karnath, H O; Niemeier, M; Dichgans, J

1998-12-01

15

Translational Research in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

2007-01-01

16

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

17

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

2008-01-01

18

The history of space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the

Martin J. Collins; Sylvia K. Kraemer

1994-01-01

19

The International Space Station in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

20

How have we explored space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many individuals have helped us advance in our space explorations - let's take a look at these advancements in our space program! We have come to the end of the space shuttle program, yet through the past 30 years it has made strides to help us develop the International Space Station. We will continue on with our discoveries and explorations of space! Launch Discovery launches to International Space Station Journey to the Space Station Journey to Space Station Mission Highlights of STS131 STS 131 Mission Highlights Landing Discovery Landing at Kennedy Space Center New Era of ...

Keller, Mrs.

2010-05-01

21

Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

1999

22

Space exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the current situation of space exploration of the solar system is presented. Particular attention is given to the meaning, object, scheme and achievements in the exploration of the Moon, Mars, asteroids and outer planets. The future space missions of NASA, ESA, Russia and Japan are also outlined.

Daohan Chen

1999-01-01

23

Cultural Functions of Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This essay reflects on the function that culture has had on space exploration, and impact of space exploration on the cultural environment of the earth and the United States. The essay reflects on how does NASA, as the national and world leader in space e...

L. Billings

2008-01-01

24

Why Explore Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As NASA resumes flights of the space shuttle to finish building the International Space Station (ISS), many question whether the project is worth the risk and expense. This issue was addressed in the report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, wh...

M. D. Griffin

2008-01-01

25

Stepping stones toward global space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations and developing countries. For each of these three proposed stepping stones, recommendations for coordination mechanisms are presented.

Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

2011-06-01

26

Telescopes and space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

27

The history of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

1994-01-01

28

The history of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

29

Radioelectronics and space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citing the 23 years since Yuriy Gagarin's first radio transmission from outer space, the developments in radio communications and their role in mission control are summarized. Use of satellites for radio and television links with ground stations are an important part of information exchange. Construction and preventive maintenance activities by Soviet cosmonauts, use of radio technology for docking procedures and

T. Sarafanov; Y. Bogoroditskiy; I. Milyukov

1985-01-01

30

Civil Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On or about June 15, 1989, Admiral Truly and Frank Martin presented NASA's conceptual plan for an exploration program to Vice-President Dan Quayle. Presentations by Truly and Quayle to a variety of groups outside the administration ensued. These officials drew upon the following charts for their presentations. The charts, based on the technical material supplied by the NASA Working Group, were updated and rearranged as the presentations transpired.

1992-01-01

31

Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management m...

P. G. Moloney

2006-01-01

32

Innovative Technologies for Global Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), Directorate Integration Office (DIO), The Tauri Group with NASA's Technology Assessment and Integration Team (TAIT) completed several studies and white papers that identify novel technologies for human exploration. These studies provide technical inputs to space exploration roadmaps, identify potential organizations for exploration partnerships, and detail crosscutting technologies that may meet some of NASA's critical needs. These studies are supported by a relational database of more than 400 externally funded technologies relevant to current exploration challenges. The identified technologies can be integrated into existing and developing roadmaps to leverage external resources, thereby reducing the cost of space exploration. This approach to identifying potential spin-in technologies and partnerships could apply to other national space programs, as well as international and multi-government activities. This paper highlights innovative technologies and potential partnerships from economic sectors that historically are less connected to space exploration. It includes breakthrough concepts that could have a significant impact on space exploration and discusses the role of breakthrough concepts in technology planning. Technologies and partnerships are from NASA's Technology Horizons and Technology Frontiers game-changing and breakthrough technology reports as well as the External Government Technology Dataset, briefly described in the paper. The paper highlights example novel technologies that could be spun-in from government and commercial sources, including virtual worlds, synthetic biology, and human augmentation. It will consider how these technologies can impact space exploration and will discuss ongoing activities for planning and preparing them.

Hay, Jason; Gresham, Elaine; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd; Reeves, John D.

2012-01-01

33

Tunable Optical Filters for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrally tunable liquid crystal filters provide numerous advantages and several challenges in space applications. We discuss the tradeoffs in design elements for tunable liquid crystal birefringent filters with special consideration required for space exploration applications. In this paper we present a summary of our development of tunable filters for NASA space exploration. In particular we discuss the application of tunable liquid crystals in guidance navigation and control in space exploration programs. We present a summary of design considerations for improving speed, field of view, transmission of liquid crystal tunable filters for space exploration. In conclusion, the current state of the art of several NASA LaRC assembled filters is presented and their performance compared to the predicted spectra using our PolarTools modeling software.

Crandall, Charles; Clark, Natalie; Davis, Patricia P.

2007-01-01

34

Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

Jeevarajan, Antony

2014-01-01

35

Space exploration and world peace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using space exploration as an instrument in procuring world peace is studied. Suggestions for obtaining such a peace, utilizing space programs, include removal of worldwide educational and communication barriers, building of an emotionally and socially stable society, creation of a unit or whole world rather than the mine and yours concept, and reevaluation and reorientation of human relations and values.

Mercieca, C.

1972-01-01

36

Human Space Exploration The Next Fifty Years  

PubMed Central

Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

Williams, David R.; Turnock, Matthew

2011-01-01

37

Current Research Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) X-ray Concentrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICER is a proposed NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity and will study the extreme gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear physics of neutron stars. Observations will be performed by an X-ray timing and spectroscopy instrument on board the International Space Station (ISS) with launch scheduled for late 2016. NICER consists of grazing incident optics coupled with silicon drift detectors that will provide high throughput photon collection with relatively low background. The optical system consists of 56 X-ray optics, each of which comprise of 24 individual concentrators made from thin aluminum shells with epoxy replicated gold surface. These specialized concentrators focus incident X-rays allowing for small detectors thus increasing the signal to noise while minimizing mass and fabrication cost. The concentrators have three distinct design differences from traditional thin foil epoxy replicated imaging optics. Firstly, the concentrators use only a single reflection and therefore have degraded imaging resolution for extended sources. They also have a full shell structure to further improve the effective area to mass ratio and a curved axial profile to improve resolution and hence concentration at a short focal length. NICER is the second project using these style concentrators, the first of which was the X-ray Advanced Concepts Testbed (XACT) sounding rocket payload (expected to launch in December 2013). The fabrication of the NICER optics began in spring 2012 and were tested using a collimated X-ray beam in summer 2012. In the following months, the concentrators’ fabrication method has been improved and adapted from the method used with XACT. X-ray measurements have been made to characterize the concentrators by calculating half power diameters, off-axis performance, and effective area measurements. These have been compared to ray tracing and theoretical calculations. Here we report the performance to date with comparisons to the theoretical calculations as well as the advancements in the fabrication method from the previous generation X-ray concentrators.

Balsamo, Erin; Okajima, T.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Jalota, L.; Soong, Y.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

2013-04-01

38

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

39

Why Do We Explore Space?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

2006-09-01

40

Current economic bias against exploration  

SciTech Connect

The current economic climate has motivated many companies to greatly reduce their commitment to exploration. The continued de-emphasis on exploration largely results from several biases against exploration in the economic methods employed to justify that investment. This paper explores the cause of that bias and illustrates why that bias is inconsistent with the stated goals of most exploration companies and the future well-being of the industry. After careful review of the biases, the authors propose alternative methods for evaluating exploration ventures. These alternatives are easy to understand and represent an extension of existing knowledge for most people. The methods are easily adaptable to most computer programs or can be included in most spreadsheets. Alternative methods for analyzing the merits of exploration investments are important today. The traditional methods developed during the early days of the industry fail to reflect the changing characteristics of the industry and the depletion of existing reserves. Only by more wisely adapting investing methods can the industry expect to meet the challenges of the future.

Campbell, J.M.; Campbell, C. (John M. Campbell and Co., Norman, OK (USA))

1989-08-01

41

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon, Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-peformance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure; lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano- structural materials. The paper will also address smart materials and structures and examine space environmental effects on materials and methods of mitigating them. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing and using desired materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

42

Bringing life to space exploration.  

PubMed

Characteristics of 21st century space exploration are examined. Characteristics discussed include autonomy, evolvability, robotic outposts, and an overview of future missions. Sidebar articles examine the application of lessons from biological systems to engineered systems and mission concepts taking shape at NASA. Those mission concepts include plans for Mars missions, sample return missions for Venus and a comet nucleus, Europa orbiter and lander missions, a Titan organics explorer, and a terrestrial planet finder. PMID:11542653

Noor, A K; Doyle, R J; Venneri, S L

1999-11-01

43

Ethics and the Space Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth, and by analogy ethical issues exist that translate into the spatial dimension.

Mendell, W.

2002-01-01

44

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon. Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-performance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure: lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano-structural materials. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

45

Distributed Simulation for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of simulation and modeling in preparation for the planned exploration initiatives. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (EMSD) Integrated Modeling and Simulation (IM&S) team strategy encompasses a wide spectrum of simulation and modeling policies and technologies. One prominent technology is distributed simulation. The DIstributed Simulation (DIS),a collaborative simulation project with international participation (US and Japan) is reviewed as an example of distributed simulation development. The Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) is another example of distributed simulation that is described

Crues, Edwin Z.

2006-01-01

46

NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

2006-01-01

47

"Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

Jordan, Anne Devereaux

1997-01-01

48

Robotic Exploration of Space Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The invention of the telescope forever changed astronomy by allowing exploration of the universe in far greater detail than was possible with human eyes alone. Technological advances of the twentieth century, such as computers, rockets, and other scientific instruments made even more detailed views of the universe possible. In this interactive timeline from NASA, users can follow the development of rocketry and space exploration from early research by Russian schoolteacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and American Robert Goddard through the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens probe in orbit around Saturn in 2004.

49

Science Explorations: Journey Into Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations is a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Journey Into Space: Gravity, Orbits, and Collisions exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, a glossary of related terms, a collection of articles, captioned photos, short videos, and informative links, off-line activities that challenge students to apply what they've learned, and advice and step-by-step tools to help students prepare research presentations.

50

Propellant Depots: The Future of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is currently exploring several options for mankind's return to the lunar surface and beyond. The selected option must stimulate both commercial and international involvement, support future missions to the Moon and other destinations, and above all, fit within the current budget profile. Contrary to the current Constellation approach, this paper describes the option of using an in-space propellant depot architecture that can refuel or top-off visiting vehicles at EML1, and how it fits within NASA's new space exploration criteria. In addition to receiving and transferring fuel, the propellant depot will also provide cryogenic propellant storage and management that utilizes flight proven technologies in conjunction with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management and acquisition devices, thermodynamic analysis, and key enabling technologies are also discussed. Depot design concepts along with an overview of a future lunar mission sequence are also presented.

Crenwelge, Drew

51

Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

2006-01-01

52

Nutrition issues for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2008-09-01

53

Human Factors in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

2010-01-01

54

The business of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite healthy economic conditions worldwide, aerospace companies have been struggling since the end of the Cold War. The industry faces a very uncertain future as people and money are leaving in droves. But that has not diminished interest in significantly opening up the space frontier for commercial uses. Is there a major disconnect between expectation and reality? What can the Government and private sectors do to positively shape the future? This paper examines the market forces in play and uses the development of the commercial air transportation business to assess the prospect for commercial space transportation and exploration. It also addresses the elements and criteria for business opportunity, and suggests ways in which the public and private sector can work together to build the future of space. .

Tam, Daniel C.

2001-02-01

55

A Space Elevator Based Exploration Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances and recent studies have laid the groundwork for eventual construction of a space elevator. Within 15 years an operational space elevator could be running from Earth to beyond geosynchronous. The basic mechanical operation allows for low operational cost ($250/kg), high capacity (>13tons, >5tons/day/elevator), a range of destinations (LEO, GEO, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, and Venus), and minimal launch forces. The low risk operation of the space elevator would allow large scale robotic and human exploration of the solar system. An operational elevator will immediately move primary interest from LEO to GEO for many activities and open commercial space activities such as solar power satellite arrays for beaming power to Earth. Robotic exploration to all destinations would be able to use larger, fixed structures, more massive platforms and be launched for a fraction of current costs. Human exploration could start at GEO for maintaining commercial assets, and enhanced Earth-observing systems and then step to Mars where a receiving elevator could also be established. This paper will cover the basics of a space elevator and a comprehensive strategy for human and exploratory use of space based on the space elevator.

Edwards, Bradley C.

2004-02-01

56

Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

Houts, Michael G.

2010-01-01

57

Human space exploration the next fifty years.  

PubMed

Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

2011-06-01

58

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

Wilson, J. W.; Miller, J.; Konradi, A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

1997-12-01

59

Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

2011-01-01

60

Space Exploration: Filling up the Canvas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vision for Space Exploration was put forth in 2004 with the goals of advancing the U.S. scientific, economic and security interests through a robust space exploration program. The nation's Vision for Space Exploration honors the previous commitment to...

M. D. Griffin

2008-01-01

61

Roles of Hydrogen in Space Explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various roles of hydrogen in space technology are identified and discussed. The preeminent position of hydrogen as rocket fuel in launch vehicles is explained and illustrated for the NASA Space Shuttle. The history of hydrogen in launching space vehicles is also briefly summarized. The cryogenic aspects of hydrogen for cooling instruments during flight missions are covered for several past and current systems. The technology of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries is covered. The storage of cryogenic hydrogen to operate fuel cells and to provide potable water is described for the NASA Apollo and Shuttle Missions. Other less well-known applications of hydrogen and metal hydrides such as gas gap heat switches, fueling hypersonic scramjet flights to Mach 10 speeds, in-situ resource utilization on lunar or Martian surfaces, and providing ultrapure reference hydrogen to scientific instruments are also described. Finally, some possible future roles for hydrogen in space exploration are identified.

Bowman, Robert C.

2006-05-01

62

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a

R. Bjørk

63

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. Exploration of the Galaxy is simulated by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40000 stars in a

R. Bjørk

2007-01-01

64

An exploration of leakage current  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple programmable sequence of measurements which allows classification of leakage currents of capacitors based on their time, temperature, and voltage characteristics has been devised. The method adopts the concept that the measured current is the sum of independent flow mechanisms, one of which is present to a consistent extent in all the capacitors. By removal of this part from

R. W. Franklin

1990-01-01

65

Exploring outer space technologies for sustainable buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify the potential outer space technologies that can be used in the construction industry to enhance sustainability in buildings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Outer space technologies developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the USA are explored for possible use in sustainable construction within the context of the

Sui Pheng Low; Xiu Ting Goh

2010-01-01

66

The Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which focuses on the investigation and development of technologies, processes and integrated simulations related to the collaborative distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. This paper describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. In the network work area, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network that will provide agency wide support for distributed simulation between all NASA centers. In the software work area, DSES is developing a collection of software models, tool and procedures that ease the burden of developing distributed simulations and provides a consistent interoperability infrastructure for agency wide participation in integrated simulation. Finally, for simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper will present current status and plans for each of these work areas with specific examples of simulations that support NASA's exploration initiatives.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Mike G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

67

Exploring Space on the Computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past year Dennis Stocker has been in the process of developing pencil and paper games, which are fun, challenging, and educational for middle school and high school students. The latest version of these pencil and paper games is Spaceship Commander. The objective of the game is to earn points by plotting the flight path of a spaceship so astronauts can perform microgravity experiments, and make short-range measurements of other planets. During my ten weeks here at the GRC my goal is to create a computer based version of Spaceship commander. During the development of this game the primary focus has been on making it as educational and fun for the student as possible. The main educational objective of this game is to give students an understanding of forces and motion, including gravity. This is done by incorporating Newton's laws into the game. For example a spacecraft in the video game experiences a gravitational force applied to it by planets. The software I am using to create this game is a freeware application called Game Maker. Game Maker allows novice computer programmers like me to create arcade style games using a visual drag and drop interface. By using functions provided by Game Maker and a few I have written myself, I have been able to create a few simple computer games. Currently the computer game allows the student to navigate a space ship around planets, and asteroids by using the arrow keys on the numeric keypad. Each time an arrow key is pressed by the student the corresponding acceleration of the space ship is seen on the screen. Points are earned by navigating the space ship close enough to planets to gather scientific data. However the game encourages the student to plan his or her course carefully, because if the student gets too close to a planet they may not be able to escape the planet s gravity, and crash into the planet. The next step in the game development is to include a launch sequence which allows the student to launch from their home planet at a speed and direction determined by the student. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Bozym, Patrick

2004-01-01

68

Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

69

Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations.

Carole A. McLemore; James P. Kennedy; Frederick A. Rose; Brian W. Evans

2007-01-01

70

Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fulfilling NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations.

Carole A. McLemore; James P. Kennedy; Frederick A. Rose; Brian W. Evans

2007-01-01

71

Global visions for space exploration education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) has partnered with Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) to support NSBRI-NASA's education mission, which is to strengthen the nation's future science workforce through initiatives that communicate space exploration biology research findings to schools; support undergraduate and graduate programs; fund postdoctoral fellowships; and engage national and international audiences in collegial exchanges that promote global visions for space exploration education. This paper describes select MSM-NSBRI-EPOP activities, including scholarly interchanges with audiences in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Spain. The paper also makes the case for a global space exploration education vision that inspires students, engages educators and informs general audiences about the benefits that space exploration holds for life on Earth.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.

2010-04-01

72

Space colonies and the philosophy of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many space enthusiasts believe that the possibilities offered by space colonies clinch the case in favor of space exploration. Such possibilities, however, cannot by themselves surmount the central social and ideological objections against space exploration. Moreover, to justify the process by which we can determine whether space colonies are a good idea requires that we meet those objections first. This task is often attemped by pointing to the many unintended good results of previous exploration (the serendipity of science) and then extrapolating to the future. But social and ideologial critics need not be impressed by a purely historical case for serendipity. Fortunately, a philosophical analysis of scientific exploration reveals that serendipity is an essential aspect of it. This result provides a justification for exploring space. And in light of that justification, we can begin to evaluate the proposals for space colonies.

Munévar, Gonzalo

1986-08-01

73

Space Exploration: A Frontier for American Collaboration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of space exploration in inspiring collaboration between the nations of the world is discussed. It is of enormous value for the United States to collaborate with other nations to engage in the challenge of space exploration. Data from satell...

M. D. Griffin

2008-01-01

74

Selected topics in robotics for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

Montgomery, Raymond C. (editor); Kaufman, Howard (editor)

1993-01-01

75

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky\\u000aWay, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an\\u000aanswer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first\\u000aexamining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore\\u000a40,000 stars in a

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-01-01

76

Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on

Ian A. Crawford

2010-01-01

77

Supervised space robots are needed in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High level systems engineering models were developed to simulate and analyze the types, numbers, and roles of intelligent systems, including supervised autonomous robots, which will be required to support human space exploration. Conventional and intelligent systems were compared for two missions: (1) a 20-year option 5A space exploration; and (2) the First Lunar Outpost (FLO). These studies indicate that use of supervised intelligent systems on planet surfaces will 'enable' human space exploration. The author points out that space robotics can be considered a form of the emerging technology of field robotics and solutions to many space applications will apply to problems relative to operating in Earth-based hazardous environments.

Erickson, Jon D.

1994-01-01

78

Human Space Exploration architecture study in TAS-I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon, Mars and asteroids. The US Space Exploration program addresses the objective "to explore space and extend a human presence across the Solar System". Main steps include the completion of the International Space Station and its utilization in support of space exploration goals, "as the launching point for missions beyond the Low Earth Orbit". Along a parallel matching path, Europe has developed a roadmap for exploration - Aurora - and has supported design activities on combined Moon-Mars Exploration Architectures. Thales Alenia Space - Italia has been involved in the major European activities related to exploration and it is currently analyzing the different exploration scenarios considered by the major Space Agencies with the objective to identify an international reference scenario for exploration taking into account the need to balance collaboration at international level due to the highly demanding nature of planetary exploration missions, and the development of autonomous key capabilities considered of strategic importance.

Perino, M. A.

79

Social Sciences and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

1988-01-01

80

Future of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

Now that the Space Shuttle era is over, NASA is writing the next chapters in human Spaceflight with its commercial and international partners. It is advancing research and technology on the Interna...

81

UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

82

The scientific case for human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientists are sceptical about the scientific value of sending people into space, arguing that its high cost would be better invested in additional robotic missions. Here I argue that this scepticism is misplaced and that the history of human space exploration—particularly of the Apollo project—indicates that science has actually been a major beneficiary of having people in space. I

I. A. Crawford

2001-01-01

83

Current Collection from Space Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

Singh, Nagendra (editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (editor); Stone, Nobie H. (editor)

1990-01-01

84

Exploring Washington, DC, from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze an image of Washington, DC, taken from orbit. They will determine scale and take measurements of several features in the image. A link to more images taken from the International Space Station and the answer key are provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

85

Material flammability in space exploration atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity, NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles with a different cabin pressure and oxygen concentration than used previously. This work explores how the flammability of solid materials changes in this new environment. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To this end, piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel subject to this new space exploration atmosphere (SEA -- 58.6 kPa and 32% oxygen) and compared to similar tests in standard atmospheric conditions. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to a range of oxidizer flow velocities and externally applied heat fluxes. It was found that the ignition time was reduced by 27% in the intended space exploration atmosphere. It was also noted that the critical heat flux for ignition decreases in exploration atmospheres. These results show that materials are more susceptible to ignition than in current spacecraft atmospheres. To further explore the effect of pressure and oxygen concentration, tests were performed for a wide range of pressures and oxygen concentrations. In all oxygen concentrations tested, the ignition delay time was seen to decrease with pressure, reach a minimum, and then increase with further reduction in pressure creating a classic u-shaped curve. No ignition was seen at sufficiently low pressures. The no ignition pressure depended on the oxygen concentration. Increasing the oxygen concentration uniformly decreases the ignition time; however, no significant differences were seen in oxygen concentrations above 24%. These results indicate there are several competing mechanisms controlling the ignition time. By reducing the pressure, the heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow rate of fuel to reach the lean flammability limit are reduced. Conversely, a reduction in pressure increases the gas-phase chemical induction time. The competition between these three mechanisms is responsible for the u-shaped dependence of ignition time on total pressure. In addition to gaining insight into the effect of pressure on piloted ignition, these results have practical applications including high altitude structures and airplane cabins.

