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1

Role of the current young generation within the space exploration sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space sector gathers together people from a variety of fields who work in the industry on different levels and with different expertise. What is often forgotten is the impact and role of the current young generation. Their engagement is of great importance as undeniably today's young 'space generation' will be defining the direction of future space exploration. Today's vision of future human and robotic space exploration has been set out in the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). This focuses on sustainable, affordable and productive long-term goals. The strategy begins with the International Space Station (ISS) and then expands human presence into the solar system, including a human mission to Mars. This paper presents a general overview of the role of today's youth within the space exploration sector and the challenges to overcome. To complete this perspective, we present results from a survey made among students and young professionals about their levels of awareness of the GER. The respondents presented their opinion about current aspects of the GER and prioritised the GER's objectives. It is hoped that the paper will bring a new perspective into the GER and a contribution to the current GER strategy.

Calzada-Diaz, A.; Dayas-Codina, M.; MacArthur, J. L.; Bielicki, D. M.

2014-08-01

2

Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration September 2013 International Space from Space Exploration Table of Content Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Fundamental Benefits of Space Exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

3

Muscle Research and Human Space Exploration: Current Progress and Future Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of human space flight, there has been serious concern over the exposure of human crewmembers to the microgravity of space due to the systemic effects on terrestrially-evolved creatures that are adapted to Earth gravity. Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our currently developed space vehicles, are exposed to various periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). Unloading of skeletal muscle both on Earth and during spaceflight results in remodeling of muscle (atrophic response) as an adaptation to the reduced loads placed upon it. As a result, there are decrements in skeletal muscle strength, fatigue resistance, motor performance, and connective tissue integrity. This normal adaptive response to the microgravity environment is for the most part of little consequence within the space vehicle per se but may become a liability resulting in an increased risk of crewmember physical failure during extravehicular activities or abrupt transitions to environments of increased gravity (such as return to Earth or landing on another planetary body).

Feedback, Daniel L.

2004-01-01

4

Biomimetics Applied to Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A review of the possible applications of biomimetic research and engineering to space exploration ,is presented. The review ,begins ,by briefly ,introducing biomimicry as an engineering discipline, and then, through considering the characteristics that typify current and future space exploration missions, along with the characteristics commonly associated with biological systems, it is argued that biomimicry,has a high ,degree of

Mark Ayre

5

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

6

On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

2011-01-01

7

Nutrition for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

Smith, Scott M.

2005-01-01

8

Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of President Bush's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and it's three main components, Space Station Freedom, a Permanent Lunar Base, and a Manned Mission to Mars is provided. Computer simulations of the Space Station Freedom and Permanent Lunar Base are shown, and an animated sequence describes a Mars mission where heavy lift vehicle will bring components of a Mars Spacecraft into orbit, where it will be put together by astronauts using a robotic arm. The Mars spacecraft is shown orbiting Mars and discharging a lander to the surface, carrying human explorers. The video also details the SEI's Outreach Program, designed to garner interest in and ideas for Space Exploration.

1990-01-01

9

Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, fielding a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads will pave the way for a new century of scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

2008-01-01

10

The space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

Priest, Pete

1991-01-01

11

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Exploration  

E-print Network

Station partnerships 5 #12;Global Exploration Roadmap 6 #12;7 #12;International Space Station that effect severity generally increases with mission duration. 11 #12;International Space Station Infrastructure 6. Significant International and Commercial participation, leveraging current International Space

Waliser, Duane E.

12

History of Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can choose from an extensive selection of links to resources for use in the study of the history of space exploration. The links provide access to historic information and publications, chronologies, and mission summaries for American, Russian, European, and other space missions. For educators, there are links to guides to robotic spacecraft and to observing the space shuttle in orbit. Links are also provided to a variety of spacecraft homepages and to other topics such as a primer on the basics of space flight, the Apollo lunar surface journals, and the NASA historic archives.

13

International Space Exploration Coordination Group  

E-print Network

for collaborative space exploration missions beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuingInternational Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap August 2013 #12 The Global Exploration Roadmap is being developed by space agencies participating in the International Space

Rathbun, Julie A.

14

Translational Research in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

2007-01-01

15

Space explorers outreach program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over three and a half years the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA) has operated a program for African-American K-12 students in Chicago. Space Explorers (the high school students in the program participate in a wide range of educational activities in astronomy). They attend workshops at the Adler Planetarium, on the University of Chicago campus, and at Yerkes Observatory. CARA operates a summer institute for them every summer at Yerkes Observatory. A key program during the school year is one that uses the Adler Planetarium's Starlab. A Starlab is an inflatable, portable planetarium that can easily be transported to schools. The Space Explorers are highly experienced in the use of a Starlab and are trained to deliver programs for younger students. They reach over two thousand grammar school students each spring.

Harper, D. A.

1995-06-01

16

Robots in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief outline of NASA's current robotics program is presented. Efforts are being concentrated on a roving surface vehicle for Mars exploration. This vehicle will integrate manipulative, locomotive, and visual functions and will feature an electromechanical manipulator, stereo TV cameras, a laser rangefinder, a minicomputer, and a remote off-line computer. The program hinges on the iterative development of complex scenarios describing the robot's mission and the interrelationships among its various subsystems.

Dobrotin, B. M.

1974-01-01

17

Space exploration outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of the solar system has been one of NASA's most significant achievements. Currently Voyager 2 is on its way to Uranus and Neptune, and Galileo is being readied for detailed investigation of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites. A new phase of exploration will be inaugurated in the mid-80s with the start of the Planetary Observers and Mariner Mark II missions. A major thrust during this phase will be to cut mission costs by emphasizing spacecraft inheritance and multi-mission automated mission operations. More ambitious missions, e.g., Mars Sample Return, are under study but probably will not be candidates for new start funding till the mid-90s. Another exciting area is the potential utilization of resources on the moon and near earth asteroids.

Rea, D. G.

1984-01-01

18

The International Space Station in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

19

How have we explored space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many individuals have helped us advance in our space explorations - let's take a look at these advancements in our space program! We have come to the end of the space shuttle program, yet through the past 30 years it has made strides to help us develop the International Space Station. We will continue on with our discoveries and explorations of space! Launch Discovery launches to International Space Station Journey to the Space Station Journey to Space Station Mission Highlights of STS131 STS 131 Mission Highlights Landing Discovery Landing at Kennedy Space Center New Era of ...

Keller, Mrs.

2010-05-01

20

Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

1999

21

The Space Science Explorers Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Explorers Series is a collection of articles on 'Space Explorers', people connected by their interest in space science and research. This monthly series will introduce the reader to these people, young and old, and with a variety of backgrounds and interests. The articles are designed for a wide range of educational levels and feature career profiles and biographical information on the Space Explorers. The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) maintains a topic index for users who want to browse archived articles by subject.

22

The history of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

1994-01-01

23

Exploring Earth from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lithographs from the ISS EarthKAM program contains an educators' guide, student information and worksheets, and several Earth photos taken from the Space Shuttle. Shuttle astronauts and the ISS EarthKAM program provide photos of our planet from the unique perspective of Earth orbit. This resource can enhance students' studies of Earth and space science, geography, social studies, mathematics, and educational technologies.

2002-12-01

24

Telescopes and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

1976-01-01

25

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new vision of space exploration encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. Extended human space travel requires high reliability and high performance systems for propulsion, vehicle structures, thermal and radiation protection, crew habitats and health monitoring. Advanced materials and processing technologies are necessary to meet the exploration mission requirements. Materials and processing technologies must be sufficiently mature before they can be inserted into a development program leading to an exploration mission. Exploration will be more affordable by in-situ utilization of materials on the Moon and Mars.

Vickers, John; Shah, Sandeep

2005-01-01

26

Innovative Technologies for Global Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), Directorate Integration Office (DIO), The Tauri Group with NASA's Technology Assessment and Integration Team (TAIT) completed several studies and white papers that identify novel technologies for human exploration. These studies provide technical inputs to space exploration roadmaps, identify potential organizations for exploration partnerships, and detail crosscutting technologies that may meet some of NASA's critical needs. These studies are supported by a relational database of more than 400 externally funded technologies relevant to current exploration challenges. The identified technologies can be integrated into existing and developing roadmaps to leverage external resources, thereby reducing the cost of space exploration. This approach to identifying potential spin-in technologies and partnerships could apply to other national space programs, as well as international and multi-government activities. This paper highlights innovative technologies and potential partnerships from economic sectors that historically are less connected to space exploration. It includes breakthrough concepts that could have a significant impact on space exploration and discusses the role of breakthrough concepts in technology planning. Technologies and partnerships are from NASA's Technology Horizons and Technology Frontiers game-changing and breakthrough technology reports as well as the External Government Technology Dataset, briefly described in the paper. The paper highlights example novel technologies that could be spun-in from government and commercial sources, including virtual worlds, synthetic biology, and human augmentation. It will consider how these technologies can impact space exploration and will discuss ongoing activities for planning and preparing them.

Hay, Jason; Gresham, Elaine; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd; Reeves, John D.

2012-01-01

27

Space exploration in neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study investigated the gaze as well as the head and the eye-in-head movements of neglect patients while they were exploring their surroundings. A random configuration of letters was presented on the inner surface of a sphere that surrounded the subject, requiring free exploratory eye and head movements. The subjects were requested to search for a single (non-existent)

H.-O. Karnath; M. Niemeier; J. Dichgans

1998-01-01

28

Civil Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On or about June 15, 1989, Admiral Truly and Frank Martin presented NASA's conceptual plan for an exploration program to Vice-President Dan Quayle. Presentations by Truly and Quayle to a variety of groups outside the administration ensued. These officials drew upon the following charts for their presentations. The charts, based on the technical material supplied by the NASA Working Group, were updated and rearranged as the presentations transpired.

1992-01-01

29

Current Research Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) X-ray Concentrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICER is a proposed NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity and will study the extreme gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear physics of neutron stars. Observations will be performed by an X-ray timing and spectroscopy instrument on board the International Space Station (ISS) with launch scheduled for late 2016. NICER consists of grazing incident optics coupled with silicon drift detectors that will provide high throughput photon collection with relatively low background. The optical system consists of 56 X-ray optics, each of which comprise of 24 individual concentrators made from thin aluminum shells with epoxy replicated gold surface. These specialized concentrators focus incident X-rays allowing for small detectors thus increasing the signal to noise while minimizing mass and fabrication cost. The concentrators have three distinct design differences from traditional thin foil epoxy replicated imaging optics. Firstly, the concentrators use only a single reflection and therefore have degraded imaging resolution for extended sources. They also have a full shell structure to further improve the effective area to mass ratio and a curved axial profile to improve resolution and hence concentration at a short focal length. NICER is the second project using these style concentrators, the first of which was the X-ray Advanced Concepts Testbed (XACT) sounding rocket payload (expected to launch in December 2013). The fabrication of the NICER optics began in spring 2012 and were tested using a collimated X-ray beam in summer 2012. In the following months, the concentrators’ fabrication method has been improved and adapted from the method used with XACT. X-ray measurements have been made to characterize the concentrators by calculating half power diameters, off-axis performance, and effective area measurements. These have been compared to ray tracing and theoretical calculations. Here we report the performance to date with comparisons to the theoretical calculations as well as the advancements in the fabrication method from the previous generation X-ray concentrators.

Balsamo, Erin; Okajima, T.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Jalota, L.; Soong, Y.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

2013-04-01

30

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

31

Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

Jeevarajan, Antony

2014-01-01

32

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space Exploration Framework Summary For Public Release 1 #12;Overview Context and approach for human space exploration Key guiding time. Human Space Exploration Architecture Planning Human spaceflight (HSF) programs

Waliser, Duane E.

33

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon, Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-peformance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure; lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano- structural materials. The paper will also address smart materials and structures and examine space environmental effects on materials and methods of mitigating them. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing and using desired materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

34

Ethics and the Space Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth, and by analogy ethical issues exist that translate into the spatial dimension.

Mendell, W.

2002-01-01

35

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon. Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-performance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure: lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano-structural materials. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

36

Davidson Center for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Davidson Center for Space Exploration is like no other in the country. In its 476 foot long, 90 foot wide and 63 foot high structure, suspended 10 feet above the floor, is a national historic treasure, the mighty Saturn V, restored to its Apollo era readiness.

2009-01-01

37

Exploring Hypermedia Processor Design Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed hypermedia systems that support collaboration are important emerging tools for creation, discovery, management and delivery of information. These systems are becoming increasingly desired and practical as other areas of information technologies advance. A framework is developed for efficiently exploring the hypermedia design space while intelligently capitalizing on tradeoffs between performance and area. We focus on a category of processors

Chunho Lee; Johnson Kin; Miodrag Potkonjak; William H. Mangione-smith

2001-01-01

38

The Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the coming years as this plan is implemented. I also cannot overstate how profound the rewards will be on this new course. With the support of Congress, the science community, the NASA civil and contractor workforce, and most importantly, the American public, we will embark on this very exciting future. When Christopher Columbus made his voyages across the Atlantic in the 15th and 16th centuries, his ships carried the inscription 'Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World.' I look forward to joining you as we follow the light of the planets and the stars into the new worlds of the 21st century.

2004-01-01

39

NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

2006-01-01

40

Science Explorations: Journey Into Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations is a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Journey Into Space: Gravity, Orbits, and Collisions exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, a glossary of related terms, a collection of articles, captioned photos, short videos, and informative links, off-line activities that challenge students to apply what they've learned, and advice and step-by-step tools to help students prepare research presentations.

41

Robotic Exploration of Space Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The invention of the telescope forever changed astronomy by allowing exploration of the universe in far greater detail than was possible with human eyes alone. Technological advances of the twentieth century, such as computers, rockets, and other scientific instruments made even more detailed views of the universe possible. In this interactive timeline from NASA, users can follow the development of rocketry and space exploration from early research by Russian schoolteacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and American Robert Goddard through the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens probe in orbit around Saturn in 2004.

42

"Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

Jordan, Anne Devereaux

1997-01-01

43

United States Space Explorations 1958  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

44

United States Space Explorations 1958  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge.

1962-01-01

45

Human Factors in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

2010-01-01

46

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space live Goal 3 Create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future & Mission Vision ­ Declaration of our future: JSC leads a global enterprise in human space exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

47

Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

Houts, Michael G.

2010-01-01

48

Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

2011-01-01

49

Is a Space Laundry Needed for Exploration?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space exploration missions will lengthen to years, and keeping crews clothed without a huge resupply burden is an important consideration for habitation systems. A space laundry system could be the solution; however, the resources it uses must be accounted for and must win out over the very reliable practice of bringing along enough spare underwear. Through NASA's Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project, trade off studies have been conducted to compare current space clothing systems, life extension of that clothing, traditional water based clothes washing and other sanitizing techniques. The best clothing system of course depends on the mission and assumptions, but in general, analysis results indicate that washing clothes on space missions will start to pay off as mission durations push past a year.

Ewert, Michael K.; Jeng, Frank F.

2014-01-01

50

Spacecraft dynamics and space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research related to spacecraft dynamics and space exploration, with particular attention given to the libration and rotational motion of spacecraft containing a liquid. Topics discussed include resonance phenomena in the rotational motions of artificial and natural celestial bodies, simulation of the dynamics of launch vehicles, the motion of a rigid body whose cavity is partially filled with a liquid, and a rapidly converging variational algorithm in the problem of the natural vibrations of a liquid in a container. Papers are also presented on a study of transient processes in the case of large perturbations of a free liquid surface in a closed compartment, the motion of a rigid body with a liquid whose free surface is covered by a nonlinearly deformed shell, and an experimental study of the stability of the rotational motion of liquid-filled bodies.

Tiulin, G. A.

51

Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future consideration and are addressed in this paper. These applications have been made available to the various NASA study groups that are determining the next steps the Agency must take to secure a sound foundation for future space exploration The paper also addresses how follow-on demonstrations, as launch performance grows, can build on the earlier applications to provide increased benefits for both the commercial and scientific communities. The architecture of incrementally building upon previous successes and insights dramatically lowers the overall associated risk for developing and maturing the key enabling technologies. The goal is to establish a potential business case that encourages commercial activity, thereby reducing the cost for the demonstration while using the technology maturation in developing readiness for future space exploration with overall less risk.

Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.

2011-01-01

52

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a

R. Bjørk

53

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. Exploration of the Galaxy is simulated by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40000 stars in a

R. Bjørk

2007-01-01

54

Space exploration challenges : characterization and enhancement of space suit mobility and planetary protection policy analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two challenges associated with advanced space and planetary exploration: characterizing and improving the mobility of current and future gas pressurized space suits; and developing effective domestic ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2010-01-01

55

The Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which focuses on the investigation and development of technologies, processes and integrated simulations related to the collaborative distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. This paper describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. In the network work area, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network that will provide agency wide support for distributed simulation between all NASA centers. In the software work area, DSES is developing a collection of software models, tool and procedures that ease the burden of developing distributed simulations and provides a consistent interoperability infrastructure for agency wide participation in integrated simulation. Finally, for simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper will present current status and plans for each of these work areas with specific examples of simulations that support NASA's exploration initiatives.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Mike G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

56

A timely rationale for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is shown to be useful for enhancing a country's education, technology, and economic competitiveness. Technologies required for the Space Exploration Initiative are compared to emerging technologies identified by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The impact of previous space ventures on specific technologies are illustrated with examples such as miniaturized electronics, computers and software, and high-strength materials. The case for educational advancement as a by-product of space exploration is made by discussing the high-level requirements of the programs and describing the inspirational effect of space exploration on young students. Invigorating space exploration is argued to generate near- and long-term economic opportunities for key sectors of the national economy by means of technology transfer, space-resource utilization, and the commercialization of space.

Peterson, Douglas D.; Walters, Larry D.

1992-01-01

57

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary design space exploration for large, interdisciplinary engineering problems is often a difficult and time-consuming task. General techniques are needed that efficiently and methodically search the design space. This work focuses on the use of parallel load balancing techniques integrated with a global optimizer to reduce the computational time of the design space exploration. The method is applied to

CHUCK A. BAKER; LAYNE T. WATSON; BERNARD GROSSMAN; WILLIAM H. MASON; RAPHAEL T. HAFTKA

1999-01-01

58

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration  

E-print Network

utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) through at least 2020, there is an international need. Introduction and Background While we expect productive utilization of the International Space Station (ISS by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). An initial evaluation of different mission options

de Weck, Olivier L.

59

Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

Turyshev, Slava

2004-01-01

60

Exploring Space on the Computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past year Dennis Stocker has been in the process of developing pencil and paper games, which are fun, challenging, and educational for middle school and high school students. The latest version of these pencil and paper games is Spaceship Commander. The objective of the game is to earn points by plotting the flight path of a spaceship so astronauts can perform microgravity experiments, and make short-range measurements of other planets. During my ten weeks here at the GRC my goal is to create a computer based version of Spaceship commander. During the development of this game the primary focus has been on making it as educational and fun for the student as possible. The main educational objective of this game is to give students an understanding of forces and motion, including gravity. This is done by incorporating Newton's laws into the game. For example a spacecraft in the video game experiences a gravitational force applied to it by planets. The software I am using to create this game is a freeware application called Game Maker. Game Maker allows novice computer programmers like me to create arcade style games using a visual drag and drop interface. By using functions provided by Game Maker and a few I have written myself, I have been able to create a few simple computer games. Currently the computer game allows the student to navigate a space ship around planets, and asteroids by using the arrow keys on the numeric keypad. Each time an arrow key is pressed by the student the corresponding acceleration of the space ship is seen on the screen. Points are earned by navigating the space ship close enough to planets to gather scientific data. However the game encourages the student to plan his or her course carefully, because if the student gets too close to a planet they may not be able to escape the planet s gravity, and crash into the planet. The next step in the game development is to include a launch sequence which allows the student to launch from their home planet at a speed and direction determined by the student. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Bozym, Patrick

2004-01-01

61

Global visions for space exploration education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) has partnered with Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) to support NSBRI-NASA's education mission, which is to strengthen the nation's future science workforce through initiatives that communicate space exploration biology research findings to schools; support undergraduate and graduate programs; fund postdoctoral fellowships; and engage national and international audiences in collegial exchanges that promote global visions for space exploration education. This paper describes select MSM-NSBRI-EPOP activities, including scholarly interchanges with audiences in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Spain. The paper also makes the case for a global space exploration education vision that inspires students, engages educators and informs general audiences about the benefits that space exploration holds for life on Earth.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.

2010-04-01

62

Design space exploration using the genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical VLSI layout problem involves the simultaneous optimization of a number of competing criteria. Rather than generating a single compromise solution, some recent approaches explicitly explores the design space and outputs a set of alternative solutions, thereby providing explicit information on the possible tradeoffs. This paper discuss the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for design space exploration and propose

Henrdk Esbensen; Ernest S. Kuh

1996-01-01

63

Selected topics in robotics for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

Montgomery, Raymond C. (editor); Kaufman, Howard (editor)

1993-01-01

64

ISRU Propellant Selection for Space Exploration Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical propulsion remains the only viable solution as technically matured technology for the near term human space transportation to Lunar and Mars. Current mode of space travel requires us to "take everything we will need", including propellant for the return trip. Forcing the mission designers to carry propellant for the return trip limits payload mass available for mission operations and results in a large and costly (and often unaffordable) design. Producing propellant via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) will enable missions with chemical propulsion by the "refueling" of return-trip propellant. It will reduce vehicle propellant mass carrying requirement by over 50%. This mass reduction can translates into increased payload to enhance greater mission capability, reduces vehicle size, weight and cost. It will also reduce size of launch vehicle fairing size as well as number of launches for a given space mission and enables exploration missions with existing chemical propulsion. Mars remains the ultimate destination for Human Space Exploration within the Solar System. The Mars atmospheric consist of 95% carbon dioxide (CO2) and the presence of Ice (water) was detected on Mars surfaces. This presents a basic chemical building block for the ISRU propellant manufacturing. However, the rationale for the right propellant to produce via ISRU appears to be limited to the perception of "what we can produce" as oppose to "what is the right propellant". Methane (CH4) is often quoted as a logical choice for Mars ISRU propellant, however; it is believed that there are better alternatives available that can result in a better space transportation architecture. A system analysis is needed to determine on what is the right propellant choice for the exploration vehicle. This paper examines the propellant selection for production via ISRU method on Mars surfaces. It will examine propellant trades for the exploration vehicle with resulting impact on vehicle performance, size, and on launch vehicles. It will investigate propellant manufacturing techniques that will be applicable on Mars surfaces and address related issues on storage, transfer, and safety. Finally, it will also address the operability issues associated with the impact of propellant selection on ground processing and launch vehicle integration.

Chen, Timothy T.

2013-01-01

65

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky\\u000aWay, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an\\u000aanswer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first\\u000aexamining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore\\u000a40,000 stars in a

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-01-01

66

UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

67

Current Collection from Space Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

Singh, Nagendra (editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (editor); Stone, Nobie H. (editor)

1990-01-01

68

BiSpace Planning: Concurrent Multi-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a planning algorithm called BiSpace that produces fast plans to complex high-dimensional problems by simultaneously exploring multiple spaces. We specifically focus on finding robust solutions to manipulation and grasp planning problems by using BiSpace's special characteristics to explore the work and configuration spaces of the environment and robot. Furthermore, we present a number of techniques for constructing informed

Rosen Diankov; Nathan Ratliff; Dave Ferguson; Siddhartha Srinivasa; James Kuffner

69

Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging developing countries and emerging space nations in an international space exploration program, it will be possible to create a critical bottom-up support structure to support program continuity in the development and execution of future global space exploration frameworks. With a focus on stepping stones, COSPAR can support a global space exploration program that stimulates scientists in current and emerging spacefaring nations, and that will invite those in developing countries to participate—pursuing research aimed at answering outstanding questions about the origins and evolution of our solar system and life on Earth (and possibly elsewhere). COSPAR, in cooperation with national and international science foundations and space-related organizations, will advocate this stepping stone approach to enhance future cooperative space exploration efforts.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

2012-01-01

70

Social Sciences and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

1988-01-01

71

Material flammability in space exploration atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity, NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles with a different cabin pressure and oxygen concentration than used previously. This work explores how the flammability of solid materials changes in this new environment. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To this end, piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel subject to this new space exploration atmosphere (SEA -- 58.6 kPa and 32% oxygen) and compared to similar tests in standard atmospheric conditions. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to a range of oxidizer flow velocities and externally applied heat fluxes. It was found that the ignition time was reduced by 27% in the intended space exploration atmosphere. It was also noted that the critical heat flux for ignition decreases in exploration atmospheres. These results show that materials are more susceptible to ignition than in current spacecraft atmospheres. To further explore the effect of pressure and oxygen concentration, tests were performed for a wide range of pressures and oxygen concentrations. In all oxygen concentrations tested, the ignition delay time was seen to decrease with pressure, reach a minimum, and then increase with further reduction in pressure creating a classic u-shaped curve. No ignition was seen at sufficiently low pressures. The no ignition pressure depended on the oxygen concentration. Increasing the oxygen concentration uniformly decreases the ignition time; however, no significant differences were seen in oxygen concentrations above 24%. These results indicate there are several competing mechanisms controlling the ignition time. By reducing the pressure, the heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow rate of fuel to reach the lean flammability limit are reduced. Conversely, a reduction in pressure increases the gas-phase chemical induction time. The competition between these three mechanisms is responsible for the u-shaped dependence of ignition time on total pressure. In addition to gaining insight into the effect of pressure on piloted ignition, these results have practical applications including high altitude structures and airplane cabins.

