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1

Autonomy in Space Exploration: Current Capabilities and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep space exploration requires vehicles with appropriate autonomous capabilities. In order to accomplish their missions, spacecraft need to respond to potential hazards while seeking to expand human knowledge of deep space. This paper provides an overview of the role of autonomy for space exploration. First, we explore the range of autonomous behavior that is useful in space exploration. Second, three

A. K. Jonsson; R. A. Morris; L. Pedersen

2007-01-01

2

The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.  

PubMed

After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. PMID:16010757

Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

2005-01-01

3

Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2006-01-01

4

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

5

On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

2011-01-01

6

The space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

Priest, Pete

1991-01-01

7

hese are exciting times for space exp-loration. We are currently witnessing a  

E-print Network

, there has been a re- examination of the exploratory potential of human spaceflight and, for the first time's human spaceflight activities away from Earth orbit and towards the Moon and Mars, with a manned return extent should lunar exploration have a greater emphasis? G To what extent is human spaceflight essential

Crawford, Ian

8

Market Driven Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA's recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance

Raymond B. Gavert

2004-01-01

9

Market Driven Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA’s recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance

Raymond B. Gavert

2004-01-01

10

Market Driven Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA's recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance Jupiter type missions, but it also important for providing greater access to planets and bodies nearer to the Earth. NASA has been working with industrial partners since 1987 through its Research Partnerships Centers (RPCs) to utilize the attributes of space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Plans are now being made to utilize the RPCs and industrial partners in extending the duration and boundaries of human space flight to create new opportunities for exploration and discovery. Private investors are considering setting up shops in LEO for commercial purposes. The trend is for more industrial involvement in space. Nuclear power and propulsion will hasten the progress. The objective of this paper is to show the progression of space market driven research and its potential for supporting space exploration given nuclear power and propulsion capabilities.

Gavert, Raymond B.

2004-02-01

11

Explorers from space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The statement that a new era in exploration is opening will almost surely bring to mind the venturing of man into space and the ever more imminent exploration of the moon. The reference here, however, is to exploration of earth itself and to the unique capabilities for study of the earth that space technology will provide. Demands for water, minerals, energy, food, and for working, living and recreational space are outrunning our ability to meet them by traditional methods. In order to satisfy these demands, it is necessary now, just as it has been in the past, to look to the activities, the instruments, and the technologies that in part create the pressures for aid in meeting them. Studies being made at the U.S. Geological Survey and elsewhere of the potential applications of remote sensors in space to earth resources research indicate that now, at last, it will be possible to approach solutions on a regional or global basis. This paper discusses the plans for an Earth Resources Observational Satellites Program which will be designed for that purpose.

Fary, Raymond W., Jr.

1967-01-01

12

Translational Research in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

2007-01-01

13

Space exploration outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of the solar system has been one of NASA's most significant achievements. Currently Voyager 2 is on its way to Uranus and Neptune, and Galileo is being readied for detailed investigation of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites. A new phase of exploration will be inaugurated in the mid-80s with the start of the Planetary Observers and Mariner Mark II missions. A major thrust during this phase will be to cut mission costs by emphasizing spacecraft inheritance and multi-mission automated mission operations. More ambitious missions, e.g., Mars Sample Return, are under study but probably will not be candidates for new start funding till the mid-90s. Another exciting area is the potential utilization of resources on the moon and near earth asteroids.

Rea, D. G.

1984-01-01

14

International Space Exploration Coordination Group  

E-print Network

on Earth. This document presents the status of the space agency exploration road mapping activityInternational Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap August 2013 #12 ankles. The water seems inviting. The ocean calls." --Dr. Carl Sagan #12;The Global Exploration Roadmap

Rathbun, Julie A.

15

The International Space Station in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

16

Enabling Space Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

Weber, William J.

2006-01-01

17

Robotic Exploration of Space Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive timeline from NASA journeys through the last century, detailing key discoveries, experiments, missions, and other events that brought robotic space exploration from science fiction to reality.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

18

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems NASA Advisory Council 6. Significant international and commercial participation, leveraging current International Space Including ISS-based Risk Reduction Demonstrations ETD ­ Exploration Technology Development STMD ­ Space

Waliser, Duane E.

19

Telescopes and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

1982-01-01

20

Exploring Earth from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lithographs from the ISS EarthKAM program contains an educators' guide, student information and worksheets, and several Earth photos taken from the Space Shuttle. Shuttle astronauts and the ISS EarthKAM program provide photos of our planet from the unique perspective of Earth orbit. This resource can enhance students' studies of Earth and space science, geography, social studies, mathematics, and educational technologies.

2002-12-01

21

Propellant Depots: The Future of Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is currently exploring several options for mankind's return to the lunar surface and beyond. The selected option must stimulate both commercial and international involvement, support future missions to the Moon and other destinations, and above all, fit within the current budget profile. Contrary to the current Constellation approach, this paper describes the option of using an in-space propellant depot

Drew Crenwelge

2010-01-01

22

Telescopes and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

1976-01-01

23

Desktop space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amateur astronomers could soon have access to a small orbiting telescope if plans in the United Kingdom come to fruition. The Hubble Space Telescope project aims to launch a small Cassegrain telescope into the Earth's orbit in 1999, partly funded by the UK National Lottery.

Martin-Smith, M.; Buckland, R.

24

Space exploration in neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study investigated the gaze as well as the head and the eye-in-head movements of neglect patients while they were exploring their surroundings. A random configuration of letters was presented on the inner surface of a sphere that surrounded the subject, requiring free exploratory eye and head movements. The subjects were requested to search for a single (non-existent)

H.-O. Karnath; M. Niemeier; J. Dichgans

1998-01-01

25

Civil Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On or about June 15, 1989, Admiral Truly and Frank Martin presented NASA's conceptual plan for an exploration program to Vice-President Dan Quayle. Presentations by Truly and Quayle to a variety of groups outside the administration ensued. These officials drew upon the following charts for their presentations. The charts, based on the technical material supplied by the NASA Working Group, were updated and rearranged as the presentations transpired.

1992-01-01

26

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new vision of space exploration encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. Extended human space travel requires high reliability and high performance systems for propulsion, vehicle structures, thermal and radiation protection, crew habitats and health monitoring. Advanced materials and processing technologies are necessary to meet the exploration mission requirements. Materials and processing technologies must be sufficiently mature before they can be inserted into a development program leading to an exploration mission. Exploration will be more affordable by in-situ utilization of materials on the Moon and Mars.