McAllister, Sara Suzanne

86

Boeing Integrated Defense System : Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Exploration, a division of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, is a leading global supplier of reusable and human space systems and services. Headquartered in Houston, the organization comprises more than 4,000 people operating in five locations. The organization s legacy began in the late 1950s with the X-15, spanned to the Apollo missions of the 1960 and 70s, and continues today with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.

2007-12-12

87

Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging developing countries and emerging space nations in an international space exploration program, it will be possible to create a critical bottom-up support structure to support program continuity in the development and execution of future global space exploration frameworks. With a focus on stepping stones, COSPAR can support a global space exploration program that stimulates scientists in current and emerging spacefaring nations, and that will invite those in developing countries to participate—pursuing research aimed at answering outstanding questions about the origins and evolution of our solar system and life on Earth (and possibly elsewhere). COSPAR, in cooperation with national and international science foundations and space-related organizations, will advocate this stepping stone approach to enhance future cooperative space exploration efforts.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

2012-01-01

88

Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

Yowell, Leonard L.

2007-01-01

89

Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical weighted figure of merit (WFoM) approach that quantifies the effectiveness of a candidate material to shield space crews from the whole of the space radiation environment. The results of the WFoM approach should prove useful to designers and engineers in seeking alternative materials suitable for the construction of spacecraft or planetary surface habitats needed for long-term space exploration missions. The dosimetric measurements in this study have confirmed the principle of good space radiation shielding design by showing that low-Z¯ materials are most effective at reducing absorbed dose and dose equivalent while high-Z¯ materials are to be avoided. The relatively high WFoMs of carbon composite and lunar- and Martian-regolith composite could have important implications for the design and construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats. The ground-based measurements conducted in this study have validated the heavy ion extension of FLUKA by producing normalized differential LET fluence spectra that are in good agreement with experiment.

DeWitt, Joel Michael

90

The Scientific Case for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many scientists are skeptical about the scientific value of sending people into space, arguing that its high cost would be better invested in additional robotic missions. Here I argue that this skepticism is misplaced, and that the history of human space exploration, particularly of the Apollo Project, indicates that science has actually been a major beneficiary of having people in space. I argue that the same will be true of future human missions to both the Moon and Mars, and that scientific exploration will benefit enormously from exploiting the infrastructure that is developed to support human space activities.

Crawford, I. A.

2001-08-01

91

Dealing with the international implications of space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the urge to explore is an intrinsic human impulse, the consequences of exploration are far-reaching and we should already be thinking about its international implications if we want to succeed. Two important issues not currently receiving sufficient attention are discussed: the present legal regime for outer space, which is likely to be inadequate to deal with the involvement of

Silvano Casini

2006-01-01

92

Zack Crues on Space Exploration Vehicle Mockup  

NASA Video Gallery

Zack Crues, the Space Exploration Vehicle modeling and simulation lead, talks to NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean about the importance of creating an immersive virtual reality environment fo...

93

Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of explo...

A. L. Jankovsky C. M. Reid C. R. Mercer M. A. Hoberecht T. B. Miller

2011-01-01

94

Toward an electrical power utility for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future electrical power requirements for space exploration are discussed. Megawatts of power with enough reliability for multi-year missions and with enough flexibility to adapt to needs unanticipated at design time are some of the criteria which space power systems must be able to meet. The reasons for considering the power management and distribution in the various systems, from a total mission perspective rather than simply extrapolating current spacecraft design practice, are discussed. A utility approach to electric power integrating requirements from a broad selection of current development programs, with studies in which both space and terrestrial technologies are conceptually applied to exploration mission scenarios, is described.

Bercaw, Robert W.

1989-01-01

95

Exploring the solar system — A current overview —  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the history of robotic exploration of the solar system from the initial flights to present day. Analysis demonstrates how flight rate and spacecraft mass have varied in the programs of the major space faring countries. The paper also demonstrates how the faster, better, cheaper approach has significantly increased scientific productivity and program resiliency to failures.

Huckins, Earle K.; Elachi, Charles; Woods, Dan V.

2000-07-01

96

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

97

The Scientific Case for Human Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientists are skeptical about the scientific value of sending people into space, arguing that its high cost would be better invested in additional robotic missions. Here I argue that this skepticism is misplaced, and that the history of human space exploration, particularly of the Apollo Project, indicates that science has actually been a major beneficiary of having people in

I. A. Crawford

2001-01-01

98

Micromechanical devices at JPL for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration in the coming century will emphasize cost effectiveness and highly focused mission objectives, which will result in frequent multiple missions that broaden the scope of space science and to validate new technologies on a timely basis. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) is one of the key enabling technologies to create cost-effective, ultra-miniaturized, robust, and functionally focused spacecraft for both

William C. Tang

1998-01-01

99

Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

Millis, Marc G.

1990-01-01

100

Indications for exploring the retroperitoneal space.  

PubMed

The retroperitoneal space is an area that deserves consideration in patients with serious bleeding problems. This area should be explored in all patients with a history of previous reconstructive vascular surgery of the abdominal aorta and iliac vessels and who subsequently present with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It should also be considered for exploration in patients presenting with serious bleeding problems when the bleeding site cannot be identified and the area in which blood is accumulating cannot be detected. We present three cases in which early adequate exploration of the retroperitoneal space would have been beneficial to the patients. PMID:7403932

Baker, B H; Baker, M S

1980-08-01

101

New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

Mankins, John C.

2000-01-01

102

Making Space Science and Exploration Accessible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are currently 28 million hard of hearing and deaf Americans, approximately 10 to 11 million blind and visually impaired people in North America, and more than 50 million Americans with disabilities, approximately half of whom are students. The majority of students with disabilities in the US are required to achieve the same academic levels as their non-impaired peers. Unfortunately, there are few specialized materials to help these exceptional students in the formal and informal settings. To assist educators in meeting their goals and engage the students, we are working with NASA product developers, scientists and education and outreach personnel in concert with teachers from exceptional classrooms to identify the types of materials they need and which mediums work best for the different student capabilities. Our goal is to make the wonders of space science and exploration accessible to all. As such, over the last four years we have been hosting interactive workshops, observing classroom settings, talking and working with professional educators, product developers, museum and science center personnel and parents to synthesize the most effective media and method for presenting earth and space science materials to audiences with exceptional needs. We will present a list of suggested best practices and example activities that can help engage and encourage a person with special needs to study the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Runyon, C. J.; Guimond, K. A.; Hurd, D.; Heinrich, G.

103

Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

Clark, Natalie

2007-01-01

104

Cross-cultural management supporting global space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.

2010-01-01

105

Life sciences issues affecting space exploration.  

PubMed

The U.S. space program is undertaking a serious examination of new initiatives in human space exploration involving permanent colonies on the Moon and an outpost on Mars. Life scientists have major responsibilities to the crew, to assure their health, productivity, and safety throughout the mission and the postflight rehabilitation period; to the mission, to provide a productive working environment; and to the scientific community, to advance knowledge and understanding of human adaptation to the space environment. Critical areas essential to the support of human exploration include protection from the radiation hazards of the space environment, reduced gravity countermeasures, artificial gravity, medical care, life support systems, and behavior, performance, and human factors in an extraterrestrial environment. Developing solutions to these concerns is at the heart of the NASA Life Sciences ground-based and flight research programs. Facilities analogous to planetary outposts are being considered in Antarctica and other remote settings. Closed ecological life support systems will be tested on Earth and Space Station. For short-duration simulations and tests, the Space Shuttle and Spacelab will be used. Space Station Freedom will provide the essential scientific and technological research in areas that require long exposures to reduced gravity conditions. In preparation for Mars missions, research on the Moon will be vital. As the challenges of sustaining humans on space are resolved, advances in fundamental science, medicine and technology will follow. PMID:11541483

White, R J; Leonard, J I; Leveton, L; Gaiser, K; Teeter, R

1990-12-01

106

The Biology and Space Exploration Video Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biology and Space Exploration video series illustrates NASA's commitment to increasing the public awareness and understanding of life sciences in space. The video series collection, which was initiated by Dr. Joan Vernikos at NASA headquarters and Dr. Alan Hargens at NASA Ames Research Center, will be distributed to universities and other institutions around the United States. The video series parallels the "Biology and Space Exploration" course taught by NASA Ames scientists at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. In the past, students have shown considerable enthusiasm for this course and have gained a much better appreciation and understanding of space life sciences and exploration. However, due to the unique nature of the topics and the scarcity of available educational materials, most students in other universities around the country are unable to benefit from this educational experience. Therefore, with the assistance of Ames experts, we are producing a video series on selected aspects of life sciences in space to expose undergraduate students to the effects of gravity on living systems. Additionally, the video series collection contains space flight footage, graphics, charts, pictures, and interviews to make the materials interesting and intelligible to viewers.

William, Jacqueline M.; Murthy, Gita; Rapa, Steve; Hargens, Alan R.

1995-01-01

107

Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential  

SciTech Connect

Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

Grace, J.D. (ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

108

Trade space exploration: New Visual Steering features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Applied Research Laboratory at Penn State University has a long history of developing software tools to support decision-making within the conceptual stage of complex systems design. Previous research introduced a new approach to trade space exploration called Visual Steering. This approach combines exercising a design model and analyzing the results into a tightly coupled loop that lets decision makers

Sara E. Lego; Gary M. Stump; Mike Yukish

2010-01-01

109

The Exploration of Outer Space With Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph ``chronicles the use of television cameras and other visual imaging systems by NASA on unmanned outer space probes and in the exploration of the Solar System's planetary bodies.''The book is technically well organized and a nicely printed volume with the unfortunate exception of the 32 illustrative plates that are of nothing less than abysmal quality. Included in the

Michael J. S. Belton

1984-01-01

110

Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) holds considerable promise for deep space exploration in the future. Research and development of this technology is a key element of NASA's Nuclear Systems Initiative (NSI), which is a top priority in the President's FY03 NASA budget. The goal is to develop the subsystem technologies that will enable application of NEP for missions to the outer

G. Schmidt

2002-01-01

111

Intrigue and potential of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of astronomy is presented. A chronology of events in the space program is summarized. The possibilities of interplanetary exploration are postulated. The accomplishments of astronomy in pointing the way to manned spaceflight and improved understanding of the solar system are examined.

Losh, H.

1972-01-01

112

Rendezvous and Docking for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To achieve the exploration goals, new approaches to exploration are being envisioned that include robotic networks, modular systems, pre-positioned propellants and in-space assembly in Earth orbit, Lunar orbit and other locations around the cosmos. A fundamental requirement for rendezvous and docking to accomplish in-space assembly exists in each of these locations. While existing systems and technologies can accomplish rendezvous and docking in low earth orbit, and rendezvous and docking with crewed systems has been successfully accomplished in low lunar orbit, our capability must extend toward autonomous rendezvous and docking. To meet the needs of the exploration vision in-space assembly requiring both crewed and uncrewed vehicles will be an integral part of the exploration architecture. This paper focuses on the intelligent application of autonomous rendezvous and docking technologies to meet the needs of that architecture. It also describes key technology investments that will increase the exploration program's ability to ensure mission success, regardless of whether the rendezvous are fully automated or have humans in the loop.

Machula, M. F.; Crain, T.; Sandhoo, G. S.

2005-01-01

113

Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

Pickering, Karen D.

2014-01-01

114

Electronics for Low Temperature Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration missions to outer planets and deep space require spacecraft, probes, and on-board data and communication systems to operate reliably and efficiently under severe harsh conditions. On-board electronics, in particular those in direct exposures to the space environment without any shielding or protection, will encounter extreme low temperature and thermal cycling in their service cycle in most of NASA s upcoming exploration missions. For example, Venus atmosphere, Jupiter atmosphere, Moon surface, Pluto orbiter, Mars, comets, Titan, Europa, and James Webb Space Telescope all involve low-temperature surroundings. Therefore, electronics for space exploration missions need to be designed for operation under such environmental conditions. There are ongoing efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to establish a database on the operation and reliability of electronic devices and circuits under extreme temperature operation for space applications. This work is being performed under the Extreme Temperature Electronics Program with collaboration and support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The results of these investigations will be used to establish safe operating areas and to identify degradation and failure modes, and the information will be disseminated to mission planners and system designers for use as tools for proper part selection and in risk mitigation. An overview of this program along with experimental data will be presented.

Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

2007-01-01

115

Modular, Intelligent Power Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new Space Exploration Initiative demands that vehicles, habitats, and rovers achieve unprecedented levels of reliability, safety, effectiveness, and affordability. Modular and intelligent electrical power systems are critical to achieving those goals. Modular electrical power systems naturally increase reliability and safety through built-in fault tolerance. These modular systems also enable standardization across a multitude of systems, thereby greatly increasing affordability of the programs. Various technologies being developed to support this new paradigm for space power systems will be presented. Examples include the use of digital control in power electronics to enable better performance and advanced modularity functions such as distributed, master-less control and series input power conversion. Also, digital control and robust communication enables new levels of power system control, stability, fault detection, and health management. Summary results from recent development efforts are presented along with expected future technology development needs required to support NASA's ambitious space exploration goals.

Button, Robert

2006-01-01

116

Towards the systematic exploration of chemical space.  

PubMed

The discovery of biologically active small molecules is shaped, in large part, by their synthetic (or biosynthetic accessibility). However, chemists' historical exploration of chemical space has been highly uneven and unsystematic. This article describes synthetic strategies that have emerged that may allow chemical space to be explored more systematically. Particular emphasis is placed on approaches that allow the scaffolds of small molecules to be varied combinatorially. In addition, some examples of bioactive small molecules that have been discovered by screening diverse small molecule libraries are highlighted. The authors comment on the likely scope of each of the strategies to deliver skeletally-diverse libraries. In addition, the authors highlight some key challenges for the future: the extension to libraries based on hundreds of distinct scaffolds; and the development of approaches that focus overtly on drug-relevant chemical space. PMID:21969064

Dow, Mark; Fisher, Martin; James, Thomas; Marchetti, Francesco; Nelson, Adam

2012-01-01

117

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. Exploration of the Galaxy is simulated by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40000 stars in a box from -300 to 300 pc above the Galactic thin disc, as a function of Galactic radius. The Galaxy is then modelled to consist of 260000 of these 40000 stellar systems all located in a defined Galactic Habitable Zone and how long a time it takes to explore this zone is shown. The result is that with eight probes, each with eight subprobes, 4% of the Galaxy can be explored in 2.92x10^8 years. Increasing the number of probes to 200, still with eight subprobes each, reduces the exploration time to 1.52x10^7 years.

Bjørk, R.

2007-04-01

118

C-QWIPs for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have extended our investigation of corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (C-QWIP FPAs) into the far infrared regime. Specifically, we are developing the detectors for the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) used in the NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission. This mission requires infrared detection cutoff at 12.5 ?m and FPAs operated at ˜43 K. To maintain a low dark current in these extended wavelengths, we adopted a low doping density of 0.6 × 10 18 cm -3 and a bound-to-bound state detector in one of the designs. The internal absorption quantum efficiency ? is calculated to be 25.4% for a pixel pitch of 25 ?m and 60 periods of QWs. With a pixel fill factor of 80% and a substrate transmission of 70.9%, the external ? is 14.4%. To yield the theoretical conversion efficiency CE, the photoconductive gain was measured and is 0.25 at 5 V, from which CE is predicted to be 3.6%. This value is in agreement with the 3.5% from the FPA measurement. Meanwhile, the dark current is measured to be 2.1 × 10 -6 A/cm 2 at 43 K. For regular infrared imaging above 8 ?m, the FPA will have a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 16 mK at 2 ms integration time in the presence of 260 read noise electrons, and it increases to 22 mK at 51 K. The highest operability of the tested FPAs is 99.967%. With the CE agreement, we project the FPA performance in the far infrared regime up to 30-?m cutoff, which will be useful for the Jupiter-Europa deep space exploration. In this work, we also investigated the C-QWIP optical coupling when the detector substrate is thinned.

Choi, K. K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Forrai, D. P.; Sun, J.; Endres, D.

2011-05-01

119

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

120

Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.  

PubMed

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

Crawford, Ian A

2010-01-01

121

The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the "Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember." This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this risk. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to define the set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur during exploration space flight missions. The list was derived from the International Space Station Medical Checklist, the Shuttle Medical Checklist, in-flight occurrence data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, and NASA subject matter experts. The list of conditions was further prioritized for eight specific design reference missions with the assistance of the ExMC Advisory Group. The purpose of the SMEMCL is to serve as an evidence-based foundation for the conditions that could affect a crewmember during flight. This information is used to ensure that the appropriate medical capabilities are available for exploration missions.

Watkins, Sharmi; Barr, Yael; Kerstman, Eric

2011-01-01

122

Human exploration of space and power development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reasons for mounting the Space Exploration Initiative, the variables facing U.S. planners, and the developmental technologies that will be needed to support this initiative are discussed. The three more advanced technological approaches in the field of power generation described include a lunar-based solar power system, a geosynchronous-based earth orbit solar power satellite system, and the utilization of helium-3/deuterium fusion reaction to create a nuclear fuel cycle. It is noted that the major elements of the SEI will include a heavy-lift launch vehicle, a transfer vehicle and a descent/ascent vehicle for use on lunar missions and adaptable to Mars exploration.

Cohen, Aaron

1991-01-01

123

Heavy ion carcinogenesis and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Before the human exploration of Mars or long-duration missions on the Earth's moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared with radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, and obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets. PMID:18451812

Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A

2008-06-01

124

Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

2008-01-01

125

Active Exploration of the Space Enviornment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will outline a set of activities developed to illustrate basic space physics concepts. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models in understanding and predicting the space environment. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the afternoon labs students work in groups of four to answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. The labs explore all of the domains involved in space weather: solar corona, solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere. Formative assessment using student evaluations and pre/post tests provided important feedback to gauge how well the labs met the goals of the summer school. Recently, these lab materials have been made available for dissemination. This presentation will outline the goals of the labs, the tools used during the labs, and how to use them in different settings.

Gross, N. A.

2011-12-01

126

Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

Manohara, Harish

2007-01-01

127

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

128

Human exploration of space and power development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

Cohen, Aaron

1991-01-01

129

Sabatier Methanation Reactor for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sabatier Methanation Reactor technology is of vital importance to the success of the human and robotic exploration program. In order to achieve an affordable program, the logistics supply to support the mission must be minimized to the fullest extent possible. One area of potential reduction with high return on investment is the closure of life support loops, particularly oxygen and water. The Sabatier system accomplishes this by utilizing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, waste products from the life support system, to produce water and methane. The recovered water is then recycled back into the life support system to provide oxygen; while the methane can be used for propulsion, or can be broken down further to recover the hydrogen. This technology is applicable not only to transit phases of exploration, but surface habitats as well as in-situ propellant production. The Sabatier Reactor system has been developed for ground based demonstration experiments extensively over the past 30 years. Over the past three years, NASA has funded development of the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the ISS. Currently this system is at TRL 5 and it is expected that the system will be flown on the ISS as a flight experiment, The purpose of the flight experiment is to integrate the Sabatier CRA into a synchronized system with the oxygen generation system and the carbon dioxide concentrator. The flight experiment will verify the integration of the different systems working together plus it will verify the capability of the system to operate, and effectively separate its products in a micro-gravity environment. Subsequent to design validation, the flight experiment can remain onboard the ISS providing valuable water to offset logistics re-supply requirements. Some of the challenges facing the development of the Sabatier system include handling vibration induced particulates, microgravity phase separation and containment of hazardous gases. Plans for adequately addressing these issues will be presented. The Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction process will greatly benefit any of the extended duration human exploration missions because of the tremendous savings of consumables realized. Any of these mission scenarios, be they transit or surface based, must consider closing the life support loops in order to make the mission achievable, let alone affordable. Carbon dioxide reduction technology will be necessary for future outpost habitats, and the technology needs to be proven viable in a space application. The Sabatier methanation reaction is also a desirable method for producing propellant from the Mars atmosphere. The common system could be designed to accept carbon dioxide from an indoor air revitalization loop concentrator, or from an outdoor atmosphere compressor. Carbon dioxide reduction validation is but one step in the spiral development of the in-situ propellant production system desired for future planetary exploration.

Murdoch, Karen; Goldblatt, Loel; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Harris, Danny

2005-01-01

130

Toward an electrical power utility for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for space exploration depend on today's technology programs addressing the novel requirements of space-based enterprise. The requirements for electrical power will be formidable: megawatts in magnitude, reliability for multi-year missions and the flexibility to adapt to needs unanticipated at design time. The reasons for considering the power management and distribution in the various systems from a total mission perspective, rather than simply extrapolating current spacecraft design practice, are discussed. A utility approach to electric power being developed at the Lewis Research Center is described. It integrates requirements from a broad selection of current development programs with studies in which both space and terrestrial technologies are conceptually applied to exploration mission scenarios.

Bercaw, Robert W.

1989-01-01

131

[Consequences of space exploration for mankind].  

PubMed

Space exploration obliges man to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, and magnetic field changes. Although the people who will go to Mars have been born, many new discoveries will be needed and new disciplines will have to be created before they can actually go there. All of this will have a tremendous impact on our health technology. For one thing, universities will work together with enterprises, creating a new way to carry out research. Space exploration has already generated new insight into osteoporosis, muscle atrophy, and motor coordination disorders. Space research has produced a long list of utilities including bone fixation devices and wheelchairs. Over the next 5 to 7 years, in the International Space Station many programs ranging from molecular biology to direct observation of human subjects will be developed. This will mean that, while awaiting the first expedition to Mars (which will take place after 2080), the collaboration of scientists with small and medium enterprises will continue to produce useful devices for people on earth. PMID:19048568

Bizzarri, M

2008-01-01

132

Human space exploration - From surviving to performing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

2014-07-01

133

Issues and status of power distribution options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will need a wide variety of manned systems with requirements significantly different than those for existing systems. The concept of a space power utility is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Almost all existing space power systems use low voltage direct current. Although they have been very succesful, increasing power system requirements in recent years have exposed their inherent limitations and led to the proposal of a number of alternatives including high voltage DC and AC at various frequencies. Drawing on the experience gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies, factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility are discussed.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.; Kenny, Barbara H.

1991-01-01

134

Space exploration of the Jovian atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews our current knowledge of Jupiter's atmosphere, concentrating on the meteorological features of the dynamic atmosphere, and discusses future space missions to Jupiter and the outer planets. The major atmospheric constituents are discussed, and the variety of colors displayed by the outer solar system is pointed out as suggesting the existence of complex hydrocarbons and possible exobiological processes.