McAllister, Sara Suzanne

72

Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

2009-01-01

73

Toward an electrical power utility for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future electrical power requirements for space exploration are discussed. Megawatts of power with enough reliability for multi-year missions and with enough flexibility to adapt to needs unanticipated at design time are some of the criteria which space power systems must be able to meet. The reasons for considering the power management and distribution in the various systems, from a total mission perspective rather than simply extrapolating current spacecraft design practice, are discussed. A utility approach to electric power integrating requirements from a broad selection of current development programs, with studies in which both space and terrestrial technologies are conceptually applied to exploration mission scenarios, is described.

Bercaw, Robert W.

1989-01-01

74

Exploration of RNA structure spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the structure of real structure spaces, we are studying the 5S rRNA structure space experimentally. A plasmid containing a synthetic 5S rRNA gene, two rRNA promoters, and transcription terminators has been assembled. Assays are conducted to determine if the foreign 5S rRNA is expressed, and to see whether or not it is incorporated into ribosomes. Evolutionary competition is used to determine the relative fitness of strains containing the foreign 5S rRNA and a control 5S rRNA. By using site directed mutagenesis, a number of mutants can be made in order to study the boundaries of the structure space and how sharply defined they are. By making similar studies in the vicinity of structure space, it will be possible to determine how homogeneous the 5S rRNA structure space is. Useable experimental protocols have been developed, and a number of mutants have already been studied. Initial results suggest an explanation of why single stranded regions of the RNA are less subject to mutation than double stranded regions.

Fox, G. E.

1991-01-01

75

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration and Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate · International Space Station · Launch Services Program · Exploration Systems Development Division · Commercial Space Transportation · Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications · Advanced Exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

76

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Reorganization Status we live. 3. Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic space flight, space operations and research 4 #12;Human Exploration & Operations: Organization Public

Waliser, Duane E.

77

Efficient design space exploration in PICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated design tools must understand and exploit the hierarchical structure of large design spaces. We have developed a general methodology for decomposing system design spaces into smaller component design spaces, followed by component-level evaluation, filtering, recomposition and system-level evaluation. This methodology greatly reduces the time and cost of design space exploration, since the typical number of system-level evaluations is greatly

Santosh G. Abraham; B. Ramakrishna Rau

2000-01-01

78

Boeing Integrated Defense System : Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Exploration, a division of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, is a leading global supplier of reusable and human space systems and services. Headquartered in Houston, the organization comprises more than 4,000 people operating in five locations. The organization s legacy began in the late 1950s with the X-15, spanned to the Apollo missions of the 1960 and 70s, and continues today with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.

2007-12-12

79

Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical weighted figure of merit (WFoM) approach that quantifies the effectiveness of a candidate material to shield space crews from the whole of the space radiation environment. The results of the WFoM approach should prove useful to designers and engineers in seeking alternative materials suitable for the construction of spacecraft or planetary surface habitats needed for long-term space exploration missions. The dosimetric measurements in this study have confirmed the principle of good space radiation shielding design by showing that low-Z¯ materials are most effective at reducing absorbed dose and dose equivalent while high-Z¯ materials are to be avoided. The relatively high WFoMs of carbon composite and lunar- and Martian-regolith composite could have important implications for the design and construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats. The ground-based measurements conducted in this study have validated the heavy ion extension of FLUKA by producing normalized differential LET fluence spectra that are in good agreement with experiment.

DeWitt, Joel Michael

80

Exploring Washington, DC, from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze an image of Washington, DC, taken from orbit. They will determine scale and take measurements of several features in the image. A link to more images taken from the International Space Station and the answer key are provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

81

New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

Mankins, John C.

2000-01-01

82

NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster features several of the NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers, plus suggestions for using the series in the classroom. The series of online articles features NASA explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12 and up.

Iges

2007-01-01

83

The New National Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the Apollo landings on the Moon, to robotic surveys of the Sun and the planets, to the compelling images captured by advanced space telescopes, U.S. achievements in space have revolutionized humanity s view of the universe and have inspired Americans and people around the world. These achievements also have led to the development of technologies that have widespread applications to address problems on Earth. As the world enters the second century of powered flight, it is appropriate to articulate a new vision that will define and guide U.S. space exploration activities for the next several decades. Today, humanity has the potential to seek answers to the most fundamental questions posed about the existence of life beyond Earth. Telescopes have found planets around other stars. Robotic probes have identified potential resources on the Moon, and evidence of water - a key ingredient for life - has been found on Mars and the moons of Jupiter. Direct human experience in space has fundamentally altered our perspective of humanity and our place in the universe. Humans have the ability to respond to the unexpected developments inherent in space travel and possess unique skills that enhance discoveries. Just as Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo challenged a generation of Americans, a renewed U.S. space exploration program with a significant human component can inspire us - and our youth - to greater achievements on Earth and in space. The loss of Space Shuttles Challenger and Columbia and their crews are a stark reminder of the inherent risks of space flight and the severity of the challenges posed by space exploration. In preparation for future human exploration, we must advance our ability to live and work safely in space and, at the same time, develop the technologies to extend humanity s reach to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The new technologies required for further space exploration also will improve the Nation s other space activities and may provide applications that could be used to address problems on Earth. Like the explorers of the past and the pioneers of flight in the last century, we cannot today identify all that we will gain from space exploration; we are confident, nonetheless, that the eventual return will be great. Like their efforts, the success of future U.S. space exploration will unfold over generations. The fundamental goal of this new national vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. In support of this goal, the United States will: 1) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; 2) Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of IMars and other destinations; 3) Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and 4) Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Geveden, Rex; King, David A.

2004-01-01

84

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

85

Heavy ion carcinogenesis and human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the human exploration of Mars or long-duration missions on the Earth's moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared with radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer

Marco Durante; Francis A. Cucinotta

2008-01-01

86

Design Space Exploration of Network Processor Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to explore the design space for architectures of packet processing devices on the sys- tem level. Our method is specific to the application domain of packet processors and is based on (1) models for packet processing tasks, a specification of the workload generated by traffic streams, and a description of the feasible space of architectures including

Lothar Thiele; Samarjit Chakraborty; Matthias Gries; Simon Kunzli

2002-01-01

87

Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

Millis, Marc G.

1990-01-01

88

Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential  

SciTech Connect

Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

Grace, J.D. (ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

89

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate Committee Report July 23rd, 2012 Research for Human Exploration #12;National Aeronautics and Space to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Physical Sciences ·Conducts fundamental

Waliser, Duane E.

90

Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

Clark, Natalie

2007-01-01

91

Infrastructure considerations. [for human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of performance requirements and technology development prospects for the logistical capacity entailed by manned space exploration. While the Space Shuttle will suffice for the launch of crews to a LEO Space Station, in support of such exploration missions, cargo transport will require 500-1000 tonne annual payload capacity launchers. As a first step toward satisfaction of such requirements, NASA has undertaken the development of the Shuttle-C unmanned Space Shuttle derivative. This will be followed by the Shuttle-Z derivative-family, aimed at meeting the needs of Mars missions. Joint USAF/NASA Advanced Launch System development will allow a given launch to place 91 tonnes in LEO.

Lovelace, Uriel; Sumrall, Phil; Pritchard, Brian

1989-01-01

92

Life sciences issues affecting space exploration.  

PubMed

The U.S. space program is undertaking a serious examination of new initiatives in human space exploration involving permanent colonies on the Moon and an outpost on Mars. Life scientists have major responsibilities to the crew, to assure their health, productivity, and safety throughout the mission and the postflight rehabilitation period; to the mission, to provide a productive working environment; and to the scientific community, to advance knowledge and understanding of human adaptation to the space environment. Critical areas essential to the support of human exploration include protection from the radiation hazards of the space environment, reduced gravity countermeasures, artificial gravity, medical care, life support systems, and behavior, performance, and human factors in an extraterrestrial environment. Developing solutions to these concerns is at the heart of the NASA Life Sciences ground-based and flight research programs. Facilities analogous to planetary outposts are being considered in Antarctica and other remote settings. Closed ecological life support systems will be tested on Earth and Space Station. For short-duration simulations and tests, the Space Shuttle and Spacelab will be used. Space Station Freedom will provide the essential scientific and technological research in areas that require long exposures to reduced gravity conditions. In preparation for Mars missions, research on the Moon will be vital. As the challenges of sustaining humans on space are resolved, advances in fundamental science, medicine and technology will follow. PMID:11541483

White, R J; Leonard, J I; Leveton, L; Gaiser, K; Teeter, R

1990-12-01

93

The Biology and Space Exploration Video Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biology and Space Exploration video series illustrates NASA's commitment to increasing the public awareness and understanding of life sciences in space. The video series collection, which was initiated by Dr. Joan Vernikos at NASA headquarters and Dr. Alan Hargens at NASA Ames Research Center, will be distributed to universities and other institutions around the United States. The video series parallels the "Biology and Space Exploration" course taught by NASA Ames scientists at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. In the past, students have shown considerable enthusiasm for this course and have gained a much better appreciation and understanding of space life sciences and exploration. However, due to the unique nature of the topics and the scarcity of available educational materials, most students in other universities around the country are unable to benefit from this educational experience. Therefore, with the assistance of Ames experts, we are producing a video series on selected aspects of life sciences in space to expose undergraduate students to the effects of gravity on living systems. Additionally, the video series collection contains space flight footage, graphics, charts, pictures, and interviews to make the materials interesting and intelligible to viewers.

William, Jacqueline M.; Murthy, Gita; Rapa, Steve; Hargens, Alan R.

1995-01-01

94

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

95

Power efficient mediaprocessors: design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for rapidly exploring the design space of low power application-specific programmable processors (ASPP), in particular mediaprocessors. We focus on a category of proces- sors that are programmable yet optimized to reduce power con- sumption for a specific set of applications. The key components of the framework presented in this paper are a retargetable instruction level parallelism

Johnson Kin; Chunho Lee; William H. Mangione-Smith; Miodrag Potkonjak

1999-01-01

96

Design space exploration of streaming multiprocessor architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comparison of two design-space exploration approaches. The comparison is in terms of (1) speed of simulation versus accuracy of performance numbers, and (2) connection to trajectories for detailed design. The two approaches are: the trace driven approach and the control data flow graph approach. The first approach leads to the shortest simulation time, but

V. D. Zivkovic; Ed Deprettere; P. van der Wolf; E. de Kock

2002-01-01

97

Intrigue and potential of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of astronomy is presented. A chronology of events in the space program is summarized. The possibilities of interplanetary exploration are postulated. The accomplishments of astronomy in pointing the way to manned spaceflight and improved understanding of the solar system are examined.

Losh, H.

1972-01-01

98

NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

99

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a box from -300 to 300 pc above the Galactic thin disk, as a function of Galactic radius. I then model the Galaxy to consist of $\\sim{}260,000$ of these 40,000 stellar systems all located in a defined Galactic Habitable Zone and show how long time it takes to explore this zone. The result is that with 8 probes, each with 8 subprobes $\\sim{}4%$ of the Galaxy can be explored in $2.92\\cdot{}10^{8}$ years. Increasing the number of probes to 200, still with 8 subprobes each, reduces the exploration time to $1.52\\cdot{}10^{7}$ years.

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-04-23

100

Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.  

PubMed

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

Crawford, Ian A

2010-01-01

101

TESSX: A Mission for Space Exploration with Tethers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tethers offer significant potential for substantially increasing payload mass fraction, increasing spacecraft lifetime, enhancing long-term space travel, and enabling the understanding and development of gravity-dependent technologies required for Moon and Mars exploration. The development of the Tether Electrodynamic Spin-up and Survivability Experiment (TESSX) will support applications relevant to NASA's new exploration initiative, including: artificial gravity generation, formation flying, electrodynamic propulsion, momentum exchange, and multi-amp current collection and emission. Under the broad term TESSX, we are currently evaluating several different tether system configurations and operational modes. The initial results of this work are presented, including hardware development, orbital dynamics simulations, and electrodynamics design and analysis.

Cosmo, Mario L.; Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gramer, Daniel J.; Hoffman, John H.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

2005-01-01

102

Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

103

Sabatier Methanation Reactor for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sabatier Methanation Reactor technology is of vital importance to the success of the human and robotic exploration program. In order to achieve an affordable program, the logistics supply to support the mission must be minimized to the fullest extent possible. One area of potential reduction with high return on investment is the closure of life support loops, particularly oxygen and water. The Sabatier system accomplishes this by utilizing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, waste products from the life support system, to produce water and methane. The recovered water is then recycled back into the life support system to provide oxygen; while the methane can be used for propulsion, or can be broken down further to recover the hydrogen. This technology is applicable not only to transit phases of exploration, but surface habitats as well as in-situ propellant production. The Sabatier Reactor system has been developed for ground based demonstration experiments extensively over the past 30 years. Over the past three years, NASA has funded development of the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the ISS. Currently this system is at TRL 5 and it is expected that the system will be flown on the ISS as a flight experiment, The purpose of the flight experiment is to integrate the Sabatier CRA into a synchronized system with the oxygen generation system and the carbon dioxide concentrator. The flight experiment will verify the integration of the different systems working together plus it will verify the capability of the system to operate, and effectively separate its products in a micro-gravity environment. Subsequent to design validation, the flight experiment can remain onboard the ISS providing valuable water to offset logistics re-supply requirements. Some of the challenges facing the development of the Sabatier system include handling vibration induced particulates, microgravity phase separation and containment of hazardous gases. Plans for adequately addressing these issues will be presented. The Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction process will greatly benefit any of the extended duration human exploration missions because of the tremendous savings of consumables realized. Any of these mission scenarios, be they transit or surface based, must consider closing the life support loops in order to make the mission achievable, let alone affordable. Carbon dioxide reduction technology will be necessary for future outpost habitats, and the technology needs to be proven viable in a space application. The Sabatier methanation reaction is also a desirable method for producing propellant from the Mars atmosphere. The common system could be designed to accept carbon dioxide from an indoor air revitalization loop concentrator, or from an outdoor atmosphere compressor. Carbon dioxide reduction validation is but one step in the spiral development of the in-situ propellant production system desired for future planetary exploration.

Murdoch, Karen; Goldblatt, Loel; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Harris, Danny

2005-01-01

104

Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

2008-01-01

105

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

106

Global Aspects of the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interest of man in outer space began long ago among uncivilized peoples to whom the face of the sky was clock and almanac; the celestial bodies, objects of worship. Exploration was at first by visual observation, later aided by armillary spheres and quadrants, and still later by more precise measuring instruments, telescopes, and spectroscopes. The information obtained was that borne by the light that was transmitted from the distant celestial object through the atmosphere to the observing instrument on the ground. In recent years the light waves have been supplemented by radio waves as carriers of information from the stars and planets. Men of many nations have contributed through the centuries to the exploration of space by the methods of astronomy. The history of advances in astronomical knowledge and technique includes the records of Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks, Arabians, and of nearly every nation of the modern world. International cooperation was early recognized as essential and beneficial; the countless number of the stars and the vastness of space present mankind with a truly global task. The picture of the universe obtained by the astronomers early stirred the imagination of men to speculate about the existence of life elsewhere in the universe, about means of communication with distant stars, and in the last centuries about the possibility of the travel of man to the moon and planets. Some sought to apply the science and engineering of their day to describe the vehicles to be used. For example, Jules Verne published in 1865 in "From the Earth to the Moon" a description of a gun-launched projectile carrying passengers to orbit the moon. Today we have taken the first steps to bring this inspired vision to reality. The exploration of space by unmanned vehicles carrying scientific apparatus began on October 4, 1957; exploration by man will follow in due course.

Dryden, Hugh L.

1959-01-01

107

Horizon Missions Technology Study. [for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the HMT Study was to develop and demonstrate a systematic methodology for identifying and evaluating innovative technology concepts offering revolutionary, breadkthrough-type capabilities for advanced space missions and for assessing their potential mission impact. The methodology is based on identifying the new functional, operational and technology capabilities needed by hypothetical 'Horizon' space missions that have performance requirements that cannot be met, even by extrapolating known space technologies. Nineteen Horizon Missions were selected to represent a collective vision of advanced space missions of the mid-21st century. The missions typically would occur beyond the lifetime of current or planned space assets. The HM methodology and supporting data base may be used for advanced technology planning, advanced mission planning and multidisciplinary studies and analyses.

Anderson, John L.

1992-01-01

108

National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!  

E-print Network

1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! Exploration Precursor Robotic Program (xPRP) and Exploration Scout (xScout): Two · President's Budget challenges NASA to embark on a new human space exploration program that invests near

Waliser, Duane E.

109

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Big Picture on Exploration  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Big Picture on Exploration Planning: Human Exploration and Operations 3 #12;Human Space Exploration Architecture Planning · Human spaceflight: International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Created · 2009: Review of U.S. HSF Plans Committee

Waliser, Duane E.

110

SWPC: Current Space Weather Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the NOAA/NWS Space Weather Prediction Center provides alerts and warnings to the nation and the world for disturbances that can affect people and equipment working in space and on Earth.

2004-01-12

111

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

112

Space Physics at UNH FROM THE DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION, UNH space scientists, engineers, and  

E-print Network

Space Physics at UNH FROM THE DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION, UNH space scientists, engineers, and students in the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) have worked on mission design and modeling. The Space Science Center, housed at EOS, is engaged in research and graduate education in all

Pringle, James "Jamie"

113

An Overview of the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which investigates technologies, and processes related to integrated, distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. In particular, it describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. With regard to network infrastructure, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network for use by all NASA centers. With regard to software, DSES is developing software models, tools and procedures that streamline distributed simulation development and provide an interoperable infrastructure for agency-wide integrated simulation. Finally, with regard to simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper presents the current status and plans for these three areas, including examples of specific simulations.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Michael G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

114

Exploring the Possibilities: Earth and Space Science Missions in the Context of Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to Dr. Edward J. Weiler, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "Exploration without science is tourism". At the American Astronautical Society's 43rd Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium it was quite apparent to all that NASA's current Exploration Initiative is tightly coupled to multiple scientific initiatives: exploration will enable new science and science will enable exploration. NASA's Science Mission Directorate plans to develop priority science missions that deliver science that is vital, compelling and urgent. This paper will discuss the theme of the Goddard Memorial Symposium that science plays a key role in exploration. It will summarize the key scientific questions and some of the space and Earth science missions proposed to answer them, including the Mars and Lunar Exploration Programs, the Beyond Einstein and Navigator Programs, and the Earth-Sun System missions. It will also discuss some of the key technologies that will enable these missions, including the latest in instruments and sensors, large space optical system technologies and optical communications, and briefly discuss developments and achievements since the Symposium. Throughout history, humans have made the biggest scientific discoveries by visiting unknown territories; by going to the Moon and other planets and by seeking out habitable words, NASA is continuing humanity's quest for scientific knowledge.

Pfarr, Barbara; Calabrese, Michael; Kirkpatrick, James; Malay, Jonathan T.

2006-01-01

115

Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.

2002-01-01

116

Toxicological Risks During Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of toxicological risk assessment of human space flight is to identify and quantify significant risks to astronaut health from air pollution inside the vehicle or habitat, and to develop a strategy for control of those risks. The approach to completing a toxicological risk assessment involves data and experience on the frequency and severity of toxicological incidents that have occurred during space flight. Control of these incidents depends on being able to understand their cause from in-flight and ground-based analysis of air samples, crew reports of air quality, and known failures in containment of toxic chemicals. Toxicological risk assessment in exploration missions must be based on an evaluation of the unique toxic hazards presented by the habitat location. For example, lunar and Martian dust must be toxicologically evaluated to determine the appropriate control measures for exploration missions. Experience with near-earth flights has shown that the toxic products from fires present the highest risk to crew health from air pollution. Systems and payload leaks also present a significant hazard. The health risk from toxicity associated with materials offgassing or accumulation of human metabolites is generally well controlled. Early tests of lunar and Martian dust simulants have shown that each posses the potential to cause fibrosis in the lung in a murine model. Toxicological risks from air pollutants in space habitats originate from many sources. A number of risks have been identified through near-earth operations; however, the evaluation of additional new risks present during exploration missions will be a challenge.

James, John T.; Limero, T. F.; Lam, C. W.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

117

Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration architecture.

Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

2012-01-01

118

Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

2010-01-01

119

Engine selection for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process used by NASA in the selection of the engine for the Space Exploration Initiative mission is described. The major propulsion requirements of the engine are addressed along with the engine options and key drivers and trades. Special attention is given to the requirements of the propellant feed system and the reaction control system. As a result of the 90-study, four moderate chamber pressure expander-cycle oxygen/hydrogen engines with a thrust level of 20,000 lbf each were selected for the lunar transfer vehicle. The paper also presents results of architecture studies and of advanced engine test bed studies.

Jones, Lee W.; Berkopec, Frank D.

1990-01-01

120

Exploring Theory Space with Monte Carlo Reweighting  

E-print Network

Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. In particular, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.

James S. Gainer; Joseph Lykken; Konstantin T. Matchev; Stephen Mrenna; Myeonghun Park

2014-12-25

121

Reactor safety for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A task force was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a 90-day study to support efforts to determine requirements to meet the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative. The task force identified the need for a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power required as the outpost power demands on the moon and Mars evolve into hundreds of kilowatts. A preliminary hazards analysis has been performed to examine safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems for representative missions to the moon and Mars. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Potential alternatives to each mission phase were also defined. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for the mission phases. The safety issues decay heat removal, reactor control, disposal, criticality, end-of-mission shutdown, radiation exposure, the Martian environment, high speed impact on the surfaces of the moon or Mars, and return flyby trajectories were identified.

Dix, Terry E.

1991-01-01

122

SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND  

E-print Network

- REPORT ON SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NEXT and Supporting Research National Space Weather Program Council Joint Action Group for Space Environmental Gap of the President #12;ii NATIONAL SPACE WEATHER PROGRAM COUNCIL (NSWPC) MR. SAMUEL P. WILLIAMSON, Chairman Federal

Schrijver, Karel

123

Nuclear Technologies for Space Exploration Conference  

SciTech Connect

A progress update is presented of the NASA LeRC Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Project. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least five fold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss progress toward 1050 K Stirling Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing, and predictive methodologies. This paper will compare progress in significant areas of component development from the start of the program with the Space Power Development Engine (SPDE) to the present work on CTPC.

Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.; Alger, D.

1992-08-01

124

Exploring de Sitter Space and Holography  

E-print Network

We explore aspects of the physics of de Sitter (dS) space that are relevant to holography with a positive cosmological constant. First we display a nonlocal map that commutes with the de Sitter isometries, transforms the bulk-boundary propagator and solutions of free wave equations in de Sitter onto the same quantities in Euclidean anti-de Sitter (EAdS), and takes the two boundaries of dS to the single EAdS boundary via an antipodal identification. Second we compute the action of scalar fields on dS as a functional of boundary data. Third, we display a family of solutions to 3d gravity with a positive cosmological constant in which the equal time sections are arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces, and compute the action of these spaces as a functional of boundary data from the Einstein gravity and Chern-Simons gravity points of view. These studies suggest that if de Sitter space is dual to a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT), this theory should involve two disjoint, but possibly entangled factors. We argue that these CFTs would be of a novel form, with unusual hermiticity conditions relating left movers and right movers. After exploring these conditions in a toy model, we combine our observations to propose that a holographic dual description of de Sitter space would involve a pure entangled state in a product of two of our unconventional CFTs associated with the de Sitter boundaries. This state can be constructed to preserve the de Sitter symmetries and and its decomposition in a basis appropriate to antipodal inertial observers would lead to the thermal properties of static patch.