Vickers, John; Shah, Sandeep

2005-01-01

27

Innovative Technologies for Global Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), Directorate Integration Office (DIO), The Tauri Group with NASA's Technology Assessment and Integration Team (TAIT) completed several studies and white papers that identify novel technologies for human exploration. These studies provide technical inputs to space exploration roadmaps, identify potential organizations for exploration partnerships, and detail crosscutting technologies that may meet some of NASA's critical needs. These studies are supported by a relational database of more than 400 externally funded technologies relevant to current exploration challenges. The identified technologies can be integrated into existing and developing roadmaps to leverage external resources, thereby reducing the cost of space exploration. This approach to identifying potential spin-in technologies and partnerships could apply to other national space programs, as well as international and multi-government activities. This paper highlights innovative technologies and potential partnerships from economic sectors that historically are less connected to space exploration. It includes breakthrough concepts that could have a significant impact on space exploration and discusses the role of breakthrough concepts in technology planning. Technologies and partnerships are from NASA's Technology Horizons and Technology Frontiers game-changing and breakthrough technology reports as well as the External Government Technology Dataset, briefly described in the paper. The paper highlights example novel technologies that could be spun-in from government and commercial sources, including virtual worlds, synthetic biology, and human augmentation. It will consider how these technologies can impact space exploration and will discuss ongoing activities for planning and preparing them.

Hay, Jason; Gresham, Elaine; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd; Reeves, John D.

2012-01-01

28

Tunable Optical Filters for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrally tunable liquid crystal filters provide numerous advantages and several challenges in space applications. We discuss the tradeoffs in design elements for tunable liquid crystal birefringent filters with special consideration required for space exploration applications. In this paper we present a summary of our development of tunable filters for NASA space exploration. In particular we discuss the application of tunable liquid crystals in guidance navigation and control in space exploration programs. We present a summary of design considerations for improving speed, field of view, transmission of liquid crystal tunable filters for space exploration. In conclusion, the current state of the art of several NASA LaRC assembled filters is presented and their performance compared to the predicted spectra using our PolarTools modeling software.

Crandall, Charles; Clark, Natalie; Davis, Patricia P.

2007-01-01

29

Current Research Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) X-ray Concentrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICER is a proposed NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity and will study the extreme gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear physics of neutron stars. Observations will be performed by an X-ray timing and spectroscopy instrument on board the International Space Station (ISS) with launch scheduled for late 2016. NICER consists of grazing incident optics coupled with silicon drift detectors that will provide high throughput photon collection with relatively low background. The optical system consists of 56 X-ray optics, each of which comprise of 24 individual concentrators made from thin aluminum shells with epoxy replicated gold surface. These specialized concentrators focus incident X-rays allowing for small detectors thus increasing the signal to noise while minimizing mass and fabrication cost. The concentrators have three distinct design differences from traditional thin foil epoxy replicated imaging optics. Firstly, the concentrators use only a single reflection and therefore have degraded imaging resolution for extended sources. They also have a full shell structure to further improve the effective area to mass ratio and a curved axial profile to improve resolution and hence concentration at a short focal length. NICER is the second project using these style concentrators, the first of which was the X-ray Advanced Concepts Testbed (XACT) sounding rocket payload (expected to launch in December 2013). The fabrication of the NICER optics began in spring 2012 and were tested using a collimated X-ray beam in summer 2012. In the following months, the concentrators’ fabrication method has been improved and adapted from the method used with XACT. X-ray measurements have been made to characterize the concentrators by calculating half power diameters, off-axis performance, and effective area measurements. These have been compared to ray tracing and theoretical calculations. Here we report the performance to date with comparisons to the theoretical calculations as well as the advancements in the fabrication method from the previous generation X-ray concentrators.

Balsamo, Erin; Okajima, T.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Jalota, L.; Soong, Y.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

2013-04-01

30

Space exploration and world peace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using space exploration as an instrument in procuring world peace is studied. Suggestions for obtaining such a peace, utilizing space programs, include removal of worldwide educational and communication barriers, building of an emotionally and socially stable society, creation of a unit or whole world rather than the mine and yours concept, and reevaluation and reorientation of human relations and values.

Mercieca, C.

1972-01-01

31

From space exploration to commercialisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration has captured the imagination and dreams of many scientists, engineers and visionaries.The ISS is being built by five ISS partners; NASA, RSA, ESA, CSA and JAXA. ISS commercialisation is the process by which ISS products and services are sold to private companies, without transferring ISS ownership. This thesis has two objectives; to propose a collaboration between space agencies

S. A. Tkatchova

2006-01-01

32

Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

Jeevarajan, Antony

2014-01-01

33

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

34

Why Do We Explore Space?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

2006-09-01

35

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon, Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-peformance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure; lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano- structural materials. The paper will also address smart materials and structures and examine space environmental effects on materials and methods of mitigating them. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing and using desired materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

36

Bringing life to space exploration.  

PubMed

Characteristics of 21st century space exploration are examined. Characteristics discussed include autonomy, evolvability, robotic outposts, and an overview of future missions. Sidebar articles examine the application of lessons from biological systems to engineered systems and mission concepts taking shape at NASA. Those mission concepts include plans for Mars missions, sample return missions for Venus and a comet nucleus, Europa orbiter and lander missions, a Titan organics explorer, and a terrestrial planet finder. PMID:11542653

Noor, A K; Doyle, R J; Venneri, S L

1999-11-01

37

Ethics and the Space Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth, and by analogy ethical issues exist that translate into the spatial dimension.

Mendell, W.

2002-01-01

38

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon. Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-performance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure: lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano-structural materials. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

39

Distributed Simulation for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of simulation and modeling in preparation for the planned exploration initiatives. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (EMSD) Integrated Modeling and Simulation (IM&S) team strategy encompasses a wide spectrum of simulation and modeling policies and technologies. One prominent technology is distributed simulation. The DIstributed Simulation (DIS),a collaborative simulation project with international participation (US and Japan) is reviewed as an example of distributed simulation development. The Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) is another example of distributed simulation that is described

Crues, Edwin Z.

2006-01-01

40

The Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the coming years as this plan is implemented. I also cannot overstate how profound the rewards will be on this new course. With the support of Congress, the science community, the NASA civil and contractor workforce, and most importantly, the American public, we will embark on this very exciting future. When Christopher Columbus made his voyages across the Atlantic in the 15th and 16th centuries, his ships carried the inscription 'Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World.' I look forward to joining you as we follow the light of the planets and the stars into the new worlds of the 21st century.

2004-01-01

41

Space exploration - Scientific and technological aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current plans for solar system exploration are summarized, focusing on the robotic missions planned for the next decade. The areas in which these mission engage the legal community as regards planetary protection, launch and use in space of nuclear materials, and possession of planetary resources by telepresence are considered.

Pilcher, Carl B.