G. E. Hunt

1977-01-01

135

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

136

Space Launch System for Exploration and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a low-risk, direct return of Martian material. For the Europa Clipper mission the SLS eliminates Venus and Earth flybys, providing a direct launch to the Jovian system, arriving four years earlier than missions utilizing existing launch vehicles. This architecture allows increased mass for radiation shielding, expansion of the science payload and provides a model for other outer planet missions. SLS provides a direct launch to the Uranus system, reducing travel time by two years when compared to existing launch capabilities. SLS can launch the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST 16 m) to SEL2, providing researchers 10 times the resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope and up to 300 times the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope. SLS is the only vehicle capable of deploying telescopes of this mass and size in a single launch. It simplifies mission design and reduces risks by eliminating the need for multiple launches and in-space assembly. SLS greatly shortens interstellar travel time, delivering the Interstellar Explorer to 200 AU in about 15 years with a maximum speed of 63 km/sec--13.3 AU per year (Neptune orbits the sun at an approximate distance of 30 AU ).

Klaus, K.

2013-12-01

137

SWPC: Current Space Weather Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the NOAA/NWS Space Weather Prediction Center provides alerts and warnings to the nation and the world for disturbances that can affect people and equipment working in space and on Earth.

2004-01-12

138

Exploring the Relationship between Semantics and Space  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric distribution of human spatial attention has been repeatedly documented in both patients and healthy controls. Biases in the distribution of attention and/or in the mental representation of space may also affect some aspects of language processing. We investigated whether biases in attention and/or mental representation of space affect semantic representations. In particular, we investigated whether semantic judgments could be modulated by the location in space where the semantic information was presented and the role of the left and right parietal cortices in this task. Healthy subjects were presented with three pictures arranged horizontally (one middle and two outer pictures) of items belonging to the same semantic category. Subjects were asked to indicate the spatial position in which the semantic distance between the outer and middle pictures was smaller. Subjects systematically overestimated the semantic distance of items presented in the right side of space. We explored the neural correlates underpinning this bias using rTMS over the left and right parietal cortex. rTMS of the left parietal cortex selectively reduced this rightward bias. Our findings suggest the existence of an attentional and/or mental representational bias in semantic judgments, similar to that observed for the processing of space and numbers. Spatial manipulation of semantic material results in the activation of specialised attentional resources located in the left hemisphere.

Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Bonni, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo; Smirni, Daniela; Cipolotti, Lisa

2009-01-01

139

Synergies of Earth science and space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more flexible policy basis from which to manage our planet in the 21st century is desirable. As one contribution, we note that synergies between space exploration and the preservation of our habitat exist, and that protecting life on Earth requires similar concepts and information as investigations of life beyond the Earth, including the expansion of human presence in space. Instrumentation and data handling to observe both planetary objects and planet Earth are based on similar techniques. Moreover, while planetary surface operations are conducted under different conditions, the technology to probe the surface and subsurface of both the Earth and other planets requires similar tools, such as radar, seismometers, and drilling devices. The Earth observation community has developed some exemplary tools and has featured successful international cooperation in data handling and sharing that could be equally well applied to robotic planetary exploration. Here we propose a network involving both communities that will enable the interchange of scientific insights and the development of new policies and management strategies. Those tools can provide a vital forum through which the management of this planet can be assisted, and in which a new bridge between the Earth-centric and space-centric communities can be built.

Chung, S. Y.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Rummel, J. D.; Peter, N.

2010-01-01

140

Generic strategies for chemical space exploration.  

PubMed

The chemical universe of molecules reachable from a set of start compounds by iterative application of a finite number of reactions is usually so vast, that sophisticated and efficient exploration strategies are required to cope with the combinatorial complexity. A stringent analysis of (bio)chemical reaction networks, as approximations of these complex chemical spaces, forms the foundation for the understanding of functional relations in Chemistry and Biology. Graphs and graph rewriting are natural models for molecules and reactions. Borrowing the idea of partial evaluation from functional programming, we introduce partial applications of rewrite rules. A framework for the specification of exploration strategies in graph-rewriting systems is presented. Using key examples of complex reaction networks from carbohydrate chemistry we demonstrate the feasibility of this high-level strategy framework. While being designed for chemical applications, the framework can also be used to emulate higher-level transformation models such as illustrated in a small puzzle game. PMID:24878732

Andersen, Jakob L; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel; Stadler, Peter F

2014-01-01

141

Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.

2002-01-01

142

Deep space environments for human exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; De Angelis, G.

2004-01-01

143

Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, for commercial and operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

Wilson, J.; Clowdsley, M.; Cucinotta, F.; Tripahti, R.; Nealy, J.; de Angelis, G.

144

Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration architecture.

Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

2012-01-01

145

Abstracting Attribute Space for Transfer Function Exploration and Design.  

PubMed

Currently, user centered transfer function design begins with the user interacting with a one or two-dimensional histogram of the volumetric feature space. The feature space is visualized as a function of the number of voxels, allowing the user to explore the data in terms of the feature size/magnitude. However, such visualizations provide the user with no information on the relationship between the feature space and the volumetric space. We propose a modification to the feature space visualization in which the user is no longer presented with the magnitude of the feature; instead, the user is presented with an information metric detailing the relationship between the feature space and the volumetric space. In this way, the user can guide their exploration based on the relationship between the feature magnitude and the spatial information as opposed to being constrained by only visualizing the magnitude of the feature. Our system utilizes common one and two-dimensional histogram widgets where the bins of the abstract feature space now correspond to a feature relationship in terms of the spatial mean, standard deviation, entropy, or skewness. In this manner, we exploit the relationships and correlations present in the underlying data with respect to the dimension(s) under examination. PMID:22508900

Maciejewski, Ross; Jang, Yun; Woo, Insoo; Janicke, Heike; Gaither, Kelly P; Ebert, David S

2012-04-10

146

Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

2010-01-01

147

Reactor safety for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A task force was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a 90-day study to support efforts to determine requirements to meet the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative. The task force identified the need for a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power required as the outpost power demands on the moon and Mars evolve into hundreds of kilowatts. A preliminary hazards analysis has been performed to examine safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems for representative missions to the moon and Mars. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Potential alternatives to each mission phase were also defined. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for the mission phases. The safety issues decay heat removal, reactor control, disposal, criticality, end-of-mission shutdown, radiation exposure, the Martian environment, high speed impact on the surfaces of the moon or Mars, and return flyby trajectories were identified.

Dix, Terry E.

1991-01-01

148

Future needs for space robots for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High level systems engineering modeling and analysis activities for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, with emphasis on planet surface systems. Particular attention is given to SEI studies, preliminary space robotic system requirements, and usefulness of space robotic systems developed to operate on planetary surfaces on earth. It is concluded that supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces are necessary to make SEI planet surface activities reliable and productive and encompass capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements, including supervised autonomous robotic systems. Amplification of human capabilities due to applying more knowledge and reasoning in more flexible and appropriate ways than conventional automation approaches will provide more robust performance, greater choice of interaction modes with operators, and greater transparency of operation.

Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Douglas

1992-01-01

149

An Overview of the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which investigates technologies, and processes related to integrated, distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. In particular, it describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. With regard to network infrastructure, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network for use by all NASA centers. With regard to software, DSES is developing software models, tools and procedures that streamline distributed simulation development and provide an interoperable infrastructure for agency-wide integrated simulation. Finally, with regard to simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper presents the current status and plans for these three areas, including examples of specific simulations.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Michael G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

150

Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

1992-01-01

151

Exploring the Possibilities: Earth and Space Science Missions in the Context of Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to Dr. Edward J. Weiler, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "Exploration without science is tourism". At the American Astronautical Society's 43rd Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium it was quite apparent to all that NASA's current Exploration Initiative is tightly coupled to multiple scientific initiatives: exploration will enable new science and science will enable exploration. NASA's Science Mission Directorate plans to develop priority science missions that deliver science that is vital, compelling and urgent. This paper will discuss the theme of the Goddard Memorial Symposium that science plays a key role in exploration. It will summarize the key scientific questions and some of the space and Earth science missions proposed to answer them, including the Mars and Lunar Exploration Programs, the Beyond Einstein and Navigator Programs, and the Earth-Sun System missions. It will also discuss some of the key technologies that will enable these missions, including the latest in instruments and sensors, large space optical system technologies and optical communications, and briefly discuss developments and achievements since the Symposium. Throughout history, humans have made the biggest scientific discoveries by visiting unknown territories; by going to the Moon and other planets and by seeking out habitable words, NASA is continuing humanity's quest for scientific knowledge.

Pfarr, Barbara; Calabrese, Michael; Kirkpatrick, James; Malay, Jonathan T.

2006-01-01

152

The Nexus of Space Science and Human Space Exploration (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NLSI Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR) consortium is pursuing research to advance the space sciences and to strengthen the bond between science and human exploration of the Moon. Our science is derived from the three recent NRC Decadal Surveys in astrophysics, heliophysics, and planetary science. Four research themes were developed that are uniquely facilitated by human exploration: Heliophysics and Space Radiation, Lunar Laser Ranging, Low Radio Frequency Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Exploration Science. In this talk, we describe some of the fundamental problems which our team is investigating including the acceleration of high energy particles in the heliosphere that are potentially harmful for humans and spacecraft beyond low Earth orbit, the nature of gravity beyond Einstein's Relativity and the cores of airless bodies using laser ranging, and the origins of the first stars and galaxies in the Universe using low frequency radio telescopes on the radio-quiet lunar farside. In addressing these issues, we are developing technologies that are likely to have a dual purpose, serving both exploration and science. Our team has proposed compelling science for a 'waypoint' mission involving human telerobotics at the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point. Astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle will operate lunar farside surface assets for the first time which also serves as an important proving ground for future exploration missions in deep space. The science objectives include returning rock samples from the ancient South Pole-Aitken basin and deployment of a low frequency radio telescope for cosmological observations of the early Universe's Cosmic Dawn. We will describe the first recently-completed simulation of a human waypoint mission where astronauts aboard the International Space Station interactively controlled a high fidelity planetary rover at an outdoor analog testbed at NASA/Ames to deploy a prototype radio antenna. LUNAR is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Burns, J. O.

2013-12-01

153

Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

2004-01-01

154

Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

Dix, Terry E.

1991-01-01

155

Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.  

PubMed

When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning. PMID:17420309

Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

2007-04-01

156

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

157

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five goals of the Human Exploration and Development of Space include: 1) Explore the Space Frontier; 2) Expand Scientific Knowledge; 3) Enable Humans to Live and Work Permanently in Space; 4) Enable the Commercial Development of Space; and 5) Share the Experience and Benefits of Discovery.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2000-01-01

158

Exploring Space: The Quest for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The search through the cosmos for intelligent life, or any life for that matter, continues to fascinate everyone from dedicated scientists working for NASA to such personages as Shirley MacLaine. Broad in its scope, and innovative in its use of computer-animated deep-space imagery, this program from PBS explores the various mysteries about the origins of life that may lie in outer space. This site provides a host of online essays and interactive features that are meant as complements to the television program. The sections here include âÂÂThe Mars ProspectâÂÂ, âÂÂThe Search for AliensâÂÂ, and âÂÂMeteorites & LifeâÂÂ. Within each section, there are a number of quizzes and fun activities, such as one that lets visitors attempt to fly to Mars. The site is rounded out by a number of insightful essays, including those that deal with the themes of the rights of alien life forms and other such speculative topics.

2005-01-01

159

Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

160

Biology-Inspired Explorers for Space Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building upon three innovative technologies, each of which received a NTR award from NASA, a specific explorer is described. This "robot" does away with conventional gears, levers, pulleys,.... And uses "Muscle Materials" instead; these shape-memory materials, formerly in the Nickel-Titanium family, but now in the much wider class of ElectroActivePolymers(EAP), have the ability to precisely respond to pre"programmed" shape changes upon application of an electrical input. Of course, the pre"programs" are at the molecular level, much like in biological systems. Another important feature is the distributed power. That is, the power use in the "limbs" is distributed, so that if one "limb" should fail, the others can still function. The robot has been built and demonstrated to the media (newspapers and television). The fundamental control aspects are currently being worked upon, and we expect to have a more complete mathematical description of its operation. Future plans, and specific applications for reliable planetary exploration will be outlined.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Lozano, Peter; Furfaro, Roberto

2002-01-01

161

Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

2011-01-01

162

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

163

ISS Update: Powering the Space Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

In the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Abbie Ryan, lead engineer for the fuel cell of the Multi-Mission Space E...

164

Space radiation concerns for manned exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spaceflight exposes astronaut crews to natural ionizing radiation. To date, exposures in manned spaceflight have been well below the career limits recommended to NASA by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). This will not be the case for long-duration exploratory class missions. Additionally, International Space Station (ISS) crews will receive higher doses than earlier flight crews. Uncertainties in our understanding of long-term bioeffects, as well as updated analyses of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Chernobyl tumorigenesis data, have prompted the NCRP to recommend further reductions by 30-50% for career dose limit guidelines. Intelligent spacecraft design and material selection can provide a shielding strategy capable of maintaining crew exposures within recommended guidelines. Current studies on newer radioprotectant compounds may find combinations of agents which further diminish the risk of radiation-induced bioeffects to the crew.

Stanford, Michael; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-09-01

165

Object-based systematic state space exploration of software  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The state space of modeled software can be explored using an object-based systematic state explorer. The object-based model can perform well even in light of the complexities of concurrent software. During state space exploration, differences between states can be stored instead of storing a complete copy of the state.

2009-04-28

166

Exploring number space by random digit generation.  

PubMed

There is some evidence that human subjects preferentially select small numbers when asked to sample numbers from large intervals "at random". A retrospective analysis of single digit frequencies in 16 independent experiments with the Mental Dice Task (generation of digits 1-6 during 1 min) confirmed the occurrence of small-number biases (SNBs) in 488 healthy subjects. A subset of these experiments suggested a spatial nature of this bias in the sense of a "leftward" shift along the number line. First, individual SNBs were correlated with leftward deviations in a number line bisection task (but unrelated to the bisection of physical lines). Second, in 20 men, the magnitude of SNBs significantly correlated with leftward attentional biases in the judgment of chimeric faces. Finally, cognitive activation of the right hemisphere enhanced SNBs in 20 different men, while left hemisphere activation reduced them. Together, these findings provide support for a spatial component in random number generation. Specifically, they allow an interpretation of SNBs in terms of "pseudoneglect in number space." We recommend the use of random digit generation for future explorations of spatial-attentional asymmetries in numerical processing and discuss methodological issues relevant to prospective designs. PMID:17294177

Loetscher, Tobias; Brugger, Peter

2007-07-01

167

Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

1990-01-01

168

Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

2010-01-01

169

Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop  

PubMed Central

Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8–10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond “science protection” per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address “harmful contamination” beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Extraterrestrial life—Life in extreme environments—Environment—Habitability. Astrobiology 12, 1017–1023.

Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

2012-01-01

170

Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.  

PubMed

With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

2012-11-01

171

Solar Power Satellites for Space Exploration and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power generation is one of the crucial elements of space vehicles and of future infrastructures on planets and moons. The increased demand for power faces many constraints, in particular the sizing of the power generation system also driven by eclipse periods and the solar intensity at the operational spot. In the medium term, Earth orbiting platforms will require higher power levels. Interplanetary exploration vehicles face the problem of distance to the Sun, especially when large amount of power may be needed. Large infrastructures on Moon and planets, like Mars, are constrained by environment attenuation, long eclipse or distance to the Sun. New systems and technologies have to be found, which go beyond simple improvements of the current technologies. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) systems, based on wireless power transmission, are attractive candidate solutions to provide power to space vehicles or to elements on planet surface. Studies have been carried out for many years on the problem of providing renewable electrical energy from space to Earth with SPS. This paper reviews the main results of an ESA funded study, led by EADS Astrium with the support of the Université of La Réunion, which assessed the utilisation of SPS concepts for space-to-space and space-to-planet applications.

Cougnet, C.; Sein, E.; Celeste, A.; Summerer, L.

2004-12-01

172

Manned Space Exploration Can Provide Great Scientific Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An AGU Council statement (NASA: Earth and space sciences at risk, available at http:// www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/positions/ earthspace_risk.shtml) and an Eos editorial [Barron, 2005], addressing NASA's envisioned manned Moon-Mars initiative, implicitly assume a zero-sum situation between manned and unmanned space programs. They also imply that the NASA initiative will not contribute significantly to science but will ``impact on the current and future health of Earth and space science research.'' I wish to respond to these concerns. It is generally agreed that the International Space Station and shuttle program have limited value and need to be terminated. But one should not assume that funds freed up by elimination of manned programs will accrue to unmanned programs. On the contrary, without a manned component, NASA will probably cease to exist. Congress likely will not continue to fund unmanned planetary exploration over the long term, and Earth and space researchers will then have to compete for support with scientists using non-space techniques.

Singer, S. Fred

2005-08-01

173

Symmetric Space ?-MODEL Dynamics:. Current Formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After explicitly constructing the symmetric space sigma model Lagrangian in terms of the coset scalars of the solvable Lie algebra gauge in the current formalism, we derive the field equations of the theory.

Yilmaz, Nejat T.

174

Explorations in Space and Time: Computer-Generated Astronomy Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the computer animation technique to travel through space and time and watch models of astronomical systems in motion. Included is a list of eight computer-generated demonstration films entitled Explorations in Space and Time.'' (CC)

Meeks, M. L.

1973-01-01

175

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2008-04-22

176

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2010-01-08

177

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

178

Roles of Hydrogen in Space Explorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various roles of hydrogen in space technology are identified and discussed. The preeminent position of hydrogen as rocket fuel in launch vehicles is explained and illustrated for the NASA Space Shuttle. The history of hydrogen in launching space vehicles is also briefly summarized. The cryogenic aspects of hydrogen for cooling instruments during flight missions are covered for several past

Robert C. Bowman

2006-01-01

179

Exploration of Space and the Discovery of the Unintended  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research seeks to understand and define what are called here, unintentional spaces. This research begins by looking into different types of space and spatial intricacies. The intricacies introduced include: representation, perception, value, beauty, and interaction. These initial explorations seek to establish a general understanding and vocabulary for examining unintentional space. Once a basic definition of these spaces is established,

Sheila McLain

2005-01-01

180

Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

2007-01-01

181

Nuclear data needs for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

On July 20, 1989, the President of the United States announced a new direction for the US Space Program. The new Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is intended to emplace a permanent base on the Lunar surface and a manned outpost on the Mars surface by 2019. In order to achieve this ambitious challenge, new, innovative and robust technologies will have to be developed to support crew operations. Nuclear power and propulsion have been recognized as technologies that are at least mission enhancing and, in some scenarios, mission enabling. Because of the extreme operating conditions present in a nuclear rocket core, accurate modeling of the rocket will require cross section data sets which do not currently exist. In order to successfully achieve the goals of the SEI, major obstacles inherent in long duration space travel will have to be overcome. One of these obstacles is the radiation environment to which the astronauts will be exposed. In general, an unshielded crew will be exposed to roughly one REM per week in free space. For missions to Mars, the total dose could exceed more than one-half the total allowed lifetime level. Shielding of the crew may be possible, but accurate assessments of shield composition and thickness are critical if shield masses are to be kept at acceptable levels. In addition, the entire ship design may be altered by the differential neutron production by heavy ions (Galactic Cosmic Rays) incident on ship structures. The components of the radiation environment, current modeling capability and envisioned experiments will be discussed.

Howe, S.D.; Auchampaugh, G.

1991-01-01

182

Human & robotics technology space exploration communication scenarios: characteristics, challenges & scenarios for developing intelligent Internet protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a comprehensive view of current and future space communications systems, and scenarios in relation with intelligent Internet protocol (IIP). IIP is an innovative network layer protocol developed to meet the shortcomings of existing Internet protocol (IP) in an adverse space networking environment and provide future communication support for NASA space exploration activities. IIP distinguishes itself

Behnam Malakooti; Hyun Kim; Kul Bhasin

2006-01-01

183

Liquid Acquisition Strategies for Exploration Missions: Current Status 2010  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing the propulsion system concepts for human exploration missions to the lunar surface. The propulsion concepts being investigated are considering the use of cryogenic propellants for the low gravity portion of the mission, that is, the lunar transit, lunar orbit insertion, lunar descent and the rendezvous in lunar orbit with a service module after ascent from the lunar surface. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks to the exploration vehicles main propulsion system (MPS) engines and reaction control system (RCS) engines. Propellant management devices (PMD s) such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD s), vanes and sponges currently are used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter OMS and RCS applications and spacecraft propulsion applications but only very limited propellant management capability exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA has begun a technology program to develop LAD cryogenic fluid management (CFM) technology through a government in-house ground test program of accurately measuring the bubble point delta-pressure for typical screen samples using LO2, LN2, LH2 and LCH4 as test fluids at various fluid temperatures and pressures. This presentation will document the CFM project s progress to date in concept designs, as well ground testing results.

Chato, David J.

2010-01-01

184

Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations Part 2: Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews what is currently known about the solar system and the objects that make up the solar system. Information about the individual planets, comets, asteroids and moons is reviewed.

Chau, Savio

2005-01-01

185

PISCES: A "Stepping Stone" to International Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) was initiated by the Japan/US Science, Technology and Space Application Programs (JUSTSAP) to advance research and education in space exploration technology and systems working closely with the State of Hawaii. Hawaii has a heritage with space exploration including the training of Apollo astronauts and testing of lunar rover systems in some of the most realistic terrestrial sites available. The high altitude dry environment with greater solar insolation, and the dry lunar regolith-like volcanic ash and cratered terrain make Hawaiian sites ideal to support, international space exploration technology development, demonstration, education and training. This paper will summarize development and roles of PISCES in lunar surface analogs, simulations, technology demonstrations, research and training for space exploration technology and systems.

Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.; Schowengerdt, Frank

2007-01-01

186

Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.  

PubMed

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2008-04-01

187

Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The knowledge obtained by space life sciences will play a pivotal role as humankind reaches out to explore the solar system. Information is needed concerning the existence of life beyond the Earth, the potential interactions between planets and living organisms, and the possibilities for humans to inhabit space safely and productively. Programs in the involved disciplines are an integral part of NASA's current and future missions. To realize their objectives, the development and operation of diverse ground and flight facilities and clost coordination with numerous scientific and governmental organizations in the U.S. and abroad are required. The status and goals of the life sciences programs are examined. Ways and means for attaining these goals are suggested.