Vijay Balasubramanian; Jan de Boer; Djordje Minic

2002-09-11

125

Matrix Methods for Optimal Manifesting of Multinode Space Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

This paper presents matrix-based methods for determining optimal cargo manifests for space exploration. An exploration system is defined as a sequence of in-space and on-surface transports between multiple nodes coupled ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas

126

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

127

A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration  

E-print Network

A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration Zachary James Bailey, David W. Miller June 2010 SSL # 11-10 #12;#12;A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration Zachary James Bailey, David W of Technology. #12;2 #12;A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration by Zachary James Bailey Submitted

128

The Great Exploratory Tragedy of Our Time: Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

The Great Exploratory Tragedy of Our Time: Human Space Exploration Viraj Pandya April 17, 2012. In this talk, I will briefly review the history of space exploration and then share my thoughts on the path Space Exploration Problem," our species does not stand a ghost of a chance at becoming a spacefaring

Zeilberger, Doron

129

ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014  

E-print Network

ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014 Imaging the Birthplaces of Stars and Planets with Terahertz Focal Plane Arrays Christopher Groppi Assistant Professor ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration #12;ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014 SESE Terahertz Group

Rhoads, James

130

The Case for Managed International Cooperation in Space Exploration  

E-print Network

to the International Space Station (ISS) to maintain its diplomatic credibility for future exploration endeavorsThe Case for Managed International Cooperation in Space Exploration By D. A. Broniatowski, G. Ryan Faith, and Vincent G. Sabathier Introduction International cooperation in space exploration has

de Weck, Olivier L.

131

Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future missions under consideration requiring human habitation beyond the International Space Station (ISS) include deep space habitats in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar missions, satellite servicing, and Mars vehicle servicing missions. Habitat designs are also under consideration for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including transfers to near-Earth asteroids and Mars orbital destinations. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS designs and those that could be fabricated from the Space Launch System (SLS) propellant tanks. This paper presents a comparison showing several options for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats using ISS derived and SLS derived modules and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that the larger SLS diameter modules offer built-in compatibility with the launch vehicle, single launch capability without on-orbit assembly, improved radiation protection, lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long duration missions without resupply. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume comparison data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning efforts.

Smitherman, David; Griffin, Brand N.

2014-01-01

132

Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

Dix, Terry E.

1991-01-01

133

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five goals of the Human Exploration and Development of Space include: 1) Explore the Space Frontier; 2) Expand Scientific Knowledge; 3) Enable Humans to Live and Work Permanently in Space; 4) Enable the Commercial Development of Space; and 5) Share the Experience and Benefits of Discovery.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2000-01-01

134

Implementing the Vision 2nd Space Exploration Conference  

E-print Network

by Congress · Complete the International Space Station · Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010 · Develop · Promote international and commercial participation in exploration · Complete the International Space Station · Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010 · Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle no later

Rathbun, Julie A.

135

Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.  

PubMed

When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning. PMID:17420309

Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

2007-04-01

136

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

137

Exploring Space: The Quest for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The search through the cosmos for intelligent life, or any life for that matter, continues to fascinate everyone from dedicated scientists working for NASA to such personages as Shirley MacLaine. Broad in its scope, and innovative in its use of computer-animated deep-space imagery, this program from PBS explores the various mysteries about the origins of life that may lie in outer space. This site provides a host of online essays and interactive features that are meant as complements to the television program. The sections here include âÂÂThe Mars ProspectâÂÂ, âÂÂThe Search for AliensâÂÂ, and âÂÂMeteorites & LifeâÂÂ. Within each section, there are a number of quizzes and fun activities, such as one that lets visitors attempt to fly to Mars. The site is rounded out by a number of insightful essays, including those that deal with the themes of the rights of alien life forms and other such speculative topics.

2005-01-01

138

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Program Status  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Program Status Doug Cooke Associate capabilities ­ A "flexible path" approach to space exploration opening up vast opportunities including near Administrator NASAs Exploration Systems Mission Directorate January 11, 2011 #12; A New Path: The NASA

Waliser, Duane E.

139

Liquid Acquisition Strategies for Exploration Missions: Current Status 2010  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing the propulsion system concepts for human exploration missions to the lunar surface. The propulsion concepts being investigated are considering the use of cryogenic propellants for the low gravity portion of the mission, that is, the lunar transit, lunar orbit insertion, lunar descent and the rendezvous in lunar orbit with a service module after ascent from the lunar surface. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks to the exploration vehicles main propulsion system (MPS) engines and reaction control system (RCS) engines. Propellant management devices (PMD s) such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD s), vanes and sponges currently are used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter OMS and RCS applications and spacecraft propulsion applications but only very limited propellant management capability exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA has begun a technology program to develop LAD cryogenic fluid management (CFM) technology through a government in-house ground test program of accurately measuring the bubble point delta-pressure for typical screen samples using LO2, LN2, LH2 and LCH4 as test fluids at various fluid temperatures and pressures. This presentation will document the CFM project s progress to date in concept designs, as well ground testing results.

Chato, David J.

2010-01-01

140

Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2002-08-01

141

Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

2011-01-01

142

Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop  

PubMed Central

Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8–10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond “science protection” per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address “harmful contamination” beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Extraterrestrial life—Life in extreme environments—Environment—Habitability. Astrobiology 12, 1017–1023. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

2012-01-01

143

Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.  

PubMed

With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

2012-11-01

144

The International Space Station: Stepping-stone to Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Space Shuttle returns to flight this year, major reconfiguration and assembly of the International Space Station continues as the United States and our 5 International Partners resume building and carry on operating this impressive Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14,2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. The current ongoing research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human physiology will greatly benefit human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. The continual operation of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of system and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Program, including a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; Kitmacher, Gary H.; Kelly, Brian K.

2005-01-01

145

The International Space Station: Stepping-stone to Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Space Shuttle returns to flight this year, major reconfiguration and assembly of the International Space Station continues as the United States and our 5 International Partners resume building and carry on operating this impressive Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush ratified the United States' commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. The current ongoing research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human physiology will greatly benefit human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. The continual operation of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of system and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Program, including a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; Kelly, Brian K.; Kelly, Brian K.

2005-01-01

146

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2010-01-08

147

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2008-04-22

148

Explorations in Space and Time: Computer-Generated Astronomy Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the computer animation technique to travel through space and time and watch models of astronomical systems in motion. Included is a list of eight computer-generated demonstration films entitled Explorations in Space and Time.'' (CC)

Meeks, M. L.

1973-01-01

149

Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

2007-01-01

150

Plans and Considerations for the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Settlement Design Competition is a program for high school students and teachers to experience the process of mission and hardware design. It provides a top level view into how NASA plans to explore space. I will be involved with all three days of this competition. On Friday I plan to give two presentations, one to the employees of White Sands Test Facility and one to students and teachers. On Saturday, I will have a question and answer session with some of the teachers participating in the workshop. Sunday I will serve as one of the judges that will review the students projects created over the weekend. The main emphasis of my talk will focus on exploring the possibilities of the future of space exploration. I will discuss the Mars Reference Mission 3.0, as well as some of the current robotic missions being sent to Mars. Next, I will present a business model perfected by Hum Mandell, showing how the public, private, and commercial sectors all play a major role in sending humans to Mars. I will also discuss the work of the Integrated Design Team at JSC and how that working together approach is key for a successful design. Finally, I will present that the question of how humans can reach out beyond low earth orbit and place permanent settlements on Mars is really a function of the imagination of those who intend on going there.

Derkowski, Brian J.

2001-01-01

151

PISCES: A "Stepping Stone" to International Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) was initiated by the Japan/US Science, Technology and Space Application Programs (JUSTSAP) to advance research and education in space exploration technology and systems working closely with the State of Hawaii. Hawaii has a heritage with space exploration including the training of Apollo astronauts and testing of lunar rover systems in some of the most realistic terrestrial sites available. The high altitude dry environment with greater solar insolation, and the dry lunar regolith-like volcanic ash and cratered terrain make Hawaiian sites ideal to support, international space exploration technology development, demonstration, education and training. This paper will summarize development and roles of PISCES in lunar surface analogs, simulations, technology demonstrations, research and training for space exploration technology and systems.

Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.; Schowengerdt, Frank

2007-01-01

152

PUBLISHED ON THE OCCASION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

. The International Space Station, the largest collaborative space programme yet undertaken, will also be availablePUBLISHED ON THE OCCASION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION CONFERENCE BERLIN, GERMANY, 8 - 9 in the international arena. At the same time, space is becoming a key driver for educational, economic, scientific

153

Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.  

PubMed

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2008-04-01

154

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

155

Nuclear Technologies for Space Exploration Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progress update is presented of the NASA LeRC Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Project. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are

J. E. Dudenhoefer; J. M. Winter; D. Alger

1992-01-01

156

NASA's future directions in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

Odonnell, W. J.

1983-01-01

157

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

158

SPACE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK MODEL FOR RAPID LUNAR ARCHITECTURES EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

tool for lunar architectures, which allows analysis of many mission and technological options architectures via a set of generic vehicle models. The challenge of space exploration is to plan technologically Division, deweck@mit.edu ABSTRACT The challenge of space exploration is to do technologically and cost

de Weck, Olivier L.

159

Space exploration: The interstellar goal and Titan demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated interstellar space exploration is reviewed. The Titan demonstration mission is discussed. Remote sensing and automated modeling are considered. Nuclear electric propulsion, main orbiting spacecraft, lander/rover, subsatellites, atmospheric probes, powered air vehicles, and a surface science network comprise mission component concepts. Machine, intelligence in space exploration is discussed.

1982-01-01

160

Rationale and constituencies for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to maximize the benefits from prospective space-exploration endeavors, and to enlist the support of as many constituencies as possible, NASA is either conducting or developing programs which emphasize different aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative. Attention is presently given to the cases of education using space exploration themes as teaching tools and technology transfer from government to private industry. Only on the basis of the establishment of such constituencies, will it be possible to sustain funding over the three decades foreseen as required for a Mars exploration effort.

Johnson, Kristine A.

1992-01-01

161

Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

1992-01-01

162

GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

2004-01-01

163

Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing  

DOEpatents

A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

Latham, Wayne Meredith (Forest, VA); Hancock, Jimmy Wade (Lynchburg, VA); Grut, Jayne Marie (Madison Heights, VA)

1998-01-01

164

Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

Schmidt, George; Sutliff, Tom; Dudzinski, Leonard

2008-01-01

165

Gravitational biology and space life sciences: current status and implications for the Indian space programme.  

PubMed

This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress through several generations in microgravity. Astrobiology is emerging as an exciting field promoting research in biospherics and fabrication of controlled environmental life support systems. India is one of the 14-nation International Space Exploration Coordination Group (2007) that hopes that someday humans may live and work on other planets within the Solar System. The vision statement of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) includes planetary exploration and human spaceflight. While a leader in several fields of space science, India is yet to initiate serious research in gravitational and life sciences. Suggestions are made here for establishing a full-fledged Indian space life sciences programme. PMID:22116289

Dayanandan, P

2011-12-01

166

Global partnerships: Expanding the frontiers of space exploration education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalization is creating an interdependent space-faring world and new opportunities for international partnerships that strengthen space knowledge development and transfer. These opportunities have been codified in the Global Exploration Strategy, which endorses the "inspirational and educational value of space exploration" [1]. Also, during the 2010 Heads of Space Agencies Summit celebrating the International Academy of Astronautics' (IAA) 50th Anniversary, space-faring nations from across the globe issued a collective call in support of robust international partnerships to expand the frontiers of space exploration and generate knowledge for improving life on Earth [2]. Educators play a unique role in this mission, developing strategic partnerships and sharing best educational practices to (1) further global understanding of the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth and (2) prepare the next generation of scientists required for the 21st Century space workforce. Educational Outreach (EO) programs use evidence-based, measurable outcomes strategies and cutting edge information technologies to transfer space-based science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) knowledge to new audiences; create indigenous materials with cultural resonance for emerging space societies; support teacher professional development; and contribute to workforce development initiatives that inspire and prepare new cohorts of students for space exploration careers. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) have sustained a 13-year space science education partnership dedicated to these objectives. This paper briefly describes the design and achievements of NSBRI's educational programs, with special emphasis on those initiatives' involvement with IAA and the International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The IAA Commission 2 Draft Report, Space for Africa, is discussed as a model for developing sustainable partnerships and indigenous programs that support Africa's steady emergence as a global space-faring force. The IAC will provide timely: 2011 South Africa will provide timely feedback to refine that report's strategies for space life sciences education and public engagement in Africa and around the globe.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Akinyede, Joseph O.; Goswami, Nandu; Thomson, William A.

2012-11-01

167

Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

168

Physics Education Launched from Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have cooperated with some schools and performed several activities. The feature of our plan is to make the "space" a keyword and let students understand the importance and the fun of physics. We have practiced our plan, and it has turned out to be effective for schoolchild, high school students, and for college students. In this paper we report on the contents of our activities, and present some methods of physics education related to basic space science and space technology, to make physics more interesting.

Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kijima, Masachika; Ishizuka, Wataru

169

MONTE CARLO EXPLORATIONS OF POLYGONAL KNOT SPACES KENNETH C. MILLETT  

E-print Network

1 MONTE CARLO EXPLORATIONS OF POLYGONAL KNOT SPACES KENNETH C. MILLETT Department of Mathematics Polygonal knots are embeddings of polygons in three space. For each n, the collection of embedded n­gons determines a subset of Euclidean space whose structure is the subject of this paper. Which knots can

Bigelow, Stephen

170

Space radiation protection: Human support thrust exploration technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on space radiation protection are presented. For crew and practical missions, exploration requires effective, low-mass shielding and accurate estimates of space radiation exposure for lunar and Mars habitat shielding, manned space transfer vehicle, and strategies for minimizing exposure during extravehicular activity (EVA) and rover operations.

Conway, Edmund J.

1991-01-01

171

Pathfinder: Surface exploration, in-space operations and space transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the Pathfinder program are presented. Information is given on technology needs, a planetary rover, program management, an autonomous lander, mission applications, orbital assembly, cryogenics, space nuclear reactors, space manufacturing, optical communications, spacecraft propulsion, aerobraking, and orbital transfer vehicles.

Mankins, John

1988-01-01

172

Radiation risk and human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

2003-01-01

173

Applicability of Nanosatellites to Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent work on the use of secondary nanospacecraft on deep space missions to provide in situ measurements in risky and inhospitable locations, including high science/high risk sites, like cometary vents, Enceladus' jets, and Io's volcanos.

Klesh, A. T.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.

2012-03-01

174

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

SciTech Connect

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2012-11-29

175

Design Space Exploration for The Beamformer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design exploration strategy for the beamformer system, an exampleof a typical DSP system. In order to do so, we first define a parameterizeddesign template for the beamformer and for a FIR filter, since the filteringoperation is a part of the overall beamformer system. We then discuss someapproaches for varying the design parameters for the filter and the

Daniel D. Gajski; Smita Bakshi

1993-01-01

176

Design space exploration with A Stream Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider speeding up general-purpose applications with hardware accelerators. Traditionally hardware accelerators are tediously hand-crafted to achieve top performance ASC (A Stream Complier) simplifies exploration of hardware accelerators by transforming the hardware design task into a software design process using only 'gcc' and 'make' to obtain a hardware netlist. ASC enables programmers to customize hardware accelarators at three levels of

Oskar Mencer; David J. Pearce; Lee W. Howes; Wayne Luk

2003-01-01

177

High temperature electronics applications in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extension of the range of operating temperatures of electronic components and systems for planetary exploration is examined. In particular, missions which utilize balloon-borne instruments to study the Venusian and Jovian atmospheres are discussed. Semiconductor development and devices including power sources, ultrastable oscillators, transmitters, antennas, electromechanical devices, and deployment systems are addressed.

Jurgens, R. F.

1981-01-01

178

Exploring Space and Place with Walking Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few…

Jones, Phil; Bunce, Griff; Evans, James; Gibbs, Hannah; Hein, Jane Ricketts

2008-01-01

179

Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

Moran, Matthew E.

2006-01-01

180

Higher spin currents in orthogonal Wolf space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the N=4 superconformal coset theory by \\frac{SO(N+4)}{SO(N)× SU(2)}× U(1) (that contains an orthogonal Wolf space) with N = 4, the N=2 WZW affine current algebra is obtained. The 16 generators (or 11 generators) of the large N=4 linear (or nonlinear) superconformal algebra are described by these WZW affine currents explicitly. Along the line of large N=4 holography, the extra 16 currents with spins (2,\\frac{5}{2},\\frac{5}{2},3), (\\frac{5}{2},3,3,\\frac{7}{2}), (\\frac{5}{2},3,3,\\frac{7}{2}), and (3,\\frac{7}{2},\\frac{7}{2},4) are obtained in terms of the WZW affine currents. The lowest spin of this N=4 multiplet is two rather than one, which is for a unitary Wolf space. The operator product expansions between the above 11 currents and these extra 16 higher spin currents are found explicitly.

Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub

2015-02-01

181

Space Exploration and the Benefits to Mankind  

SciTech Connect

Paper presented at the 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Dresden, GDR in October 1990. This paper analyzes the past challenges of the space program's multi-national cooperative agreements and examines the challenges of the future as we quickly become a global society. Cross Reference ESD-T1.

Moser, T.L.; Freitag, R.; Schneider, W.C.

1990-10-01

182

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shield effectiveness of lunar regolith is compared with possible prefabricated shield materials from Earth,including commercially used shield materials in nuclear facilities. Several of the fabricated materials categorized asneutron absorbers and moderators exhibit favorable characteristics for space radiation protection. Although thiseffort is not intended to be a definitive trade study for specific shielding recommendations, attention is given toseveral factors that

J. W. Wilson; J. Miller; A. Konradi; F. A. Cucinotta

1997-01-01

183

Cancer Risk from Exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays - Implications for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. However, space radiation is a major barrier to human exploration of the solar system because the biological effects of high-energy and charge (HZE) ions, which are the main contributors to radiation risks in deep space, are poorly understood. Predictions of the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Great efforts have been dedicated worldwide in recent years toward a better understanding of the oncogenic potential of galactic cosmic rays. A review of the new results in this field will be presented here.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durant, marco

2006-01-01

184

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

185

Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

Sagan, Carl

1973-01-01

186

Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

2005-01-01

187

Estimating the costs of human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

1994-01-01

188

Hardware\\/Software Design Space Exploration for a Reconfigurable Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to hardware\\/software design space exploration for reconfigurable processors. The existing compiler tool-chain, because of the user-definable instructions, needs to be extended in order to offer developers an easy way to explore design space. Such extension often is not easy to use for developer that have only a software background, thus ignoring reconfigurable architecture details or

Alberto La Rosa; Luciano Lavagno; Claudio Passerone

2003-01-01

189

School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) was formed in 2006 by merging previously separate academic programs in geoscience and planetary science, astronomy, and systems engineering. SESE is explicitly designed to enhance knowledge of Earth and the universe through innovative trans-disciplinary exploration, research, and teaching. Earth and space science education research, teacher preparation, and outreach are among the principal functions of SESE.

School of Earth and Space Exploration

190

Challenges for Electronics in the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has been a brief snapshot discussing electronics and Exploration-related challenges. The vision for Space Exploration creates a new paradigm for NASA missions. This includes transport (Crew Exploration Vehicle-CEV), and lunar and Mars Exploration and human presence. If one considers the additional hazards faced by these concepts versus more traditional NASA missions, multiple challenges surface for reliable utilization of electronic parts. The true challenge is to provide a risk as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA-a traditional biological radiation exposure term), while still providing cost effective solutions. This presentation also discusses the hazard for electronic parts and exploration, the types of electronic parts for exploration, and the critical juncture for space usage of commercial changes in the electronics world.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2005-01-01

191

Atmosphere Revitalization Technology Development for Crewed Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space exploration objectives extend human presence beyond low Earth orbit, the solutions to technological challenges presented by supporting human life in the hostile space environment must build upon experience gained during past and present crewed space exploration programs. These programs and the cabin atmosphere revitalization process technologies and systems developed for them represent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) past and present operational knowledge base for maintaining a safe, comfortable environment for the crew. The contributions of these programs to the NASA s technological and operational working knowledge base as well as key strengths and weaknesses to be overcome are discussed. Areas for technological development to address challenges inherent with the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) are presented and a plan for their development employing unit operations principles is summarized

Perry, Jay L.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Harris, Danny W.

2006-01-01

192

TriMedia CPU64 Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Philips Research Labs, we are investigating the 64- bit VLIW core for future TriMedia processors. We have per- formed an extensive Design Space Exploration (DSE) on this core using quantitative analysis, using a benchmark suite of applications which are representative for multi- media processing. We have explored, among others, the configurations of the different functional units (FUs) of the

Gerben J. Hekstra; G. D. La Hei; Peter Bingley; Frans Sijstermans

1999-01-01

193

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

194

Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2007-01-01

195

NASA/CP--2006214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop  

E-print Network

NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Washington, DC April 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program

de Weck, Olivier L.

196

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System  

E-print Network

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System Nick Hawes , Jeremy Wyatt, Aaron Understanding the trade-offs available in the design space of intelligent systems is a major unaddressed element #12;field of intelligent artifacts, choices about the design and implementation of hardware

Wyatt, Jeremy

197

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System  

E-print Network

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System Nick Hawes and Jeremy Wyatt and Aaron Sloman Abstract Understanding the trade-offs available in the design space of intelligent systems Intelligent systems (e.g. intelligent service robots) are a product of the many design decisions taken

Wyatt, Jeremy

198

Space Exploration: Manned and Unmanned Flight. Aerospace Education III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of…

Coard, E. A.

199

INVESTMENTS IN OUR FUTURE: EXPLORING SPACE THROUGH INNOVATIONAND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

Climate Change · Accurately Forecast the Emergence of Major Storms and Natural Disasters · Develop, new business and industries, and high- quality, sustainable jobs. #12;11 Space Technology: InvestmentsINVESTMENTS IN OUR FUTURE: EXPLORING SPACE THROUGH INNOVATIONAND TECHNOLOGY Dr. BobbyBraun NASA

200

Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

2003-01-01

201

Exploring Current Arts Practice in Kindergartens and Preparatory Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring…

Garvis, Susanne

2012-01-01

202

Commercialization is Required for Sustainable Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Space Exploration policy outlines an exciting new direction in space for human and robotic exploration and development beyond low Earth orbit. Pressed by this new visionary guidance, human civilization will be able to methodically build capabilities to move off Earth and into the solar system in a step-by-step manner, gradually increasing the capability for humans to stay longer in space and move further away from Earth. The new plans call for an implementation that would create an affordable and sustainable program in order to span over generations of explorers, each new generation pushing back the boundaries and building on the foundations laid by the earlier. To create a sustainable program it is important to enable and encourage the development of a selfsupporting commercial space industry leveraging both traditional and non-traditional segments of the industrial base. Governments will not be able to open the space frontier on their own because their goals change over relatively short timescales and because the large costs associated with human spaceflight cannot be sustained. A strong space development industrial sector is needed that can one day support the needs of commercial space enterprises as well as provide capabilities that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other national space agencies can buy to achieve their exploration goals. This new industrial space sector will someday provide fundamental capabilities like communications, power, logistics, and even cargo and human space transportation, just as commercial companies are able to provide these services on Earth today. To help develop and bolster this new space industrial sector, NASA and other national space agencies can enable and facilitate it in many ways, including reducing risk by developing important technologies necessary for commercialization of space, and as a paying customer, partner, or anchor tenant. This transition from all or mostly government developed and operated facilities and services to commercial supplied facilities and services should be considered from the very earliest stages of planning. This paper will first discuss the importance of space commercialization to fulfilling national goals and the associated policy and strategic objectives that will enable space exploration and development. Then the paper will offer insights into how government can provide leadership to promote the nascent commercial space industry. In addition, the paper describes programs and policies already in place at NASA and offers five important principles government can use to strengthen space industry.

Martin, Gary L.; Olson, John M.