1993-01-01

42

"Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

Jordan, Anne Devereaux

1997-01-01

43

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration  

E-print Network

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration 09 January is demonstrated through partnership evaluations for three reference human spaceflight missions beyond Low Earth

de Weck, Olivier L.

44

Propellant Depots: The Future of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is currently exploring several options for mankind's return to the lunar surface and beyond. The selected option must stimulate both commercial and international involvement, support future missions to the Moon and other destinations, and above all, fit within the current budget profile. Contrary to the current Constellation approach, this paper describes the option of using an in-space propellant depot architecture that can refuel or top-off visiting vehicles at EML1, and how it fits within NASA's new space exploration criteria. In addition to receiving and transferring fuel, the propellant depot will also provide cryogenic propellant storage and management that utilizes flight proven technologies in conjunction with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management and acquisition devices, thermodynamic analysis, and key enabling technologies are also discussed. Depot design concepts along with an overview of a future lunar mission sequence are also presented.

Crenwelge, Drew

45

Science Explorations: Journey Into Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations is a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Journey Into Space: Gravity, Orbits, and Collisions exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, a glossary of related terms, a collection of articles, captioned photos, short videos, and informative links, off-line activities that challenge students to apply what they've learned, and advice and step-by-step tools to help students prepare research presentations.

46

Nutrition issues for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2008-09-01

47

United States Space Explorations 1958  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

48

Human Factors in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

2010-01-01

49

Potential of virtual worlds for remote space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief description is given for the potential of virtual worlds to remote space exploration and other space-related activities. The major characteristics of current virtual worlds are identified. Recent commercial and open source virtual worlds are listed. Some of the current NASA and other space-related applications of virtual worlds are described, along with some of the tools for virtual space

Ahmed K. Noor

2010-01-01

50

Intelligent Unmanned Explorer for Deep Space Exploration  

E-print Network

asteroids or comets have received remarkable attention in the world. In small body explorations, especially, detailed in-situ surface exploration by tiny rover is one of effective and fruitful means and is expected to make strong contributions towards scientific studies. JAXA ISAS is promoting MUSES C mission, which is the worlds first sample and return attempt to or from the near earth asteroid. Hayabusa spacecraft in MUSES C mission took the tiny rover, which was expected to perform the in-situ surface exploration by hopping. This paper describes the system design, mobility and intelligence of the developed unmanned explorer. This paper also presents the ground experimental results and the flight results.

Kubota, T

2008-01-01

51

Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

Houts, Michael G.

2010-01-01

52

Human Space Exploration The Next Fifty Years  

PubMed Central

Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

Williams, David R.; Turnock, Matthew

2011-01-01

53

Human space exploration the next fifty years.  

PubMed

Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

2011-06-01

54

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

Wilson, J. W.; Miller, J.; Konradi, A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

1997-12-01

55

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

Wilson J. W. (Editor); Miller, J. (Editor); Konradi, A. (Editor); Cucinotta, F. A. (Editor)

1997-01-01

56

The School of Earth and Space Exploration  

E-print Network

­ of Earth, of space, and of the future. MISSION STATEMENT U.S. news & World report ranked SESE's geologyThe School of Earth and Space Exploration Fact Sheet TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF EXPLORERS DEGREE PROGRAMS Undergraduate Studies · B.S. in Earth & Space Exploration · B.S. in Geological Sciences

Rhoads, James

57

Roles of Hydrogen in Space Explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various roles of hydrogen in space technology are identified and discussed. The preeminent position of hydrogen as rocket fuel in launch vehicles is explained and illustrated for the NASA Space Shuttle. The history of hydrogen in launching space vehicles is also briefly summarized. The cryogenic aspects of hydrogen for cooling instruments during flight missions are covered for several past and current systems. The technology of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries is covered. The storage of cryogenic hydrogen to operate fuel cells and to provide potable water is described for the NASA Apollo and Shuttle Missions. Other less well-known applications of hydrogen and metal hydrides such as gas gap heat switches, fueling hypersonic scramjet flights to Mach 10 speeds, in-situ resource utilization on lunar or Martian surfaces, and providing ultrapure reference hydrogen to scientific instruments are also described. Finally, some possible future roles for hydrogen in space exploration are identified.

Bowman, Robert C.

2006-05-01

58

Technologies for Human Space Exploration: ASI PROGRAMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of National Space Plan, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) has defined, on the basis of its deep involvement in the International Space Station (ISS) a road map on the enabling technologies for Human Space Exploration. This strategy is in line with NASA strategy for Critical Technologies Demonstration that includes possible international partnership such as inflatable modules and advanced life support. In this respect ASI has been developing for years two projects oriented to these technologies, namely FLECS and CAB and is working in technologies for astronaut wellness as well. The paper describes in the details the ASI programs and their current results, together with the role that is playing in the international cooperation in line with the relevant future national strategies.

Svelto, F.

59

Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future consideration and are addressed in this paper. These applications have been made available to the various NASA study groups that are determining the next steps the Agency must take to secure a sound foundation for future space exploration The paper also addresses how follow-on demonstrations, as launch performance grows, can build on the earlier applications to provide increased benefits for both the commercial and scientific communities. The architecture of incrementally building upon previous successes and insights dramatically lowers the overall associated risk for developing and maturing the key enabling technologies. The goal is to establish a potential business case that encourages commercial activity, thereby reducing the cost for the demonstration while using the technology maturation in developing readiness for future space exploration with overall less risk.

Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.

2011-01-01

60

A timely rationale for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is shown to be useful for enhancing a country's education, technology, and economic competitiveness. Technologies required for the Space Exploration Initiative are compared to emerging technologies identified by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The impact of previous space ventures on specific technologies are illustrated with examples such as miniaturized electronics, computers and software, and high-strength materials. The case for educational advancement as a by-product of space exploration is made by discussing the high-level requirements of the programs and describing the inspirational effect of space exploration on young students. Invigorating space exploration is argued to generate near- and long-term economic opportunities for key sectors of the national economy by means of technology transfer, space-resource utilization, and the commercialization of space.

Peterson, Douglas D.; Walters, Larry D.

1992-01-01

61

A timely rationale for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is shown to be useful for enhancing a country's education, technology, and economic competitiveness. Technologies required for the Space Exploration Initiative are compared to emerging technologies identified by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The impact of previous space ventures on specific technologies are illustrated with examples such as miniaturized electronics, computers and software, and high-strength materials. The case for educational advancement as a by-product of space exploration is made by discussing the high-level requirements of the programs and describing the inspirational effect of space exploration on young students. Invigorating space exploration is argued to generate near- and long-term economic opportunities for key sectors of the national economy by means of technology transfer, space-resource utilization, and the commercialization of space.

Peterson, Douglas D.; Walters, Larry D.