1988-01-01

188

Plans and Considerations for the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Settlement Design Competition is a program for high school students and teachers to experience the process of mission and hardware design. It provides a top level view into how NASA plans to explore space. I will be involved with all three days of this competition. On Friday I plan to give two presentations, one to the employees of White Sands Test Facility and one to students and teachers. On Saturday, I will have a question and answer session with some of the teachers participating in the workshop. Sunday I will serve as one of the judges that will review the students projects created over the weekend. The main emphasis of my talk will focus on exploring the possibilities of the future of space exploration. I will discuss the Mars Reference Mission 3.0, as well as some of the current robotic missions being sent to Mars. Next, I will present a business model perfected by Hum Mandell, showing how the public, private, and commercial sectors all play a major role in sending humans to Mars. I will also discuss the work of the Integrated Design Team at JSC and how that working together approach is key for a successful design. Finally, I will present that the question of how humans can reach out beyond low earth orbit and place permanent settlements on Mars is really a function of the imagination of those who intend on going there.

Derkowski, Brian J.

2001-01-01

189

International Space Station as an Exploration Platform for Deep Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will introduce concepts for how ISS could be fully utilized to support exploration. Pressure on program budgets will only intensify the need to use existing assets to their fullest extent. Meaningful progress on exploration can be made using ISS.

Raftery, M.; Hoffman, J.; Klaus, K.

2012-03-01

190

Visions for Space Exploration: ILS Issues and Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the logistic issues that the Vision for Space Exploration will entail. There is a review of the vision and the timeline for the return to the moon that will lead to the first human exploration of Mars. The lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and other such missions are also reviewed.

Watson, Kevin

2005-01-01

191

Space exploration: The interstellar goal and Titan demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated interstellar space exploration is reviewed. The Titan demonstration mission is discussed. Remote sensing and automated modeling are considered. Nuclear electric propulsion, main orbiting spacecraft, lander/rover, subsatellites, atmospheric probes, powered air vehicles, and a surface science network comprise mission component concepts. Machine, intelligence in space exploration is discussed.

1982-01-01

192

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

193

New National Vision for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the Apollo landings on the Moon, to robotic surveys of the Sun and the planets, to the compelling images captured by advanced space telescopes, U.S. achievements in space have revolutionized humanity s view of the universe and have inspired Americans...

R. L. Sackheim R. Geveden D. A. King

2004-01-01

194

Exploration of RNA Structure Spaces (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to understand the structure of real structure spaces, we are studying the 5S rRNA structure space experimentally. A plasmid containing a synthetic 5S rRNA gene, two rRNA promoters, and transcription terminators has been assembled. Assays are cond...

G. E. Fox

1991-01-01

195

Exploring the search space of quantum programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a rst study of search spaces and tness landscapes in the context of the evolution of quantum programs. We consider small instances of the Deutsch-Jozsa problem as a starting point for the explo- ration of search spaces of quantum algorithms and ana- lyze the structure of mutation landscapes using autocor- relation functions and information measures for charac-

André Leier; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2003-01-01

196

Rationale and constituencies for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to maximize the benefits from prospective space-exploration endeavors, and to enlist the support of as many constituencies as possible, NASA is either conducting or developing programs which emphasize different aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative. Attention is presently given to the cases of education using space exploration themes as teaching tools and technology transfer from government to private industry. Only on the basis of the establishment of such constituencies, will it be possible to sustain funding over the three decades foreseen as required for a Mars exploration effort.

Johnson, Kristine A.

1992-01-01

197

Space transfer vehicles for the Space Exploration Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space transfer vehicle (STV) concept for SEI is reviewed with particular attention given to direct STV support in the development of the space and ground-based system configurations recommended in the 90-Day and the First Lunar Outpost Studies, and evaluation of the Synthesis Committee Lunar Mission recommendations. The STV architectures under consideration include a complete lunar space and ground based

John R. Hodge

1992-01-01

198

Global partnerships: Expanding the frontiers of space exploration education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalization is creating an interdependent space-faring world and new opportunities for international partnerships that strengthen space knowledge development and transfer. These opportunities have been codified in the Global Exploration Strategy, which endorses the "inspirational and educational value of space exploration" [1]. Also, during the 2010 Heads of Space Agencies Summit celebrating the International Academy of Astronautics' (IAA) 50th Anniversary, space-faring nations from across the globe issued a collective call in support of robust international partnerships to expand the frontiers of space exploration and generate knowledge for improving life on Earth [2]. Educators play a unique role in this mission, developing strategic partnerships and sharing best educational practices to (1) further global understanding of the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth and (2) prepare the next generation of scientists required for the 21st Century space workforce. Educational Outreach (EO) programs use evidence-based, measurable outcomes strategies and cutting edge information technologies to transfer space-based science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) knowledge to new audiences; create indigenous materials with cultural resonance for emerging space societies; support teacher professional development; and contribute to workforce development initiatives that inspire and prepare new cohorts of students for space exploration careers. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) have sustained a 13-year space science education partnership dedicated to these objectives. This paper briefly describes the design and achievements of NSBRI's educational programs, with special emphasis on those initiatives' involvement with IAA and the International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The IAA Commission 2 Draft Report, Space for Africa, is discussed as a model for developing sustainable partnerships and indigenous programs that support Africa's steady emergence as a global space-faring force. The IAC will provide timely: 2011 South Africa will provide timely feedback to refine that report's strategies for space life sciences education and public engagement in Africa and around the globe.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Akinyede, Joseph O.; Goswami, Nandu; Thomson, William A.

2012-11-01

199

Universal stowage module for future space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design effort to develop, design, and fabricate a prototype Universal Stowage Module with universal restraints that are readily adaptable for most sizes and shapes of items that would be launched into space and returned aboard shuttle payloads is presented.

Descamp, V. A.; Hussey, M. W.; Garber, P.; Mandras, W.; Mckinney, D.

1974-01-01

200

Applicability of Nanosatellites to Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent work on the use of secondary nanospacecraft on deep space missions to provide in situ measurements in risky and inhospitable locations, including high science/high risk sites, like cometary vents, Enceladus' jets, and Io's volcanos.

Klesh, A. T.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.

2012-03-01

201

Radiation risk and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

2003-01-01

202

Novel Chemical Space Exploration via Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notable in coverage of chemical space, and tangible lead-like NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbours of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method, were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbours. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery, in the search for novel leads with unique properties.

Rosen, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I.

2009-01-01

203

Novel chemical space exploration via natural products.  

PubMed

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notably in coverage of chemical space, and tangible leadlike NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbors of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbors. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery in the search for novel leads with unique properties. PMID:19265440

Rosén, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I

2009-04-01

204

Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents include: 'History and tribute to aerospace medical pioneers'; 'On fundamental scientific advances resulting from the space program'; 'Some remarks on the evolution of the atmospheres and the oceans'; 'Chemical evolution and the origin of life'; '...

C. H. Roadman H. Strughold R. B. Mitchell J. Harmon R. Schafer

1968-01-01

205

Radiation risk and human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

2003-01-01

206

Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

Schmidt, George R.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Duddzinski, Leonard

2009-01-01

207

Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

Schmidt, George; Sutliff, Tom; Dudzinski, Leonard

2008-01-01

208

The political context for human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public and political discourses are often punctuated with unfair questions. Space activities seem to attract such unfair questions\\u000a — in particular by the little minds. High-spirited activities such as humans in outer space and their visions risk being ridiculed\\u000a or slammed. One such unfair question is: do astronauts solve any problems on Earth? It relates to the pressing questions our

Kai-Uwe Schrogl

209

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

SciTech Connect

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2012-11-29

210

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

ScienceCinema

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2014-05-30

211

Biomimetics on seed dispersal: survey and insights for space exploration.  

PubMed

Seeds provide the vital genetic link and dispersal agent between successive generations of plants. Without seed dispersal as a means of reproduction, many plants would quickly die out. Because plants lack any sort of mobility and remain in the same spot for their entire lives, they rely on seed dispersal to transport their offspring throughout the environment. This can be accomplished either collectively or individually; in any case as seeds ultimately abdicate their movement, they are at the mercy of environmental factors. Thus, seed dispersal strategies are characterized by robustness, adaptability, intelligence (both behavioral and morphological), and mass and energy efficiency (including the ability to utilize environmental sources of energy available): all qualities that advanced engineering systems aim at in general, and in particular those that need to enable complex endeavors such as space exploration. Plants evolved and adapted their strategy according to their environment, and taken together, they enclose many desirable characteristics that a space mission needs to have. Understanding in detail how plants control the development of seeds, fabricate structural components for their dispersal, build molecular machineries to keep seeds dormant up to the right moment and monitor the environment to release them at the right time could provide several solutions impacting current space mission design practices. It can lead to miniaturization, higher integration and packing efficiency, energy efficiency and higher autonomy and robustness. Consequently, there would appear to be good reasons for considering biomimetic solutions from plant kingdom when designing space missions, especially to other celestial bodies, where solid and liquid surfaces, atmosphere, etc constitute and are obviously parallel with the terrestrial environment where plants evolved. In this paper, we review the current state of biomimetics on seed dispersal to improve space mission design. PMID:23648867

Pandolfi, Camilla; Izzo, Dario

2013-06-01

212

Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

213

Give Me a Boost - How Gravity Assists Aid Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about how spacecraft use gravity assists to get where they are going. Learners will explore how engineers minimize the use of fuel by utilizing gravity. In Activity 1, students explore the physical conservation laws by observing the behavior of balls colliding with other objects. In Activity 2, the students use an interactive online simulation tool to explore the various ways in which gravity assists can be used to aid space exploration.

214

High temperature electronics applications in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extension of the range of operating temperatures of electronic components and systems for planetary exploration is examined. In particular, missions which utilize balloon-borne instruments to study the Venusian and Jovian atmospheres are discussed. Semiconductor development and devices including power sources, ultrastable oscillators, transmitters, antennas, electromechanical devices, and deployment systems are addressed.

Jurgens, R. F.

1981-01-01

215

GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

2004-01-01

216

Mélange: space folding for visual exploration.  

PubMed

Navigating in large geometric spaces-such as maps, social networks, or long documents-typically requires a sequence of pan and zoom actions. However, this strategy is often ineffective and cumbersome, especially when trying to study and compare several distant objects. We propose a new distortion technique that folds the intervening space to guarantee visibility of multiple focus regions. The folds themselves show contextual information and support unfolding and paging interactions. We conducted a study comparing the space-folding technique to existing approaches and found that participants performed significantly better with the new technique. We also describe how to implement this distortion technique and give an in-depth case study on how to apply it to the visualization of large-scale 1D time-series data. PMID:20224141

Elmqvist, Niklas; Riche, Yann; Henry-Riche, Nathalie; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

2010-01-01

217

The “Vision for Space Exploration” of President George W. Bush, space science, and U.S. space policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 14, 2004 President George W. Bush announced a major overhaul of U.S. space exploration strategy and infrastructure, stipulating that NASA complete the International Space Station (ISS) and retire the Space Shuttle fleet by 2010, develop a new suite of launch and exploration vehicles for deployment shortly thereafter, and embark on a program of human exploration of the solar

Joseph N. Tatarewicz

2009-01-01

218

Conference on Advanced Space Exploration Initiative Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphite-copper composites are candidate materials for space based radiators. The thermal emittance of this material, however, is a factor of two lower than the desired emittance for these systems of greater than or equal to 0.85. Arc texturing was investigated as a surface modification technique for enhancing the emittance of the composite. Since the outer surface of the composite is

S. K. Rutledge; M. J. Forkapa; J. M. Cooper

1991-01-01

219

Space Exploration: Real Reasons and Acceptable Reasons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In national polling, NASA enjoys a positive approval rating, broadly in the range of 65-75%. But often people are not sure why they attribute high approval ratings, what NASA does beyond the broad category of 'space,' and are even less sure of NASA future...

M. D. Griffin

2008-01-01

220

Outer Space Place: Exploring Space at the Maryland Science Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Science Center has been the state's premier vehicle for informal science education for over 20 years. Every day thousands of school children, families, and out-of-state visitors come for fun and come away with ideas, exciting experiences, and an appetite for more information about science. Opened on April 15, 1999, Outer Space Place (OSP) consolidates the Science Center's space

M. W. Jan; F. Mendez

1999-01-01

221

Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

Moran, Matthew E.

2006-01-01

222

Potential anesthesia protocols for space exploration missions.  

PubMed

In spaceflight beyond low Earth's orbit, medical conditions requiring surgery are of a high level of concern because of their potential impact on crew health and mission success. Whereas surgical techniques have been thoroughly studied in spaceflight analogues, the research focusing on anesthesia is limited. To provide safe anesthesia during an exploration mission will be a highly challenging task. The research objective is thus to describe specific anesthesia procedures enabling treatment of pre-identified surgical conditions. Among the medical conditions considered by the NASA Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability element, those potentially necessitating anesthesia techniques have been identified. The most appropriate procedure for each condition is thoroughly discussed. The substantial cost of training time necessary to implement regional anesthesia is pointed out. Within general anesthetics, ketamine combines the unique advantages of preservation of cardiovascular stability, the protective airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Ketamine side effects have for decades tempered enthusiasm for its use, but recent developments in mitigation means broadened its indications. The extensive experience gathered in remote environments, with minimal equipment and occasionally by insufficiently trained care providers, confirms its high degree of safety. Two ketamine-based anesthesia protocols are described with their corresponding indications. They have been designed taking into account the physiological changes occurring in microgravity and the specific constraints of exploration missions. This investigation could not only improve surgical care during long-duration spaceflights, but may find a number of terrestrial applications in isolated or austere environments. PMID:23513283

Komorowski, Matthieu; Watkins, Sharmila D; Lebuffe, Gilles; Clark, Jonathan B

2013-03-01

223

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

224

Estimating the costs of human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

1994-01-01

225

Outer Space Place: Exploring Space at the Maryland Science Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maryland Science Center has been the state's premier vehicle for informal science education for over 20 years. Every day thousands of school children, families, and out-of-state visitors come for fun and come away with ideas, exciting experiences, and an appetite for more information about science. Opened on April 15, 1999, Outer Space Place (OSP) consolidates the Science Center's space exhibits and activities, both new and refurbished. In this paper, we describe OSP, which features SpaceLink, the Crosby Ramsey Memorial Observatory, the Davis Planetarium, Earth Orbit Gallery, and the Hubble Space Telescope National Visitor Center and provides hands-on educational experiences for kids of all ages. We illustrate how astronomers contribute to and educators benefit from OSP. We conclude with concrete suggestions for astronomers and educators who wish to enhance astronomy education in their local areas.

Jan, M. W.; Mendez, F.

1999-05-01

226

Exploring the Living Universe: A Strategy for Space Life Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The knowledge obtained by space life sciences will play a pivotal role as humankind reaches out to explore the solar system. Information is needed concerning the existence of life beyond the Earth, the potential interactions between planets and living org...

1988-01-01

227

Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

Sagan, Carl

1973-01-01

228

Transitioning to the Vision for Space Exploration. Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs on NASA's transition to its vision for space exploration is presented. The topics include (1) Strategic Directives Guiding the Human Support Technology Program (2) Progressive Capabilities (3) A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover (4) Ri...

2004-01-01

229

Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

2005-01-01

230

Complexity in Simplicity: Flexible Agent-Based State Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a new flexible framework for state space exploration based on cooperating agents. The idea is to\\u000a let various agents with different search patterns explore the state space individually and communicate information about fruitful\\u000a subpaths of the search tree to each other. That way very complex global search behavior is achieved with very simple local\\u000a behavior.

Jacob Illum Rasmussen; Gerd Behrmann; Kim Guldstrand Larsen

2007-01-01

231

Noradrenergic modulation of space exploration in visual neglect.  

PubMed

Visual neglect after stroke is often associated with a failure to explore contralesional space. Here, we show that guanfacine, a noradrenergic agonist that modulates dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, improves leftward space exploration in selected right-hemisphere patients with neglect. The positive effects of guanfacine were associated with extended ability to maintain attention on task. The results suggest that neuropharmacological targeting of intact frontal areas might be one way to enhance cognitive function after damage to posterior brain regions in selected individuals. PMID:16261567

Malhotra, Paresh A; Parton, Andrew D; Greenwood, Richard; Husain, Masud

2006-01-01

232

School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) was formed in 2006 by merging previously separate academic programs in geoscience and planetary science, astronomy, and systems engineering. SESE is explicitly designed to enhance knowledge of Earth and the universe through innovative trans-disciplinary exploration, research, and teaching. Earth and space science education research, teacher preparation, and outreach are among the principal functions of SESE.

Exploration, School O.; University, Arizona S.

233

Space exploration--surgical insights and future perspectives.  

PubMed

NASA's space exploration initiative envisions a return to the moon by 2020, the construction of inhabited lunar bases and manned missions to Mars. Such an ambitious program harbours increased risks, both logistical and physical (particularly that of trauma) within the context of a microgravity environment. This paper also discusses the cellular response to microgravity and the potential scientific and technological benefits of Space exploration. PMID:17462296

Agha, Riaz

2005-01-01

234

Mars trajectory options for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Definition Office within the Lunar and Mars Exploration Program Office at the NASA/Johnson Space Center has the responsibility for leading the Space Exploration Initiative mission design activities across the Agency. In support of the Synthesis Group architecture analyses, a mission concept that includes fast one-way transits to and from Mars, a powered flyby abort, and an early return option has been developed. This paper will describe this integrated approach to Mars mission planning.

Soldner, John K.; Joosten, B. K.

1992-01-01

235

An international symbol for the sustained exploration of space  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humanity prepares to extend its reach beyond low-Earth-orbit for the first time since the 1970s, a new symbol of international cooperation is needed to further promote the message of peace and collaboration such exploration entails. The space race that occurred between the USSR and the USA is an ill-suited model for long-term sustained space exploration because it is too

Sanjoy Som

2010-01-01

236

Atmosphere Revitalization Technology Development for Crewed Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space exploration objectives extend human presence beyond low Earth orbit, the solutions to technological challenges presented by supporting human life in the hostile space environment must build upon experience gained during past and present crewed space exploration programs. These programs and the cabin atmosphere revitalization process technologies and systems developed for them represent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) past and present operational knowledge base for maintaining a safe, comfortable environment for the crew. The contributions of these programs to the NASA s technological and operational working knowledge base as well as key strengths and weaknesses to be overcome are discussed. Areas for technological development to address challenges inherent with the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) are presented and a plan for their development employing unit operations principles is summarized

Perry, Jay L.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Harris, Danny W.

2006-01-01

237

Challenges for Electronics in the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has been a brief snapshot discussing electronics and Exploration-related challenges. The vision for Space Exploration creates a new paradigm for NASA missions. This includes transport (Crew Exploration Vehicle-CEV), and lunar and Mars Exploration and human presence. If one considers the additional hazards faced by these concepts versus more traditional NASA missions, multiple challenges surface for reliable utilization of electronic parts. The true challenge is to provide a risk as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA-a traditional biological radiation exposure term), while still providing cost effective solutions. This presentation also discusses the hazard for electronic parts and exploration, the types of electronic parts for exploration, and the critical juncture for space usage of commercial changes in the electronics world.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2005-01-01

238

Will the US remain the real leader of human space exploration? A comparative assessment of space exploration policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human space exploration is at a turning point which should find its outcome during the coming decade: Shuttle is being retired, ISS will be exploited up to 2020 minimum. Today the US exploration plans are sucked down into political battles, Europe and Japan are nearly nowhere, Russia's plans are hazy, China's ambitions are clear and implemented, and new actors such as India are raising their profile. In this uncertain environment, the question might be asked: who will be the leaders of human space exploration in 10-15 years from now? The assumption of the paper is that some key enabling factors are essential for a country to play a substantial role in human space exploration: There should be some long term political stability or continuity The domain should be high in the political agenda of the country's decision makers The global budget environment of the country should be positive Space should not be too much competed by other budget "catchers" The paper will propose a tentative comparison of the main space faring countries plans, ambitions and likely positioning, for human space exploration. Starting from the today situation and recent past evolutions, we will try to establish future trends for these key factors, and through that to identify which countries might be the most dynamically engaged in human space exploration.

Grimard, Max

2012-06-01

239

Identifying Sociological Factors for the Success of Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrosociology factors relevant to success of future space exploration may best be identified through studies of sociological circumstances of past successful explorations, such as the Apollo-Lunar Missions. These studies benefit from access to primary records of the past programs. The Archives and Special Collections Division of the Salmon Library at the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) houses large collections of

C. A. Lundquist; D. Tarter; A. Coleman

2011-01-01

240

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

241

Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2007-01-01

242

Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

2003-01-01

243

Theory of space charge limited currents  

SciTech Connect

Space-charge-limited currents are important in energy devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes, but the available theory from the 1950's finds it necessary to postulate an exponential density of defect energy levels to match data. Here we revisit the theory and show that this postulate is not warranted. Instead, we demonstrate that dopants and the concomitant Frenkel effect, which have been neglected, control the shape of measured current-voltage characteristics. We also account for the observed peak in the noise power. Finally, the new theory can anchor efforts to develop experimental techniques to measure deep-trap levels.

Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University

2012-01-01

244

Theory of Space Charge Limited Currents  

SciTech Connect

Space-charge-limited currents are important in energy devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes, but the available theory from the 1950s finds it necessary to postulate defect states that are distributed in energy in order to match data. Here, we show that this postulate is not warranted. Instead, we demonstrate that dopants and the concomitant Frenkel effect, which have been neglected, control the shape of measured current-voltage characteristics. We also account for the observed peak in the noise power. The new theory can anchor efforts to develop experimental techniques to measure deep-trap levels.

Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

2012-01-01

245

Secure Display of Space-Exploration Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Java EDR Display Interface (JEDI) is software for either local display or secure Internet distribution, to authorized clients, of image data acquired from cameras aboard spacecraft engaged in exploration of remote planets. ( EDR signifies experimental data record, which, in effect, signifies image data.) Processed at NASA s Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL), the data can be from either near-realtime processing streams or stored files. JEDI uses the Java Advanced Imaging application program interface, plus input/output packages that are parts of the Video Image Communication and Retrieval software of the MIPL, to display images. JEDI can be run as either a standalone application program or within a Web browser as a servlet with an applet front end. In either operating mode, JEDI communicates using the HTTP(s) protocol(s). In the Web-browser case, the user must provide a password to gain access. For each user and/or image data type, there is a configuration file, called a "personality file," containing parameters that control the layout of the displays and the information to be included in them. Once JEDI has accepted the user s password, it processes the requested EDR (provided that user is authorized to receive the specific EDR) to create a display according to the user s personality file.