2009-01-01

203

A solution methodology for exact design space exploration in a three-dimensional design space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an exact solution methodology, implemented in Rensselaer's Voyager design space exploration system, for solving the scheduling problem in a three-dimensional (3-D) design space: the usual two-dimensional (2-D) design space (which trades off area and schedule length), plus a third dimension representing clock length. Unlike design space exploration methodologies which rely on bounds or estimates, this methodology is

Samit Chaudhuri; S. A. Blthye; Robert A. Walker

1997-01-01

204

Phase space explorations in time dependent density functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is one of the useful tools for the study of the dynamic behavior of correlated electronic systems under the influence of external potentials. The success of this formally exact theory practically relies on approximations for the exchange-correlation potential which is a complicated functional of the co-ordinate density, non-local in space and time. Adiabatic approximations (such as ALDA), which are local in time, are most commonly used in the increasing applications of the field. Going beyond ALDA, has been proved difficult leading to mathematical inconsistencies. We explore the regions where the theory faces challenges, and try to answer some of them via the insights from two electron model systems. In this thesis work we propose a phase-space extension of the TDDFT. We want to answer the challenges the theory is facing currently by exploring the one-body phase-space. We give a general introduction to this theory and its mathematical background in the first chapter. In second chapter, we carryout a detailed study of instantaneous phase-space densities and argue that the functionals of distributions can be a better alternative to the nonlocality issue of the exchange-correlation potentials. For this we study in detail the interacting and the non-interacting phase-space distributions for Hookes atom model. The applicability of ALDA-based TDDFT for the dynamics in strongfields can become severely problematic due to the failure of single-Slater determinant picture.. In the third chapter, we analyze how the phase-space distributions can shine some light into this problem. We do a comparative study of Kohn-Sham and interacting phase-space and momentum distributions for single ionization and double ionization systems. Using a simple model of two-electron systems, we have showed that the momentum distribution computed directly from the exact KS system contains spurious oscillations: a non-classical description of the essentially classical two-electron dynamics. In Time dependent density matrix functional theory (TDDMFT), the evolution scheme of the 1RDM (first order reduced density matrix) contains second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM), which has to be expressed in terms of 1RDMs. Any non-correlated approximations (Hartree-Fock) for 2RDM would fail to capture the natural occupations of the system. In our fourth chapter, we show that by applying the quasi-classical and semi-classical approximations one can capture the natural occupations of the excited systems. We study a time-dependent Moshinsky atom model for this. The fifth chapter contains a comparative work on the existing non-local exchange-correlation kernels that are based on current density response frame work and the co-moving frame work. We show that the two approaches though coinciding with each other in linear response regime, actually turn out to be different in non-linear regime.

Rajam, Aruna K.

205

In-Space Propulsion for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Science and Exploration. The topics include: 1) In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview; 2) In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Status; 3) Solar Electric Propulsion; 4) Next Generation Electric Propulsion; 5) Aerocapture Technology Alternatives; 6) Aerocapture; 7) Advanced Thermal Protection Systems Developed and Being Tested; 8) Solar Sails; 9) Advanced Chemical Propulsion; 10) Momentum Exchange Tethers; and 11) Momentum-exchange/electrodynamic reboost (MXER) Tether Basic Operation.

Bishop-Behel, Karen; Johnson, Les

2004-01-01

206

Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the technologies needed for Mars mission. Agencies see the importance of assessing gaps and overlaps in their plans to advance technologies in order to leverage their investments and enable exciting missions as soon as practical. They see the importance of respecting the ability of any agency to invest in any technologies considered interesting or strategic. This paper will describe the importance of developing an appropriate international strategy for technology development and ideas for effective mechanisms for advancing an international strategy. This work will both inform and be informed by the development of an ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap and serve as a concrete step forward in advancing the Global Exploration Strategy.

Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

2010-01-01

207

The Lotus coating for space exploration: a dust mitigation tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Lotus" dust mitigation coating is a new technology that is currently being developed and tested, at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), as a countermeasure for addressing dust accumulation issues for long-duration human space exploration. This coating sheds dust particles utilizing anti-contamination and self-cleaning properties that minimize dust accumulation on spacecraft surfaces. Shedding of dust particles is accomplished by reducing the surface energy and the amount of surface available for attachment. The Lotus coating is designed to preserve optimal long-term performance of critical spacecraft surfaces and systems, while minimizing and/or eliminating dust accumulation. NASA is exceedingly interested in simplistic and innovative ways to mitigate dust accumulation while minimizing the impact to spacecraft mass and power requirements. Preliminary research and development indicates that the Lotus Coating has the potential to be a viable passive tool for mitigating dust on: radiator surfaces, solar array panels, habitation airlock walls, mechanism shields, astronaut EVA suits, and astronaut visors exterior coating.

Margiotta, Danielle V.; Peters, Wanda C.; Straka, Sharon A.; Rodriguez, Marcello; McKittrick, Kristin R.; Jones, Craig B.

2010-08-01

208

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Charting the Course for Sustainable Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Explore: A Capability-Driven Approach 6 The International Space Station: Cornerstone of Human Space and economic growth, and inspire global collaboration and achievement From the International Space Station in a dynamic political and economic environment Beginning with the International Space Station (ISS), NASA

Rathbun, Julie A.

209

Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces  

PubMed Central

Background The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). Results This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical dimensions for analysis purposes. The latter one reduces the annotation set associated to each collection item into a set of points of the multidimensional space. Additionally, we have developed a visual tool, called 3D-Browser, which implements OLAP-like operators over the generated multidimensional space. The method and the tool have been tested and evaluated in the context of the Health-e-Child (HeC) project. Automatic semantic annotation was applied to tag three collections of abstracts taken from PubMed, one for each target disease of the project, the Uniprot database, and the HeC patient record database. We adopted the UMLS Meta-thesaurus 2010AA as the reference knowledge resource. Conclusions Current knowledge resources and semantic-aware technology make possible the integration of biomedical resources. Such an integration is performed through semantic annotation of the intended biomedical data resources. This paper shows how these annotations can be exploited for integration, exploration, and analysis tasks. Results over a real scenario demonstrate the viability and usefulness of the approach, as well as the quality of the generated multidimensional semantic spaces. PMID:22373409

2012-01-01

210

Why We Explore: The Value of Space Exploration for Future Generations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its industry partners are making measurable progress toward delivering new human space transportation capabilities to serve as the catalyst for a new era of discovery, as directed by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. In the interest of ensuring prolonged support, the Agency encourages space advocates of all stripes to accurately portray both the tangible and intangible benefits of space exploration, especially its value for future generations. This may be done not only by emphasizing the nation's return on its aerospace investment, but also by highlighting enabling security features and by promoting the scientific and technological benefits that accrue from the human exploration of space. As America embarks on a new era of leadership and international partnership on the next frontier, we are poised to master space by living off-planet on the Moon to prepare astronauts for longer journeys to Mars. These and other relevant facts should be clearly in the view of influential decision-makers and the American taxpayers, and we must increasingly involve those on whom the long-term sustainability of space exploration ultimately depends: America's youth. This paper will examine three areas of concrete benefits for future generations: fundamental security, economic enterprise, and high-technology advancements spurred by the innovation that scientific discovery demands.

Cook, Stephen A.; Armstrong, Robert C., Jr.

2007-01-01

211

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized that the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) might countermeasure various space-caused disorders so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using animal models of disorders (hindlimb suspension unloading system and beta-thalassemia), the HSCT was tested for muscle loss, immunodeficiency and space anemia. The results indicate feasibility of HSCT for these disorders. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

2003-01-01

212

CMP design space exploration subject to physical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the multi-dimensional design space for chip multiprocessors, exploring the inter-related vari-ables of core count, pipeline depth, superscalar width, L2 cache size, and operating voltage and frequency, under various area and thermal constraints. The results show the importance of joint optimization. Thermal constraints dominate other physical constraints such as pin-bandwidth and power delivery, demonstrating the importance of con-sidering

Yingmin Li; Benjamin Lee; David Brooks; Zhigang Hu; Kevin Skadron

2006-01-01

213

Explorations of electric current system in solar active regions. I - Empirical inferences of the current flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques to identify sources of electric current systems and their channels of flow in solar active regions are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high-resolution white-light and H-alpha filtergrams provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere. As an example, the techniques are then applied to infer current systems in AR 2372 in early April 1980.

Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.; Liu, X. P.

1987-01-01

214

A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a state space exploration method for on-the-fly verification. The method is aimed at systems for which it is possible to define a measure of progress based on the states of the system. The measure of progress makes it possible to delete certain states on-the-fly during state space generation, since these states can never be reached again. This in

Søren Christensen; Lars Michael Kristensen; Thomas Mailund

2001-01-01

215

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

216

Multi-objective design space exploration using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we provide a technique for efficiently exploring a parameterized system-on-a-chip (SoC) architecture to find all Pareto-optimal configurations in a multi-objective design space. Globally, our approach uses a parameter dependency model of our target parameterized SoC architecture to extensively prune non-optimal sub-spaces. Locally, our approach applies Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to discover Pareto-optimal configurations within the remaining design points.

Maurizio Palesi; Tony Givargis

2002-01-01

217

TRANSITION IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AT NASA  

E-print Network

;1962 ­ MERCURY-ATLAS ­ JOHN GLENN #12;1965 - GEMINI #12;1969 ­ APOLLO 11 #12;1973 ­ SKYLAB #12;1981 ­ STS-1 #12TRANSITION IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE AT NASA Robert Cabana Director, Kennedy Space Center #12;1903 ­ WRIGHT FLYER #12;1927 ­ THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS #12;1961 ­ MERCURY ­ ALAN SHEPHERD #12

218

Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

Goldman, Arthur E.

2012-01-01

219

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

220

Robots Explore the Farthest Reaches of Earth and Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"We were the first that ever burst/Into that silent sea," the title character recounts in Samuel Taylor Coleridge s opus Rime of the Ancient Mariner. This famous couplet is equally applicable to undersea exploration today as surface voyages then, and has recently been applied to space travel in the title of a chronicle of the early years of human space flight ("Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965"), companion to the +n the Shadow of the Moon book and movie. The parallel is certainly fitting, considering both fields explore unknown, harsh, and tantalizingly inhospitable environments. For starters, exploring the Briny Deep and the Final Frontier requires special vehicles, and the most economical and safest means for each employ remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ROVs have proven the tool of choice for exploring remote locations, allowing scientists to explore the deepest part of the sea and the furthest reaches of the solar system with the least weight penalty, the most flexibility and specialization of design, and without the need to provide for sustaining human life, or the risk of jeopardizing that life. Most NASA probes, including the historic Voyager I and II spacecraft and especially the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, feature remote operation, but new missions and new planetary environments will demand new capabilities from the robotic explorers of the future. NASA has an acute interest in the development of specialized ROVs, as new lessons learned on Earth can be applied to new environments and increasingly complex missions in the future of space exploration.

2008-01-01

221

Visualisation Support for Exploring Urban Space and Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban research is fundamentally underpinned by heterogeneous, highly varied data. The availability and quantity of digital data sources is increasing rapidly. In order to facilitate decision-making and support processes related to urban policy and management, such data has to be readily analysed, synthesised and the results readily communicated to support evidence based decision-making. In this paper, we consider the current state of play of visualisation as it supports urban research. In doing so we firstly consider visualisation environments such as geographical information systems (GIS) and Cartography tools, digital globes, virtual simulation environments, building information models and gaming platforms. Secondly, we consider a number of visualisation techniques with a focusing on GIS and Cartography tools including space time cubes, heat maps, choropleth maps, flow maps and brushing. This review of visualisation environments and techniques is undertaken in the context of the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network project (www.aurin.org.au). AURIN is tasked with developing a portal and associated e-Infrastructure, which provides seamless access to federated data, modelling and visualisation tools to support the urban researcher community in Australia. We conclude by outlining future research and development opportunities in developing the AURIN visualisation toolkit by reflecting on the value of visualisation as a data exploration and communication tool for researchers and decision-makers to assist with the study and management of the urban fabric.

Pettit, C.; Widjaja, I.; Russo, P.; Sinnott, R.; Stimson, R.; Tomko, M.

2012-07-01

222

Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

223

Autonomous Logistics Technologies for Space Exploration: Experiment Results and Design Considerations  

E-print Network

Autonomous Logistics Technologies for Space Exploration: Experiment Results and Design Station (ISS) everything from food and clothing to tools and experiments is currently managed manually/software development and field-testing. This paper describes design and testing of tracking systems for remote base

de Weck, Olivier L.

224

Benefits to society from space exploration and use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many obvious benefits to society from the exploration and use of outer space have been reported. The conviction that such benefits exist is what motivates national governments to provide funding for national space programs. There is a well known litany of improvements in space applications and space science, as well as the benefits to technology development and basic research in physical sciences. These are the generally visible and often discussed benefits. There are also numerous indirect and less well known benefits that accrue to society. The stimulation of electronics miniaturization, for example, contributes to improvements in medicine, manufacturing processes, and many new forms of automation. New materials development provides advances in aeronautical, maritime and terrestrial transportation and communication systems. In the past 30 years, these developments have also: (1) stimulated improved and expanded educational and research programs: (2) created new organizations: (3) generated jobs: and (4) fostered new forms and sources of national and personal pride and prestige. Rarely is there articulation of the more metaphysical aspects of the philosophical and psychological benefits of the exploration and use of space for society. While this paper touches on many primary, secondary and tertiary physical and industrial benefits, it also deals with the more ephemeral and philosophical benefits that are infrequently explored. Although fascinating stories of courageous development programs in astronautics can be told of programs in Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico and other countries, there is perhaps no story as dramatic as the story of India as it undertook and pursued major space program development over the past 30 years. Examined in some detail, the story of India indicates clearly how participation in space exploration and use produces benefits to a national society as well as to the international soceity of mankind. Creation of a success spiral, reinforced by a skills-building cycle, produces national societies that can be proud, productive, and can contribute to the health and vigor of the world society.

Doyle, Stephen E.

225

Phase-Space Exploration in Nuclear Giant Resonance Decay  

E-print Network

The rate of phase-space exploration in the decay of isovector and isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in $^{40}$Ca is analyzed. The study is based on the time dependence of the survival probability and of the spectrum of generalized entropies evaluated in the space of 1p-1h and 2p-2h states. If the 2p-2h background shows the characteristics typical for chaotic systems, the isovector excitation evolves almost statistically while the isoscalar excitation remains largely localized, even though it penetrates the whole available phase space.

S. Drozdz; S. Nishizaki; J. Speth; J. Wambach

1994-07-08

226

Plans for the development of cryogenic engines for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting a broad range of basic research and focused technology development activities in both aeronautical and space propulsion. By virtue of the successful conduct of these programs, LeRC is strongly qualified to lead Advanced Development and subsequent development programs on cryogenic space propulsion systems on support of the Space Exploration Initiative. A review is provided of technology status, including recent progress in the ongoing activities, and a top level description of the proposed program.

Stone, James R.; Shaw, Loretta M.; Aukerman, Carl A.

1991-01-01

227

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical

Edmund P. Coomes; Jeffery E. Dagle; Judith A. Bamberger; Kent E. Noffsinger

1992-01-01

228

An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly

E. P. Coomes; J. E. Dagle; J. A. Bamberger; K. E. Noffsinger

1992-01-01

229

Design space exploration for 3D-stacked DRAMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

D integration based on TSV (through silicon via) technology enables stacking of multiple memory layers and has the advantage of higher bandwidth at lower energy consumption for the memory interface. As in mobile applications energy efficiency is key, 3D integration is especially here a strategic technology. In this paper we focus on the design space exploration of 3D-stacked DRAMs with

Christian Weis; Norbert Wehn; Loi Igorand; Luca Benini

2011-01-01

230

Exploring the Design Space for Adaptive Graphical User Interfaces  

E-print Network

Exploring the Design Space for Adaptive Graphical User Interfaces Krzysztof Z. Gajos1,2 , Mary,weld}@cs.washington.edu ABSTRACT For decades, researchers have presented different adaptive user interfaces and discussed the pros and cons of adapta- tion on task performance and satisfaction. Little research, however, has been directed

231

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

232

Functional abstraction driven design space exploration of heterogeneous programmable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid Design Space Exploration (DSE) of a programmable architecture is feasible using an automatic toolkit (compiler, simulator, assembler) generation methodology driven by an Architecture Description Language (ADL). While many contemporary ADLs can effectively capture one class of architecture, they are typically unable to capture a wide spectrum of processor and memory features present in DSP, VLIW, EPIC and Superscalar processors.

Prabhat Mishra; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

2001-01-01

233

Hardware\\/software partitioning with integrated hardware design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated approach to hardware software partitioning and hardware design space exploration. We propose a genetic algorithm which performs hardware software partitioning on a task graph while simultaneously contemplating various design alternatives for tasks mapped to hardware. We primarily deal with data dominated designs typically found in digital signal processing and image processing applications. A detailed description

Vinoo Srinivasan; Shankar Radhakrishnan; Ranga Vemuri

1998-01-01

234

Efficient search space exploration for HW-SW partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware\\/software (HW-SW) partitioning is a key problem in the codesign of embedded systems, studied extensively in the past. One major open challenge for traditional partitioning approaches -- as we move to more complex and heterogeneous SOCs -- is the lack of efficient exploration of the large space of possible HW\\/SW configurations, coupled with the inability to efficiently scale up with

Sudarshan Banerjee; Nikil D. Dutt

2004-01-01

235

Skateboarders exploring urban public space: Ollies, obstacles and conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an explorative study about skateboarding practices in Amsterdam. One indoor spot and nine street locations for skateboarding were observed and over thirty skaters were interviewed. The research questions concern the identity of the people involved, the group interactions, and the use of urban space and routes. The majority of the observed skateboarders are male middle-class youngsters.

Lia Karsten; Eva Pel

2000-01-01

236

School of Earth and Space Exploration Arizona State University  

E-print Network

division (300 level or higher), excluding courses GLG300 (Geology of Arizona) and GLG400 (ColloquiumSchool of Earth and Space Exploration Arizona State University 3 Course sequencing/ prerequisite planning Required major courses for Bachelors of Science degree in Geological Sciences. Prefix Course Name

Shumway, John

237

A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

2013-01-01

238

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

239

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to make possible the permanent extension of human presence beyond the bounds of Earth and enable historic improvements in our understanding of our solar system and the universe, and the quality of life, NASA must: (1) Undertake, in partnership with the scientific community, sustained international explorations throughout the inner solar system by integrated human/robotic expeditions; (2) Achieve breakthrough discoveries and technology developments through basic, applied, and commercial research in the unique venue of space--exploiting characteristics such as microgravity, vacuum, radiation, and location; (3) Establish safe and routine access to space in support of permanent commercial human operations in low-Earth orbit and ongoing exploration activities at one or more sites beyond Earth orbit; (4) Engage the private sector in the commercial development of space and enable the creation of new space industries generating new wealth for the US economy; and (5) Communicate the excitement and importance of the discovery of new worlds and the profound insights we will gain into the origins of life and the universe. In order to guide planning, the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise has identified some potential future targets and goals (e.g. 'Design Reference Points') beginning with the near-term and extending to the far-term and beyond.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Cooke, Douglas (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2001-01-01

240

Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

2005-01-01

241

Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

Sanders, Gerald B.

2000-01-01

242

Space Life and Physical Sciences and Applications Research for Human Exploration  

E-print Network

Space Life and Physical Sciences and Applications ­ Research for Human Exploration Brad Carpenter, Acting Director Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Space Life and Physical Sciences are common to Exploration and Research · Research is Exploration with structure · Human Exploration of Space

Waliser, Duane E.

243

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: A Step Toward Interstellar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space. The maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program is laying the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion systems operating in the 5-10 kW range, to solar sail propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called "propellantless" because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations, such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of those propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies that will most significantly advance our exploration of deep space.

Johnson, Les; James, Bonnie; Baggett, Randy; Montgomery, Sandy

2005-01-01

244

High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for future space instrumentation : current development within the French Space Orbitrap Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has been used for years in space exploration to characterise the chemical composition of solar system bodies and their environment. Because of the harsh constraints imposed to the space probe instruments, their mass resolution is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, sometimes leading to significant limitations in the treatment of the data collected with this type of instrumentation. Future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). For a few years, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies formed a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). This development is carried out in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. We are indeed pursuing, within international collaborations, the definition of several instrument concepts based on the core elements that are subject of our R&T programme. In this talk, we briefly discuss science applications for future orbitrap-based HRMS space instruments. We highlight present results of our R&T programme.

Briois, Christelle; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Szopa, Cyril; Thirkell, Laurent; Aradj, Kenzi; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chalumeau, Gilles; Chapelon, Olivier; Colin, Fabrice; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Kukui, Alexandre; Pennanech, Cyril; Thissen, Roland; Vuitton, Véronique; Zapf, Pascal; Makarov, Alexander

2014-05-01

245

Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

246

Energizing the Future of Space Exploration: Applications of Space Solar Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract) As NASA's Space Exploration policy takes shape, one of the key issues that will affect all aspects of the exploration architecture is the ability to provide electric power to various surface locations on the moon, Mars, other planets or asteroids. This power should be available through daylight times as well as at night. The moon is an especially difficult

Henry W. Brandhorst

247

Evaluating science return in space exploration initiative architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science is an important aspect of the Space Exploration Initiative, a program to explore the Moon and Mars with people and machines. Different SEI mission architectures are evaluated on the basis of three variables: access (to the planet's surface), capability (including number of crew, equipment, and supporting infrastructure), and time (being the total number of man-hours available for scientific activities). This technique allows us to estimate the scientific return to be expected from different architectures and from different implementations of the same architecture. Our methodology allows us to maximize the scientific return from the initiative by illuminating the different emphases and returns that result from the alternative architectural decisions.

Budden, Nancy Ann; Spudis, Paul D.

1993-01-01

248

Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the design, development, testing, and evaluation of both vehicles and serves as lead systems integrator. A little over a year after it was chartered, the Exploration Launch Projects team is testing engine components, refining vehicle designs, performing wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I-l, scheduled for spring 2009. The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration lays out a roadmap for a long-term venture of discovery. This endeavor will inspire and attract the best and brightest students to power this nation successfully to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. If one equates the value proposition for space with simple dollars and cents, the potential of the new space economy is tremendous, from orbital space delivery services for the International Space Station to mining and solar energy collection on the Moon and asteroids. The Vision for Space Exploration is fundamentally about bringing the resources of the solar system within the economic sphere of humaind. Given the immense size of our solar system, the amount of available material and energy with

Sexton, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

249

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2009-01-01

250

The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

1983-01-01

251

Giving Children Space: A Phenomenological Exploration of Student Experiences in Space Science Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived…

Horne, Christopher R.

2011-01-01

252

Space debris, remarks on current legal issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A legal definition of space debris must take into consideration its consequences on the legal status of the object. For the purpose of mitigation of space debris at the time of the launch, any object launched in outer pace will turn sooner or later into a space debris. For liability purposes, a definition of a "space object " is more useful that the notion of "space debris". It must be sure that every space debris is considered as a space objet according to the liability convention. At the end and certainly a more difficult issue is the qualification of a space object as a space debris when it will be technically feasible to remove it. The question of the property of the debris or object should be important. States are responsible and liable for space debris. According to article VI and VII of the Outer Space Treaty, they must authorise and control any national space activity and make sure these activities will not be conducted against the law. In the case of an accident and excepting the use of nuclear power sources, the main problem lies on damage in outer space to other spacecraft. In that case, the victim must prove a fault. According with the lack of precise rules it should be difficult. It should be necessary to precise the law applicable to space debris. At the domestic level, rules must be taken to prevent space debris through an assessment of risk within the licensing process. At the international level, the principle of an obligation to mitigate debris should be clearly accepted. Some general rules should be useful to avoid breach of competition between commercial actors. The adoption of a clear and precise code of conduct should be of great help because it would determine the good launching States' behaviour and greatly helps the judge appreciating the proof of a fault in case of an accident.

Kerrest, Armel

2001-10-01

253

An Overview of Space Exploration Simulation (Basis of Confidence) Documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models and simulations (M&S) are critical resources in the exploration of space. They support program management, systems engineering, integration, analysis, test, and operations by providing critical information that supports key analyses and decisions (technical, cost and schedule). Consequently, there is a clear need to establish a solid understanding of M&S strengths and weaknesses, and the bounds within which they can credibly support decision making. In this presentation we will describe how development of simulation capability documentation will be used to form a Basis of Confidence (Basis of Confidence) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) M&S. The process by which BOC documentation is developed will be addressed, as well as the structure and critical concepts that are essential for establishing credibility of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) legacy M&S. We will illustrate the significance of BOC documentation in supporting decision makers and Accreditation Authorities in M&S risk management.

Bray, Alleen; Hale, Joseph P.

2006-01-01

254

Prediction of solar flares for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 21st century is likely to see the start of the manned exploration and settlement of the inner solar system. NASA's plans for this endeavor are focused upon the Space Exploration Initiative which calls for a return to the Moon, to stay, followed by manned missions to Mars. To execute these missions safely provides solar physics with both a challenge and an opportunity. As the past solar maximum has clearly demonstrated, the Sun, through the solar flare process, is capable of generating and accelerating to high energies large fluxes of protons whose cumulative dose to unprotected astronauts can be fatal. It will be the responsibility of solar physicists to develop an accurate physical description of the mechanisms of flare energy storage and release, and of particle acceleration and propagation through interplanetary space upon which to base a sound method of flare and energetic particle prediction.

Davis, John M.