1992-08-01

62

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary design space exploration for large, interdisciplinary engineering problems is often a difficult and time-consuming task. General techniques are needed that efficiently and methodically search the design space. This work focuses on the use of parallel load balancing techniques integrated with a global optimizer to reduce the computational time of the design space exploration. The method is applied to

CHUCK A. BAKER; LAYNE T. WATSON; BERNARD GROSSMAN; WILLIAM H. MASON; RAPHAEL T. HAFTKA

1999-01-01

63

A timely rationale for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration is shown to be useful for enhancing a country's education, technology, and economic competitiveness. Technologies required for the Space Exploration Initiative are compared to emerging technologies identified by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The impact of previous space ventures on specific technologies are illustrated with examples such as miniaturized electronics, computers and software, and high-strength materials. The case

Douglas D. Peterson; Larry D. Walters

1992-01-01

64

Space exploration challenges : characterization and enhancement of space suit mobility and planetary protection policy analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two challenges associated with advanced space and planetary exploration: characterizing and improving the mobility of current and future gas pressurized space suits; and developing effective domestic ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2010-01-01

65

The Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which focuses on the investigation and development of technologies, processes and integrated simulations related to the collaborative distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. This paper describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. In the network work area, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network that will provide agency wide support for distributed simulation between all NASA centers. In the software work area, DSES is developing a collection of software models, tool and procedures that ease the burden of developing distributed simulations and provides a consistent interoperability infrastructure for agency wide participation in integrated simulation. Finally, for simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper will present current status and plans for each of these work areas with specific examples of simulations that support NASA's exploration initiatives.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Mike G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

66

Pioneering space exploration: The JSC strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The framework that JCS's senior management will use to guide effective decision making to achieve our long-rang goals while soliciting inputs from all levels of JSC is presented. This plan was developed to allow us to meet head-on the responsibilities and challenges we have today while assuring that we are well prepared to meet the opportunities and challenges of tomorrow. The JSC strategy is closely aligned with the overall strategic direction currently being defined by NASA. One of our major goals was to keep our plan and process tightly focused but flexible enough so that as our national interests in space exploration evolve, so can JSC.

1992-01-01

67

An Approach for Effective Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Design space exploration (DSE) refers to the activity of exploring design alternatives prior to implementation. The power to operate on the space\\u000a of potential design candidates renders DSE useful for many engineering tasks, including rapid prototyping, optimization, and\\u000a system integration. The main challenge in DSE arises from the sheer size of the design space that must be explored. Typically,\\u000a a

Eunsuk Kang; Ethan Jackson; Wolfram Schulte

68

Exploring Space on the Computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past year Dennis Stocker has been in the process of developing pencil and paper games, which are fun, challenging, and educational for middle school and high school students. The latest version of these pencil and paper games is Spaceship Commander. The objective of the game is to earn points by plotting the flight path of a spaceship so astronauts can perform microgravity experiments, and make short-range measurements of other planets. During my ten weeks here at the GRC my goal is to create a computer based version of Spaceship commander. During the development of this game the primary focus has been on making it as educational and fun for the student as possible. The main educational objective of this game is to give students an understanding of forces and motion, including gravity. This is done by incorporating Newton's laws into the game. For example a spacecraft in the video game experiences a gravitational force applied to it by planets. The software I am using to create this game is a freeware application called Game Maker. Game Maker allows novice computer programmers like me to create arcade style games using a visual drag and drop interface. By using functions provided by Game Maker and a few I have written myself, I have been able to create a few simple computer games. Currently the computer game allows the student to navigate a space ship around planets, and asteroids by using the arrow keys on the numeric keypad. Each time an arrow key is pressed by the student the corresponding acceleration of the space ship is seen on the screen. Points are earned by navigating the space ship close enough to planets to gather scientific data. However the game encourages the student to plan his or her course carefully, because if the student gets too close to a planet they may not be able to escape the planet s gravity, and crash into the planet. The next step in the game development is to include a launch sequence which allows the student to launch from their home planet at a speed and direction determined by the student. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Bozym, Patrick

2004-01-01

69

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space is the Agency's commercial space strategy message being perceived at the Center? JSC Strategic Implementation Plan What is the Center doing to promote it? Commercial Space Partnership Support What are the Center

Waliser, Duane E.

70

Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

Turyshev, Slava

2004-01-01

71

Current Collection from Space Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

Singh, Nagendra (editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (editor); Stone, Nobie H. (editor)

1990-01-01

72

Design space exploration using the genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical VLSI layout problem involves the simultaneous optimization of a number of competing criteria. Rather than generating a single compromise solution, some recent approaches explicitly explores the design space and outputs a set of alternative solutions, thereby providing explicit information on the possible tradeoffs. This paper discuss the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for design space exploration and propose

Henrdk Esbensen; Ernest S. Kuh

1996-01-01

73

Selected topics in robotics for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

Montgomery, Raymond C. (editor); Kaufman, Howard (editor)

1993-01-01

74

BiSpace Planning: Concurrent Multi-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a planning algorithm called BiSpace that produces fast plans to complex high-dimensional problems by simultaneously exploring multiple spaces. We specifically focus on finding robust solutions to manipulation and grasp planning problems by using BiSpace's special characteristics to explore the work and configuration spaces of the environment and robot. Furthermore, we present a number of techniques for constructing informed

Rosen Diankov; Nathan Ratliff; Dave Ferguson; Siddhartha Srinivasa; James Kuffner

75

Human Space Exploration architecture study in TAS-I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon, Mars and asteroids. The US Space Exploration program addresses the objective "to explore space and extend a human presence across the Solar System". Main steps include the completion of the International Space Station and its utilization in support of space exploration goals, "as the launching point for missions beyond the Low Earth Orbit". Along a parallel matching path, Europe has developed a roadmap for exploration - Aurora - and has supported design activities on combined Moon-Mars Exploration Architectures. Thales Alenia Space - Italia has been involved in the major European activities related to exploration and it is currently analyzing the different exploration scenarios considered by the major Space Agencies with the objective to identify an international reference scenario for exploration taking into account the need to balance collaboration at international level due to the highly demanding nature of planetary exploration missions, and the development of autonomous key capabilities considered of strategic importance.

Perino, M. A.

76

UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

77

Social Sciences and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

1988-01-01

78

Radiation and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

Just outside the protective layer of Earth?s atmosphere and magnetosphere, is a universe full of radiation. What happens to our bodies when we leave the surface of Earth to travel in space or visit...

79

Future of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

Now that the Space Shuttle era is over, NASA is writing the next chapters in human Spaceflight with its commercial and international partners. It is advancing research and technology on the Interna...