Cheng, Cecilia; Thornhill, Gillian; McAuley, Michael

2006-01-01

246

Space Exploration: Manned and Unmanned Flight. Aerospace Education III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of…

Coard, E. A.

247

The problem of artificial gravity in piloted space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review deals with the problem of using artificial gravity in piloted space missions, its history and relevance to the proclaimed goals of remote space exploration. It contains a brief discussion of deconditioning and loss of acceleration tolerance developing in cosmonauts despite a variety of preventive procedures. Key issues pertaining short-arm centrifuge (SAC) design and in-flight utilization are acceleration tolerance,

A. R. Kotovskaya

2011-01-01

248

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are discussed. To aid understanding of these results, a brief background of JPL's history is presented, followed by a description of the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft. The results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2

Josette Bellan

1993-01-01

249

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and

Josette Bellan

1993-01-01

250

Visualization Experiences and Issues in Deep Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization tools play a key role in the exploration of outer space. Since it is difficult and expensive to send humans to other planets, immersive visualization of such hostile environments is as close as we will get for some time. Visualization is also used in a variety of supporting roles for deep space missions, from simulation and rehearsal of planned

John Wright; Scott Burleigh; Makoto Maruya; Scott Maxwell; René Pischel

2003-01-01

251

Advanced space storable propellants for outer planet exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the feasibility and mission performance benefits of using advanced space storable propellants for outer planet exploration was performed. For the purpose of this study, space storable propellants are defined to be propellants which can be passively stored without the need for active cooling.

Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Baker, Raymond S.; Miyake, Robert N.

2004-01-01

252

Future of Human Space Exploration: Toward Cooperation or Competition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past 52 years, the world has progressed from the first man in space, to landing on the moon, to permanent human presence on manned space stations. Mankind is now poised to explore even farther. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze whether int...

P. M. Adams

2013-01-01

253

Commercialization is Required for Sustainable Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Space Exploration policy outlines an exciting new direction in space for human and robotic exploration and development beyond low Earth orbit. Pressed by this new visionary guidance, human civilization will be able to methodically build capabilities to move off Earth and into the solar system in a step-by-step manner, gradually increasing the capability for humans to stay longer in space and move further away from Earth. The new plans call for an implementation that would create an affordable and sustainable program in order to span over generations of explorers, each new generation pushing back the boundaries and building on the foundations laid by the earlier. To create a sustainable program it is important to enable and encourage the development of a selfsupporting commercial space industry leveraging both traditional and non-traditional segments of the industrial base. Governments will not be able to open the space frontier on their own because their goals change over relatively short timescales and because the large costs associated with human spaceflight cannot be sustained. A strong space development industrial sector is needed that can one day support the needs of commercial space enterprises as well as provide capabilities that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other national space agencies can buy to achieve their exploration goals. This new industrial space sector will someday provide fundamental capabilities like communications, power, logistics, and even cargo and human space transportation, just as commercial companies are able to provide these services on Earth today. To help develop and bolster this new space industrial sector, NASA and other national space agencies can enable and facilitate it in many ways, including reducing risk by developing important technologies necessary for commercialization of space, and as a paying customer, partner, or anchor tenant. This transition from all or mostly government developed and operated facilities and services to commercial supplied facilities and services should be considered from the very earliest stages of planning. This paper will first discuss the importance of space commercialization to fulfilling national goals and the associated policy and strategic objectives that will enable space exploration and development. Then the paper will offer insights into how government can provide leadership to promote the nascent commercial space industry. In addition, the paper describes programs and policies already in place at NASA and offers five important principles government can use to strengthen space industry.

Martin, Gary L.; Olson, John M.

2009-01-01

254

The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

Pasachoff, Jay M.

2011-06-01

255

Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to air& control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent system technologies and expand on the role of intelligent systems in NASA's missions. We will also present several examples of which some are highlighted m this extended abstract.

Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Lohn, Jason; Kaneshige, John

2004-01-01

256

Mass Reduction: The Weighty Challenge for Exploration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meeting nutritional and acceptability requirements is critical for the food system for an exploration class space mission. However, this must be achieved within the constraints of available resources such as water, crew time, stowage volume, launch mass and power availability. ? Due to resource constraints, exploration class missions are not expected to have refrigerators or freezers for food storage, and current per person food mass must be reduced to improve mission feasibility. ? The Packaged Food Mass Reduction Trade Study (Stoklosa, 2009) concluded that the mass of the current space food system can be effectively reduced by decreasing water content of certain foods and offering nutrient dense substitutes, such as meal replacement bars and beverages. Target nutrient ranges were established based on the nutritional content of the current breakfast and lunch meals in the ISS standard menu. A market survey of available commercial products produced no viable options for meal replacement bar or beverage products. New prototypes for both categories were formulated to meet target nutrient ranges. Samples of prototype products were packaged in high barrier packaging currently used for ISS and underwent an accelerated shelf life study at 31 degC and 41 degC (50% RH) for 24 weeks. Samples were assessed at the following time points: Initial, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Testing at each time point included the following: color, texture, water activity, acceptability, and hexanal analysis (for food bars only). Proof of concept prototypes demonstrated that meal replacement food bars and beverages can deliver a comparable macronutrient profile while reducing the overall mass when compared to the ISS Standard Menu. Future work suggestions for meal replacement bars: Reformulation to include ingredients that reduce hardness and reduce browning to increase shelf life. Micronutrient analysis and potential fortification. Sensory evaluation studies including satiety tests and menu fatigue. Water Intake Analysis: The water in thermostabilized foods is considered as part of a crewmember's daily water intake. Extensive meal replacement would require further analyses to determine if additional water provisioning would be required per crewmember negating some of the mass savings.

Kloeris, Vickie L.

2014-01-01

257

A System for Multimodal Exploration of Social Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system developed to help people explore local communities by providing navigation services in social\\u000a spaces created by members of the communities. Just as a community’s social space is formed by communication and knowledge-sharing\\u000a practices, the proposed system utilizes data of the corresponding social network to reconstruct the social space, which is\\u000a otherwise not physically perceptible but

Victor V. Kryssanov; Shizuka Kumokawa; Igor Goncharenko; Hitoshi Ogawa

2008-01-01

258

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

Bellan, Josette

1993-04-01

259

Commission Fleshes Out Bush Administration's Space Exploration Agenda for NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commission appointed by President George W. Bush has unanimously endorsed his plan to dramatically re-orient NASA to focus on space exploration and manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and other destinations. The 16 June report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy finds that the new space agenda announced by Bush on 14 January will help the U.S. economy, security, and technological leadership, and provide educational opportunities. The report presents a series of recommendations for implementing the plan.

Showstack, Randy

2004-06-01

260

Exploration case studies. [for manned space activities beyond earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken four case studies for prospective expansion of manned space activities beyond earth orbit. The subjects of these studies are (1) an expedition to the Martian moon Phobos; (2) a three-mission expedition to Mars; (3) the construction of a man-tended lunar observatory; and (4) the construction of a lunar outpost to serve as the basis for construction of a Martian outpost. The fourth alternative would follow the recommendation of the National Commission on Space for the creation of a 'bridge between worlds' in which explorers would develop ways in which to 'live off the land' in a space environment.

Underwood, Jimmy M.

1989-01-01

261

High-temperature electronics applications in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most exciting applications of high-temperature electronics is related to the exploration of the planet Venus. On this planet the atmospheric temperatures range from about 170 K at elevations of 100 km to a searing 730 K near the surface. Mechanisms for exploring the atmosphere might include balloons, airplanes, surface landers, and surface-launched probes. Balloons, for example, could fly in the region from 20 (320 C at 22 bars) to 60 km (-20 C at 0.2 bar). Suitable balloon fabrics presently exclude excursions to lower altitudes; however, adequate electronic systems could survive to 325 C. Small airplanes would require more sophisticated electronics for guidance and control. Long life surface landers would most likely be developed first, as these could be used to measure long-term variations in weather. Ranging transponders would be important for ephemeris development, measurement of spin state, and studies of general relativity. Surface temperatures of 460 C and pressures of 90 bars present a challenge to the developers of such instruments. Other space applications for high-temperature electronics include transponders for the surface of Mercury, near solar drag-free orbiters, and deep atmospheric penetrators for Jupiter and Saturn. Each of these has its own particular problems with respect to instrumentation adequate to meet the desired scientific goals. This paper is primarily concerned with defining possible mission applications, the required electronic systems, and the approaches that are currently being studied for their development.

Jurgens, R. F.

1982-01-01

262

Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the technologies needed for Mars mission. Agencies see the importance of assessing gaps and overlaps in their plans to advance technologies in order to leverage their investments and enable exciting missions as soon as practical. They see the importance of respecting the ability of any agency to invest in any technologies considered interesting or strategic. This paper will describe the importance of developing an appropriate international strategy for technology development and ideas for effective mechanisms for advancing an international strategy. This work will both inform and be informed by the development of an ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap and serve as a concrete step forward in advancing the Global Exploration Strategy.

Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

2010-01-01

263

Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). RESULTS: This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical dimensions for analysis purposes. The latter one reduces the annotation set associated to each collection item into a set of points of the multidimensional space. Additionally, we have developed a visual tool, called 3D-Browser, which implements OLAP-like operators over the generated multidimensional space. The method and the tool have been tested and evaluated in the context of the Health-e-Child (HeC) project. Automatic semantic annotation was applied to tag three collections of abstracts taken from PubMed, one for each target disease of the project, the Uniprot database, and the HeC patient record database. We adopted the UMLS Meta-thesaurus 2010AA as the reference knowledge resource. CONCLUSIONS: Current knowledge resources and semantic-aware technology make possible the integration of biomedical resources. Such an integration is performed through semantic annotation of the intended biomedical data resources. This paper shows how these annotations can be exploited for integration, exploration, and analysis tasks. Results over a real scenario demonstrate the viability and usefulness of the approach, as well as the quality of the generated multidimensional semantic spaces. PMID:22373409

Berlanga, Rafael; Jiménez-Ruiz, Ernesto; Nebot, Victoria

2012-01-25

264

Human life support for advanced space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near-term technologies are adequate to implement a Lunar Base CELSS. There are no apparent "show-stoppers" which require the development of new technologies. However, there are several areas in which new materials and technologies could be used for a more efficient implementation of the system, e.g., by decreasing mass or power requirement and increasing recycling efficiency. These areas must be further addressed through research and development. Finally, although this study focused on the development of a Lunar Base CELSS, the same technologies and a nearly identical design would be appropriate for a Mars base. Actually, except for the distance of transportation, the implementation of a CELSS on Mars would even be easier than it would be on the Moon. The presence of atmospheric CO2 on Mars, although in low concentration, coupled with the fact that the day/night cycle on Mars is very similar to that on Earth, makes the use of light-weight, greenhouse-like structures for growing food plants even more feasible than on the Moon. There are some environmental problems, which would have to be dealt with, like dust storms and the large amount of the ultraviolet radiation incident on the planet's surface. However, the materials and methods are largely available today to develop such a life support system for a Mars base.

Schwartzkopf, S. H.

1997-01-01

265

Human life support for advanced space exploration.  

PubMed

The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near-term technologies are adequate to implement a Lunar Base CELSS. There are no apparent "show-stoppers" which require the development of new technologies. However, there are several areas in which new materials and technologies could be used for a more efficient implementation of the system, e.g., by decreasing mass or power requirement and increasing recycling efficiency. These areas must be further addressed through research and development. Finally, although this study focused on the development of a Lunar Base CELSS, the same technologies and a nearly identical design would be appropriate for a Mars base. Actually, except for the distance of transportation, the implementation of a CELSS on Mars would even be easier than it would be on the Moon. The presence of atmospheric CO2 on Mars, although in low concentration, coupled with the fact that the day/night cycle on Mars is very similar to that on Earth, makes the use of light-weight, greenhouse-like structures for growing food plants even more feasible than on the Moon. There are some environmental problems, which would have to be dealt with, like dust storms and the large amount of the ultraviolet radiation incident on the planet's surface. However, the materials and methods are largely available today to develop such a life support system for a Mars base. PMID:9048141

Schwartzkopf, S H

1997-01-01

266

Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such

L. Alkalai; S. Chau; A. T. Tai

2001-01-01

267

Future of robotic space exploration: visions and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous and remote controlled mobile robots and manipulators have already proved their utility throughout several successful national and international space missions. NASA and ESA both sent robots and probes to Mars and beyond in the past years, and the Space Shuttle and Space Station Remote Manipulator Systems brought recognition to CSA. These achievements gained public attention and acknowledgement; however, all are based on technologies developed decades ago. Even the Canadian Dexter robotic arm-to be delivered to the International Space Station this year-had been completed many years ago. In the past decade robotics has become ubiquitous, and the speed of development has increased significantly, opening space for grandiose future plans of autonomous exploration missions. In the mean time, space agencies throughout the world insist on running their own costly human space flight programs. A recent workshop at NASA dealing with the issue stated that the primary reason behind US human space exploration is not science; rather the USA wants to maintain its international leadership in this field. A second space-race may fall upon us, fueled by the desire of the developing space powers to prove their capabilities, mainly driven by national pride. The aim of the paper is to introduce the upcoming unmanned space exploration scenarios that are already feasible with present day robotic technology and to show their humandriven alternatives. Astronauts are to conquer Mars in the foreseeable future, in but robots could go a lot further already. Serious engineering constraints and possibilities are to be discussed, along with issues beyond research and development. Future mission design planning must deal with both the technological and political aspects of space. Compromising on the scientific outcome may pay well by taking advantage of public awareness and nation and international interests.

Haidegger, Tamas

268

A Flexible Path for Human and Robotic Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 2009, a flexible path scenario for human and robotic space exploration was developed that enables frequent, measured, and publicly notable human exploration of space beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The formulation of this scenario was in support of the Exploration Beyond LEO subcommittee of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee that was commissioned by President Obama. Exploration mission sequences that allow humans to visit a wide number of inner solar system destinations were investigated. The scope of destinations included the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun Lagrange points, near-Earth objects (NEOs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons. The missions examined assumed the use of Constellation Program elements along with existing launch vehicles and proposed augmentations. Additionally, robotic missions were envisioned as complements to human exploration through precursor missions, as crew emplaced scientific investigations, and as sample gathering assistants to the human crews. The focus of the flexible path approach was to gain ever-increasing operational experience through human exploration missions ranging from a few weeks to several years in duration, beginning in deep space beyond LEO and evolving to landings on the Moon and eventually Mars.

Korsmeyer, David J.; Landis, Robert; Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Falck, Robert D.; Adams, Robert B.

2010-01-01

269

European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or gross primary production — an important topic of research. An overview of the FLEX mission concept, applications of SIF, scientific challenges and opportunities will be presented.

Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

2012-12-01

270

Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

2005-01-01

271

76 FR 41307 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint...meeting of the Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee of the...Final Report. Space Operations Mission Directorate/Exploration Systems...

2011-07-13

272

Enabling human exploration of space - A life sciences overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the transition from the short-duration missions of the Space Shuttle era to long-duration exploration missions, the health and safety of crewmembers must be ensured. The body undergoes many complex physiological changes as a result of its adaptation to a microgravity environment and U.S. and Soviet experiences have shown that time is required for readaptation to gravity. The consequences of these changes for the extended exploration missions envisioned for the future are unknown. A Mars mission may require crewmembers to spend many months in microgravity, and then work effectively in a one-third gravity environment. Other problems may arise when returning crewmembers must readapt to earth's gravity. Life Sciences activities are being planned to systematically address the physiological issues involved with long-term manned exploration missions, through ground-based studies and flight investigations on the Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The areas of focus are artificial gravity, radiation, health care, and space human factors.

Gaiser, Karen K.; Sulzman, Frank M.

1989-01-01

273

GrouseFlocks: steerable exploration of graph hierarchy space.  

PubMed

Several previous systems allow users to interactively explore a large input graph through cuts of a superimposed hierarchy. This hierarchy is often created using clustering algorithms or topological features present in the graph. However, many graphs have domain-specific attributes associated with the nodes and edges, which could be used to create many possible hierarchies providing unique views of the input graph. GrouseFlocks is a system for the exploration of this graph hierarchy space. By allowing users to see several different possible hierarchies on the same graph, the system helps users investigate graph hierarchy space instead of a single fixed hierarchy. GrouseFlocks provides a simple set of operations so that users can create and modify their graph hierarchies based on selections. These selections can be made manually or based on patterns in the attribute data provided with the graph. It provides feedback to the user within seconds, allowing interactive exploration of this space. PMID:18467763

Archambault, Daniel; Munzner, Tamara; Auber, David

2008-01-01

274

A space exploration strategy that promotes international and commercial participation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has created a plan to implement the Flexible Path strategy, which utilizes a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver crew and cargo to orbit. In this plan, NASA would develop much of the transportation architecture (launch vehicle, crew capsule, and in-space propulsion), leaving the other in-space elements open to commercial and international partnerships. This paper presents a space exploration strategy that reverses that philosophy, where commercial and international launch vehicles provide launch services. Utilizing a propellant depot to aggregate propellant on orbit, smaller launch vehicles are capable of delivering all of the mass necessary for space exploration. This strategy has benefits to the architecture in terms of cost, schedule, and reliability.

Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Chai, Patrick R.; Jones, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

275

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are discussed. To aid understanding of these results, a brief background of JPL's history is presented, followed by a description of the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft. The results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are described. The atmosphere, rings, satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are discussed with particular emphasis on novelty of the discoveries and the challenges encountered in explaining them. A brief discussion of the impact of spray research upon space exploration follows. This is because most recently launched missions used liquid fueled rockets to escape Earth's gravity. A summary of future missions and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's new policies is presented in the conclusion.

Bellan, Josette

1993-02-01

276

Office of Biological and Physical Research: Overview Transitioning to the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on NASA's transition to its vision for space exploration is presented. The topics include: 1) Strategic Directives Guiding the Human Support Technology Program; 2) Progressive Capabilities; 3) A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover; 4) Risk Mitigation Status Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Countermeasures Readiness Level (CRL); 5) Biological And Physical Research Enterprise Aligning With The Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 6) Critical Path Roadmap Reference Missions; 7) Rating Risks; 8) Current Critical Path Roadmap (Draft) Rating Risks: Human Health; 9) Current Critical Path Roadmap (Draft) Rating Risks: System Performance/Efficiency; 10) Biological And Physical Research Enterprise Efforts to Align With Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 11) Aligning with the Vision: Exploration Research Areas of Emphasis; 12) Code U Efforts To Align With The Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 13) Types of Critical Path Roadmap Risks; and 14) ISS Human Support Systems Research, Development, and Demonstration. A summary discussing the vision for U.S. space exploration is also provided.

Crouch, Roger

2004-01-01

277

Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years [1-3]. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR conference. However, whatever the list the issue of cooperation and binding collaboration remains. As observers of Moon and other space enterprises, we all know that a room full of 60 scientists will not agree on much of anything and there will probably be 60! pleas for more funding. People have special interests and little common sense (e.g., conflict between NSF- and NASA-funding roadmaps). Scientists are no exception. Nevertheless, CERN has done it on Earth! Can we do the same on the Moon? Some of the present generation of proposals for science from and on the Moon, plus new ones, will witness a place in space exploration's future. It is clear, however, that the world has not thought this through adequately, except for talk about an international space federation - whatever that is. An outpost on the Moon with humans permanently living there much like Antarctica on Earth may be in our future. However, such planning is our collective international responsibility and not that of special-interest investigators from individual nations - unless they intend to pay for it. [1] Mendell W. W. (1985) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston. [2] Potter A. E. and Wilson T. L. (1990) Physics and Astrophysics from a Lunar Base, AIP Conf. Proc. 202, American Institute of Physics, New York. [3] Mumma M. J. and Smith H. J. (1990) Astrophysics from the Moon, AIP Conf. Proc. 207, American Institute of Physics, New York.

Wilson, Thomas

278

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments

Julie A. Robinson; Tracy L. Thumm; Donald A. Thomas

2007-01-01

279

Model-based trade space exploration for near-Earth space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable

Ronald Cohen; Wayne Boncyk; James Brutocao; Iain Beveridge

2005-01-01

280

Exploring Current Arts Practice in Kindergartens and Preparatory Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring…

Garvis, Susanne

2012-01-01

281

Marshall Space Flight Center - Launching the Future of Science and Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: NASA Centers around the country, launching a legacy (Explorer I), Marshall's continuing role in space exploration, MSFC history, lifting from Earth, our next mission STS 133, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, Space Shuttle facts, Space Shu...

A. Shivers H. Shivers

2010-01-01

282

Point Estimation in Design Space Exploration Using Local Regression Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Configuration of an application-specific instruction-set processor (ASIP) through an exhaustive search of the design space is computationally prohibitive. To enable further automation, new methods are needed to speed up design space exploration (DSE), since the evaluation of each configuration is very expensive in terms of run-time. One method of speeding up DSE is to simulate a small sample of the

Peter Hallschmid; Resve Saleh

2007-01-01

283

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-space explosion is a fundamental obstacle in the formal verification of designs and protocols. Several techniques for combating this problem have emerged in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-order reduction and symbolic state-space search. In asynchronous systems, interleavings of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleaving needs to be explored to verify local

R. Alur; R. K. Brayton; T. A. Henzinger; S. Qadeer; S. K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

284

Advanced planning activity. [for interplanetary flight and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected mission concepts for interplanetary exploration through 1985 were examined, including: (1) Jupiter orbiter performance characteristics; (2) solar electric propulsion missions to Mercury, Venus, Neptune, and Uranus; (3) space shuttle planetary missions; (4) Pioneer entry probes to Saturn and Uranus; (5) rendezvous with Comet Kohoutek and Comet Encke; (6) space tug capabilities; and (7) a Pioneer mission to Mars in 1979. Mission options, limitations, and performance predictions are assessed, along with probable configurational, boost, and propulsion requirements.

1974-01-01

285

Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

Goldman, Arthur E.

2012-01-01

286

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

287

Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR conference. However, whatever the list the issue of cooperation and binding collaboration remains. As observers of Moon and other space enterprises, we all know that a room full of 60 scientists will not agree on much of anything and there will probably be 60! please for more funding. People have special interests and little common sense (e.g., conflict between NSF- and NASA-funding roadmaps). Scientists are no exception. Nevertheless, CERN has done it on Earth! Can we do the same on the Moon? Some of the present generation of proposals for science from and on the Moon, plus new ones, will witness a place in space exploration's future. It is clear, however, that the world has not thought this through adequately, except for talk about an international space federation whatever that is. An outpost on the Moon with humans permanently living there much like Antarctica on Earth may be in our future. However, such planning is our collective international responsibility and not that of special-interest investigators from individual nations unless they intend to pay for it.