1994-01-01

255

The potential of space exploration for the fine arts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Art provides an integrating function between the 'upper' and 'lower' centers of the human psyche. The nature of this function can be made more specific through the triune model of the brain. The evolution of the fine arts - painting, drawing, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, dance, and drama, plus cinema and mathematics-as-a-fine-art - are examined in the context of their probable stimulations by space exploration: near term and long term.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1993-01-01

256

Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

2007-01-01

257

Super Earth Explorer: A Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope  

E-print Network

The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii >. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of the parent starlight reflected by the planets, in the wavelength range 400-1250 nm

J. Schneider; A. Boccaletti; D. Mawet; P. Baudoz; J. -L. Beuzit; R. Doyon; M. Marley; D. Stam; G. Tinetti; W. Traub; J. Trauger; A. Aylward; J. Y. -K. Cho; C. -U. Keller; S. Udry; for the SEE-COAST Team

2008-11-25

258

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

259

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

260

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

261

Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

1991-01-01

262

Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

Joosten, B. Kent

2006-01-01

263

We can't explore space without it - Common human space needs for exploration spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is conducted of physiological, psychological, and human-interface requirements for manned spaceflight programs to establish common criteria. Attention is given to the comfort levels relevant to human support in exploration mission spacecraft and planetary habitats, and three comfort levels (CLs) are established. The levels include: (1) CL-1 for basic crew life support; (2) CL-2 for enabling the nominal completion of mission science; and (3) CL-3 which provides for enhanced life support and user-friendly interface systems. CL-2 support systems can include systems for EVA, workstations, and activity centers for repairs and enhanced utilization of payload and human/machine integration. CL-3 supports can be useful for maintaining crew psychological and physiological health as well as the design of comfortable and earthlike surroundings. While all missions require CL-1 commonality, CL-2 commonality is required only for EVA systems, display nomenclature, and restraint designs.

Daues, K. R.; Erwin, H. O.

1992-01-01

264

Space Explorers June 09..............9:00am-3:00pm.............Bring Lunch  

E-print Network

Space Explorers Day Camp June 09..............9:00am-3:00pm.............Bring Lunch June 10 Explore to infinity and beyond! Youth will explore space, from many different points of views. Youth, and exploring dairy foods. Space for this camp is limited, please register ASAP! Ages 8-13. Cost: $50

Jawitz, James W.

265

Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such as robotic missions, where human teleoperation capability is not locally available.

Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

2005-01-01

266

International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

2005-01-01

267

Back to the future: the role of the ISS and future space stations in planetary exploration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space stations as stepping stones to planets appear already in the1954 Disney-von Braun anticipation TV show but the first study with a specific planetary scientific objective was the ANTEUS project of 1978. This station was an evolution of SPACELAB hardware and was designed to analyse Mars samples with better equipment than the laboratory of the VIKING landers. It would have played the role of the reception facility present in the current studies of Mars sample return, after analysis, the "safe" samples would have been returned to earth by the space shuttle. This study was followed by the flights of SPACELAB and MIR. Finally after 35 years of development, the International Space Station reaches its final configuration in 2010. Recent developments of the international agreement between the space agencies indicate a life extending to 2025, it is already part of the exploration programme as its crews prepare the long cruise flights and missions to the exploration targets. It is now time to envisage also the use of this stable 350 tons spacecraft for planetary and space sciences. Planetary telescopes are an obvious application; the present SOLAR payload on COLUMBUS is an opportunity to use the target pointing capabilities from the ISS. The current exposure facilities are also preparing future planetary protection procedures. Other applications have already been previously considered as experimental collision and impact studies in both space vacuum and microgravity. Future space stations at the Lagrange points could simultaneously combine unique observation platforms with an actual intermediate stepping stone to Mars.

Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

2010-05-01

268

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

269

Microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space-current status and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:25130885

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

2014-09-17

270

The growth of retail REITs : an exploration of current practices and implications  

E-print Network

This study is an exploration of the current growth activity of retail real estate investment trusts (REITs). The specific questions to be explored are: How are retail REITs currently growing, how is this growth being ...

Toth, A. Eric (Anthony Eric), 1971-

2003-01-01

271

12 Current approaches to mapping language in electromagnetic space  

E-print Network

12 Current approaches to mapping language in electromagnetic space Marta Kutas, Kara D. Federmeier the spatial distributions of electromagnetic data and for decomposing those distributions into subparts. We

Coulson, Seana

272

Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-10-01

273

Active Radiation Shield for Space Exploration Missions (ARSSEM)  

E-print Network

One of the major issues to be solved is the protection from the effects of ionizing radiation. Exploration mission, lasting two to three years in space, represents a very significant step from the point of view of radiation protection: both the duration (up to 5 times) and the intensity (up to 5 times) of the exposure to radiation are increased at the same time with respect to mission on the ISS reaching and sometime exceeding professional career limits. In this ARSSEM report, after reviewing the physics basis of the issue of radiation protection in space, we present results based for the first time on full physics simulation to understand the interplay among the the various factors determining the dose absorbed by the astronauts during a long duration mission: radiation composition and energy spectrum, 3D particle propagation through the magnetic field, secondary production on the spacecraft structural materia, dose sensitivity of the various parts of the human body. As first application of this approach, we use this analysis to study a new magnetic configuration based on Double Helix coil and exhibiting a number of interesting features which are suited to active shield application. The study also proposes a technology R&D roadmap for active radiation shield development which would match ESA decadal development strategy for human exploration of space.

R. Battiston; W. J. Burger; V. Calvelli; R. Musenich; V. Choutko; V. I. Datskov; A. Della Torre; F. Venditti; C. Gargiulo; G. Laurenti; S. Lucidi; S. Harrison; R. Meinke

2012-09-10

274

New Approaches for Human Deep-Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are undertaking a Russian-American study of orbital options to extend human exploration beyond the Moon's orbit. For a viable program, an international collaboration (as now for the ISS) and reusable spacecraft will be needed. With reusable spacecraft, high-energy Earth orbits can be drastically modified with lunar swingbys and small maneuvers near the edge of the Earth's gravitational sphere of influence, especially near the collinear Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon libration points, to reach desired destinations. The work will build on ideas developed by the International Academy of Astronautics' exploration study group presented at the 2008 International Astronautical Congress in Glasgow. The first efforts could support backside lunar exploration from an Earth-Moon L2 temporary Lissajous or relatively permanent halo orbit; some quick low post-launch ?V trajectories are presented. In a stepping stone approach, later missions could service large space telescopes near the Sun-Earth L2 libration point; explore near-Earth asteroids; and then the moons of Mars. The study will use highly-elliptical Earth orbits whose line of apsides can be rotated using lunar swingbys; then a propulsive maneuver, considerably smaller than that needed from a circular low-Earth orbit, can be applied at the right perigee to send the spacecraft on the right departure asymptote to a desired destination.

Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.; Eismont, Natan; Chumachenko, Eugene

2014-12-01

275

Exploration of the California Current System with seismic oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic oceanography is a discipline that studies physical properties of the oceanic water from multichannel seismic reflection data. Multichannel seismic reflection data image mesoscale structures in the ocean like fronts, eddies and currents with lateral resolution on the order of 10 m. These data reveal the lateral coherence of thermohaline oceanic structures as well as the interactions with the topography. This discipline uses the same instrumentation and software for data acquisition and processing that marine geophysics, but it uses the first 5-6 seconds of the seismic records, which travel through the water column. The "Juan de Fuca Ridge to Trench" survey was carried out in the Cascadia Basin during last June-July 2012. The water column above Cascadia Basin is affected by the California Current System. There were two research vessel involved in this geophysical survey: RV Marcus Langseth, which was in charged of the multichannel seismic reflection data acquisition and the RV Oceanus, which was in charged of the ocean bottom seismometers. We had the opportunity of acquiring XBTs and XSVs simultaneously to the seismic acquisition from the RV Marcus Langseth and the RV Oceanus offered to us the opportunity of doing CTD space-coincident casts of the seismic acquisition, in order to compare the seismic images with the temperature, salinity and sound velocity data. We present in this work the seismic images of two eddies that were recorded in the survey and their comparison with the physical properties of the ocean.

Biescas-Gorriz, B.; Mojica, J. F.; Bornstein, G.; Bartlett, A.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Sallares, V.; Ruddick, B. R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.

2012-12-01

276

Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

2008-01-01

277

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

2011-01-01

278

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could counter temperature increases thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joe; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Micahel J.

2012-01-01

279

Edinburgh Research Explorer Confronting the Liminal Spaces of Health Research Regulation  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Confronting the Liminal Spaces of Health Research Regulation Citation for published version: Laurie, G, Confronting the Liminal Spaces of Health Research Regulation, 2014, Web Research Explorer Document Version: Publisher final version (usually the publisher pdf) General rights

Millar, Andrew J.

280

Edinburgh Research Explorer Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constrains on  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constrains on volatile organic, 'Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constrains on volatile organic compound emissions in east record in Edinburgh Research Explorer Published In: Journal of Geophysical Research Publisher Rights

Millar, Andrew J.

281

Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

2010-01-01

282

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

283

The International Space Station: Unique In-Space Testbed as Exploration Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) was completed in 2011. As articulated in the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan, the Agency's first goal is to extend and sustain human activities across the solar system. Thus, the emerging NASA vision is to launch a bold and ambitious new space initiative to enable human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit to Lagrange points, the moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), and Mars and its environs. To accomplish this vision, it is necessary to develop and validate innovative exploration technologies and operational concepts. With the extended life of the ISS to 2020 and possibly 2028, NASA has a mandate to maximize the potential of the Nation's newest National Laboratory. Exploration and ISS teams within NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have initiated a cooperative effort: the ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR), a high-fidelity operational analog that complements existing NASA terrestrial laboratory and field testing. To maximize use of the ISS platform to evaluate new exploration technologies, capabilities, and operational concepts to better comprehend and mitigate human spaceflight risks, ISTAR seeks out and encourages investigations dubbed "exploration detailed test objectives" (xDTOs). These xDTOs, building blocks of ISTAR missions, develop and optimize the operations concepts and the use of new technologies that should reduce risks and challenges facing astronauts on long exploration spaceflight voyages. In this paper, we describe (1) the rationale behind ISTAR, (2) a five-year strategic plan, (3) the approach for mission formulation, development, integration, and execution, (4) concepts for near-term missions that implement a phased approach for using ISS as an exploration testbed, and (5) the planned Mars mission simulation using the ISS. This paper will also document several challenges ISTAR must address to execute its missions.

Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.; Moreno, Frank; Rodriggs, Mike; Beisert, Susan; Stapleton, Debbie

2012-01-01

284

National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Education for the next generation of space explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new vision for space exploration by educating and inspiring the next generation of students through a seamless pipeline of kindergarten through postdoctoral education programs. NSBRI EPOP initiatives are designed to train scientists and to communicate the significance of NSBRI science, as well as other space exploration science, to schools, families and lay audiences. The NSBRI EPOP team is comprised of eight main partners: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Binghamton University-State University of New York (BUSUNY), Colorado Consortium for Earth and Space Science Education (CCESSE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM), Rice University and the University of Texas Medical Branch (RU-UTMB), and Texas A&M University (TAMU). The current kindergarten through undergraduate college (K-16) team, which was funded through an open national competition in 2004, consolidates the past 7 years of K-16 education activities and expands the team's outreach activities to more museums and science centers across the nation. NSBRI also recently expanded its education mission to include doctoral and postdoctoral level programs. This paper describes select K-16 EPOP activities and products developed over the past 7 years, and reports on new activities planned for the next 3 years. The paper also describes plans for a doctoral program and reports on 1st-year outcomes of the new postdoctoral program.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Houston, Clifford W.; Coulter, Gary; Vogt, Gregory L.

2007-02-01

285

Identifying Sociological Factors for the Success of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrosociology factors relevant to success of future space exploration may best be identified through studies of sociological circumstances of past successful explorations, such as the Apollo-Lunar Missions. These studies benefit from access to primary records of the past programs. The Archives and Special Collections Division of the Salmon Library at the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) houses large collections of material from the early periods of the space age. The Huntsville campus of the University of Alabama System had its birth in the mid-1950s at the time when the von Braun rocket team was relocated from Texas to Huntsville. The University, the City of Huntsville and the US Government rocket organizations developed in parallel over subsequent years. As a result, the University has a significant space heritage and focus. This is true not only for the engineering and science disciplines, but also for the social sciences. The life of the University spans the period when Huntsville government and industrial organizations were responsible for producing the rocket vehicles to first take mankind to the Moon. That endeavor was surely as significant sociologically as technologically. In the 1980s, Donald E. Tarter, conducted a series of video interviews with some leading members of the original von Braun team. Although the interviews ranged over many engineering subjects, they also recorded personal features of people involved in the Apollo lunar exploration program and the interactions between these people. Such knowledge was of course an objective. These interviews are now in the collections of the UAH Library Archives, along with extensive documentation from the same period. Under sponsorship of the Archives and the NASA-Marshall Retiree Association, the interview series was restarted in 2006 to obtain comparable oral-history interviews with more than fifty US born members of the rocket team from the 1960s. Again these video interviews are rich with insights into the people involved in the Apollo lunar exploration program. A common thought in the original and recent interviews is that the 1960s rocket team was a unique assembly of people with leadership and modes of operation that has not been reproduced since. If mankind is again going to the Moon, Mars, an asteroid or elsewhere in the solar system, a similar assembly of people and sociological conditions may well be required.

Lundquist, C. A.; Tarter, D.; Coleman, A.

286

NASA utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the US President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for International Space Station (ISS) to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long-duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of ISS. We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015 2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA's Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-06-01

287

Challenges to Health During Deep Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration missions outside of low Earth orbit will present unique challenges to the maintenance of human health. Stressors with physiologic and psychological impacts are inherent in exploration missions, including reduced gravity, increased radiation, isolation, limited habitable volume, circadian disruptions, and cabin atmospheric changes. Operational stressors such as mission timeline and extravehicular activities must also be considered, and these varied stressors may act in additive or synergistic fashions. Should changes to physiology or behavior manifest as a health condition, the rendering of care in an exploration environment must also be considered. Factors such as the clinical background of the crew, inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, and limitations in available medical resources will have an impact on the assessment and treatment of these conditions. The presentations associated with this panel will address these unique challenges from the perspective of several elements of the NASA Human Research Program, including Behavioral Health and Performance, Human Health Countermeasures, Space Radiation, and Exploration Medical Capability.

Watkins, S.; Leveton, L.; Norsk, P.; Huff, J.; Shah, R.

2014-01-01

288

A High-level Interconnect Power Model for Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

A High-level Interconnect Power Model for Design Space Exploration Pallav Gupta, Lin Zhong to quickly explore the design space and weed out architectures whose interconnect power requirements do consumption in interconnects and hence, enable interconnect- aware, high-level design space exploration. I

Zhong, Lin

289

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

290

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts experience severe/invasive disorders caused by space environments. These include hematological and cardiac abnormalities, bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, including muscle, bone, skin, liver, and neuronal cells, we advanced a hypothesis that some of the space-caused disorders might be amenable to hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia (?-thalassemia) and spaceflight (hindlimb suspension unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, the ?-thalassemic mice were successfully transplanted with isologous HSCs, resulting in chimerism of hemoglobin species and alleviation of the hemoglobinopathy. In the case of HSCT for muscle loss, ?-galactosidase-marked HSCs, which were prepared from ?-galactosidase-transgenic mice, were detected by the X-gal wholemount staining procedure in the hindlimbs of unloaded mice following transplantation. Histochemical and physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. To investigate HSCT for immunodeficiency, ?-galactosidase-transformed Escherichia coli was used as the reporter bacteria, and infected to control and the hindlimb suspended mice. Results of the X-gal stained tissues indicated that the HSCT could help eliminate the E. coli infection. In an effort to facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs has been optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Ramsahai, Shweta; Kim, Bak C.; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

2004-02-01

291

Avionic architecture requirements for Space Exploration Initiative systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors discuss NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group (SATWG) and the results of the first study commissioned by the SATWG, the Space Avionics Requirements Study (SARS). The goal of the SARS task was to show that an open avionics architecture, using modular, standardized components, could be applied across the wide range of systems that comprise the Space Exploration Initiative. The study addressed systems ranging from expendable launch vehicles and the space station to surface systems such as Mars or lunar rovers and habitats. Top-level avionics requirements were derived from characterizations of each of the systems considered. Then a set of avionics subsystems were identified, along with estimates of the numbers and types of modules needed to meet the requirements. Applicability of these results across the infrastructure was then illustrated. In addition to these tasks, critical technologies were identified, characterized, and assessed in terms of their criticality and impact on the program. Design, development, test, and evaluation methods were addressed to identify potential areas of improvement.

Herbella, C. G.; Brown, D. C.

1991-01-01

292

Exploration of Parameter Spaces in a Virtual Observatory  

E-print Network

Like every other field of intellectual endeavor, astronomy is being revolutionised by the advances in information technology. There is an ongoing exponential growth in the volume, quality, and complexity of astronomical data sets, mainly through large digital sky surveys and archives. The Virtual Observatory (VO) concept represents a scientific and technological framework needed to cope with this data flood. Systematic exploration of the observable parameter spaces, covered by large digital sky surveys spanning a range of wavelengths, will be one of the primary modes of research with a VO. This is where the truly new discoveries will be made, and new insights be gained about the already known astronomical objects and phenomena. We review some of the methodological challenges posed by the analysis of large and complex data sets expected in the VO-based research. The challenges are driven both by the size and the complexity of the data sets (billions of data vectors in parameter spaces of tens or hundreds of dimensions), by the heterogeneity of the data and measurement errors, including differences in basic survey parameters for the federated data sets (e.g., in the positional accuracy and resolution, wavelength coverage, time baseline, etc.), various selection effects, as well as the intrinsic clustering properties (functional form, topology) of the data distributions in the parameter spaces of observed attributes. Answering these challenges will require substantial collaborative efforts and partnerships between astronomers, computer scientists, and statisticians.

S. G. Djorgovski; A. Mahabal; R. Brunner; R. Williams; R. Granat; D. Curkendall; J. Jacob; P. Stolorz

2001-08-21

293

Processing of Space Resources to Enable the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA human exploration program as directed by the Vision for Exploration (G.W. Bush, Jan. 14,2004) includes developing methods to process materials on the Moon and beyond to enable safe and affordable human exploration. Processing space resources was first popularized (O Neill 1976) as a technically viable, economically feasible means to build city sized habitats and multi GWatt solar power satellites in Earth/Moon space. Although NASA studies found the concepts to be technically reasonable in the post Apollo era (AMES 1979), the front end costs the limits of national or corporate investment. In the last decade analysis of space on has shown it to be economically justifiable even on a relatively small mission or commercial scenario basis. The Mars Reference Mission analysis (JSC 1997) demonstrated that production of return propellant on Mars can enable an order of magnitude decrease in the costs of human Mars missions. Analysis (by M. Duke 2003) shows that production of propellant on the Moon for the Earth based satellite industries can be commercially viable after a human lunar base is established. Similar economic analysis (Rapp 2005) also shows large cost benefits for lunar propellant production for Mars missions and for the use of lunar materials for the production of photovoltaic power (Freundlich 2005). Recent technologies could enable much smaller initial costs, to achieve mass, energy, and life support self sufficiency, than were achievable in the 1970s. If the Exploration Vision program is executed with a front end emphasis on space resources, it could provide a path for human self reliance beyond Earth orbit. This path can lead to an open, non-zero-sum, future for humanity with safer human competition with limitless growth potential. This paper discusses extension of the analysis for space resource utilization, to determine the minimum systems necessary for human self sufficiency and growth off Earth. Such a approach can provide a more compelling and comprehensive path to space resource utilization.

Curreri, Peter A.

2006-01-01

294

Comparison of Historic Exploration with Contemporary Space Policy Suggests a Retheorisation of Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides one way of theorising this developing field, a way which has become the normative model for the discipline: science-and scholarship-driven funding for space. By contrast, a novel re-evaluation of funding policies is undertaken in this article to reframe astrobiology, terraforming and associated space travel and research. Textual visualisation, discourse and numeric analytical methods, and value theory are applied to historical data and contemporary sources to re-investigate significant drivers and constraints on the mechanisms of enabling space exploration. Two data sets are identified and compared: the business objectives and outcomes of major 15th-17th century European joint-stock exploration and trading companies and a case study of a current space industry entrepreneur company. Comparison of these analyses suggests that viable funding policy drivers can exist outside the normative science and scholarship-driven roadmap. The two drivers identified in this study are (1) the intrinsic value of space as a territory to be experienced and enjoyed, not just studied, and (2) the instrumental, commercial value of exploiting these experiences by developing infrastructure and retail revenues. Filtering of these results also offers an investment rationale for companies operating in, or about to enter, the space business marketplace.

Cokely, J.; Rankin, W.; Heinrich, P.; McAuliffe, M.

295

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

296

Limited By Cost: The Case Against Humans In The Scientific Exploration Of Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human space flight represents a heady mix of bravery and drama which can be inspirational to nations and to humankind but at huge economic cost. Due to the current high launch costs only a handful of people have ventured beyond low Earth orbit and walked on the Moon, propelled by aspirations related more to the Cold War than to science. Problems with reusable launch vehicle development mean that severe launch cost limitations will exist for some time. Meanwhile, cheaper robotic probes have visited all the planets except Pluto, flown by comets, landed on Mars, Venus and an asteroid, have probed Jupiter's atmosphere and studied the Universe beyond our own solar system with telescopes. Using these data we are determining mankind's place in the Universe. Public interest in the historic Eros landing eclipsed a simultaneous space walk at the fledgling International Space Station and the Mars Pathfinder landing generated hundreds of millions of website hits in a few days. Given the fact that hundreds of Mars missions could be flown for the still-escalating cost of the International Space Station, the unsuitability of human bodies for deep space exploration, and the advances in 3-d and virtual reality techniques, we discuss whether human exploration needs a place in a realistic, useful and inspirational space programme.

Coates, Andrew J.

2001-11-01

297

Exploration of the Equilibrium Operating Space For NSTX-Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores a range of high-performance equilibrium scenarios available in the NSTX-Upgrade device [J.E. Menard, submitted for publication to Nuclear Fusion]. NSTX-Upgrade is a substantial upgrade to the existing NSTX device [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], with significantly higher toroidal field and solenoid capabilities, and three additional neutral beam sources with significantly larger current drive efficiency. Equilibria are computed with freeboundary TRANSP, allowing a self consistent calculation of the non-inductive current drive sources, the plasma equilibrium, and poloidal field coil current, using the realistic device geometry. The thermal profiles are taken from a variety of existing NSTX discharges, and different assumptions for the thermal confinement scalings are utilized. The no-wall and idealwall n=1 stability limits are computed with the DCON code. The central and minimum safety factors are quite sensitive to many parameters: they generally increases with large outer plasmawall gaps and higher density, but can have either trend with the confinement enhancement factor. In scenarios with strong central beam current drive, the inclusion of non-classical fast ion diffusion raises qmin, decreases the pressure peaking, and generally improves the global stability, at the expense of a reduction in the non-inductive current drive fraction; cases with less beam current drive are largely insensitive to additional fast ion diffusion. The non-inductive current level is quite sensitive to the underlying confinement and profile assumptions. For instance, for BT=1.0 T and Pinj=12.6 MW, the non-inductive current level varies from 875 kA with ITER-98y,2 thermal confinement scaling and narrow thermal profiles to 1325 kA for an ST specific scaling expression and broad profiles. This sensitivity should facilitate the determination of the correct scaling of transport with current and field to use for future fully non-inductive ST devices. Scenarios are presented which can be sustained for 8-10 seconds, or (20-30)?CR, at ?N=3.8-4.5, facilitating, for instance, the study of disruption avoidance for very long pulse. Scenarios have been documented which can operate with ?T~25% and equilibrated qmin>1. The value of qmin can be controlled at either fixed non-inductive fraction of 100% or fixed plasma current, by varying which beam sources are used, opening the possibility for feedback qmin control. In terms of quantities like collisionality, neutron emission, non-inductive fraction, or stored energy, these scenarios represent a significant performance extension compared to NSTX and other present spherical torii.

S.P. Gerhardt, R. Andre and J.E. Menard

2012-04-25

298

A flexible, modular approach to integrated space exploration campaign logistics modeling, simulation, and analysis  

E-print Network

A space logistics modeling framework to support space exploration to remote environments is the target of research within the MIT Space Logistics Project. This thesis presents a revised and expanded framework providing ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas, 1985-

2010-01-01

299

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

300

Exploring special relative locality with de Sitter momentum-space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative locality is a recent approach to the quantum-gravity problem which allows the taming of nonlocality effects which may arise in some models which try to describe Planck-scale physics. I here explore the effect of relative locality on basic special-relativistic phenomena. In particular I study the deformations due to relative locality of special-relativistic transformation laws for momenta at all orders in the rapidity parameter ? . I underline how those transformations also define the relative locality characteristic (momentum-dependent) invariant metric. I focus my analysis on the well studied de Sitter momentum-space framework, and I investigate the differences and similarities between this model and special relativity, from the definition of the boost parameter ? to a first discussion of transverse effects characteristic of relative locality on clocks observables.