80

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space Citation for published version: Ward Thompson, C, Travlou, P, Roe, J & Orme, A 2010, Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives. Natural England Thompson, C., Travlou, P., Roe, J., & Orme, A. (2010). Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives

Edinburgh, University of

81

Investigating public space exploration support in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public. Studying audiences appears to be crucial to inform public engagement and communication strategies as well as policy debate. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the UK in 2008 at two science outreach events, the Royal Society Exhibition in London and the National Space Centre in Leicester, to investigate the motivations, beliefs, political preferences and attitudes towards space exploration of this audience. A sample of 744 respondents was collected. The analysis shows that the British public who come to outreach and engagement activities support space exploration but have some reservations about considering the advancement of UK space activities to be of national interest. Yet, when asked about means of exploring space, the majority agrees that space should be explored using both mankind and machines, ranking "generating new scienti?c knowledge and advancing human culture" as the most important reason for continuing investment in space research. Although the greater number of supporters says that more than the current government funding should be allocated to civil space activities, concerns about risk and value appear to influence this view.

Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve

2010-10-01

82

Space Exploration of Planetary Magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives a brief overview of the major observational advances in our quantitative knowledge of the intrinsic magnetic\\u000a fields of the 8 planets, except Earth, from Mercury to Neptune, since “The Space Age” began on 4 October 1957 with the USSR\\u000a launching of the world’s first artificial satellite SPUTNIK I.

Norman F. Ness

2010-01-01

83

Space Exploration of Planetary Magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives a brief overview of the major observational advances in our quantitative knowledge of the intrinsic magnetic fields of the 8 planets, except Earth, from Mercury to Neptune, since ``The Space Age'' began on 4 October 1957 with the USSR launching of the world's first artificial satellite SPUTNIK I.

Norman F. Ness

2010-01-01

84

Space Exploration of Planetary Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter gives a brief overview of the major observational advances in our quantitative knowledge of the intrinsic magnetic fields of the 8 planets, except Earth, from Mercury to Neptune, since “The Space Age” began on 4 October 1957 with the USSR launching of the world’s first artificial satellite SPUTNIK I.

Ness, Norman F.

2010-05-01

85

The business of space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite healthy economic conditions worldwide, aerospace companies have been struggling since the end of the Cold War. The industry faces a very uncertain future as people and money are leaving in droves. But that has not diminished interest in significantly opening up the space frontier for commercial uses. Is there a major disconnect between expectation and reality? What can the

Daniel C. Tam

2001-01-01

86

Efficient design space exploration in PICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated design tools must understand and exploit the hierarchical structure of large design spaces. We have developed a general methodology for decomposing system design spaces into smaller component design spaces, followed by component-level evaluation, filtering, recomposition and system-level evaluation. This methodology greatly reduces the time and cost of design space exploration, since the typical number of system-level evaluations is greatly

Santosh G. Abraham; B. Ramakrishna Rau

2000-01-01

87

Material flammability in space exploration atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity, NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles with a different cabin pressure and oxygen concentration than used previously. This work explores how the flammability of solid materials changes in this new environment. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To this end, piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel subject to this new space exploration atmosphere (SEA -- 58.6 kPa and 32% oxygen) and compared to similar tests in standard atmospheric conditions. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to a range of oxidizer flow velocities and externally applied heat fluxes. It was found that the ignition time was reduced by 27% in the intended space exploration atmosphere. It was also noted that the critical heat flux for ignition decreases in exploration atmospheres. These results show that materials are more susceptible to ignition than in current spacecraft atmospheres. To further explore the effect of pressure and oxygen concentration, tests were performed for a wide range of pressures and oxygen concentrations. In all oxygen concentrations tested, the ignition delay time was seen to decrease with pressure, reach a minimum, and then increase with further reduction in pressure creating a classic u-shaped curve. No ignition was seen at sufficiently low pressures. The no ignition pressure depended on the oxygen concentration. Increasing the oxygen concentration uniformly decreases the ignition time; however, no significant differences were seen in oxygen concentrations above 24%. These results indicate there are several competing mechanisms controlling the ignition time. By reducing the pressure, the heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow rate of fuel to reach the lean flammability limit are reduced. Conversely, a reduction in pressure increases the gas-phase chemical induction time. The competition between these three mechanisms is responsible for the u-shaped dependence of ignition time on total pressure. In addition to gaining insight into the effect of pressure on piloted ignition, these results have practical applications including high altitude structures and airplane cabins.

McAllister, Sara Suzanne

88

Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

Yowell, Leonard L.

2007-01-01

89

Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America's competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

Buden, D.

1991-06-14

90

Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America`s competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

Buden, D.

1991-06-14

91

NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster features several of the NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers, plus suggestions for using the series in the classroom. The series of online articles features NASA explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12 and up.

Iges

2007-01-01

92

Budget cuts jeopardize space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the light of 12% across-the-board cuts in the second round of federal budgetary action, the announcement by the Office of Management and Budget that the cut to be absorbed by NASA is only 6% appears to be good news. But this is not at all the case, even though the reduced NASA FY 1982 budget would still be above the FY 1981 budget by about 4%, because the first round of budget cuts trimmed NASA to a bare minimum. The budget had been strained after absorbing the huge first-mission costs of the space shuttle. The portion of the budget for the shuttle still seems to be reserved, untouchable, basically as it was after the first budget-cutting round. Further, the shuttle's costs are rising, and NASA's budget for the following year (FY 1983) is subject to larger cuts—a figure of about $1 billion has been mentioned.

Bell, Peter M.

93

DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATION & ROBOTICS IN SPACE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of space exploration, the space community had the common belief that in the near future, the Automation & Robotics will be an important element for such missions. Today, this has become a reality. The implementation of this technology will play an important role in future missions, as robotic systems and \\

Paul Acquatella

94

Heavy ion carcinogenesis and human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the human exploration of Mars or long-duration missions on the Earth's moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared with radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer

Marco Durante; Francis A. Cucinotta

2008-01-01

95

Design Space Exploration of Network Processor Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to explore the design space for architectures of packet processing devices on the sys- tem level. Our method is specific to the application domain of packet processors and is based on (1) models for packet processing tasks, a specification of the workload generated by traffic streams, and a description of the feasible space of architectures including

Lothar Thiele; Samarjit Chakraborty; Matthias Gries; Simon Kunzli

2002-01-01

96

Micromechanical devices at JPL for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration in the coming century will emphasize cost effectiveness and highly focused mission objectives, which will result in frequent multiple missions that broaden the scope of space science and to validate new technologies on a timely basis. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) is one of the key enabling technologies to create cost-effective, ultra-miniaturized, robust, and functionally focused spacecraft for both

William C. Tang

1998-01-01

97

Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

Millis, Marc G.