Wilson, Thomas

2008-01-01

288

Pocket-based drug design: exploring pocket space.  

PubMed

The identification and application of druggable pockets of targets play a key role in in silico drug design, which is a fundamental step in structure-based drug design. Herein, some recent progresses and developments of the computational analysis of pockets have been covered. Also, the pockets at the protein-protein interfaces (PPI) have been considered to further explore the pocket space for drug discovery. We have presented two case studies targeting the kinetic pockets generated by normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics method, respectively, in which we focus upon incorporating the pocket flexibility into the two-dimensional virtual screening with both affinity and specificity. We applied the specificity and affinity (SPA) score to quantitatively estimate affinity and evaluate specificity using the intrinsic specificity ratio (ISR) as a quantitative criterion. In one of two cases, we also included some applications of pockets located at the dimer interfaces to emphasize the role of PPI in drug discovery. This review will attempt to summarize the current status of this pocket issue and will present some prospective avenues of further inquiry. PMID:23180158

Zheng, Xiliang; Gan, Linfeng; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

2013-01-01

289

Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

290

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

291

Advanced thermionic systems for the Space Exploration Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology assessments and system comparison study results are presented to support the candidacy of in-core thermionics for U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) applications. The history of thermionic development is reviewed, advanced technology options are identified, and the technology paths needed to reach readiness for the SEI goals are discussed.

Thomas H. van Hagan; Joseph C. Mills

1991-01-01

292

Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations. Part 1; History of JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation briefly reviews the history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from its founding by Dr von Karman in 1936 for research in rocketry through the post-Sputnik shift to unmanned space exploration in 1957. The presentation also reviews the major JPL missions with views of the spacecraft.

Chau, Savio

2005-01-01

293

Space Exploration and Folk Beliefs on Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys a series of folk beliefs of currency at the time of the Apollo missions, that link space exploration with disastrous events occurring at the same time. Floods, droughts, earthquakes and conjunctivitis—all were blamed, by people pertaining to very different cultures, on the actions of reckless astronauts who irked the Divinity or disturbed the celestial mechanics. As will

Virgiliu Pop

2011-01-01

294

Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

295

Advanced thermionic systems for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology assessments and system comparison study results are presented to support the candidacy of in-core thermionics for U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) applications. The history of thermionic development is reviewed, advanced technology options are identified, and the technology paths needed to reach readiness for the SEI goals are discussed.

van Hagan, Thomas H.; Mills, Joseph C.

1991-09-01

296

Decision-Theoretic Design Space Exploration of Multiprocessor Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient technique to perform design space exploration of a multiprocessor platform that minimizes the number of simulations needed to identify a Pareto curve with metrics like energy and delay. Instead of using semi-random search algorithms (like simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc.), we use the domain knowledge derived from the platform architecture to set-up the

Giovanni Beltrame; Luca Fossati; Donatella Sciuto

2010-01-01

297

Use of antarctic analogs to support the space exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report has discussed the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) in the context of assessing the potential rationale and strategy for conducting a cooperative NASA\\/NSF (National Science Foundation) effort. Specifically, such an effort would address shared research and data on living and conducting scientific research in isolated, confined, hostile, and remote environments. A review of

Robert Wharton; Barney Roberts; Erick Chiang; John Lynch; Carol Roberts; Corinne Buoni; Dale Andersen

1990-01-01

298

Project Explorer - Student experiments aboard the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Explorer, a program of high school student experiments in space in a Space Shuttle self-contained payload unit (Getaway Special), sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in cooperation with four Alabama universities is presented. Organizations aspects of the project, which is intended to promote public awareness of the space program and encourage space research, are considered, and the proposal selection procedure is outlined. The projects selected for inclusion in the self-contained payload canister purchased in 1977 and expected to be flown on an early shuttle mission include experiments on alloy solidification, electric plating, whisker growth, chick embryo development and human blood freezing, and an amateur radio experiment. Integration support activities planned and underway are summarized, and possible uses for a second payload canister purchased by ASRC are discussed.

Buckbee, E.; Dannenberg, K.; Driggers, G.; Orillion, A.

1979-01-01

299

A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

2013-01-01

300

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to make possible the permanent extension of human presence beyond the bounds of Earth and enable historic improvements in our understanding of our solar system and the universe, and the quality of life, NASA must: (1) Undertake, in partnership with the scientific community, sustained international explorations throughout the inner solar system by integrated human/robotic expeditions; (2) Achieve breakthrough discoveries and technology developments through basic, applied, and commercial research in the unique venue of space--exploiting characteristics such as microgravity, vacuum, radiation, and location; (3) Establish safe and routine access to space in support of permanent commercial human operations in low-Earth orbit and ongoing exploration activities at one or more sites beyond Earth orbit; (4) Engage the private sector in the commercial development of space and enable the creation of new space industries generating new wealth for the US economy; and (5) Communicate the excitement and importance of the discovery of new worlds and the profound insights we will gain into the origins of life and the universe. In order to guide planning, the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise has identified some potential future targets and goals (e.g. 'Design Reference Points') beginning with the near-term and extending to the far-term and beyond.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Cooke, Douglas (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2001-01-01

301

Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

Sanders, Gerald B.

2000-01-01

302

Goals for space exploration based on stakeholder value network considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a methodology that provides traceable analysis from stakeholders' needs to prioritized goals for human space exploration. We first construct a network to represent the stakeholder environment of NASA's human exploration efforts, then assess the intensity of these stakeholder needs, and build a numerical model to represent the flow of value in the network. The underlying principle is that as a rational actor, NASA should invest its resources in creating outputs that provide the greatest return of support to it. We showcase this methodology, seeded with test data, the results of which suggests that the most important outputs of the exploration endeavor are human and robotic exploration firsts and science data, but also include funding to the science community, providing interesting NASA mission event content directly to the public and to the media, and commercial contracts. We propose that goals should be structured to ensure these value outputs, and be written in such as way as to convey the subsequent creation of value in the network. The goals derived in this manner suggest that the majority of the value created by human space exploration derives from campaign level design, rather than from operation of transportation elements. There would be higher assurance that these value outputs would be delivered if a responsible official or entity within the exploration function was specifically tasked with ensuring stakeholder value creation.

Cameron, Bruce G.; Seher, Theodore; Crawley, Edward F.

2011-06-01

303

A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

2005-01-01

304

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

305

Space: exploration-exploitation and the role of man.  

PubMed

The early years of space activity have emphasized a crew role similar to that of the test pilot or the crew of a high performance aircraft; even the Apollo lunar exploration missions were dominated by the task of getting to and from the moon. Skylab was a prototype space station and began to indicate the range of other functional roles man will play in space. The operation of the Space Shuttle has the elements of the operation of any other high performance flight vehicle during launch and landing; but in its on-orbit operations, it is often a surrogate space station, developing techniques and demonstrating the role of a future space station in various functions. In future space systems, the role of the crew will encompass all of the activities pursued in research laboratories, manufacturing facilities, maintenance shops, and construction sites. The challenge will be to design the tasks and the tools so that the full benefit of the opportunities offered by performing these functions in space can be attained. PMID:3778404

Loftus, J P

1986-10-01

306

Molpher: a software framework for systematic chemical space exploration  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical space is virtual space occupied by all chemically meaningful organic compounds. It is an important concept in contemporary chemoinformatics research, and its systematic exploration is vital to the discovery of either novel drugs or new tools for chemical biology. Results In this paper, we describe Molpher, an open-source framework for the systematic exploration of chemical space. Through a process we term ‘molecular morphing’, Molpher produces a path of structurally-related compounds. This path is generated by the iterative application of so-called ‘morphing operators’ that represent simple structural changes, such as the addition or removal of an atom or a bond. Molpher incorporates an optimized parallel exploration algorithm, compound logging and a two-dimensional visualization of the exploration process. Its feature set can be easily extended by implementing additional morphing operators, chemical fingerprints, similarity measures and visualization methods. Molpher not only offers an intuitive graphical user interface, but also can be run in batch mode. This enables users to easily incorporate molecular morphing into their existing drug discovery pipelines. Conclusions Molpher is an open-source software framework for the design of virtual chemical libraries focused on a particular mechanistic class of compounds. These libraries, represented by a morphing path and its surroundings, provide valuable starting data for future in silico and in vitro experiments. Molpher is highly extensible and can be easily incorporated into any existing computational drug design pipeline.

2014-01-01

307

NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

1990-01-01

308

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: A Step Toward Interstellar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space. The maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program is laying the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion systems operating in the 5-10 kW range, to solar sail propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called "propellantless" because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations, such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of those propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies that will most significantly advance our exploration of deep space.

Johnson, Les; James, Bonnie; Baggett, Randy; Montgomery, Sandy

2005-01-01

309

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: A Step Toward Interstellar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space. The maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program is laying the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program's technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion systems operating in the 5-10 kW range, to solar sail propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called “propellantless” because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations such as solar sails and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of those propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies that will most significantly advance our exploration of deep space.

Johnson, L.; James, B.; Baggett, R.; Montgomery, E. E., IV

310

Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the design, development, testing, and evaluation of both vehicles and serves as lead systems integrator. A little over a year after it was chartered, the Exploration Launch Projects team is testing engine components, refining vehicle designs, performing wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I-l, scheduled for spring 2009. The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration lays out a roadmap for a long-term venture of discovery. This endeavor will inspire and attract the best and brightest students to power this nation successfully to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. If one equates the value proposition for space with simple dollars and cents, the potential of the new space economy is tremendous, from orbital space delivery services for the International Space Station to mining and solar energy collection on the Moon and asteroids. The Vision for Space Exploration is fundamentally about bringing the resources of the solar system within the economic sphere of humaind. Given the immense size of our solar system, the amount of available material and energy with

Sexton, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

311

Evaluating science return in space exploration initiative architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science is an important aspect of the Space Exploration Initiative, a program to explore the Moon and Mars with people and machines. Different SEI mission architectures are evaluated on the basis of three variables: access (to the planet's surface), capability (including number of crew, equipment, and supporting infrastructure), and time (being the total number of man-hours available for scientific activities). This technique allows us to estimate the scientific return to be expected from different architectures and from different implementations of the same architecture. Our methodology allows us to maximize the scientific return from the initiative by illuminating the different emphases and returns that result from the alternative architectural decisions.

Budden, Nancy Ann; Spudis, Paul D.

1993-01-01

312

United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well underway, and integrated flight testing will begin in 2009. This white paper summarizes 3 years of Constellation Program progress and accomplishments, and it describes the foundation set for human lunar return in 2020.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

313

Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

Ferri, A.

314

Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is a risky enterprise. Rockets launch astronauts at enormous speeds into a harsh, unforgiving environment. Spacecraft must withstand the bitter cold of space and the blistering heat of reentry. Their skin must be strong enough to keep the inside comfortably pressurized and tough enough to resist damage from micrometeoroids. Spacecraft meant for lunar or planetary landings must survive the jar of landing, tolerate dust, and be able to take off again. For astronauts, however, there is one danger in space that does not end when they step out of their spacecraft. The radiation that permeates space -- unattenuated by Earth s atmosphere and magnetosphere -- may damage or kill cells within astronauts bodies, resulting in cancer or other health consequences years after a mission ends. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently embarked on Project Constellation to implement the Vision for Space Exploration -- a program announced by President George W. Bush in 2004 with the goal of returning humans to the Moon and eventually transporting them to Mars. To adequately prepare for the safety of these future space explorers, NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate requested that the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council establish a committee to evaluate the radiation shielding requirements for lunar missions and to recommend a strategic plan for developing the radiation mitigation capabilities needed to enable the planned lunar mission architecture

2008-01-01

315

The problem of artificial gravity in piloted space exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review deals with the problem of using artificial gravity in piloted space missions, its history and relevance to the proclaimed goals of remote space exploration. It contains a brief discussion of deconditioning and loss of acceleration tolerance developing in cosmonauts despite a variety of preventive procedures. Key issues pertaining short-arm centrifuge (SAC) design and in-flight utilization are acceleration tolerance, effectiveness and g-prescriptions. The Russian and international literature on SAC experience in ground-based investigations with simulated microgravity effects (immersion, HDT) gives credence to this approach to counteracting the negative physiological effects of microgravity. Open issues and goals to be gained are described.

Kotovskaya, A. R.

2011-05-01

316

High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for future space instrumentation : current development within the French Space Orbitrap Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has been used for years in space exploration to characterise the chemical composition of solar system bodies and their environment. Because of the harsh constraints imposed to the space probe instruments, their mass resolution is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, sometimes leading to significant limitations in the treatment of the data collected with this type of instrumentation. Future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). For a few years, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies formed a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). This development is carried out in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. We are indeed pursuing, within international collaborations, the definition of several instrument concepts based on the core elements that are subject of our R&T programme. In this talk, we briefly discuss science applications for future orbitrap-based HRMS space instruments. We highlight present results of our R&T programme.

Briois, Christelle; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Szopa, Cyril; Thirkell, Laurent; Aradj, Kenzi; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chalumeau, Gilles; Chapelon, Olivier; Colin, Fabrice; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Kukui, Alexandre; Pennanech, Cyril; Thissen, Roland; Vuitton, Véronique; Zapf, Pascal; Makarov, Alexander

2014-05-01

317

78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit...to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) to waive a...

2013-08-27

318

An Overview of Space Exploration Simulation (Basis of Confidence) Documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models and simulations (M&S) are critical resources in the exploration of space. They support program management, systems engineering, integration, analysis, test, and operations by providing critical information that supports key analyses and decisions (technical, cost and schedule). Consequently, there is a clear need to establish a solid understanding of M&S strengths and weaknesses, and the bounds within which they can credibly support decision making. In this presentation we will describe how development of simulation capability documentation will be used to form a Basis of Confidence (Basis of Confidence) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) M&S. The process by which BOC documentation is developed will be addressed, as well as the structure and critical concepts that are essential for establishing credibility of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) legacy M&S. We will illustrate the significance of BOC documentation in supporting decision makers and Accreditation Authorities in M&S risk management.

Bray, Alleen; Hale, Joseph P.

2006-01-01

319

Prediction of solar flares for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 21st century is likely to see the start of the manned exploration and settlement of the inner solar system. NASA's plans for this endeavor are focused upon the Space Exploration Initiative which calls for a return to the Moon, to stay, followed by manned missions to Mars. To execute these missions safely provides solar physics with both a challenge and an opportunity. As the past solar maximum has clearly demonstrated, the Sun, through the solar flare process, is capable of generating and accelerating to high energies large fluxes of protons whose cumulative dose to unprotected astronauts can be fatal. It will be the responsibility of solar physicists to develop an accurate physical description of the mechanisms of flare energy storage and release, and of particle acceleration and propagation through interplanetary space upon which to base a sound method of flare and energetic particle prediction.

Davis, John M.

1994-06-01

320

Secondary Electron Emission and the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emission of secondary electrons from surfaces exposed to the space plasma and radiation environment is a process of great importance to space system engineering design and operations. A spacecraft will collect charge until it reaches an equilibrium potential gov,erned by the balance of incoming electron and ion currents from the space environment with outgoing secondary, backscattered, and photoelectron currents. Laboratory measurements of secondary electron yields are an important parameter for use in spacecraft charging analyses because the magnitude and sign of the equilibrium potential depends on both the energy spectrum of electrons and ions in the space environment and the electrical properties of the surface materials (including the energy dependent secondary electron yields). Typical benign equilibrium potentials range &om a few tens of volts positive in interplanetary space to a few volts negative in low Earth orbit. However, spacecraft are known to charge to negative potentials exceeding one to ten kilovolts in some environments and anomalies or system failures due to electrostatic discharges originating from highly charged surfaces becomes a serious concern. This presentation will provide a review of the spacecraft charging process with special emphasis on the role of secondary electrons in controlling the current balance process. Charging examples will include spacecraft in Earth orbit and interplanetary space as well as dust charging on the lunar surface, a phenomenon of importance to future lunar surface operations.

Minow, Joseph I.

2006-01-01

321

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

322

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

323

Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with minimal redesign effort required such that the modular architecture can be quickly and efficiently honed into a specific mission point solution if required.

Hill, Terry R.

2010-01-01

324

Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

325

The potential of space exploration for the fine arts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Art provides an integrating function between the 'upper' and 'lower' centers of the human psyche. The nature of this function can be made more specific through the triune model of the brain. The evolution of the fine arts - painting, drawing, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, dance, and drama, plus cinema and mathematics-as-a-fine-art - are examined in the context of their probable stimulations by space exploration: near term and long term.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1993-01-01

326

BIOMASS BASED FUEL CELLS - APPLICATION TO MANNED SPACE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term energy-demanding operations in remote off- the-grid locations, like in space exploration, require small, lightweight energy storage and power sources that are able to remain functionable over long periods of time. In manned flights human secretions represent a potential source of methane and hence hydrogen, which can be used as fuel in fuel cells, or in propellant gas mixtures. Processing

A. Halme

327

Advanced life support technology development for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of NASA's advanced life support technology development strategy for the Space Exploration Initiative. Three basic life support technology areas are discussed in detail: air revitalization, water reclamation, and solid waste management. It is projected that regenerative life support systems will become increasingly more complex as system closure is maximized. Advanced life support technology development will utilize three complementary elements, including the Research and Technology Program, the Regenerative Life Support Program, and the Technology Testbed Validations.

Evanich, Peggy L.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Seshan, P. K.

1990-01-01

328

PSExplorer: whole parameter space exploration for molecular signaling pathway dynamics  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Mathematical models of biological systems often have a large number of parameters whose combinational variations can yield distinct qualitative behaviors. Since it is intractable to examine all possible combinations of parameters for non-trivial biological pathways, it is required to have a systematic strategy to explore the parameter space in a computational way so that dynamic behaviors of a given pathway are estimated. Results: We present PSExplorer, a computational tool for exploring qualitative behaviors and key parameters of molecular signaling pathways. Utilizing the Latin hypercube sampling and a clustering technique in a recursive paradigm, the software enables users to explore the whole parameter space of the models to search for robust qualitative behaviors. The parameter space is partitioned into sub-regions according to behavioral differences. Sub-regions showing robust behaviors can be identified for further analyses. The partitioning result presents a tree structure from which individual and combinational effects of parameters on model behaviors can be assessed and key factors of the models are readily identified. Availability: The software, tutorial manual and test models are available for download at the following address: http://gto.kaist.ac.kr/?psexplorer Contact: tqtung@kaist.ac.kr; tqtung@gmail.com

Tung, Thai Quang; Lee, Doheon

2010-01-01

329

Framework for the Parametric System Modeling of Space Exploration Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodology for performing architecture definition and assessment prior to, or during, program formulation that utilizes a centralized, integrated architecture modeling framework operated by a small, core team of general space architects. This framework, known as the Exploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), enables: 1) a significantly larger fraction of an architecture trade space to be assessed in a given study timeframe; and 2) the complex element-to-element and element-to-system relationships to be quantitatively explored earlier in the design process. Discussion of the methodology advantages and disadvantages with respect to the distributed study team approach typically used within NASA to perform architecture studies is presented along with an overview of EXAMINE s functional components and tools. An example Mars transportation system architecture model is used to demonstrate EXAMINE s capabilities in this paper. However, the framework is generally applicable for exploration architecture modeling with destinations to any celestial body in the solar system.

Komar, David R.; Hoffman, Jim; Olds, Aaron D.; Seal, Mike D., II

2008-01-01

330

Parameter space discretization and exploration for conceptual design of Mars in-situ instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New system design processes are changing the way space instrument conceptual designs are generated. Processes are developed for concurrent engineering, and optimizing instrument mass, cost, and volume. However, it is often the case that using these processes generates only point designs, or a fraction of possible design solutions within the parameter space. Parameter space includes design and performance spaces. Design space is the decomposition of a product design into tasks and options. Design parameters of interest constitute the performance space. Furthermore, although the point designs are valid solutions, there are often viable solutions that have not been considered, which may better solve the optimization problem. The hypothesis of this research is that designers exploring the parameter space will find solutions that may not have otherwise been considered. These previously unconsidered solutions may better optimize design parameters than the point designs found with other methods. Current design approaches are summarized, and a GENEration of Space Instrument Systems (GENESIS) parameter space discretization and exploration conceptual design process is described that expands on these approaches. GENESIS combines design approaches, parametric models, database tools, and intelligent agents in a unique manner to discretize and explore instrument parameter space. While generic enough to apply to wide ranges of problems, this research focuses on application to Mars in-situ instruments. In-situ instruments are those that take measurements in contact with or close proximity to the object being measured. These instruments are interesting because they are often under strict mass, cost, and volume constraints, and require unique design solutions to meet these constraints. An instrument design model built around existing Mars in-situ instruments supports GENESIS. Case studies of existing instruments are examined to answer the question, 'Where do existing Mars in-situ instrument designs lie within the parameter space?' The contribution of GENESIS is: (1) a Mars in-situ instrument design space model; (2) a process for generating design options and exploring the parameter space; and (3) exploring Mars in-situ instrument parameter space to characterize possible improvement of current design methods. GENESIS extends the state of the practice in design and aids designers in finding unexplored solutions.

Rademacher, Joel David

331

Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

1991-01-01

332

Opportunities for Space Science Education Using Current and Future Solar System Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Education and Public Outreach (E\\/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department strives to excite and inspire the next generation of explorers by creating interactive education experiences. Since 1959, APL engineers and scientists have designed, built, and launched 61 spacecraft and over 150 instruments involved in space science. With the vast array of current

M. Matiella Novak; K. Beisser; L. Butler; D. Turney

2010-01-01

333

International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

2005-01-01

334

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

335

Back to the future: the role of the ISS and future space stations in planetary exploration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space stations as stepping stones to planets appear already in the1954 Disney-von Braun anticipation TV show but the first study with a specific planetary scientific objective was the ANTEUS project of 1978. This station was an evolution of SPACELAB hardware and was designed to analyse Mars samples with better equipment than the laboratory of the VIKING landers. It would have played the role of the reception facility present in the current studies of Mars sample return, after analysis, the "safe" samples would have been returned to earth by the space shuttle. This study was followed by the flights of SPACELAB and MIR. Finally after 35 years of development, the International Space Station reaches its final configuration in 2010. Recent developments of the international agreement between the space agencies indicate a life extending to 2025, it is already part of the exploration programme as its crews prepare the long cruise flights and missions to the exploration targets. It is now time to envisage also the use of this stable 350 tons spacecraft for planetary and space sciences. Planetary telescopes are an obvious application; the present SOLAR payload on COLUMBUS is an opportunity to use the target pointing capabilities from the ISS. The current exposure facilities are also preparing future planetary protection procedures. Other applications have already been previously considered as experimental collision and impact studies in both space vacuum and microgravity. Future space stations at the Lagrange points could simultaneously combine unique observation platforms with an actual intermediate stepping stone to Mars.

Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

2010-05-01

336

Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-10-01

337

The Fluids and Combustion Facility: Enabling the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an International Space Station facility designed to support physical and biological research as well as technology experiments in space. The FCF consists of two racks called the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). The capabilities of the CIR and the FIR and plans for their utilization will support the President's vision for space exploration. The CIR will accommodate physical research and technology experiments that address needs in the areas of spacecraft fire prevention, detection and suppression, incineration of solid wastes, and power generation. Initial experiments will provide data to support design decisions for exploration spacecraft. The CIR provides a large sealed chamber in a near-weightless environment. The chamber supports many simulated atmospheres including lunar or Martian environments. The FIR will accommodate experiments that address needs for advanced life support, power, propulsion, and spacecraft thermal control systems. The FIR can also serve as a platform for experiments that address human health and performance, medical technologies, and biological sciences. The FIR provides a large volume for payload hardware, reconfigurable diagnostics, customizable software, active rack-level vibration isolation, and data acquisition and management in a nearly uniform temperature environment.

Weiland, Karen J.; Gati, Frank G.; Hill, Myron E.; O'Malley Terence F.; Zurawski, Robert L.

2005-01-01

338

Exploration of chemical space based on 4-anilinoquinazoline.  

PubMed

Chemical space is defined as all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems, which is so vast that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Indeed, a thorough examination of all "chemical space" is practically impossible. The success of three EGFR inhibitors (Gefitnib, Erlotinib, Lapatinib) suggests that 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffold is still worth developing in the future. To date hundreds of this sort of derivatives have been synthesized and show potent anticancer activities. Most of the compounds have been proved to be EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitors, binding at the hinge region of the ATP site and some lead compounds have been optimized against a number of different kinases, including VEGFR-2, Src, Aurora A/B, Tpl, Clk and PDE10A. Now there is now a rich pipeline of novel anticancer agents based on 4-anilinoquinazoline in early phase clinical trials. This review will highlight the exploration of chemical space of 4-anilinoquinazoline in the past ten years and we hope that increasing knowledge of the SAR and cellular processes underlying the antitumor-activity of anilinoquinazoline derivatives will be beneficial to the rational design of new generation of small molecule anticancer drugs. PMID:22204331

Li, D-D; Hou, Y-P; Wang, W; Zhu, H-L

2012-01-01

339

Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

Suedfeld, Peter

2010-03-01

340

Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a project under NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for a lunar outpost, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and discusses how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing, which includes the sub-elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize the overall mission architecture by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements.

Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

2009-01-01

341

Multi Robot Flocking Using Cooperative Control for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at achieving flocking behavior of multi robot systems for space explorations. Cooperative control of unmanned vehicles is used in the survey of unknown environments. Distributed control of multiple vehicles achieves the objective of exploration of wide areas while avoiding obstacles on their path. Gradient based algorithm is used to obtain necessary attractive/repulsive force to maintain flock. Similar force is used to avoid obstacles, which may be present in the environment. Velocity consensus algorithm helps in maintaining the necessary geometry of the flock. A target agent specifies the group behavior for the flock. Two wheel differential robot model with second order dynamics is considered here. Robot motion is assumed to be on plane terrain.

Chandran, Priya

2012-07-01

342

Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

2008-01-01

343

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

2011-01-01

344

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could counter temperature increases thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joe; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Micahel J.

2012-01-01

345

Introduction to the session on `Human Space Exploration'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Schiaparelli tried to interpret the surface of Mars as it appeared from his telescope, in particular with reference to the famous "channels", he formulated the hypothesis that they would have been the product of some intelligent Mars population. Today we know that this interpretation was not correct, but we would like to consider his idea as a sort of vision for a future when the humankind will export our civilization on Mars. In fact the objective of the international plans of "Space Exploration" is exactly to land the humans on Mars to start its colonization. Although a new approach is proposed which includes International Space Station, Moon, Asteroids, etc. in a sort of "flexible path" to look for "new worlds in the Solar System where is possible for the humankind to live and operate", it is confirmed that the "final destination" is Mars.

Messidoro, P.

346

Progress report on nuclear propulsion for space exploration and science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is continuing its work in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) on nuclear propulsion - both nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The focus of the NTP studies remains on piloted and cargo missions to Mars (with precursor missions to the moon) although studies are under way to examine the potential uses of NTP for science missions. The focus of the NEP studies has shifted to space science missions with consideration of combining a science mission with an earlier demonstration of NEP using the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system. Both NTP and NEP efforts are continuing in 1993 to provide a good foundation for science and exploration planners. Both NTP and NEP provide a very important transportation resource and in a number of cases enable missions that could not otherwise be accomplished.

Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

1993-01-01

347

Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

2012-01-01

348

Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

2010-01-01

349

An Engineering and Cost Model For Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a concept-level model that produces technical design parameters and economic feasibility information addressing future inhabited Earth-orbiting and Moon/Mars Exploration platforms. In this context, the Mars exploration platforms considered include those currently chosen in the NASA Mars Design Reference Mission. Space hotels will also be examined. This paper uses a design methodology and analytical tools to create feasible concept design information for these space platforms. The design tool has been validated against a number of actual facility designs, and appropriate modal variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is then employed in the examination of the impact of various payloads on the power, size (volume), and mass of the platform prone.A

Reynerson, C. M.

2000-01-01

350

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

351

Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

2010-01-01

352

The International Space Station: Unique In-Space Testbed as Exploration Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) was completed in 2011. As articulated in the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan, the Agency's first goal is to extend and sustain human activities across the solar system. Thus, the emerging NASA vision is to launch a bold and ambitious new space initiative to enable human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit to Lagrange points, the moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), and Mars and its environs. To accomplish this vision, it is necessary to develop and validate innovative exploration technologies and operational concepts. With the extended life of the ISS to 2020 and possibly 2028, NASA has a mandate to maximize the potential of the Nation's newest National Laboratory. Exploration and ISS teams within NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have initiated a cooperative effort: the ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR), a high-fidelity operational analog that complements existing NASA terrestrial laboratory and field testing. To maximize use of the ISS platform to evaluate new exploration technologies, capabilities, and operational concepts to better comprehend and mitigate human spaceflight risks, ISTAR seeks out and encourages investigations dubbed "exploration detailed test objectives" (xDTOs). These xDTOs, building blocks of ISTAR missions, develop and optimize the operations concepts and the use of new technologies that should reduce risks and challenges facing astronauts on long exploration spaceflight voyages. In this paper, we describe (1) the rationale behind ISTAR, (2) a five-year strategic plan, (3) the approach for mission formulation, development, integration, and execution, (4) concepts for near-term missions that implement a phased approach for using ISS as an exploration testbed, and (5) the planned Mars mission simulation using the ISS. This paper will also document several challenges ISTAR must address to execute its missions.

Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.; Moreno, Frank; Rodriggs, Mike; Beisert, Susan; Stapleton, Debbie

2012-01-01

353

Art in the Space Age: Exploring the Relationship between Outer Space and Earth Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author's interest in Space Art has taken several forms, including project proposals for the effective use of the International Space Station, research on the theme of the possibility of art in outer space, and conducting interviews with astronauts. He has also performed experiments in a micro-gravity environment generated by parabolic flight. This article provides an account of his plans

Takuro Osaka

2004-01-01

354

Autonomy Needs and Trends in Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of onboard autonomy capability is the key to a set of vastly important strategic technical challenges facing NASA: increased efficiency in the return of quality science products, reduction of mission costs, and the launching of a new era of solar system exploration characterized by sustained presence, in-situ science investigations and missions accomplished via multiple, coordinated space platforms. Autonomy is a central capability for enabling missions that inherently must be accomplished without the benefit of ongoing ground support. This constraint may arise due to control challenges, e.g., small-body rendezvous and precision landing, or may arise due to mission planning challenges based in the difficulty of modeling the planetary environment coupled with the difficulty or impossibility of communications during critical or extended periods. A sophisticated Mars rover, a comet lander, a Europan under-ice explorer, and a Titan aerobot are examples of missions, some unprecedented, which typify these challenges. This paper describes the set of NASA missions that aim to utilize autonomy and recent developments in the creation of space platform autonomy capabilities at NASA.

Doyle, Richard J.

2003-01-01

355

Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space

K. Thwaites; E. Helleur; I. M. Simkins

2005-01-01

356

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

357

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

358

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

359

Identifying Sociological Factors for the Success of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrosociology factors relevant to success of future space exploration may best be identified through studies of sociological circumstances of past successful explorations, such as the Apollo-Lunar Missions. These studies benefit from access to primary records of the past programs. The Archives and Special Collections Division of the Salmon Library at the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) houses large collections of material from the early periods of the space age. The Huntsville campus of the University of Alabama System had its birth in the mid-1950s at the time when the von Braun rocket team was relocated from Texas to Huntsville. The University, the City of Huntsville and the US Government rocket organizations developed in parallel over subsequent years. As a result, the University has a significant space heritage and focus. This is true not only for the engineering and science disciplines, but also for the social sciences. The life of the University spans the period when Huntsville government and industrial organizations were responsible for producing the rocket vehicles to first take mankind to the Moon. That endeavor was surely as significant sociologically as technologically. In the 1980s, Donald E. Tarter, conducted a series of video interviews with some leading members of the original von Braun team. Although the interviews ranged over many engineering subjects, they also recorded personal features of people involved in the Apollo lunar exploration program and the interactions between these people. Such knowledge was of course an objective. These interviews are now in the collections of the UAH Library Archives, along with extensive documentation from the same period. Under sponsorship of the Archives and the NASA-Marshall Retiree Association, the interview series was restarted in 2006 to obtain comparable oral-history interviews with more than fifty US born members of the rocket team from the 1960s. Again these video interviews are rich with insights into the people involved in the Apollo lunar exploration program. A common thought in the original and recent interviews is that the 1960s rocket team was a unique assembly of people with leadership and modes of operation that has not been reproduced since. If mankind is again going to the Moon, Mars, an asteroid or elsewhere in the solar system, a similar assembly of people and sociological conditions may well be required.

Lundquist, C. A.; Tarter, D.; Coleman, A.

360

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

361

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts experience severe/invasive disorders caused by space environments. These include hematological and cardiac abnormalities, bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, including muscle, bone, skin, liver, and neuronal cells, we advanced a hypothesis that some of the space-caused disorders might be amenable to hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia (?-thalassemia) and spaceflight (hindlimb suspension unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, the ?-thalassemic mice were successfully transplanted with isologous HSCs, resulting in chimerism of hemoglobin species and alleviation of the hemoglobinopathy. In the case of HSCT for muscle loss, ?-galactosidase-marked HSCs, which were prepared from ?-galactosidase-transgenic mice, were detected by the X-gal wholemount staining procedure in the hindlimbs of unloaded mice following transplantation. Histochemical and physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. To investigate HSCT for immunodeficiency, ?-galactosidase-transformed Escherichia coli was used as the reporter bacteria, and infected to control and the hindlimb suspended mice. Results of the X-gal stained tissues indicated that the HSCT could help eliminate the E. coli infection. In an effort to facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs has been optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Ramsahai, Shweta; Kim, Bak C.; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

2004-02-01

362

Trade space evaluation of multi-mission architectures for the exploration of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent cuts to NASA's planetary exploration budget have precipitated a debate in the community on whether large flagship missions to planetary bodies in the outer solar system or sequences of smaller missions as part of a long-term exploration program would be more beneficial. The work presented explores the trade between these two approaches as applied to the exploration of Europa and concentrates on identifying combinations of flyby, orbiter and/or lander missions that achieve high value at a lower cost than the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) flagship mission concept. The effects of the value attributed to the four main science objectives for Europa, which can be broadly classified as investigating the ocean, ice-shell, composition and geology, are demonstrated. The current approach proposed to complete the ocean exploration objective is shown to have conflicting requirements with the other three objectives. For missions that fully address all the science objectives, such as JEO, the ocean goal is therefore found to be the main cost driver. Instrument combinations for low-cost flyby missions are also presented, and simple lander designs able to achieve a wide range of objectives at a low additional cost are identified. Finally, the current designs for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) are compared to others in the trade space, based on the prioritization given to the science goals for the exploration of Europa. The current EHM flyby mission (Clipper) is found to be highly promising in terms of providing very high potential science value at a low cost.

Alibay, F.; Strange, N. J.

363

Challenges to Health During Deep Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration missions outside of low Earth orbit will present unique challenges to the maintenance of human health. Stressors with physiologic and psychological impacts are inherent in exploration missions, including reduced gravity, increased radiation, isolation, limited habitable volume, circadian disruptions, and cabin atmospheric changes. Operational stressors such as mission timeline and extravehicular activities must also be considered, and these varied stressors may act in additive or synergistic fashions. Should changes to physiology or behavior manifest as a health condition, the rendering of care in an exploration environment must also be considered. Factors such as the clinical background of the crew, inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, and limitations in available medical resources will have an impact on the assessment and treatment of these conditions. The presentations associated with this panel will address these unique challenges from the perspective of several elements of the NASA Human Research Program, including Behavioral Health and Performance, Human Health Countermeasures, Space Radiation, and Exploration Medical Capability.

Watkins, S.; Leveton, L.; Norsk, P.; Huff, J.; Shah, R.

2014-01-01

364

The Role of Cis-Lunar Space in Future Global Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cis-lunar space offers affordable near-term opportunities to help pave the way for future global human exploration of deep space, acting as a bridge between present missions and future deep space missions. While missions in cis-lunar space have value unto themselves, they can also play an important role in enabling and reducing risk for future human missions to the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Mars, and other deep space destinations. The Cis-Lunar Destination Team of NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been analyzing cis-lunar destination activities and developing notional missions (or "destination Design Reference Missions" [DRMs]) for cis-lunar locations to inform roadmap and architecture development, transportation and destination elements definition, operations, and strategic knowledge gaps. The cis-lunar domain is defined as that area of deep space under the gravitational influence of the earth-moon system. This includes a set of earth-centered orbital locations in low earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), highly elliptical and high earth orbits (HEO), earth-moon libration or "Lagrange" points (E-ML1 through E-ML5, and in particular, E-ML1 and E-ML2), and low lunar orbit (LLO). To help explore this large possibility space, we developed a set of high level cis-lunar mission concepts in the form of a large mission tree, defined primarily by mission duration, pre-deployment, type of mission, and location. The mission tree has provided an overall analytical context and has helped in developing more detailed design reference missions that are then intended to inform capabilities, operations, and architectures. With the mission tree as context, we will describe two destination DRMs to LEO and GEO, based on present human space exploration architectural considerations, as well as our recent work on defining mission activities that could be conducted with an EML1 or EML2 facility, the latter of which will be an emphasis of this paper, motivated in part by recent interest expressed at the Global Exploration Roadmap Stakeholder meeting. This paper will also explore the links between this HAT Cis-Lunar Destination Team analysis and the recently released ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap and other potential international considerations, such as preventing harmful interference to radio astronomy observations in the shielded zone of the moon.

Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.

2012-01-01

365

Space Exploration and the Greenland Norse; A Comparative Study on the Application of Technology for Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the mid to late Middle Ages a group of intrepid explorers from Scandinavia established two colonies in the harsh environment of Greenland. These people were known as the Greenland Norse. While their colonies made a determined effort and survived for about 500 years, they never really flourished and struggled just to survive in their harsh environment. Eventually they disappeared, despite the fact that a neighboring group, the Inuits, was successful in surviving into the modern era. Hence, while survival was very difficult due to a variety of factors, it was possible depending on how the society dealt with the environment. There are a number of interesting parallels between this Greenland Norse experiment and the modern era of space exploration. While comparisons from the past to present day plans must certainly be made with caution, there may be interesting lessons to learn. Specifically, the role of technology and innovation by the Greenland Norse is addressed in this comparative study.

Swanson, Theodore D.

2009-03-01

366

National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Education for the next generation of space explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new vision for space exploration by educating and inspiring the next generation of students through a seamless pipeline of kindergarten through postdoctoral education programs. NSBRI EPOP initiatives are designed to train scientists and to communicate the significance of NSBRI science, as well as other space exploration science, to schools, families and lay audiences. The NSBRI EPOP team is comprised of eight main partners: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Binghamton University-State University of New York (BUSUNY), Colorado Consortium for Earth and Space Science Education (CCESSE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM), Rice University and the University of Texas Medical Branch (RU-UTMB), and Texas A&M University (TAMU). The current kindergarten through undergraduate college (K-16) team, which was funded through an open national competition in 2004, consolidates the past 7 years of K-16 education activities and expands the team's outreach activities to more museums and science centers across the nation. NSBRI also recently expanded its education mission to include doctoral and postdoctoral level programs. This paper describes select K-16 EPOP activities and products developed over the past 7 years, and reports on new activities planned for the next 3 years. The paper also describes plans for a doctoral program and reports on 1st-year outcomes of the new postdoctoral program.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Houston, Clifford W.; Coulter, Gary; Vogt, Gregory L.

2007-02-01

367

Trajectory Design and Orbital Dynamics of Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term of deep space exploration is used for the exploration in which a probe, unlike an earth satellite, escapes from the Earth's gravitation field, and conducts the exploration of celestial bodies within or away from the solar system. As the progress of aerospace science and technology, the exploration of the Moon and other planets of the solar system has attracted more and more attention throughout the world since late 1990s. China also accelerated its progress of the lunar exploration in recent years. Its first lunar-orbiting spacecraft, Chang'e 1, was successfully launched on 2007 October 24. It then achieved the goals of accurate maneuver and lunar orbiting, acquired a large amount of scientific data and a full lunar image, and finally impacted the Moon under control. On 2010 October 1, China launched Chang'e 2 with success, which obtained a full lunar image with a higher resolution and a high-definition image of the Sinus Iridum, and completed multiple extended missions such as orbiting the Lagrangian point L2, laying the groundwork for future deep space exploration. As the first phase of the three main operational phases (orbiting, landing, return) of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, the successful launches and flights of Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2 are excellent applications of the orbit design of both the Earth-Moon transfer orbit and the circumlunar orbit, yet not involving the design of the entire trajectory consisting of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit, the circumlunar orbit, and the return orbit, which is produced particularly for sample return spacecraft. This paper studies the entire orbit design of the lunar sample return spacecraft which would be employed in both the third phase of the lunar exploration program and the human lunar landing program, analyzes the dynamic characteristics of the orbit, and works out the launch windows based on specific conditions. The results are universally applicable, and could serve as the basis of the orbit design of the lunar sample return spacecraft. Meanwhile, China's independent Mars exploration is in progress. In this context, this paper also carries out comprehensive related researches, such as the orbit design and computation of the Earth-Mars transfer orbit, the selection of its launch window, and mid-course trajectory correction maneuver (TCM), etc. It conducts calculations and dynamic analysis for Hohmann transfer orbit in accurate dynamic model, providing basis for the selection and design of the transfer orbit in China's Mars exploration. On the basis of orbit dynamics theory of the small bodies including detectors in the solar system, all the works concerned about trajectory design in this paper are worked out in a complete and reasonable dynamic model, that is why the results have some referential value for the trajectory design in the deep space exploration. The major innovations in this paper are as follows: (1) This paper studies different types of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit on the basis of orbit dynamics theory of small bodies in the solar system, and provides the theoretical basis of the orbit type selection in practical missions; (2) This paper works on the orbit dynamics of the free return orbit, which intends to guarantee the safety of the astronauts in the human landing moon exploration, and carries out the free return orbit calculated in the real dynamic model; (3) This paper shows the characteristics of the reentry angle of the Moon-Earth transfer orbit. With the conditions of the landing range of our country taken into account, our works carry out the constraints of the reentry angle and the latitude of the explorer at reentry time, and provide the basis of orbit type choice for practical applications; (4) Based on the error transition matrix of the small bodies' motion, this paper analyzes the attributes of the error propagation of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit, on the basis of which it proposes the timing methods as well as the equation for the determination of the velocity increment for TCMs; (5) Based on the IAU2000 Mars orientation mod

Zhao, Y. H.

2013-05-01

368

Citizen Science and Citizen Space Exploration: Potentials for Professional Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citizens in Space is a project of the United States Rocket Academy, with the goal of promoting citizen science and citizen space exploration. This goal is enabled by the new reusable suborbital spacecraft now under development by multiple companies in the US. For the first phase of this project, we have acquired a contract for 10 flights on the Lynx suborbital spacecraft, which is under construction by XCOR Aerospace in Mojave, CA. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the largest single bulk purchase of suborbital flights to date. Citizens in Space has published an open call for experiments to fly on these missions, which we expect will begin in late 2013 or early 2014. We will be selecting approx. 100 small experiments and 10 citizen astronauts to fly as payload operators. Although our primary goal is to encourage citizen science, these flight opportunities are also open to professional researchers who have payloads that meet our criteria. We believe that the best citizen-science projects are collaborations between professional and citizen scientists. We will discuss various ways in which professional scientists can collaborate with citizen scientists to take advantage of the flight opportunities provided by our program. We will discuss the capabilities of the Lynx vehicle, the 1u- and 2u-CubeSat form factor we are using for our payloads, and general considerations for payload integration. As an example of the payloads we can accommodate, we will discuss a NASA-inspired experiment to collect particles from the upper atmosphere.;

Wright, E.

2012-12-01

369

Who will own outer space? governance over space resources in the age of human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Questions of ownership and control are key issues in international relations and international law. They have been addressed\\u000a to a certain extent in the context of outer space. However, as humanity expands into space it will become obvious that there\\u000a are still many unanswered questions regarding who should control the vast resources of space.