Loret, Niccoló

2014-12-01

301

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) delivers space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides U.S. capability for both crew and cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010, as outlined in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. I In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle/Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle/Altair Lunar Lander. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability, coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration over a multi-decade schedule. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity against predictions made by modern modeling and simulation analysis. It also will give information about the work in progress for the Ares I-X developmental test flight planned in 2009 to provide key data before the Ares I Critical Design Review. Activities such as these will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development tasks being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, the work performed will lead to the fielding of a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads for sustainable scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

302

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

303

Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be a part of any 2l century initiatives furthering a growing human presence beyond earth.

Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

2009-01-01

304

Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-01-01

305

Space Exploration: A Risk for Neural Stem Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During spaceflights beyond low Earth orbit, astronauts are exposed to potentially carcinogenic and tissue damaging galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and secondary radiation that includes neutrons and recoil nuclei produced by nuclear reactions in spacecraft walls or in tissue (1). Such radiation risk may present a significant health risk for human exploration of the moon and Mars. Emerging evidence that generation of new neurons in the adult brain may be essential for learning, memory, and mood (2) and that radiation is deleterious to neurogenesis (3-5) underscores a previously unappreciated possible risk to the cognitive functions and emotional stability of astronauts exposed to radiation in space. Here we use a novel reporter mouse line to identify at-risk populations of stem and progenitor cells in the brain and find, unexpectedly, that quiescent stem-like cells (rather than their rapidly dividing progeny) in the hippocampus constitute the most vulnerable cell population. This finding raises concerns about the possible risks facing astronauts on long duration space missions.

Encinas, Juan M.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Switzer, Robert C.; Chamberland, Dennis W.; Nick, Harry; Levine, Howard G.; Scarpa, Philip J.; Enikolopov, Grigori; Steindler, Dennis A.

2006-01-01

306

NASA: Engineering Space Exploration - Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews NASA's program of space exploration, including information about NASA's mission, the human urge to explore, the timeline for the development of the exploration, and what NASA plans to explore and prove during the return to the moon. Also include are views of the planned vehicles, and a review of progress to date in the design and construction of the vehicles. Some of the benefits of space exploration are also reviewed.

Malone, Roy

2009-01-01

307

Space Exploration Technologies Developed through Existing and New Research Partnerships Initiatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Partnership Development Program of NASA has been highly successful in leveraging commercial research investments to the strategic mission and applied research goals of the Agency through industry academic partnerships. This program is currently undergoing an outward-looking transformation towards Agency wide research and discovery goals that leverage partnership contributions to the strategic research needed to demonstrate enabling space exploration technologies encompassing both robotic spacecraft missions and human space flight. New Space Partnership Initiatives with incremental goals and milestones will allow a continuing series of accomplishments to be achieved throughout the duration of each initiative, permit the "lessons learned" and capabilities acquired from previous implementation steps to be incorporated into subsequent phases of the initiatives, and allow adjustments to be made to the implementation of the initiatives as new opportunities or challenges arise. An Agency technological risk reduction roadmap for any required technologies not currently available will identify the initiative focus areas for the development, demonstration and utilization of space resources supporting the production of power, air, and water, structures and shielding materials. This paper examines the successes to date, lessons learned, and programmatic outlook of enabling sustainable exploration and discovery through governmental, industrial, academic, and international partnerships. Previous government and industry technology development programs have demonstrated that a focused research program that appropriately shares the developmental risk can rapidly mature low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies to the demonstration level. This cost effective and timely, reduced time to discovery, partnership approach to the development of needed technological capabilities addresses the dual use requirements by the investing partners. In addition, these partnerships help to ensure the attainment of complimenting human and robotic exploration goals for NASA while providing additional capabilities for sustainable scientific research benefiting life and security on Earth.

Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

2004-01-01

308

Phase Space Dynamics of Runaway Electrons in Current Overdrive Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase space structure of runaway electrons in current overdrive regime is studied. During current overdrive, RF waves drive current in the opposite direction of the Ohmic field, which recharges the central solenoid in steady state tokamak. High power RF waves can push electrons to the high energy region in the momentum space, which is able to generate a large population of backward runaway electrons. Phase space evolution of runaway electrons mainly depends on the balance of Ohmic field, radiation, and collisions. It is shown that it's easier to generate backward runaway electrons in some momentum space regions than others. In the current overdrive regime, we need to carefully choose RF wave parameters to avoid generating too many backward runaway electrons.

Guan, Xiaoyin; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel

2010-11-01

309

Piloted Ignition Delay of PMMA in Space Exploration Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity (EVA), NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles and habitats with a different cabin environment than used previously. The proposed environment uses a total cabin pressure of 52.7 to 58.6 kPa with an oxygen concentration of 30 to 34% by volume and was chosen with material flammability in mind. Because materials may burn differently under these conditions and there is little information on how this new environment affects the flammability of the materials onboard, it is important to conduct material flammability experiments at the intended exploration atmosphere. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To this end, piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in the Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) apparatus subject to this new environment. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to a range of oxidizer flow velocities and externally applied heat fluxes. Tests were conducted for a baseline case of normal pressure and oxygen concentration, low pressure (58.6 kPa) with normal oxygen (21%), and low pressure with 32% oxygen concentration conditions to determine the individual effect of pressure and the combined effect of pressure and oxygen concentration on the ignition delay. It was found that reducing the pressure while keeping the oxygen concentration at 21% reduced the ignition time by 17% on average. Increasing the oxygen concentration at low pressures reduced the ignition time by an additional 10%. It was also noted that the critical heat flux for ignition decreases at exploration atmospheres. These results show that tests conducted in standard atmospheric conditions will underpredict the ignition of materials intended for use on spacecraft and that, at these conditions, materials are more susceptible to ignition than at current spacecraft atmospheres.

McAllister, Sara; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Urban, David; Ruff, Gary

2007-01-01

310

The World Space Observatory (WSO-UV) - Current status  

E-print Network

This paper reports on the current status of the World Space Observatory WSO-UV, a space mission for UV astronomy, planned for launch at the beginning of next decade. It is based on a 1.7 m telescope, with focal plane instruments including high resolution spectrographs, long slit low resolution spectrographs and imaging cameras.

Michela Uslenghi; Isabella Pagano; Cristian Pontoni; Salvatore Scuderi; Boris Shustov

2008-01-14

311

In Space Nuclear Power as an Enabling Technology for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Exploration missions, both for scientific and Human Exploration and Development (HEDS), appear to be as weight limited today as they would have been 35 years ago. Right behind the weight constraints is the nearly equally important mission limitation of cost. Launch vehicles, upper stages and in-space propulsion systems also cost about the same today with the same efficiency as they have had for many years (excluding impact of inflation). Both these dual mission constraints combine to force either very expensive, mega systems missions or very light weight, but high risk/low margin planetary spacecraft designs, such as the recent unsuccessful attempts for an extremely low cost mission to Mars during the 1998-99 opportunity (i.e., Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander). When one considers spacecraft missions to the outer heliopause or even the outer planets, the enormous weight and cost constraints will impose even more daunting concerns for mission cost, risk and the ability to establish adequate mission margins for success. This paper will discuss the benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor as the basis for providing both sufficient electric power and high performance space propulsion that will greatly reduce mission risk and significantly increase weight (IMLEO) and cost margins. Weight and cost margins are increased by enabling much higher payload fractions and redundant design features for a given launch vehicle (higher payload fraction of IMLEO). The paper will also discuss and summarize the recent advances in nuclear reactor technology and safety of modern reactor designs and operating practice and experience, as well as advances in reactor coupled power generation and high performance nuclear thermal and electric propulsion technologies. It will be shown that these nuclear power and propulsion technologies are major enabling capabilities for higher reliability, higher margin and lower cost deep space missions design to reliably reach the outer planets for scientific exploration.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Houts, Michael

2000-01-01

312

Space suits and life support systems for the exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements and technologies needed for a viable space suit, or Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), to be worn under conditions of Martian gravity field and environment are examined and alternative concepts for space suits and portable life support systems for the exploration of Mars are proposed. The challenge is illustrated by a comparison of the Martian surface with previous and current manned space environments, such as the low earth orbit, the lunar surface, and the surface of the earth. A summary of relevant data collected from Mariner and Viking probes is presented and it is pointed out that this information must be used to create an EMU which provides temperature regulation; humidity control; a regulated oxygen supply; pressure regulation; metabolic and toxic waste removal; contaminant control; thermal and cosmic radiation protection; biological isolation of the human and the Mars environment from each other; tear, dust, and puncture protection; water; and communication.

Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

1990-01-01

313

Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

Anderson, Molly; Stambaugh, Imelda

2015-01-01

314

Modelling Microwave Plasmas for Deposition Purposes : Exploring the Freedom in Space and Chemistry  

E-print Network

Modelling Microwave Plasmas for Deposition Purposes : Exploring the Freedom in Space and Chemistry, Michiel Jacobus Modelling of microwave plasmas for deposition purposes; exploring the freedom in space Michiel Jacobus van den Donker #12;#12;Modelling Microwave Plasmas for Deposition Purposes; Exploring

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

315

Advancing Robotic Control for Space Exploration Using Robonaut 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robonaut 2, or R2, arrived on the International Space Station (ISS) in February 2011 and is currently being tested in preparation for its role initially as an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) tool and eventually as a robot that performs Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Robonaut 2, is a state of the art dexterous anthropomorphic robotic torso designed for assisting astronauts. R2 features increased force sensing, greater range of motion, higher bandwidth, and improved dexterity over its predecessor. Robonaut 2 is unique in its ability to safely allow humans in its workspace and to perform significant tasks in a workspace designed for humans. The current operational paradigm involves either the crew or the ground control team running semi-autonomous scripts on the robot as both the astronaut and the ground team monitor R2 and the data it produces. While this is appropriate for the check-out phase of operations, the future plans for R2 will stress the current operational framework. The approach described here will outline a suite of operational modes that will be developed for Robonaut 2. These operational modes include teleoperation, shared control, directed autonomy, and supervised autonomy, and they cover a spectrum of human involvement in controlling R2.

Badger, Julia; Diftler, Myron; Hart, Stephen; Joyce, Charles

2012-01-01

316

Three near term commercial markets in space and their potential role in space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent market studies related to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) commercialization have identified three near term markets that have return-on-investment potential. These markets are: (1) Entertainment (2) Education (3) Advertising/sponsorship. Commercial activity is presently underway focusing on these areas. A private company is working with the Russians on a commercial module attached to the ISS that will involve entertainment and probably the other two activities as well. A separate corporation has been established to commercialize the Russian Mir Space Station with entertainment and promotional advertising as important revenue sources. A new startup company has signed an agreement with NASA for commercial media activity on the International Space Station (ISS). Profit making education programs are being developed by a private firm to allow students to play the role of an astronaut and work closely with space scientists and astronauts. It is expected that the success of these efforts on the ISS program will extend to exploration missions beyond LEO. The objective of this paper is to extrapolate some of the LEO commercialization experiences to see what might be expected in space exploration missions to Mars, the Moon and beyond. .

Gavert, Raymond B.

2001-02-01

317

Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the US Civilian Space Program. Volume 3; Using Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The underpinnings of that movement -why it took the shape it did; which individuals and organizations were involved; what factors drove a particular choice of scientific objectives and technologies to be used; and the political, economic, managerial, and international contexts in which the events of the space age unfolded- are all important ingredients of this epoch transition from an earthbound to spacefaring people. This desire to understand the development of spaceflight in the United States sparked this documentary history series. 'Exploring the Unknown' is a multi-volume series containing a selection of key documents in history of the U.S. civil space program. This current volume, Volume III, focusing on the use of space for practical applications, prints 112 key documents on the history of satellite communications, remote sensing of earth, and space as an investment in economic growth, edited for ease of use. Each is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical information, and background information necessary to understanding the document.

Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Onkst, David H. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor)

1998-01-01

318

Efficient Exploration of the Space of Reconciled Gene Trees  

PubMed Central

Gene trees record the combination of gene-level events, such as duplication, transfer and loss (DTL), and species-level events, such as speciation and extinction. Gene tree–species tree reconciliation methods model these processes by drawing gene trees into the species tree using a series of gene and species-level events. The reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alone almost always involves choosing between statistically equivalent or weakly distinguishable relationships that could be much better resolved based on a putative species tree. To exploit this potential for accurate reconstruction of gene trees, the space of reconciled gene trees must be explored according to a joint model of sequence evolution and gene tree–species tree reconciliation. Here we present amalgamated likelihood estimation (ALE), a probabilistic approach to exhaustively explore all reconciled gene trees that can be amalgamated as a combination of clades observed in a sample of gene trees. We implement the ALE approach in the context of a reconciliation model (Szöll?si et al. 2013), which allows for the DTL of genes. We use ALE to efficiently approximate the sum of the joint likelihood over amalgamations and to find the reconciled gene tree that maximizes the joint likelihood among all such trees. We demonstrate using simulations that gene trees reconstructed using the joint likelihood are substantially more accurate than those reconstructed using sequence alone. Using realistic gene tree topologies, branch lengths, and alignment sizes, we demonstrate that ALE produces more accurate gene trees even if the model of sequence evolution is greatly simplified. Finally, examining 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacterial genomes we find that joint likelihood-based inference results in a striking reduction in apparent phylogenetic discord, with respectively. 24%, 59%, and 46% reductions in the mean numbers of duplications, transfers, and losses per gene family. The open source implementation of ALE is available from https://github.com/ssolo/ALE.git. [amalgamation; gene tree reconciliation; gene tree reconstruction; lateral gene transfer; phylogeny.] PMID:23925510

Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Rosikiewicz, Wojciech; Boussau, Bastien; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent

2013-01-01

319

Space medicine innovation and telehealth concept implementation for medical care during exploration-class missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical care on the International Space Station (ISS) is provided using real-time communication with limited medical data transmission. In the occurrence of an off-nominal medical event, the medical care paradigm employed is 'stabilization and transportation', involving real-time management from ground and immediate return to Earth in the event that the medical contingency could not be resolved in due time in space. In preparation for future missions beyond Low-Earth orbit (LEO), medical concepts of operations are being developed to ensure adequate support for the new mission profiles: increased distance, duration and communication delays, as well as impossibility of emergency returns and limitations in terms of medical equipment availability. The current ISS paradigm of medical care would no longer be adequate due to these new constraints. The Operational Space Medicine group at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is looking towards synergies between terrestrial and space medicine concepts for the delivery of medical care to deal with the new challenges of human space exploration as well as to provide benefits to the Canadian population. Remote and rural communities on Earth are, in fact, facing similar problems such as isolation, remoteness to tertiary care centers, resource scarcity, difficult (and expensive) emergency transfers, limited access to physicians and specialists and limited training of medical and nursing staff. There are a number of researchers and organizations, outside the space communities, working in the area of telehealth. They are designing and implementing terrestrial telehealth programs using real-time and store-and-forward techniques to provide isolated populations access to medical care. The cross-fertilization of space-Earth research could provide support for increased spin-off and spin-in effects and stimulate telehealth and space medicine innovations to engage in the new era of human space exploration. This paper will discuss the benefits of space-Earth research projects for the advancement of both terrestrial and space medicine and will use examples of operational space medicine projects conducted at the CSA in areas such as remote training, tele-mentoring and remote control of an ultrasound.

Martin, Annie; Sullivan, Patrick; Beaudry, Catherine; Kuyumjian, Raffi; Comtois, Jean-Marc

2012-12-01

320

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration  

E-print Network

Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration The V2Suit, operational system The V2Suit is an enabler for space exploration mission technologies, including human THAT WILL REVOLUTIONIZE SPACE MISSIONS AND BENEFIT LIFE ON EARTH 2011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 2050 V2Suit

Bhatia, Sangeeta

321

Exploring the edges of visual space: The in uence of visual boundaries on peripheral localization  

E-print Network

Exploring the edges of visual space: The in uence of visual boundaries on peripheral localization of perceived location across visual space. Keywords: visual space, visual boundaries, peripheral localization Citation: Fortenbaugh, F. C., Sanghvi, S., Silver, M. A., & Robertson, L. C. (2012). Exploring the edges

Whitney, David

322

Exploring the edges of visual space: The influence of visual boundaries on peripheral localization  

E-print Network

Exploring the edges of visual space: The influence of visual boundaries on peripheral localization of perceived location across visual space. Keywords: visual space, visual boundaries, peripheral localization Citation: Fortenbaugh, F. C., Sanghvi, S., Silver, M. A., & Robertson, L. C. (2012). Exploring the edges

Robertson, Lynn

323

A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING, SIMULATION, AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

to remote environments is the target of research within the MIT Space Logistics Project. This thesis to relevant exploration campaigns. A resupply of the International Space Station from 2010-2015 includes 77A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING

de Weck, Olivier L.

324

Use of antarctic analogs to support the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report has discussed the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) in the context of assessing the potential rationale and strategy for conducting a cooperative NASA/NSF (National Science Foundation) effort. Specifically, such an effort would address shared research and data on living and conducting scientific research in isolated, confined, hostile, and remote environments. A review of the respective goals and requirements of NASA and the NSF indicates that numerous opportunities exist to mutually benefit from sharing relevant technologies, data, and systems. Two major conclusions can be drawn: (1) The technologies, experience, and capabilities existing and developing in the aerospace community would enhance scientific research capabilities and the efficiency and effectiveness of operations in Antarctica. The transfer and application of critical technologies (e.g., power, waste management, life support) and collaboration on crew research needs (e.g., human behavior and medical support needs) would streamline the USAP operations and provide the scientific community with advancements in facilities and tools for Antarctic research. (2) Antarctica is the most appropriate earth analog for the environments of the the Moon and Mars. Using Antarctica in this way would contribute substantially to near- and long-term needs and plans for the SEI. Antarctica is one of the few ground-based analogs that would permit comprehensive and integrated studies of three areas deemed critical to productive and safe operations on the Moon and Mars: human health and productivity; innovative scientific research techniques; and reliable, efficient technologies and facilities.

Wharton, Robert; Roberts, Barney; Chiang, Erick; Lynch, John; Roberts, Carol; Buoni, Corinne; Andersen, Dale

1990-01-01

325

Technical prospects for utilizing extraterrestrial propellants for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's LeRC has supported several efforts to understand how lunar and Martian produced propellants can be used to their best advantage for space exploration propulsion. A discussion of these efforts and their results is presented. A Manned Mars Mission Analysis Study identified that a more thorough technology base for propellant production is required before the the net economic benefits of in situ propellants can be determined. Evaluation of the materials available on the moon indicated metal/oxygen combinations are the most promising lunar propellants. A hazard analysis determined that several lunar metal/LOX monopropellants could be safely worked with in small quantities, and a characterization study was initiated to determine the physical and chemical properties of potential lunar monopropellant formulations. A bipropellant metal/oxygen subscale test engine which utilizes pneumatic injection of powdered metal is being pursued as an alternative to the monopropellant systems. The technology for utilizing carbon monoxide/oxygen, a potential Martian propellant, was studied in subscale ignition and rocket performance experiments.

Linne, Diane L.; Meyer, Michael L.

1991-01-01

326

Marshall Space Flight Center - Launching the Future of Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include: NASA Centers around the country, launching a legacy (Explorer I), Marshall's continuing role in space exploration, MSFC history, lifting from Earth, our next mission STS 133, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, Space Shuttle facts, Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, technologies/materials originally developed for the space program, astronauts come from all over, potential future missions and example technologies, significant accomplishments, living and working in space, understanding our world, understanding worlds beyond, from exploration to innovation, inspiring the next generation, space economy, from exploration to opportunity, new program assignments, NASA's role in education, and images from deep space including a composite of a galaxy with a black hole, Sagittarius A, Pillars of Creation, and an ultra deep field

Shivers, Alisa; Shivers, Herbert

2010-01-01

327

Exploring the spectrum of QCD using a space-time lattice  

E-print Network

Some past and ongoing explorations of the spectrum of QCD using Monte Carlo simulations on a space-time lattice are described. Glueball masses in the pure-gauge theory are reviewed, and the energies of gluonic excitations in the presence of a static quark-antiquark pair are discussed. Current efforts to compute the baryon spectrum using extended three-quark operators are also presented, emphasizing the need to use irreducible representations of the cubic point group to identify spin quantum numbers in the continuum limit.

Colin Morningstar

2005-09-21

328

From Research to Flight: Surviving the TRL Valley of Death for Robotic and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There must be a plan or opportunities for flight validation: a) To reduce the bottleneck of new technologies at the TRL Valley of Death; b) To allow frequent infusion of new technologies into flight missions. Risk must be tolerated for new technology flight experiments. Risk must also be accepted on early-adopting missions to enable new capabilities. Fundamental research is critical to taking the next giant leap in the scientific exploration of space. Technology push is often required to meet current mission requirements. Technology management requires more than issuing NRAs and overseeing contracts.

Johnson, Les

2009-01-01

329

Mobility feasibility of fuel cell powered hopping robots for space exploration  

E-print Network

Small hopping robots have been proposed that offer the potential to greatly increase the reach of unmanned space exploration. Using hopping, bouncing, and rolling, a small spherical robot could access and explore subterranean ...

Kesner, Samuel B. (Samuel Benjamin)

2007-01-01

330

Exploring the biologically relevant chemical space for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Both recent studies and our calculation suggest that the physicochemical properties of launched drugs changed continuously over the past decades. Besides shifting of commonly used properties, the average biological relevance (BR) and similarity to natural products (NPs) of launched drugs decreased, reflecting the fact that current drug discovery deviated away from NPs. To change the current situation characterized by high investment but low productivity in drug discovery, efforts should be made to improve the BR of the screening library and hunt drugs more effectively in the biologically relevant chemical space. Additionally, a multiple dimensional molecular descriptor, named the biologically relevant spectrum (BRS) was proposed for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study or screening library preparation. Prediction models for 43 biological activity categories were developed with BRS and support vector machine (SVM). In most cases, the overall prediction accuracies were around 95% and the Matthew's correlation coefficients (MCC) were over 0.8. Thirty-seven out of 48 drug-activity associations were successfully predicted for drugs that launched from 2006 to 2012, which were not included in the training data set. A web-server named BioRel ( http://ibi.hzau.edu.cn/biorel ) was developed to provide services including BR, BRS calculation, activity class, and pharmacokinetic property prediction. PMID:24125686

Deng, Zhi-Luo; Du, Cai-Xia; Li, Xiao; Hu, Ben; Kuang, Zheng-Kun; Wang, Rong; Feng, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Kong, De-Xin

2013-11-25

331

Higher spin currents in Wolf space for generic N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the 16 higher spin currents with spins , , and in the superconformal Wolf space coset . The antisymmetric second rank tensor occurs in the quadratic spin- Kac-Moody currents of the higher spin-1 current. Each higher spin- current contains the above antisymmetric second rank tensor and three symmetric (and traceless) second rank tensors (i.e. three antisymmetric almost complex structures contracted by the above antisymmetric tensor) in the product of spin- and spin-1 Kac-Moody currents respectively. Moreover, the remaining higher spin currents of spins contain the combinations of the (symmetric) metric, the three almost complex structures, the antisymmetric tensor or the three symmetric tensors in the multiple product of the above Kac-Moody currents as well as the composite currents from the large nonlinear superconformal algebra.

Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Hyunsu

2014-12-01

332

Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities. Historically, engineering-dominated organizations have tended to view good Human Factors (HF) as a desire rather than a requirement in system design and development. Our field has made significant gains in the past decade, however; the Department of Defense, for example, now recognizes Human-System Integration (HSI), of which HF is a component, as an integral part of their divisions hardware acquisition processes. And our own agency was far more accepting of HF/HSI requirements during the most recent vehicle systems definition than in any prior cycle. Nonetheless, HF subject matter experts at NASA often find themselves in catch up mode... coping with legacy systems (hardware and software) and procedures that were designed with little regard for the human element, and too often with an attitude of we can deal with any operator issues during training. Our challenge, then, is to segregate the true knowledge gaps in Space Human Factors from the prior failures to incorporate best (or even good) HF design principles. Further, we strive to extract the overarching core HF issues from the point-design-specific concerns that capture the operators (and managers) attention. Generally, our approach embraces a 3M approach to Human Factors: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation. Our first step is to measure human performance, to move from subjective anecdotes to objective, quantified data. Next we model the phenomenon, using appropriate methods in our field, modifying them to suit the unique aspects of the space environment. Finally, we develop technologies, tools, and procedures to mitigate the decrements in human performance and capabilities that occur in space environments. When successful, we decrease risks to crew safety and to mission success. When extremely successful (or lucky), we devise generalizable solutions that advance the state of our practice. Our panel is composed of researchers from diverse domains of our project... from different boxes, if you will, of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).

Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

2010-01-01

333

Explorations in Education and Public Outreach in Space Sciences - a Wisconsin Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better serve the Education and Public Outreach needs of federally funded space science research programs at the University of Wisconsin, an Office of Space Science Education has recently been established on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus. This office also acts as the campus focus for the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, and has undertaken a broad spectrum of interdisciplinary space science programs in the past several years. These activities range from a public exhibition focusing on current space exploration in conjunction with the DPS '98 meeting in Madison, WI that attracted over 5,000 students and teachers from across the state, to organizing state-of-the-art HDTV presentations on earth remote sensing topics at a Milwaukee science museum. Programs for students have included development and support of a six week solar system exploration program in the Milwaukee Public Schools for at-risk students, a two week college access program for minority middle school students, the NASA/QEM/SHARP Plus program for minority high school students, and a web based journal for middle school science projects (SPARK). Teacher professional development efforts include summer workshops for academic credit, year-round classroom support for pilot school programs, and support for development of standards-based curriculum in both space science and earth remote sensing topics. Public outreach activities have included evening family activities and public lectures at the Space Place, an off-campus outreach center, and an ask-a-scientist web based program. These efforts continue to affirm the need for effective outreach programs for diverse and multigenerational communities. In spite of the growing recognition at both the state and federal level for an improved level of literacy in the space-related sciences, sustainable support, program opportunities and logistical implementation continue to pose significant challenges. We gratefully acknowledge the support we have received from NASA, NOAA, the Division for Planetary Sciences of the AAS (space exploration exhibition), the University of Wisconsin System and the Eisenhower Professional Development Program.

Limaye, S. S.; Pertzborn, R. A.

1999-09-01

334

Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

Nisbett, Nancy

2012-01-01

335

A methodology for rapid vehicle scaling and configuration space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Configuration-space Exploration and Scaling Methodology (CESM) entails the representation of component or sub-system geometries as matrices of points in 3D space. These typically large matrices are reduced using minimal convex sets or convex hulls. This reduction leads to significant gains in collision detection speed at minimal approximation expense. (The Gilbert-Johnson-Keerthi algorithm [79] is used for collision detection purposes in this methodology.) Once the components are laid out, their collective convex hull (from here on out referred to as the super-hull) is used to approximate the inner mold line of the minimum enclosing envelope of the vehicle concept. A sectional slicing algorithm is used to extract the sectional dimensions of this envelope. An offset is added to these dimensions in order to come up with the sectional fuselage dimensions. Once the lift and control surfaces are added, vehicle level objective functions can be evaluated and compared to other designs. The size of the design space coupled with the fact that some key constraints such as the number of collisions are discontinuous, dictate that a domain-spanning optimization routine be used. Also, as this is a conceptual design tool, the goal is to provide the designer with a diverse baseline geometry space from which to chose. For these reasons, a domain-spanning algorithm with counter-measures against speciation and genetic drift is the recommended optimization approach. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) [60] is shown to work well for the proof of concept study. There are two major reasons why the need to evaluate higher fidelity, custom geometric scaling laws became a part of this body of work. First of all, historical-data based regressions become implicitly unreliable when the vehicle concept in question is designed around a disruptive technology. Second, it was shown that simpler approaches such as photographic scaling can result in highly suboptimal concepts even for very small scaling factors. Yet good scaling information is critical to the success of any conceptual design process. In the CESM methodology, it is assumed that the new technology has matured enough to permit the prediction of the scaling behavior of the various subsystems in response to requirement changes. Updated subsystem geometry data is generated by applying the new requirement settings to the affected subsystems. All collisions are then eliminated using the NSGA-II algorithm. This is done while minimizing the adverse impact on the vehicle packing density. Once all collisions are eliminated, the vehicle geometry is reconstructed and system level data such as fuselage volume can be harvested. This process is repeated for all requirement settings. Dimensional analysis and regression can be carried out using this data and all other pertinent metrics in the manner described by Mendez [124] and Segel [173]. The dominant parameters for each response show up as in the dimensionally consistent groups that form the independent variables. More importantly the impact of changes in any of these variables on system level dependent variables can be easily and rapidly evaluated. In this way, the conceptual design process can be accelerated without sacrificing analysis accuracy. Scaling laws for take-off gross weight and fuselage volume as functions of fuel cell specific power and power density for a notional General Aviation vehicle are derived for the proof of concept. CESM enables the designer to maintain design freedom by portably carrying multiple designs deeper into the design process. Also since CESM is a bottom-up approach, all proposed baseline concepts are implicitly volumetrically feasible. System level geometry parameters become fall-outs as opposed to inputs. This is a critical attribute as, without the benefit of experience, a designer would be hard pressed to set the appropriate ranges for such parameters for a vehicle built around a disruptive technology. Furthermore, scaling laws generated from custom data for each concept are subject to less desi

Balaba, Davis

2009-12-01

336

Facts about NASA's Exploration Architecture and New Spaceship Vision for Space Exploration  

E-print Network

to return the space shuttle to flight, complete the International Space Station, return to the moon. · The spacecraft will have a total mass of 25 metric tons, be able to dock with the International Space Station the space shuttle is retired in 2010, and ensure the U.S. can continue to service the International Space

337

NASA Shows Progress of President's Space Exploration Vision - Duration: 2:47.  

NASA Video Gallery

On the third anniversary of President Obama's visit to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where he set his space exploration vision for the future, news media representatives were given an opp...

338

Exploring the Use of Technology in Healthcare Spaces and its Impact on Empathic Communication  

E-print Network

Exploring the Use of Technology in Healthcare Spaces and its Impact on Empathic Communication of healthcare spaces and the technologies inside affect doctor-patient interaction and communication Design, Human Factors Keywords Healthcare, communication, patient, doctors, clinicians, empathy, design

Anderson, Richard

339

Space and surface power for the space exploration initiative: Results from project outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis and evaluations of the Space and Surface Power panel, one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program, is documented. In addition to managing and evaluating the responses, or submissions, to this public outreach program, RAND conducted its own analysis and evaluation relevent to SEI mission concepts, systems, and technologies. The Power panel screened and analyzed submissions for which a substantial portion of the concepts involved power generation sources, transmission, distribution, thermal management, and handling of power (including conditioning, conversion, packaging, and enhancements in system components). A background discussion of the areas the Power panel covered and the issues the reviewers considered pertinent to the analysis of power submissions are presented. An overview of each of the highest-ranked submissions and then a discussion of these submissions is presented. The results of the analysis is presented.

Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.; Gonzales, D.; Juncosa, M.; Bauer, T.; Salter, R.

1991-01-01

340

How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP's goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

Lumpkins, Sarah; Mindock, Jennifer

2014-01-01

341

How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP’s goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

Lumpkins, S. B.; Mindock, J. A.

2014-01-01

342

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Askins, Bruce

2014-01-01

343

National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Education for the next generation of space explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new vision for space exploration by educating and inspiring the next generation of students through a seamless pipeline of kindergarten through postdoctoral education programs. NSBRI EPOP initiatives are designed to train scientists and to communicate the significance of

Marlene Y. MacLeish; William A. Thomson; Nancy Moreno; Patrick J. Gannon; Roland B. Smith; Clifford W. Houston; Gary Coulter; Gregory L. Vogt

2007-01-01

344

Recommendations for Exploration Space Medicine from the Apollo Medical Operations Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: A study was requested in December, 2005 by the Space Medicine Division at the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The objective was to use this new information to develop medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), Lunar Habitat, and Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits that are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. Methods: Available resources pertaining to medical operations on the Apollo 7 through 17 missions were reviewed. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified in the background research, generating 655 data records in a database. A review of the records resulted in 280 questions that were then posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers by mail, face-to-face meetings, or online interaction. Response analysis to these questions formed the basis of recommendations to items in each of the categories. Results: Thirteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (59%) participated in the project. Approximately 236 pages of responses to the questions were captured, resulting in 107 recommendations offered for medical consideration in the design of future vehicles and EVA suits based on the Apollo experience. Discussion: The goals of this project included: 1) Develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles; 2) create a centralized database for future access; and 3) take this new knowledge and educate the various directorates at NASA-JSC who are participating in the exploration effort. To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmembers input has proved to be an invaluable resource, prompting ongoing collaboration as the requirements for the future exploration missions continue to evolve and be refined.

Scheuring, R. a.; Davis, J. R.; Duncan, J. M.; Polk, J. D.; Jones, J. A.; Gillis, D. B.

2007-01-01

345

"Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

346

ON SPACE EXPLORATION AND HUMAN ERROR A paper on reliability and safety  

E-print Network

, the Space Shuttle Columbia in 2003 which resulted in seven fatalities, the Space Shuttle Challenger launch, with half of that #12;cost due to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger. NASA is not aloneON SPACE EXPLORATION AND HUMAN ERROR A paper on reliability and safety David A. Maluf and Yuri O

Maluf, David A.

347

Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers for Space-based Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present current and near-term uses of high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers for NASA science and spacecraft applications. Fiber lasers and amplifiers offer numerous advantages for the deployment of instruments on exploration and science remote sensing satellites. Ground-based and airborne systems provide an evolutionary path to space and a means for calibration and verification of space-borne systems. NASA fiber-laser-based instruments include laser sounders and lidars for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor and methane and a pulsed or pseudo-noise (PN) code laser ranging system in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength band. The associated fiber transmitters include high-power erbium, ytterbium, and neodymium systems and a fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator. We discuss recent experimental progress on these systems and instrument prototypes for ongoing development efforts.

Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Coyle, Barry; Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.; Li, Steven X.; Riris, Haris

2012-01-01

348

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for the Federal fiscal year of 2010 are: Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments, Modeling of Radiation Effects on Electronics, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), and and Reconfigurable Computing.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2010-01-01

349

Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.  

PubMed

Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described. PMID:25551493

Cucinotta, Francis A

2015-02-01

350

[From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].  

PubMed

The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine. PMID:21848209

Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

2011-01-01

351

Thermal Performance Of Space Suit Elements With Aerogel Insulation For Moon And Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fiber-reinforced aerogel composites were studied for use as insulation materials of a future space suit for Moon and Mars exploration. High flexibility and good thermal insulation properties of fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composites at both high and low vacuum conditions make it a promising insulation candidate for the space suit application. This paper first presents the results of a durability (mechanical cycling) study of these aerogels composites in the context of retaining their thermal performance. The study shows that some of these Aerogels materials retained most of their insulation performance after up to 250,000 cycles of mechanical flex cycling. This paper also examines the problem of integrating these flexible aerogel composites into the current space suit elements. Thermal conductivity evaluations are proposed for different types of aerogels space suit elements to identify the lay-up concept that may have the best overall thermal performance for both Moon and Mars environments. Potential solutions in mitigating the silica dusting issue related to the application of these aerogels materials for the space suit elements are also discussed.

Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Trevino, Luis A.

2006-01-01

352

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

2004-01-01

353

Giving children space: A phenomenological exploration of student experiences in space science inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived experience of twenty 4th grade students as well as the reflections of two high school students looking back on their 4th grade space science experience. To open the phenomenon more deeply, the concept of space is explored as an overarching theme throughout the text. The writings of several philosophers including Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer are opened up to understand the existential aspects of phenomenology and the act of experiencing the classroom as a lived human experience. The methodological structure for the study is based largely on the work of Max van Manen (2003) in his seminal work, Researching Lived Experience, which describes a structure of human science research. A narrative based on classroom experiences, individual conversations, written reflections, and group discussion provides insight into the students' experiences. Their stories and thoughts reveal the themes of activity , interactivity, and "inquiractivity," each emerging as an essential element of the lived experience in the inquiry-based space science classroom. The metaphor of light brings illumination to the themes. Activity in the classroom is associated with light's constant and rapid motion throughout the Milky Way and beyond. Interactivity is seen through students' interactions just as light's reflective nature is seen through the illumination of the planets. Finally, inquiractivity is connected to questioning, the principal aspect of the inquiry-based classroom just as the sun is the essential source of light in our solar system. As the era of No Child Left Behind fades, and the next generation of science standards emerge, the students' stories are viewed through the lens of the scientific practices found in A Framework for K-12 Science Education (The National Research Council, 2011). The critical challenge for elementary educators interacting with this text is to find the lived meaning of giving children space in an inquiry-based experience.

Horne, Christopher R.

354

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

355

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd

2012-01-01

356

Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric

R. Joseph Cassady; Robert H. Frisbee; James H. Gilland; Michael G. Houts; Michael R. LaPointe; Colleen M. Maresse-Reading; Steven R. Oleson; James E. Polk; Derrek Russell; Anita Sengupta

2008-01-01

357

Concept of Space Suit Enclosure for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present advanced projects of the early XXI century are beginning to develop. These projects include lunar base development and manned missions to Mars. The space suit is one of the basic requirements for successful implementation of future programs. The space suit enclosure enables mobility of crewmembers wearing pressurized space suits which will be required to complete these missions. Requirements

I. Abramov; N. Moiseyev; A. Stoklitsky

358

Multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity: Fundamental research and strategic research for exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel. The fundamental research in multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is aimed at developing better mechanistic understanding of pool boiling and ascertaining the effects of gravity on heat transfer and the critical heat flux. Space flight experiments conducted in space have shown that nucleate pool boiling can be sustained under certain conditions in the microgravity environment. New space flight experiments are being developed to provide more quantitative information on pool boiling in microgravity. Ground-based investigations are also being conducted to develop mechanistic models for flow and pool boiling. An overview of the research plan and roadmap for the strategic research in multiphase flow and phase change as well as research findings from the ongoing program will be presented.

Singh, Bhim S.

2003-01-01

359

NUMERICAL SOLUTION of MARKOV CHAINS, p. 167189 Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical Analysis of  

E-print Network

: Multi-valued Decision Diagrams, Matrix Diagrams, Numerical Analysis, Symbolic State-space Exploration. This fact has been exploited to facilitate model-based numerical analysis. Likewise, recent results on modelNUMERICAL SOLUTION of MARKOV CHAINS, p. 167­189 Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

360

Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration?  

E-print Network

Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? · Formed, the Faculty of Engineering and the departments of Physics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Biology, Chemistry and space · Aims to lead Canadian planetary science and exploration efforts by creating a research

Denham, Graham

361

Edinburgh Research Explorer A state space augmentation algorithm for the replenishment  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer A state space augmentation algorithm for the replenishment cycle space augmentation algorithm for the replenishment cycle inventory policy' International Journal (DOI): 10.1016/j.ijpe.2010.04.017 Link: Link to publication record in Edinburgh Research Explorer

Millar, Andrew J.

362

Temporal partitioning combined with design space exploration for latency minimization of run-time reconfigured designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present combined temporal partitioning and design space exploration techniques for synthesizing behavioral specifications for run-time reconfigurable processors. De- sign space exploration involves selecting a design point for each task from a set of design points for that task to achieve latency minimization of partitioned solutions. We present an iterative search procedure that uses a core ILP (Integer Linear Programming)

Meenakshi Kaul; Ranga Vemuri

1999-01-01

363

... the official newsletter of the School of Earth and Space Exploration  

E-print Network

... the official newsletter of the School of Earth and Space Exploration ... the official newsletter of the School of Earth and Space ExplorationSESE Source Volume 2, Issue 1 Upcoming Events://sese.asu.edu/opportunities. Reevaluating the age of the Solar System Contents Research News 2-4 Faculty Research Profiles 5-6 Student Focus

Rhoads, James

364

Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine  

E-print Network

1 Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine What is MINAR? Boulby Mine, a 1.3 km-deep potash mine, offers the ideal environment to test procedures and technology from the space exploration sector to the mining industry to improve mining safety and profitable

Strathclyde, University of

365

Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

366

Exploring a New Space of Features for Document Classification: Figure Clustering  

E-print Network

Exploring a New Space of Features for Document Classification: Figure Clustering Nawei Chen, Hagit content forms the basis for features that are used in document classification. In this paper, we explore figures and illustrations. A figure may consist of a few meaningful subfigures. We pro- pose and explore

Shatkay, Hagit

367

Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASAs current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond Low Earth Orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan

2014-01-01

368

Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASA's current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond Low Earth Orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan D.

2014-01-01

369

Overview of Intelligent Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASA's current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low Earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond low Earth orbit, the issues of communication time-lag and lack of communication bandwidth beyond geosynchronous orbit does not permit this type of operation. This paper presents the work currently ongoing at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous power control system as well as the effort to assemble that controller into the framework of the vehicle mission manager and other subsystem controllers to enable autonomous control of the complete spacecraft. Due to the common problems faced in both space power systems and terrestrial power system, the potential for spin-off applications of this technology for use in micro-grids located at the edge or user end of terrestrial power grids for peak power accommodation and reliability are described.

Soeder, James F.; Dever, Timothy P.; McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Trase, Larry M.; May, Ryan D.

2014-01-01

370

Space Exploration Initiative set as a national priority - Responding to national policies and needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), through its complementary robotic and human exploration activities, offers a unique opportunity for the establishment of American preeminence in scientific research and technology development, as well as in their educational and economic spinoffs. Attention is given to the preclusion of the problem encountered in space exploration activities in the past by leaving the discovery and development of their various 'spinoffs' to chance.

Henn, Jay M.; Reeves, Richard A.

1992-01-01

371

Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H., E-mail: chensh@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)] [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Ang, L. K. [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)] [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2014-04-15

372

Quenches and crunchs: Does the system explore in aging the same part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium ?  

E-print Network

Numerical studies are providing novel information on the physical processes associated to physical aging. The process of aging has been shown to consist in a slow process of explorations of deeper and deeper minima of the system potential energy surface. In this article we compare the properties of the basins explored in equilibrium with those explored during the aging process both for sudden temperature changes and for sudden density changes. We find that the hypothesis that during the aging process the system explores the part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium holds only for shallow quenches or for the early aging dynamics. At longer times, systematic deviations are observed. In the case of crunches, such deviations are much more apparent.

Stefano Mossa; Giancarlo Ruocco; Francesco Sciortino; Piero Tartaglia

2001-07-06

373

Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

2005-01-01

374

Design space exploration and optimization using modern ship design tools  

E-print Network

Modern Naval Architects use a variety of computer design tools to explore feasible options for clean sheet ship designs. Under the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division ...

Jones, Adam T. (Adam Thomas)

2014-01-01

375

In-Space Propulsion Technology Products for NASA's Future Science and Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered, as well as having broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models: and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Flagship, and Exploration technology demonstration missions

Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.

2011-01-01

376

ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap: A Stepwise Approach to Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2011, ISECG released the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), advancing the "Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" by articulating the perspectives of participating agencies on exploration goals and objectives, mission scenarios, and coordination of exploration preparatory activities. The GER featured a stepwise development and demonstration of capabilities ultimately required for human exploration of Mars. In 2013 the GER was updated to reflect the ongoing evolution of agency's exploration policies and plans, informed by individual agency and coordinated analysis activities that are relevant to various elements of the GER framework as well as coordinated stakeholder engagement activities. For this release of version 2 of the GER in the mid 2013 timeframe, a modified mission scenario is presented, more firmly reflecting the importance of a stepwise evolution of critical capabilities provided by multiple partners necessary for executing increasingly complex missions to multiple destinations and leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the updated mission scenario, the changes since the release of version 1, the mission themes incorporated into the scenario, and risk reduction for Mars missions provided by exploration at various destinations.

Martinez, Roland; Goodliff, Kandyce; Whitley, Ryan

2013-01-01

377

Space-Inspired Trailers Encourage Exploration on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architect Garret Finney joined Johnson Space Center's Habitability Design Center to work on creating comfortable, efficiently designed crew quarters for the ISS. Drawing directly on that experience, Finney founded Houston-based Cricket and set about creating unique, versatile recreational trailers that incorporate space habitat principles and features.

2013-01-01

378

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

1991-01-01

379

Exploring the Universe with the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview is given of the operations, engineering challenges, and components of the Hubble Space Telescope. Deployment, checkout and servicing in space are discussed. The optical telescope assembly, focal plane scientific instruments, wide field/planetary camera, faint object spectrograph, faint object camera, Goddard high resolution spectrograph, high speed photometer, fine guidance sensors, second generation technology, and support systems and services are reviewed.

1990-01-01

380

Mars in the Current Glacial-Interglacial Cycle: Exploring an Anomalous Period in Mars Climate History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive geological record of Mars' most recent ice age and the current interglacial period offer unprecedented and accessible opportunities to explore and characterize systematic effects of individual periods of spin-axis\\/orbital variation.

J. W. Head; J. F. Mustard; M. A. Kreslavsky; R. E. Milliken; D. R. Marchant; F. Forget; S. C. Schon; J. S. Levy

2011-01-01

381

Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

Harris, Bernard A. (editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (editor)

1994-01-01

382

Design space exploration of stochastic System-of-Systems simulations using adaptive sequential experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexities of our surrounding environments are becoming increasingly diverse, more integrated, and continuously more difficult to predict and characterize. These modeling complexities are ever more prevalent in System-of-System (SoS) simulations where simulation run times can surpass real-time and are often dictated by stochastic processes and non-continuous emergent behaviors. As the number of connections continue to increase in modeling environments and the number of external noise variables continue to multiply, these SoS simulations can no longer be explored with traditional means without significantly wasted computational resources. This research will discuss the defining features of an SoS and many of the issues plaguing the SoS industry. Then, it will move to a literature review of the concepts currently used to explore design spaces, and finally, it will explore a set of two cascading research areas which will culminate in an adaptive sequential design of experiments for SoS simulations. The first research area will investigate the key features to SoS and the attributes of these SoS which are important to be identified while exploring their simulations. To complete this investigation, first SoS properties are deduced from SoS's relationship to its super-class, complex systems. Second, following this examination, properties are further induced by investigating notional SoS simulations. From these two research avenues it will be discovered these spaces are nonparametric, conditionally variant, non-normally and non-identically distributed. Further, attributes of the output metrics are identified that will increase the likelihood of locating interesting regions of SoS simulations. The knowledge and information gained from this first research focus is used in developing and comparing existing techniques capable of capturing SoS attributes. Several methods from the literature are compared on numerous stochastic mathematical problems and a single notional SoS simulation to determine their relative performance. From this comparison it will be shown that there are currently no methods capable of learning both the mean and variance of these complex spaces. Although the best method will be shown to be the MARS algorithm for generic high dimensional stochastic problems, it will be shown to be inadequate for SoS simulations. Finally, these two research areas will enable the synthesis of an adaptive sequential algorithm capable of exploring stochastic simulations with emphasis on the attributes common to SoS. This final research area will determine strategically where to place points in the design space to improve its predictive capability. The final algorithm will be tested on an identical set of stochastic mathematical problems and the notional SoS simulation from the second research area, but will also include a published high dimensional SoS simulation. The final method will be shown to improve the exploration of stochastic simulations over existing methods by increased global accuracy, the number of simulations required to learn the space, and the computational speed.

Kernstine, Kemp H., Jr.

383

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable, Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated December 2017. SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. For the United States current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. This version will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. SLS is designed to evolve to a 130 t lift capability that can reduce mission costs, simplify payload design, reduce trip times, and lower overall risk. Each vehicle element completed its respective Preliminary Design Reviews, followed by the SLS Program. The Program also completed the Key Decision Point-C milestone to move from formulation to implementation in 2014. NASA hasthorized the program to proceed to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Accomplihments to date include: manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. This paper will discuss SLS Program successes over the past year and examine milestones and challenges ahead. The SLS Program and its elements are managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

384

A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. vision for space exploration is to: a) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond b) Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations c) Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration, and d) Promote international and commercial participation in exploration.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

385

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1993-01-01

386

Exploring the diffeomorphism invariant Hilbert space of a scalar field  

E-print Network

As a toy model for the implementation of the diffeomorphism constraint, the interpretation of the resulting states, and the treatment of ordering ambiguities in loop quantum gravity, we consider the Hilbert space of spatially diffeomorphism invariant states for a scalar field. We give a very explicit formula for the scalar product on this space, and discuss its structure. Then we turn to the quantization of a certain class of diffeomorphism invariant quantities on that space, and discuss in detail the ordering issues involved. On a technical level these issues bear some similarity to those encountered in full loop quantum gravity.

Hanno Sahlmann

2007-08-31

387

Efficient exploration of chemical space by fragment-based screening.  