1990-01-01

98

Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

Clark, Natalie

2007-01-01

99

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Exploration Vehicle Concept  

E-print Network

concept could be used with a flying platform for use near the International Space Station, satellite for in-space missions (i.e., satellite servicing, telescope assembly and exploration of near-Earth object movement, terrain ahead. Astronauts can drive the mobility chassis without the pressurized cabin, by riding

100

Cross-cultural management supporting global space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.

2010-01-01

101

Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential  

SciTech Connect

Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

Grace, J.D. (ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1991-03-01

102

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration CHUCK A. BAKER, LAYNE T. WATSON of a parallel computer. Section 2 describes the aircraft design problem, Section 3 gives the direct search, BERNARD GROSSMAN, WILLIAM H. MASON Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced

Neumaier, Arnold

103

Power efficient mediaprocessors: design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for rapidly exploring the design space of low power application-specific programmable processors (ASPP), in particular mediaprocessors. We focus on a category of proces- sors that are programmable yet optimized to reduce power con- sumption for a specific set of applications. The key components of the framework presented in this paper are a retargetable instruction level parallelism

Johnson Kin; Chunho Lee; William H. Mangione-Smith; Miodrag Potkonjak

1999-01-01

104

Design space exploration of streaming multiprocessor architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comparison of two design-space exploration approaches. The comparison is in terms of (1) speed of simulation versus accuracy of performance numbers, and (2) connection to trajectories for detailed design. The two approaches are: the trace driven approach and the control data flow graph approach. The first approach leads to the shortest simulation time, but

V. D. Zivkovic; Ed Deprettere; P. van der Wolf; E. de Kock

2002-01-01

105

Intrigue and potential of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of astronomy is presented. A chronology of events in the space program is summarized. The possibilities of interplanetary exploration are postulated. The accomplishments of astronomy in pointing the way to manned spaceflight and improved understanding of the solar system are examined.

Losh, H.

1972-01-01

106

Electronics for Low Temperature Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration missions to outer planets and deep space require spacecraft, probes, and on-board data and communication systems to operate reliably and efficiently under severe harsh conditions. On-board electronics, in particular those in direct exposures to the space environment without any shielding or protection, will encounter extreme low temperature and thermal cycling in their service cycle in most of NASA s upcoming exploration missions. For example, Venus atmosphere, Jupiter atmosphere, Moon surface, Pluto orbiter, Mars, comets, Titan, Europa, and James Webb Space Telescope all involve low-temperature surroundings. Therefore, electronics for space exploration missions need to be designed for operation under such environmental conditions. There are ongoing efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to establish a database on the operation and reliability of electronic devices and circuits under extreme temperature operation for space applications. This work is being performed under the Extreme Temperature Electronics Program with collaboration and support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The results of these investigations will be used to establish safe operating areas and to identify degradation and failure modes, and the information will be disseminated to mission planners and system designers for use as tools for proper part selection and in risk mitigation. An overview of this program along with experimental data will be presented.

Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

2007-01-01

107

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a box from -300 to 300 pc above the Galactic thin disk, as a function of Galactic radius. I then model the Galaxy to consist of $\\sim{}260,000$ of these 40,000 stellar systems all located in a defined Galactic Habitable Zone and show how long time it takes to explore this zone. The result is that with 8 probes, each with 8 subprobes $\\sim{}4%$ of the Galaxy can be explored in $2.92\\cdot{}10^{8}$ years. Increasing the number of probes to 200, still with 8 subprobes each, reduces the exploration time to $1.52\\cdot{}10^{7}$ years.

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-01-09

108

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

109

Projected NASA power requirements for space science and exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has recently completed its long-range strategic plan which describes a number of exciting space science missions into the early 21st century. In parallel, NASA's new Office of Exploration has begun defining in more detail the architectures of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) for returning to the Moon and going to Mars. Both the space science missions and the SEI missions are dependent upon power sources and energy storage with strong requirements for reliability, long life, ease of assembly, autonomy, and light weight. This paper reviews the currently planned space science and SEI missions and focuses upon the power requirements with a view toward guiding technology developers and power designers.

Bennett, Gary L.; Pilcher, Carl B.; Smith, William L.

1992-01-01

110

Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

Crawford, Ian A.

2010-08-01

111

Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.  

PubMed

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

Crawford, Ian A

2010-01-01

112

The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the "Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember." This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this risk. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to define the set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur during exploration space flight missions. The list was derived from the International Space Station Medical Checklist, the Shuttle Medical Checklist, in-flight occurrence data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, and NASA subject matter experts. The list of conditions was further prioritized for eight specific design reference missions with the assistance of the ExMC Advisory Group. The purpose of the SMEMCL is to serve as an evidence-based foundation for the conditions that could affect a crewmember during flight. This information is used to ensure that the appropriate medical capabilities are available for exploration missions.

Watkins, Sharmi; Barr, Yael; Kerstman, Eric

2011-01-01

113

Human exploration of space and power development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reasons for mounting the Space Exploration Initiative, the variables facing U.S. planners, and the developmental technologies that will be needed to support this initiative are discussed. The three more advanced technological approaches in the field of power generation described include a lunar-based solar power system, a geosynchronous-based earth orbit solar power satellite system, and the utilization of helium-3/deuterium fusion reaction to create a nuclear fuel cycle. It is noted that the major elements of the SEI will include a heavy-lift launch vehicle, a transfer vehicle and a descent/ascent vehicle for use on lunar missions and adaptable to Mars exploration.

Cohen, Aaron

1991-01-01

114

Exotic propulsion systems - A space exploration imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment is given to the need for and use of unusual propulsion systems in the forthcoming development of space vehicles. The requirements of lunar and Martian outposts are set forth, and the expected delta velocities, vehicle masses, and specific energy levels are listed. Exotic propulsion systems are considered that can provide the specific impulse levels needed for the scenarios discussed. Discussed are antimatter propulsion, teleportation, and antigravity machines, and the theoretical and practical implications of their development and use are mentioned. The use of antiprotons in medical treatment and materials processing is explained and extended to the propulsion application. The paper demonstrates the potential of exotic propulsion systems to contribute to space exploration.

Haloulakos, V. E.

1992-07-01

115

Heavy ion carcinogenesis and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Before the human exploration of Mars or long-duration missions on the Earth's moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared with radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, and obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets. PMID:18451812

Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A

2008-06-01

116

Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

2008-01-01

117

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate Committee Report July 23rd, 2012 Research for Human Exploration #12;National Aeronautics and Space with the ISS National Laboratory management organization. 2 #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Waliser, Duane E.