Kurt Mills

370

Rule-based graph theory to enable exploration of the space system architecture design space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this research is to improve upon system architecture modeling in order to enable the exploration of design space options. A system architecture is the description of the functional and physical allocation of elements and the relationships, interactions, and interfaces between those elements necessary to satisfy a set of constraints and requirements. The functional allocation defines the functions that each system (element) performs, and the physical allocation defines the systems required to meet those functions. Trading the functionality between systems leads to the architecture-level design space that is available to the system architect. The research presents a methodology that enables the modeling of complex space system architectures using a mathematical framework. To accomplish the goal of improved architecture modeling, the framework meets five goals: technical credibility, adaptability, flexibility, intuitiveness, and exhaustiveness. The framework is technically credible, in that it produces an accurate and complete representation of the system architecture under consideration. The framework is adaptable, in that it provides the ability to create user-specified locations, steady states, and functions. The framework is flexible, in that it allows the user to model system architectures to multiple destinations without changing the underlying framework. The framework is intuitive for user input while still creating a comprehensive mathematical representation that maintains the necessary information to completely model complex system architectures. Finally, the framework is exhaustive, in that it provides the ability to explore the entire system architecture design space. After an extensive search of the literature, graph theory presents a valuable mechanism for representing the flow of information or vehicles within a simple mathematical framework. Graph theory has been used in developing mathematical models of many transportation and network flow problems in the past, where nodes represent physical locations and edges represent the means by which information or vehicles travel between those locations. In space system architecting, expressing the physical locations (low-Earth orbit, low-lunar orbit, etc.) and steady states (interplanetary trajectory) as nodes and the different means of moving between the nodes (propulsive maneuvers, etc.) as edges formulates a mathematical representation of this design space. The selection of a given system architecture using graph theory entails defining the paths that the systems take through the space system architecture graph. A path through the graph is defined as a list of edges that are traversed, which in turn defines functions performed by the system. A structure to compactly represent this information is a matrix, called the system map, in which the column indices are associated with the systems that exist and row indices are associated with the edges, or functions, to which each system has access. Several contributions have been added to the state of the art in space system architecture analysis. The framework adds the capability to rapidly explore the design space without the need to limit trade options or the need for user interaction during the exploration process. The unique mathematical representation of a system architecture, through the use of the adjacency, incidence, and system map matrices, enables automated design space exploration using stochastic optimization processes. The innovative rule-based graph traversal algorithm ensures functional feasibility of each system architecture that is analyzed, and the automatic generation of the system hierarchy eliminates the need for the user to manually determine the relationships between systems during or before the design space exploration process. Finally, the rapid evaluation of system architectures for various mission types enables analysis of the system architecture design space for multiple destinations within an evolutionary exploration program. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Arney, Dale Curtis

371

Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such as deep sub-micron (0.25 microns) fabrication processes with specialized circuit designs, commercial interfaces, processors, memory, and other commercial off the shelf components that were not designed for long-term survivability in space. Therefore, the design of highly reliable, and available systems for the exploration of Europa, Pluto and other destinations in deep-space require a comprehensive and fresh approach to this problem. This paper summarizes work in progress in three different areas: a framework for the design of highly reliable and highly available space avionics systems, distributed reliable computing architecture, and Guarded Software Upgrading (GSU) techniques for software upgrading during long-term missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Alkalai, L.; Chau, S.; Tai, A. T.

2001-01-01

372

Space Operations for a New Era of Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human space exploration. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicles. The combined Ares I/Ares V architecture has been designed to reduce the complexity and labor intensity of ground operations for America's next journeys beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A deliberate effort is being made to ensure a high level of system operability to significantly increase safety and system availability as well as reduce recurring costs for this new launch vehicle. The Ares Projects goal is to instill operability as part of the vehicles requirements development, design, and operations. This simplicity will come from using simpler, proven engine designs, as in the case of the J-2X upper stage engine and RS-68 engine; improving existing hardware, as in the case of the Shuttle-heritage 5-segment solid rocket motor; and using common propulsion and instrument unit elements between Ares I and Ares V. Furthermore, lessons learned while developing Ares I will be applied directly to Ares V operations. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to conduct the first flight test of Ares I, designated Ares I-X. Ares I-X preparations have already prompted changes to the vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), including removing Shuttle-specific fixtures from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to accommodate Ares I-style stacking operations, new firing room computers and infrastructure in the VAB Launch Control Center, and new lightning protection system towers at Launch Complex 39B to accommodate the greater height of Ares I-X. In addition to lessons learned from the stacking of Ares I-X, the flight test itself promises to yield important data and operations lessons for assembling, launching, and flying Ares I.

Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

2010-01-01

373

Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

2011-01-01

374

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

375

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1992-01-01

376

Space Station Freedom accommodation of the Human Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design requirements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are proposed based on the requirements and assumptions of the Human Exploration Initiative. In this summary of a NASA study consideration is given to the mission-supporting capabilities needed to sustain support of a continuous human presence in earth orbit for scientific activities. The initial SSF configuration (called Assembly Complete) is found to be insufficient in terms of the optimal provisions for crew size, power, pressurized volume, and truss structure. Specific design requirements are also given for the Lunar Transfer Vehicle, and the checkout of this vehicle creates additional demands on the SSF facilities. General specifications are given for the SSF modules, vehicle processing, remote manipulator, and mobile transporter within the context of a continuous human presence in orbit.

Meredith, Barry D.; Peach, Lewis L., Jr.; Ahlf, Peter R.; Saucillo, Rudolph J.

1990-01-01

377

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “ Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration” is an integrated countermeasure platform to mitigate the spaceflight-induced physiologic adaptation and de-conditioning that manifests during long-duration spaceflight and gravitational transitions. The V2Suit integrates flywheel gyroscopes and inertial measurement units within a wearable module that can be placed on the body segments, and when commanded in a coordinated manner provides a “ viscous resistance” during movements. The system architecture, human-system integration, and three six degree-of-freedom simulations are presented which describe the magnitude and direction of the gyroscopic torque and resulting force within the module during representative arm movements. The results demonstrate of the ability of the V2Suit module design to generate a reaction force along a specified direction and reject perturbations due to body kinematics - collectively illustrating the feasibility of the concept.

Duda, K. R.; Newman, D. J.

378

An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1992-08-01

379

Processing of Lunar Soil Simulant for Space Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's long-term vision for space exploration includes developing human habitats and conducting scientific investigations on planetary bodies, especially on Moon and Mars. To reduce the level of up-mass processing and utilization of planetary in-situ resources is recognized as an important element of this vision. Within this scope and context, we have undertaken a general effort aimed primarily at extracting and refining metals, developing glass, glass-ceramic, or traditional ceramic type materials using lunar soil simulants. In this paper we will present preliminary results on our effort on carbothermal reduction of oxides for elemental extraction and zone refining for obtaining high purity metals. In additions we will demonstrate the possibility of developing glasses from lunar soil simulant for fixing nuclear waste from potential nuclear power generators on planetary bodies. Compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction patterns and differential thermal analysis of processed samples will be presented.

Sen, Subhayu; Ray, Chandra S.; Reddy, Ramana

2005-01-01

380

An inductive exploration of the social effectiveness construct space.  

PubMed

There is no agreement regarding the nature or number of dimensions that make up the social effectiveness domain. We inductively explore the relationships between a set of social effectiveness measures with the intention of identifying an initial set of dimensions. An exploratory factor analysis of the Social Competence Inventory (SCI, Schneider, 2001) resulted in the identification of four factors: Social Potency, Social Appropriateness, Social Emotional Expression, and Social Reputation. A joint factor analysis between the SCI and a set of extant measures resulted in the identification of the same four factors. A fifth factor emerged when a set of scales from an emotional intelligence measure was included in the analysis, suggesting that emotional intelligence is not captured within the common factor space defined by measures of social effectiveness. This study represents a first step in the establishment of a set of common social effectiveness dimensions. PMID:18507711

Heggestad, Eric D; Morrison, Morgan J

2008-07-01

381

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

382

Comparison of Historic Exploration with Contemporary Space Policy Suggests a Retheorisation of Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides one way of theorising this developing field, a way which has become the normative model for the discipline: science-and scholarship-driven funding for space. By contrast, a novel re-evaluation of funding policies is undertaken in this article to reframe astrobiology, terraforming and associated space travel and research. Textual visualisation, discourse and numeric analytical methods, and value theory are applied to historical data and contemporary sources to re-investigate significant drivers and constraints on the mechanisms of enabling space exploration. Two data sets are identified and compared: the business objectives and outcomes of major 15th-17th century European joint-stock exploration and trading companies and a case study of a current space industry entrepreneur company. Comparison of these analyses suggests that viable funding policy drivers can exist outside the normative science and scholarship-driven roadmap. The two drivers identified in this study are (1) the intrinsic value of space as a territory to be experienced and enjoyed, not just studied, and (2) the instrumental, commercial value of exploiting these experiences by developing infrastructure and retail revenues. Filtering of these results also offers an investment rationale for companies operating in, or about to enter, the space business marketplace.

Cokely, J.; Rankin, W.; Heinrich, P.; McAuliffe, M.

383

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic clim...

T. A. May

2012-01-01

384

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

385

Regenerative life support technology challenges for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regenerative life support systems have been identified as one of the critical enabling technologies for future human exploration of space. This discipline encompasses processes and subsystems which regenerate the air, water, solid waste, and food streams typical of human habitation so as to minimize the mass and volume of stored consumables which must accompany the humans on a mission. A number of key technology challenges within this broad discipline are described, ranging from the development of new physical, chemical, and biological processes for regenerating the air, water, solid waste, and food streams to the development of improved techniques for monitoring and controlling microbial and trace constituent contamination. A continuing challenge overarching the development of these new technologies is the need to minimize the mass, volume, and electrical power consumption of the flight hardware. More important for long duration exploration missions, however, is the development of highly reliable, long-lived, self- sufficient systems which absolutely minimize the logistics resupply and operational maintenance requirements of the life support system and which ensure human safety through their robust, reliable operating characteristics.

Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.; Theis, Ronald L. A.

1992-01-01

386

Exploration of the Equilibrium Operating Space For NSTX-Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores a range of high-performance equilibrium scenarios available in the NSTX-Upgrade device [J.E. Menard, submitted for publication to Nuclear Fusion]. NSTX-Upgrade is a substantial upgrade to the existing NSTX device [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], with significantly higher toroidal field and solenoid capabilities, and three additional neutral beam sources with significantly larger current drive efficiency. Equilibria are computed with freeboundary TRANSP, allowing a self consistent calculation of the non-inductive current drive sources, the plasma equilibrium, and poloidal field coil current, using the realistic device geometry. The thermal profiles are taken from a variety of existing NSTX discharges, and different assumptions for the thermal confinement scalings are utilized. The no-wall and idealwall n=1 stability limits are computed with the DCON code. The central and minimum safety factors are quite sensitive to many parameters: they generally increases with large outer plasmawall gaps and higher density, but can have either trend with the confinement enhancement factor. In scenarios with strong central beam current drive, the inclusion of non-classical fast ion diffusion raises qmin, decreases the pressure peaking, and generally improves the global stability, at the expense of a reduction in the non-inductive current drive fraction; cases with less beam current drive are largely insensitive to additional fast ion diffusion. The non-inductive current level is quite sensitive to the underlying confinement and profile assumptions. For instance, for BT=1.0 T and Pinj=12.6 MW, the non-inductive current level varies from 875 kA with ITER-98y,2 thermal confinement scaling and narrow thermal profiles to 1325 kA for an ST specific scaling expression and broad profiles. This sensitivity should facilitate the determination of the correct scaling of transport with current and field to use for future fully non-inductive ST devices. Scenarios are presented which can be sustained for 8-10 seconds, or (20-30)?CR, at ?N=3.8-4.5, facilitating, for instance, the study of disruption avoidance for very long pulse. Scenarios have been documented which can operate with ?T~25% and equilibrated qmin>1. The value of qmin can be controlled at either fixed non-inductive fraction of 100% or fixed plasma current, by varying which beam sources are used, opening the possibility for feedback qmin control. In terms of quantities like collisionality, neutron emission, non-inductive fraction, or stored energy, these scenarios represent a significant performance extension compared to NSTX and other present spherical torii.

S.P. Gerhardt, R. Andre and J.E. Menard

2012-04-25

387

Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Human Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future human space exploration strategy includes single and multi-launch missions to various destinations including cis-lunar space, near Earth objects such as asteroids, and ultimately Mars. Each campaign is being defined by Design Reference Missions (DRMs). Many of these missions are complex, requiring multiple launches and assembly of vehicles in orbit. Certain missions also have constrained departure windows to the destination. These factors raise concerns regarding the reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support planned departure. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing launch and assembly reliability in any single DRM or set of DRMs starting with flight hardware manufacturing and ending with final departure to the destination. A discrete event simulation is built for each DRM that includes the pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; ground transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to trans-destination-injection. Each reliability factor can be selectively activated or deactivated so that the most critical risk factors can be identified. This enables NASA to prioritize mitigation actions so as to improve mission success.

Cates, Grant; Gelito, Justin; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

2012-01-01

388

Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-01-01

389

Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

Chang, Max

2011-01-01

390

Systems and Technologies for Space Exploration: the regional project STEPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aerospace technology network of Piemonte represents ˜25% of the italian capacity and handles a comprehensive spectrum of products (aircraft, propulsion, satellites, space station modules, avionics. components, services...). The cooperation between the Comitato Distretto Aerospaziale Piemonte and the European Regional Development Fund 2007-2013 has enabled Regione Piemonte to launch three regional Projects capable to enhance the synergy and competitiveness of the network, among which: STEPS - Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale, a joint development of technologies for robotic and human Space Exploration by 3 large Industries, 27 SMEs, 3 Universities and one public Research Centre. STEPS develops virtual and hardware demonstrators for a range of technologies to do with a Lander's descent and soft landing, and a Rover's surface mobility, of both robotic and manned equipment on Moon and Mars. It also foresees the development of Teleoperations labs and Virtual Reality environments and physical simulations of Moon and Mars surface conditions and ground. Mid-way along STEPS planned development, initial results in several technology domains are available and are presented in this paper.

Boggiatto, D.; Moncalvo, D.

391

Space Exploration: A Risk for Neural Stem Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During spaceflights beyond low Earth orbit, astronauts are exposed to potentially carcinogenic and tissue damaging galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and secondary radiation that includes neutrons and recoil nuclei produced by nuclear reactions in spacecraft walls or in tissue (1). Such radiation risk may present a significant health risk for human exploration of the moon and Mars. Emerging evidence that generation of new neurons in the adult brain may be essential for learning, memory, and mood (2) and that radiation is deleterious to neurogenesis (3-5) underscores a previously unappreciated possible risk to the cognitive functions and emotional stability of astronauts exposed to radiation in space. Here we use a novel reporter mouse line to identify at-risk populations of stem and progenitor cells in the brain and find, unexpectedly, that quiescent stem-like cells (rather than their rapidly dividing progeny) in the hippocampus constitute the most vulnerable cell population. This finding raises concerns about the possible risks facing astronauts on long duration space missions.

Encinas, Juan M.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Switzer, Robert C.; Chamberland, Dennis W.; Nick, Harry; Levine, Howard G.; Scarpa, Philip J.; Enikolopov, Grigori; Steindler, Dennis A.

2006-01-01

392

Collective control of spacecraft swarms for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarms are characterized in nature by a dynamic behaviour which is quite appealing for researchers involved in numerous fields of study, like robotics, computer science, pure mathematics and space sciences. Global group organization acquired in absence of centralized control is the feature of natural swarms which is most interesting to reproduce. This study proposes to make use of some evolutionary robotics findings in order to obtain the autonomous group organization in the framework of a deeper knowledge of the astrodynamics. The main task which will be accomplished is the implementation of the control laws for the single satellite. A careful tuning of the parameters at member level is necessary in order to gain an autonomously evolving global behaviour in a number of space missions of immediate interest. In remote sensing missions, for example, trains of a small number of satellites are already orbiting and integrating their collected data: in near future entire swarms of agents could accomplish this task, and should be controlled in order to acquire and maintain the desired leader-follower configuration. Another example can be seen in deep space exploration of unknown celestial bodies, where the migration of the entire swarm from a reference orbit to a (previously unknown) targeted one is an issue; the same group migration is of interest in Earth orbit, when transferring from parking to operational orbit. Finally, self-assembly of rigid-like virtual structures is also simulated. This paper shows that all these cases are autonomously performed by the swarm by correctly implementing four simple rules at individual level, which assess the primal needs for any satellite: avoid collision, remain grouped, align to the neighbor, reach a goal.

Sabatini, Marco; Palmerini, Giovanni B.

2009-11-01

393

Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

2005-01-01

394

Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be a part of any 2l century initiatives furthering a growing human presence beyond earth.

Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

2009-01-01

395

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) delivers space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides U.S. capability for both crew and cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010, as outlined in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. I In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle/Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle/Altair Lunar Lander. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability, coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration over a multi-decade schedule. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity against predictions made by modern modeling and simulation analysis. It also will give information about the work in progress for the Ares I-X developmental test flight planned in 2009 to provide key data before the Ares I Critical Design Review. Activities such as these will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development tasks being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, the work performed will lead to the fielding of a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads for sustainable scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

396

In Space Nuclear Power as an Enabling Technology for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Exploration missions, both for scientific and Human Exploration and Development (HEDS), appear to be as weight limited today as they would have been 35 years ago. Right behind the weight constraints is the nearly equally important mission limitation of cost. Launch vehicles, upper stages and in-space propulsion systems also cost about the same today with the same efficiency as they have had for many years (excluding impact of inflation). Both these dual mission constraints combine to force either very expensive, mega systems missions or very light weight, but high risk/low margin planetary spacecraft designs, such as the recent unsuccessful attempts for an extremely low cost mission to Mars during the 1998-99 opportunity (i.e., Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander). When one considers spacecraft missions to the outer heliopause or even the outer planets, the enormous weight and cost constraints will impose even more daunting concerns for mission cost, risk and the ability to establish adequate mission margins for success. This paper will discuss the benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor as the basis for providing both sufficient electric power and high performance space propulsion that will greatly reduce mission risk and significantly increase weight (IMLEO) and cost margins. Weight and cost margins are increased by enabling much higher payload fractions and redundant design features for a given launch vehicle (higher payload fraction of IMLEO). The paper will also discuss and summarize the recent advances in nuclear reactor technology and safety of modern reactor designs and operating practice and experience, as well as advances in reactor coupled power generation and high performance nuclear thermal and electric propulsion technologies. It will be shown that these nuclear power and propulsion technologies are major enabling capabilities for higher reliability, higher margin and lower cost deep space missions design to reliably reach the outer planets for scientific exploration.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Houts, Michael

2000-01-01

397

14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the...launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the...agreements for NASA's science or space exploration activities that are not...

2009-01-01

398

14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the...launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated to the...agreements for NASA's science or space exploration activities that are not...

2010-01-01

399

Building on 50 Years of Systems Engineering Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States (US) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair lunar lander, as well as the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Shuttle's propulsion elements and is managing the design and development of the Ares rockets, along with a host of other engineering assignments in the field of scientific space exploration. Specifically, the Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate houses the skilled workforce and unique facilities needed to build capable systems upon the foundation laid by the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level testing activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation, as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. Ultimately, fielding a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads will pave the way for a new era of scientific discovery now dawning beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul K.

2008-01-01

400

Three near term commercial markets in space and their potential role in space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent market studies related to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) commercialization have identified three near term markets that have return-on-investment potential. These markets are: (1) Entertainment (2) Education (3) Advertising/sponsorship. Commercial activity is presently underway focusing on these areas. A private company is working with the Russians on a commercial module attached to the ISS that will involve entertainment and probably the other two activities as well. A separate corporation has been established to commercialize the Russian Mir Space Station with entertainment and promotional advertising as important revenue sources. A new startup company has signed an agreement with NASA for commercial media activity on the International Space Station (ISS). Profit making education programs are being developed by a private firm to allow students to play the role of an astronaut and work closely with space scientists and astronauts. It is expected that the success of these efforts on the ISS program will extend to exploration missions beyond LEO. The objective of this paper is to extrapolate some of the LEO commercialization experiences to see what might be expected in space exploration missions to Mars, the Moon and beyond. .

Gavert, Raymond B.

2001-02-01

401

Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

1991-01-01

402

Micro-Power Sources Enabling Robotic Outpost Based Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic outpost based exploration represents a fundamental shift in mission design from conventional, single spacecraft missions towards a distributed risk approach with many miniaturized semi-autonomous robots and sensors. This approach can facilitate wide-area sampling and exploration, and may consist of a web of orbiters, landers, or penetrators. To meet the mass and volume constraints of deep space missions such as the Europa Ocean Science Station, the distributed units must be fully miniaturized to fully leverage the wide-area exploration approach. However, presently there is a dearth of available options for powering these miniaturized sensors and robots. This group is currently examining miniaturized, solid state batteries as candidates to meet the demand of applications requiring low power, mass, and volume micro-power sources. These applications may include powering microsensors, battery-backing rad-hard CMOS memory and providing momentary chip back-up power. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

West, W. C.; Whitacre, J. F.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Brandon, E. J.; Studor, G. F.

2001-01-01

403

Piloted Ignition Delay of PMMA in Space Exploration Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity (EVA), NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles and habitats with a different cabin environment than used previously. The proposed environment uses a total cabin pressure of 52.7 to 58.6 kPa with an oxygen concentration of 30 to 34% by volume and was chosen with material flammability in mind. Because materials may burn differently under these conditions and there is little information on how this new environment affects the flammability of the materials onboard, it is important to conduct material flammability experiments at the intended exploration atmosphere. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To this end, piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in the Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) apparatus subject to this new environment. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to a range of oxidizer flow velocities and externally applied heat fluxes. Tests were conducted for a baseline case of normal pressure and oxygen concentration, low pressure (58.6 kPa) with normal oxygen (21%), and low pressure with 32% oxygen concentration conditions to determine the individual effect of pressure and the combined effect of pressure and oxygen concentration on the ignition delay. It was found that reducing the pressure while keeping the oxygen concentration at 21% reduced the ignition time by 17% on average. Increasing the oxygen concentration at low pressures reduced the ignition time by an additional 10%. It was also noted that the critical heat flux for ignition decreases at exploration atmospheres. These results show that tests conducted in standard atmospheric conditions will underpredict the ignition of materials intended for use on spacecraft and that, at these conditions, materials are more susceptible to ignition than at current spacecraft atmospheres.

McAllister, Sara; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Urban, David; Ruff, Gary

2007-01-01

404