PubMed

Screening methods seek to sample a vast chemical space in order to identify starting points for further chemical optimisation. Fragment based drug discovery exploits the superior sampling of chemical space that can be achieved when the molecular weight is restricted. Here we show that commercially available fragment space is still relatively poorly sampled and argue for highly sensitive screening methods to allow the detection of smaller fragments. We analyse the properties of our fragment library versus the properties of X-ray hits derived from the library. We particularly consider properties related to the degree of planarity of the fragments. PMID:25268064

Hall, Richard J; Mortenson, Paul N; Murray, Christopher W

2014-01-01

388

Bold endeavors: behavioral lessons from polar and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and space missions of the future. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, but from a psychological perspective, the differences are few between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space. This paper discusses some of the behavioral lessons that can be learned from previous expeditions and applied to facilitate human adjustment and performance during future space expeditions of long duration.

Stuster, J. W.

2000-01-01

389

Intelligent Control in Space Exploration: What Non-Linearity to Choose?  

E-print Network

.g., for a rover mission to Mars, it is important to con- trol the spaceship's trajectory, and after that is Necessary for Space Exploration Control is necessary for space missions. For a space mission, the smoothness and fuel efficiency of trajectory control, etc. · For an automated planet mission, e

Kreinovich, Vladik

390

In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Robotic Exploration of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing the next generation of space propulsion technologies for robotic, deep-space exploration. Recent technological advancements and demonstrations of key, high-payoff propulsion technologies have been achieved and will be described. Technologies under development and test include aerocapture, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, and advanced chemical propulsion.

Johnson, Les; Meyer, Rae Ann; Frame, Kyle

2006-01-01

391

Visual exploration of eye movement data using the Space-Time-Cube  

E-print Network

Visual exploration of eye movement data using the Space-Time-Cube Xia Li1,2 , Arzu �öltekin3, the limitations of these methods are discussed. This paper proposes an approach that enables the use of the Space-Time-Cube, Space-Time-Cube, Usability evaluation, Spatio-temporal data. 1 Introduction Usability evaluations

�öltekin, Arzu

392

Exploring inter-concept relationship with context space for semantic video indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic concept detectors are often individually and inde- pendently developed. Using peripherally related concepts for leveraging the power of joint detection, which is referred to as context-based concept fusion (CBCF), has been one of the focus studies in recent years. This paper proposes the construction of a context space and the exploration of the space for CBCF. Context space considers

Xiao-yong Wei; Yu-gang Jiang; Chong-wah Ngo

2009-01-01

393

Want to Work on cutting-edge space exploration technology at honeybee robotics? Summer 2012 Internship  

E-print Network

Want to Work on cutting-edge space exploration technology at honeybee robotics? Summer 2012 Internship Eligibility · United States citizen · Full-time undergraduate or master's student at a NY Space). A stipend of $7,000 will be provided. to apply: E-mail your résumé & cover letter to NY Space Grant

Manning, Sturt

394

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND NASAAdvisory Council/Human Exploration and Operations Committee  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND ROBOTICS NASAAdvisory Council/Human Exploration and Operations Committee 7 March, 2012 Ron Ticker International Space Station Division NASA Headquarters Washington, DC #12/ultrasound beacons Crew setup/monitoring/stow First launch 2006 6 #12;International Space Station SPHERES Integrated

Waliser, Duane E.

395

Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit begins by introducing students to the historical motivation for space exploration. They learn about the International Space Station, including current and futuristic ideas that engineers are designing to propel space research. Then they learn about the physical properties of the Moon, and think about what types of products engineers would need to design in order for humans to live on the Moon. Lastly, students learn some descriptive facts about asteroids, such as their sizes and how that relates to the potential danger of an asteroid colliding with the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

396

Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other space context that will be useful on Earth on a conceptual and practical level? * In what ways could architecture's field of reference offer building on the Moon (and other celestial bodies) a paradigm shift? 1 In addition to their models and designs, workshop participants will begin authoring a design recommendation for the building of (infra-) structures and habitats on celestial bodies in particular the Moon and Mars. The design recommendation, a substantiated aesthetic code of conduct (not legally binding) will address long term planning and incorporate issues of sustainability, durability, bio-diversity, infrastructure, CHANGE, and techniques that lend themselves to Earth-bound applications. It will also address the cultural implications of architectural design might have within the context of space exploration. The design recommendation will ultimately be presented for peer review to both the space and architecture communities. What would the endorsement from the architectural community of such a document mean to the space community? The Lunar Architecture Workshop is conceptualised, produced and organised by(in alphabetical order): Alexander van Dijk, Art Race in Space, Barbara Imhof; ES- CAPE*spHERE, Vienna, University of Technology, Institute for Design and Building Construction, Vienna, Bernard Foing; ESA SMART1 Project Scientist, Susmita Mo- hanty; MoonFront, LLC, Hans Schartner' Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Design and Building Construction, Debra Solomon; Art Race in Space, Dutch Art Institute, Paul van Susante; Lunar Explorers Society. Workshop locations: ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL Workshop dates: June 3-16, 2002 (a Call for Participation will be made in March -April 2002.) 2

Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

397

Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

2012-01-01

398

A methodology to support strategic decisions in future human space exploration: From scenario definition to building blocks assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human exploration of multiple deep space destinations (e.g. Cis-Lunar, NEAs), in view of the final challenge of sending astronauts to Mars, represents a current and consistent study domain especially in terms of its possible scenarios and mission architectures assessments, as proved by the numerous on-going activities about this topic and moreover by the global exploration roadmap. After exploring and analysing different possible solutions to identify the most flexible path, a detailed characterisation of several Design Reference Missions (DRMs) represents a necessity in order to evaluate the feasibility and affordability of deep space exploration missions, specifically in terms of enabling technological capabilities. The study presented in this paper was aimed at defining an evolutionary scenario for deep space exploration in the next 30 years with the final goal of sending astronauts on the surface of Mars by the end of 2030 decade. Different destinations were considered as targets to build the human exploration scenario, with particular attention to Earth-Moon Lagrangian points, NEA and Moon. For all the destinations selected as part of the exploration scenario, the assessment and characterisation of the relative Design Reference Missions were performed. Specifically they were defined in terms of strategies, architectures and mission elements. All the analyses were based on a pure technical approach with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of a long term strategy for capabilities achievement and technological development to enable future space exploration. This paper describes the process that was followed within the study, focusing on the adopted methodology, and reports the major obtained results, in terms of scenario and mission analysis.

Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Gargioli, Eugenio; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Maggiore, Paolo; Messidoro, Andrea; Viola, Nicole

2013-10-01

399

Exploiting Compositionality to Explore a Large Space of Model Structures  

E-print Network

The recent proliferation of richly structured probabilistic models raises the question of how to automatically determine an appropriate model for a dataset. We investigate this question for a space of matrix decomposition ...

Grosse, Roger Baker

400

Future of Human Space Exploration - Duration: 10:53.  

NASA Video Gallery

Now that the Space Shuttle era is over, NASA is writing the next chapters in human Spaceflight with its commercial and international partners. It is advancing research and technology on the Interna...

401

Exploring phase space turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma turbulence accompanied with fluctuations of the distribution function and the electromagnetic fields develops on the phase space composed of the configuration space and the velocity space. Detailed structures of the distribution function in magnetic fusion plasmas are investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations performed on massively parallel supercomputers. The gyrokinetic simulations of drift wave turbulence have demonstrated entropy transfer in the phase space, zonal flow enhancement by helical fields and the resultant transport reduction. The state-of-the-art high performance computing is utilized for a multi-scale turbulence simulation covering ion- and electron-scales and for a global-scale simulation of turbulent transport in a sub-ITER sized plasma.

Watanabe, T.-H.; Idomura, Y.; Maeyama, S.; Nakata, M.; Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Ishizawa, A.

2014-05-01

402

The Henrietta Leavitt Flat Screen Space Theater: Explorations in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Henrietta Leavitt Flat Screen Space Theater is named for an American astronomer working at the Harvard Observatory in the beginning of this century. The site is authored by Carolyn Collins Petersen, an accomplished astronomy writer and part-time Hubble researcher. Carolyn takes viewers to "The Planetarium Show That Never Ends," where various heavenly bodies are displayed and described in non-scientific but informative and inspiring ways. Next stop is the "The Space Image Gallery" where we can view beautiful photos of star birth, Jupiter's Moons, and the Cat's Eye Nebula, all with brief, lucid descriptions. The Flat Screen Space Theater is not so much educational as it is inspirational for those of us who haven't stopped recently to view the photos coming back from space, and so have forgotten what all the fuss is about.

1995-01-01

403

Radiation and Human Space Exploration - Duration: 9:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

Just outside the protective layer of Earth?s atmosphere and magnetosphere, is a universe full of radiation. What happens to our bodies when we leave the surface of Earth to travel in space or visit...

404

Space Communication and Navigation Testbed Communications Technology for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA developed and launched an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio, networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASAs Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developed by NASA and industry partners. The payload is externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and available to NASA, industry, and university partners to conduct experiments representative of future mission capability. Experiment operations include in-flight reconfiguration of the SDR waveform functions and payload networking software. The flight system communicates with NASAs orbiting satellite relay network, the Tracking, Data Relay Satellite System at both S-band and Ka-band and to any Earth-based compatible S-band ground station.

Reinhart, Richard

2013-01-01

405

SPACE : the spectroscopic all-sky cosmic explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the scientific motivations, the mission concept and the instrumentation of SPACE, a class-M mission proposed for concept study at the first call of the ESA Cosmic-Vision 2015–2025 planning cycle. SPACE aims to produce the largest three-dimensional evolutionary map of the Universe over the past 10 billion years by taking near-IR\\u000a spectra and measuring redshifts for more than half a billion

A. Cimatti; M. Robberto; C. M. Baugh; S. V. W. Beckwith; E. Daddi; G. De Lucia; B. Garilli; L. Guzzo; G. Kauffmann; M. Lehnert; D. Maccagni; A. Martínez-Sansigre; F. Pasian; I. N. Reid; P. Rosati; R. Salvaterra; M. Stiavelli; Y. Wang; M. Zapatero Osorio; M. Bersanelli; F. Bertoldi; J. Blaizot; D. Bottini; R. Bower; A. Bulgarelli; A. Burgasser; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; S. Casertano; B. Ciardi; M. Cirasuolo; M. Clampin; S. Cole; A. Comastri; S. Cristiani; J.-G. Cuby; F. Cuttaia; A. De Rosa; A. Diaz Sanchez; M. Di Capua; J. Dunlop; X. Fan; A. Franceschini; F. Finelli; M. Franx; P. Franzetti; C. Frenk; Jonathan P. Gardner; F. Gianotti; R. Grange; C. Gruppioni; A. Gruppuso; F. Hammer; L. Hillenbrand; A. Jacobsen; M. Jarvis; R. Kennicutt; R. Kimble; M. Kriek; J. Kurk; J.-P. Kneib; O. Le Fevre; D. Macchetto; J. MacKenty; P. Madau; M. Magliocchetti; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; N. Masetti; R. McLure; A. Mennella; M. Meyer; M. Mignoli; B. Mobasher; E. Molinari; G. Morgante; S. Morris; L. Nicastro; E. Oliva; P. Padovani; E. Palazzi; F. Paresce; A. Perez Garrido; E. Pian; L. Popa; M. Postman; L. Pozzetti; J. Rayner; R. Rebolo; A. Renzini; H. Röttgering; E. Schinnerer; M. Scodeggio; M. Saisse; T. Shanks; A. Shapley; R. Sharples; H. Shea; J. Silk; I. Smail; P. Spanó; J. Steinacker; L. Stringhetti; A. Szalay; L. Tresse; M. Trifoglio; M. Urry; L. Valenziano; F. Villa; I. Villo Perez; F. Walter; M. Ward; R. White; S. White; E. Wright; R. Wyse; G. Zamorani; A. Zacchei; W. W. Zeilinger; F. Zerbi

2009-01-01

406

Opportunities and challenges of international coordination efforts in space exploration - the DLR perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Aerospace Center and German Space Agency DLR has defined internationalisation one of the four pillars of its corporate strategy. Driven by global challenges, national space agencies like DLR are seeking partnerships to contribute to essential societal needs, such as human welfare, sustainability of life, economic development, security, culture and knowledge. All partnerships with both traditional and non-traditional partners must reflect a balanced approach between national requirements and needs of the international community. In view of the challenges emerging from this complexity, endeavours like space exploration must be built on mutual cooperation especially in a challenging political environment. Effective and efficient exploitation of existing expertise, human resources, facilities and infrastructures require consolidated actions of stakeholders, interest groups and authorities. This basic principle applies to any space exploration activity. DLR is among the agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) from its beginning in 2007. The strategic goals of DLR regarding space exploration correspond to the purpose of ISECG as a forum to share objectives and plans to take concrete steps towards partnerships for a globally coordinated effort in space exploration. DLR contributes to ISECG publications especially the “Global Exploration Roadmap” and the “Benefits stemming from Space Exploration” to see those messages reflected that support cooperation with internal and external exploration stakeholders in science and technology and communication with those in politics and society. DLR provides input also to other groups engaging in space exploration. However, taking into account limited resources and expected results, the effectiveness of multiple coordination and planning mechanisms needs to be discussed.

Boese, Andrea

407

Language, Space, Time: Anthropological Tools and Scientific Exploration on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the importance of social science disciplines in the scientific exploration of Mars. The importance of language, workspace, and time differences are reviewed. It would appear that the social scientist perspective in developing a completely new workspace, keeping track of new vocabulary and the different time zones (i.e., terrestrial and Martian) was useful.

Wales, Roxana

2005-01-01

408

Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

Hemingway, Judy

2006-01-01

409

Negotiating Displacement Spaces: Exploring Teachers' Stories about Learning and Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the learning of six in-service U.S. teachers who engaged in a cross-cultural learning experience during the summer of 2001. The teachers were enrolled in a graduate seminar conducted in English and entitled "Literacy Across Languages and Cultures." Cindy (the first author of this…

Brock, Cynthia; Wallace, Jill; Herschbach, Michelle; Johnson, Christine; Raikes, Bill; Warren, Kim; Nikoli, Melissa; Poulsen, Holland

2006-01-01

410

Libration Point Navigation Concepts Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work examines the autonomous navigation accuracy achievable for a lunar exploration trajectory from a translunar libration point lunar navigation relay satellite, augmented by signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS). We also provide a brief analysis comparing the libration point relay to lunar orbit relay architectures, and discuss some issues of GPS usage for cis-lunar trajectories.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Folta, David C.; Moreau, Michael C.; Quinn, David A.

2004-01-01

411

The necessity of functional analysis for space exploration programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly done

A. Terry Morris; Julian C. Breidenthal

2011-01-01

412

The necessity of functional analysis for space exploration programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

? As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly

A. Terry Morris; Julian C. Breidenthal

2011-01-01

413

Exploration of DGVM Parameter Solution Space Using Simulated Annealing: Implications for Forecast Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are thought to be weakly constrained and can be a significant source of errors and uncertainties. DGVMs use between 5 and 26 plant functional types (PFTs) to represent the average plant life form in each simulated plot, and each PFT typically has a dozen or more parameters that define the way it uses resource and responds to the simulated growing environment. Sensitivity analysis explores how varying parameters affects the output, but does not do a full exploration of the parameter solution space. The solution space for DGVM parameter values are thought to be complex and non-linear; and multiple sets of acceptable parameters may exist. In published studies, PFT parameters are estimated from published literature, and often a parameter value is estimated from a single published value. Further, the parameters are "tuned" using somewhat arbitrary, "trial-and-error" methods. BIOMAP is a new DGVM created by fusing MAPSS biogeography model with Biome-BGC. It represents the vegetation of North America using 26 PFTs. We are using simulated annealing, a global search method, to systematically and objectively explore the solution space for the BIOMAP PFTs and system parameters important for plant water use. We defined the boundaries of the solution space by obtaining maximum and minimum values from published literature, and where those were not available, using +/-20% of current values. We used stratified random sampling to select a set of grid cells representing the vegetation of the conterminous USA. Simulated annealing algorithm is applied to the parameters for spin-up and a transient run during the historical period 1961-1990. A set of parameter values is considered acceptable if the associated simulation run produces a modern potential vegetation distribution map that is as accurate as one produced by trial-and-error calibration. We expect to confirm that the solution space is non-linear and complex, and that multiple acceptable parameter sets exist. Further we expect to demonstrate that the multiple parameter sets produce significantly divergent future forecasts in NEP, C storage, and ET and runoff; and thereby identify a highly important source of DGVM uncertainty

Wells, J. R.; Kim, J. B.

2011-12-01

414

Space Travel is Utter Bilge: Early Ideas on Interplanetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until a few decades ago, interplanetary travel was the stuff of dreams but the dreamers often turned out to be farsighted while the predictions of some eminent scientists were far too conservative. The prescient dreamers include the Russian schoolteacher, Konstanin Tsiolkovsky who, in 1883, was the first to note that only rockets could serve the needs of space travel. In 1923, Herman Oberth published a treatise discussing various aspects of interplanetary travel including the impulse necessary to escape the Earth's gravitational pull. In his spare time, a German civil engineer, Walter Hohmann, established in 1925 that the optimal energy transfer orbit between planets is an ellipse that is tangent to the orbits of both bodies. Four year later, an Austrian army officer, Hermann Potocnik outlined the benefits of space stations including those in geosynchronous orbits. Whereas Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Hohmann, and Potocnik provided ideas and theories, the American, Robert H. Goddard, was testing liquid fueled rockets by as early as 1925. By the time he was finished in 1941, Goddard flew liquid fueled rockets that reached speeds of 700 mph and altitudes above 8,000 feet. In direct contrast to the advances by these mostly amateur engineers, many respected authorities scoffed at space travel because of the insurmountable technological difficulties. One year prior to the launch of Sputnik, the British Astronomer Royal, Sir Richard Wooley, declared, "space travel is utter bilge." While the theories of space travel were well developed by the late 1920's, space travel technology was still a poorly funded, mostly amateur, endeavor until the German army hired Oberth's student, Werner von Braun, and others to develop long range rockets for military purposes. In the early 1940's, Von Braun's team developed the rocket propulsion and guidance systems that would one day form the basis of the American space program.

Yeomans, D. K.

2003-12-01

415

Ultraprecise photometry from space: exploring pulsations with the "Humble Space Telescope"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size doesn't always matter. In the case of stellar seismology (using the high-overtone pulsations of stars to probe their global structures and ages), we can use tiny oscillations (a few micromagnitudes in amplitude) to address big questions (maybe even the age of the Universe?). For bright stars, one can reach the photon-noise limit even with a small telescope. But to avoid being swamped by atmospheric scintillation noise and confused by 1 cycle/day aliases inherent to single-site groundbased observing, that telescope must be in space. Fortunately, the cost can still be kept low by exploiting proven optical and detector technology and recent advances in microsatellite attitude control. MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) is a Canadian microsatellite mission to launch a small optical telescope (aperture = 15 cm) into low Earth orbit, equipped with a CCD photometer designed to return unprecedented photometric precision (?L/L ~ 10-6) and eigenfrequency resolution (?? ~ 0.1 ?Hz) on stars other than the Sun. This should allow it to detect acoustic modes like the solar five-minute oscillations; the fine spacing in these modes is sensitive to the core composition and hence, main sequence age. Among the MOST targets are Population II metal-poor subdwarfs, so an age determination for these may set a meaningful lower limit on the age of the Universe. The MOST space telescope is scheduled for launch in 2002 - 2003. Other space missions with similar goals are the French COROT satellite (also funded and scheduled for launch in 2004) and the Danish MONS project (currently awaiting funding).

Matthews, Jaymie; Kuschnig, Rainer; Shkolnik, Evgenya

2001-01-01

416

Students for the Exploration and Development of Space: Hubble Space Telescope Images (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "best of" images taken from the Hubble Space Telescope are presented here by the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS). Links to the latest images as well as the Space Telescope Science Institute (makers of the Hubble) are given. Image credits, as well as a detailed description of what is being seen and where it is located in the sky, accompany each image.

R. Elowitz

417

Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Dynamical Assessment: The current near-term NASA human spaceflight capability is in the process of being defined while the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Space Launch System (SLS) are still in development. Hence, those NEAs in more accessible heliocentric orbits relative to a minimal interplanetary exploration capability will be considered for the first missions. If total mission durations for the first voyages to NEAs are to be kept to less than one year, with minimal velocity changes, then NEA rendezvous missions ideally will take place within 0.1 AU of Earth (approx about 5 million km or 37 lunar distances). Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to inter-planetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting detailed scientific investigations of these primitive objects. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at these destinations. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. Conclusions: The scientific and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a piloted mission to a NEA using NASA's proposed human exploration systems a compelling endeavor

Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

2012-01-01

418

Shape in an Atom of Space: Exploring quantum geometry phenomenology  

E-print Network

A phenomenology for the deep spatial geometry of loop quantum gravity is introduced. In the context of a simple model, an atom of space, it is shown how purely combinatorial structures can affect observations. The angle operator is used to develop a model of angular corrections to local, continuum flat-space 3-geometries. The physical effects involve neither breaking of local Lorentz invariance nor Planck scale suppression, but rather reply on only the combinatorics of SU(2) recoupling. Bhabha scattering is discussed as an example of how the effects might be observationally accessible.

Seth A. Major

2010-05-29

419

Private ground infrastructures for space exploration missions simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Society, a private non profit organisation devoted to promote the red planet exploration, decided to implement simulated Mars habitat in two locations on Earth: in northern Canada on the rim of a meteoritic crater (2000), in a US Utah desert, location of a past Jurassic sea (2001). These habitats have been built with large similarities to actual planned habitats for first Mars exploration missions. Participation is open to everybody either proposing experimentations or wishing only to participate as a crew member. Participants are from different organizations: Mars Society, Universities, experimenters working with NASA or ESA. The general philosophy of the work conducted is not to do an innovative scientific work on the field but to learn how the scientific work is affected or modified by the simulation conditions. Outside activities are conducted with simulated spacesuits limiting the experimenter abilities. Technology or procedures experimentations are also conducted as well as experimentations on the crew psychology and behaviour.

Souchier, Alain

2010-06-01

420

The impact of earth resources exploration from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

Nordberg, W.

1976-01-01

421

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts experience severe\\/invasive disorders caused by space environments. These include hematological and cardiac abnormalities, bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, including muscle, bone, skin, liver, and neuronal cells, we advanced a hypothesis that

Seigo Ohi; Allana-Nicole Roach; Shweta Ramsahai; Bak C. Kim; Wendy Fitzgerald; Danny A. Riley; Steven R. Gonda

2004-01-01

422

Journey to Mars: Exploring Space from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer-based activity for middle school students called MarsQuest that was part of a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) CERES (Center for Educational Resources) project. Discusses student responses; how teachers integrated the activity across the curriculum; instructional design; preplanning; and evaluating student…

Stevenson, Stephanie

2000-01-01

423

A SweepLine Method for State Space Exploration  

E-print Network

#erent reduct ion met hods for alleviat ingt he st at e explosion problem Examples of re­ duct ion met hods,6,14], andt he unfolding met hod [7,17]. Reduct ion met hods represent t he full st at e space in a compact

Mailund, Thomas

424

Polyzoom: multiscale and multifocus exploration in 2d visual spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common techniques for navigating in multiscale visual spaces are pan, zoom, and bird's eye views. However, these techniques are often tedious and cumbersome to use, especially when objects of interest are located far apart. We present the PolyZoom technique where users progressively build hierarchies of focus regions, stacked on each other such that each subsequent level shows a

Waqas Javed; Sohaib Ghani; Niklas Elmqvist

2012-01-01

425

SPACE: the SPectroscopic All-sky Cosmic Explorer  

E-print Network

We describe the scientific motivations, the mission concept and the instrumentation of SPACE, a class-M mission proposed for concept study at the first call of the ESA Cosmic-Vision 2015-2025 planning cycle. SPACE aims to produce the largest three-dimensional evolutionary map of the Universe over the past 10 billion years by taking near-IR spectra and measuring redshifts for more than half a billion galaxies at 0SPACE will also target a smaller sky field, performing a deep spectroscopic survey of millions of galaxies to AB~26 and at 2SPACE will use a 1.5m diameter Ritchey-Chretien telescope equipped with a set of arrays of Digital Micro-mirror Devices (DMDs) covering a total field of view of 0.4 deg2, and will perform large-multiplexing multi-object spectroscopy (e.g. ~6000 targets per pointing) at a spectral resolution of R~400 as well as diffraction-limited imaging with continuous coverage from 0.8mum to 1.8mum.

A. Cimatti; M. Robberto; C. M. Baugh; S. V. W. Beckwith; R. Content; E. Daddi; G. De Lucia; B. Garilli; L. Guzzo; G. Kauffmann; M. Lehnert; D. Maccagni; A. Martinez-Sansigre; F. Pasian; I. N. Reid; P. Rosati; R. Salvaterra; M. Stiavelli; Y. Wang; M. Zapatero Osorio; the SPACE team

2008-04-28