118

Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

Manohara, Harish

2007-01-01

119

Human exploration of space and power development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

Cohen, Aaron

1991-01-01

120

TESSX: A Mission for Space Exploration with Tethers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tethers offer significant potential for substantially increasing payload mass fraction, increasing spacecraft lifetime, enhancing long-term space travel, and enabling the understanding and development of gravity-dependent technologies required for Moon and Mars exploration. The development of the Tether Electrodynamic Spin-up and Survivability Experiment (TESSX) will support applications relevant to NASA's new exploration initiative, including: artificial gravity generation, formation flying, electrodynamic propulsion, momentum exchange, and multi-amp current collection and emission. Under the broad term TESSX, we are currently evaluating several different tether system configurations and operational modes. The initial results of this work are presented, including hardware development, orbital dynamics simulations, and electrodynamics design and analysis.

Cosmo, Mario L.; Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gramer, Daniel J.; Hoffman, John H.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

2005-01-01

121

[Consequences of space exploration for mankind].  

PubMed

Space exploration obliges man to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, and magnetic field changes. Although the people who will go to Mars have been born, many new discoveries will be needed and new disciplines will have to be created before they can actually go there. All of this will have a tremendous impact on our health technology. For one thing, universities will work together with enterprises, creating a new way to carry out research. Space exploration has already generated new insight into osteoporosis, muscle atrophy, and motor coordination disorders. Space research has produced a long list of utilities including bone fixation devices and wheelchairs. Over the next 5 to 7 years, in the International Space Station many programs ranging from molecular biology to direct observation of human subjects will be developed. This will mean that, while awaiting the first expedition to Mars (which will take place after 2080), the collaboration of scientists with small and medium enterprises will continue to produce useful devices for people on earth. PMID:19048568

Bizzarri, M

2008-01-01

122

Human space exploration - From surviving to performing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

2014-07-01

123

SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND  

E-print Network

- REPORT ON SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NEXT and Supporting Research National Space Weather Program Council Joint Action Group for Space Environmental Gap of the President #12;ii NATIONAL SPACE WEATHER PROGRAM COUNCIL (NSWPC) MR. SAMUEL P. WILLIAMSON, Chairman Federal

Schrijver, Karel

124

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

125

Conference on Advanced Space Exploration Initiative Technologies  

SciTech Connect

In striving to reduce exploration cost and exploration risks, a crucial aspect of the plans is program continuity, i.e., the continuing application of a given technology over a long period so that experience will accumulate from extended testing here on Earth and from a diversity of applications in space. An integrated view needs to be formed of the missions SEI will carry out, near term as well as far, and of the ways in which these missions can mutually support one another. Near term programs should be so constituted as to provide for the long term missions both the enabling technologies and the accumulation of experience they need. In achieving this, missions in Earth orbit should both evolve and show the technologies crucial to long term missions on the lunar surface, and the program for the lunar labs should evolve and show the enabling technologies for exploration of the surface of Mars and for flights of human beings to Mars and return. In the near term, the program for the Space Station should be directed and funded to develop and demonstrate the solar Brayton power plant that will be most useful as the power generator for the SP-100 nuclear reactor.

English, R.E.

1991-01-01

126

Delivering Current Hubble Space Telescope (HST) News to the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the Formal

R. Villard; B. Eisenhamer; D. Weaver

2004-01-01

127

Deep space environments for human exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; De Angelis, G.

2004-01-01

128

Deep space environments for human exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; De Angelis, G.

2004-01-01

129

Deep space environments for human exploration.  

PubMed

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. PMID:15880915

Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Cucinotta, F A; Tripathi, R K; Nealy, J E; De Angelis, G

2004-01-01

130

Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration architecture.

Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

2012-01-01

131

Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

Holt, Alan C.

2004-01-01

132

Advanced ion propulsion for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion propulsion is one of the numerous technologies proposed for the Space Exploration Initiative. To operate at the megawatt power levels required for Martian cargo and/or piloted missions, ion propulsion must evolve from present technologies. The principles of operation and a brief historical review of this form of propulsion are described. Also presented are the performance of present 50-cm diameter inert gas ion thrusters at power levels and specific impulse values up to 19 kW and 9300 seconds, respectively. These thrusters are applicable to orbit transfer vehicles, planetary probes, and other precursor missions.

Rawlin, Vincent K.

1991-01-01

133

Reactor safety for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

A task force was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a 90-day study to support efforts to determine requirements to meet the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative. The task force identified the need for a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power required as the outpost power demands on the Moon and Mars evolve into hundreds of kilowatts. A preliminary hazards analysis has been performed to examine safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems for representative missions to the Moon and Mars. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and martian flights. Potential alternatives to each mission phase were also defined. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for the mission phases. The safety issues decay heat removal, reactor control, disposal, criticality, end-of-mission shutdown, radiation exposure, the martian environment, high speed impact on the surfaces of the Moon or Mars, and return flyby trajectories were identified.

Dix, T.E. (Rockwell International/Rocketdyne Division, 6633 Canoga Avenue, MS HB07, Canoga Park, California 91303 (US))

1991-01-01

134

Exploring Theory Space with Monte Carlo Reweighting  

E-print Network

Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. In particular, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.

Gainer, James S; Matchev, Konstantin T; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

2014-01-01

135

Exploring Theory Space with Monte Carlo Reweighting  

E-print Network

Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. In particular, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.

James S. Gainer; Joseph Lykken; Konstantin T. Matchev; Stephen Mrenna; Myeonghun Park

2014-04-28

136

Reactor safety for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A task force was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a 90-day study to support efforts to determine requirements to meet the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative. The task force identified the need for a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power required as the outpost power demands on the moon and Mars evolve into hundreds of kilowatts. A preliminary hazards analysis has been performed to examine safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems for representative missions to the moon and Mars. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Potential alternatives to each mission phase were also defined. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for the mission phases. The safety issues decay heat removal, reactor control, disposal, criticality, end-of-mission shutdown, radiation exposure, the Martian environment, high speed impact on the surfaces of the moon or Mars, and return flyby trajectories were identified.

Dix, Terry E.

1991-01-01

137

An Overview of the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which investigates technologies, and processes related to integrated, distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. In particular, it describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. With regard to network infrastructure, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network for use by all NASA centers. With regard to software, DSES is developing software models, tools and procedures that streamline distributed simulation development and provide an interoperable infrastructure for agency-wide integrated simulation. Finally, with regard to simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper presents the current status and plans for these three areas, including examples of specific simulations.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Michael G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

138

Exploring de Sitter Space and Holography  

E-print Network

We explore aspects of the physics of de Sitter (dS) space that are relevant to holography with a positive cosmological constant. First we display a nonlocal map that commutes with the de Sitter isometries, transforms the bulk-boundary propagator and solutions of free wave equations in de Sitter onto the same quantities in Euclidean anti-de Sitter (EAdS), and takes the two boundaries of dS to the single EAdS boundary via an antipodal identification. Second we compute the action of scalar fields on dS as a functional of boundary data. Third, we display a family of solutions to 3d gravity with a positive cosmological constant in which the equal time sections are arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces, and compute the action of these spaces as a functional of boundary data from the Einstein gravity and Chern-Simons gravity points of view. These studies suggest that if de Sitter space is dual to a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT), this theory should involve two disjoint, but possibly entangled factors. We argue that these CFTs would be of a novel form, with unusual hermiticity conditions relating left movers and right movers. After exploring these conditions in a toy model, we combine our observations to propose that a holographic dual description of de Sitter space would involve a pure entangled state in a product of two of our unconventional CFTs associated with the de Sitter boundaries. This state can be constructed to preserve the de Sitter symmetries and and its decomposition in a basis appropriate to antipodal inertial observers would lead to the thermal properties of static patch.

Vijay Balasubramanian; Jan de Boer; Djordje Minic

2002-07-29

139

Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

1992-01-01

140

Investigation of space-charge-limited currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the limiting currents associated with charged particle beam transport are investigated for several different scenarios using various numerical techniques. The topic of limiting currents are of interest for essentially all applications that utilize charged particle beam formation and transport such as high-power microwave and x-ray generation, field-emitter-arrays in connection with vacuum microelectronics, semiconductor diodes, and ion acceleration, to name a few. In the first part of this dissertation, the limiting currents of charged particle beams drifting through hollow grounded conductors along applied magnetic fields is investigated. A self-consistent limiting current theory originally developed for solid beams in vacuum is extended to a scenario which allows for annular beams in the presence of a dielectric load. This extension to the limiting current theory is followed by an analysis of it's validity by comparison to PIC simulations. It is found that when considering annular beams in the presence of a dielectric load, this expression is more accurate than more commonly used expressions. Following this, a mechanism which can enhance the limiting currents of a particle beam in a hollow drift-tube is investigated for solid and annular beams with and without a dielectric load present. This mechanism involves using the ponderomotive energy of an externally applied waveguide mode to thwart the beam space charge potential depression. It is found that for reasonable values of the electric field strength, the limiting current can be enhanced. Following the work done with particle beams drifting through hollow cylindrical structures, the second part of this dissertation investigates limiting currents associated with coaxial cylindrical structures. An approximation is developed which describes the limiting currents of a finite-width annular beam drifting through a coaxial structure when an external voltage is applied to the inner conductor. This external voltage introduces an additional source of electrostatic energy into the system which in turn acts to thwart the detrimental beam space charge potential depression. Following this, the limiting currents are numerically calculated and studied when both a dielectric load and an externally applied voltage is present. It is found that in certain cases limiting currents are significantly enhanced when reasonable parameters are assumed. In the third part of this dissertation, the behavior of particle beams in diode regions is explored. To start with, the generation of non-uniform current densities in diode regions in the electrostatic regime is investigated. It is found that there are significant current density enhancements at the edges of the beam and that there is an increase in the expected current when the size of the beam is reduced. As expected, when the beam width is increased, the obtained current approaches that of what is expected from one-dimensional theory. Following this, a particle trajectory model is developed for a beam traversing a diode region. This model is based on the Hamiltonian which describes the behavior of charged particles in the presence of external fields. Of interest is how the behavior of particles interacting with the self generated magnetic field is altered and how the calculated current is affected.

Baedke, William

141

Matrix Methods for Optimal Manifesting of Multinode Space Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

This paper presents matrix-based methods for determining optimal cargo manifests for space exploration. An exploration system is defined as a sequence of in-space and on-surface transports between multiple nodes coupled ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas

142

The Nexus of Space Science and Human Space Exploration (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NLSI Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR) consortium is pursuing research to advance the space sciences and to strengthen the bond between science and human exploration of the Moon. Our science is derived from the three recent NRC Decadal Surveys in astrophysics, heliophysics, and planetary science. Four research themes were developed that are uniquely facilitated by human exploration: Heliophysics and Space Radiation, Lunar Laser Ranging, Low Radio Frequency Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Exploration Science. In this talk, we describe some of the fundamental problems which our team is investigating including the acceleration of high energy particles in the heliosphere that are potentially harmful for humans and spacecraft beyond low Earth orbit, the nature of gravity beyond Einstein's Relativity and the cores of airless bodies using laser ranging, and the origins of the first stars and galaxies in the Universe using low frequency radio telescopes on the radio-quiet lunar farside. In addressing these issues, we are developing technologies that are likely to have a dual purpose, serving both exploration and science. Our team has proposed compelling science for a 'waypoint' mission involving human telerobotics at the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point. Astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle will operate lunar farside surface assets for the first time which also serves as an important proving ground for future exploration missions in deep space. The science objectives include returning rock samples from the ancient South Pole-Aitken basin and deployment of a low frequency radio telescope for cosmological observations of the early Universe's Cosmic Dawn. We will describe the first recently-completed simulation of a human waypoint mission where astronauts aboard the International Space Station interactively controlled a high fidelity planetary rover at an outdoor analog testbed at NASA/Ames to deploy a prototype radio antenna. LUNAR is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Burns, J. O.

2013-12-01

143

Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

Liu, Scan X.

2005-01-01

144

Exploring the Possibilities: Earth and Space Science Missions in the Context of Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to Dr. Edward J. Weiler, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "Exploration without science is tourism". At the American Astronautical Society's 43rd Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium it was quite apparent to all that NASA's current Exploration Initiative is tightly coupled to multiple scientific initiatives: exploration will enable new science and science will enable exploration. NASA's Science Mission Directorate plans to develop priority science missions that deliver science that is vital, compelling and urgent. This paper will discuss the theme of the Goddard Memorial Symposium that science plays a key role in exploration. It will summarize the key scientific questions and some of the space and Earth science missions proposed to answer them, including the Mars and Lunar Exploration Programs, the Beyond Einstein and Navigator Programs, and the Earth-Sun System missions. It will also discuss some of the key technologies that will enable these missions, including the latest in instruments and sensors, large space optical system technologies and optical communications, and briefly discuss developments and achievements since the Symposium. Throughout history, humans have made the biggest scientific discoveries by visiting unknown territories; by going to the Moon and other planets and by seeking out habitable words, NASA is continuing humanity's quest for scientific knowledge.

Pfarr, Barbara; Calabrese, Michael; Kirkpatrick, James; Malay, Jonathan T.

2006-01-01

145

A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration  

E-print Network

A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration Zachary James Bailey, David W. Miller June 2010 SSL # 11-10 #12;#12;A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration Zachary James Bailey, David W of Technology. #12;2 #12;A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration by Zachary James Bailey Submitted

146

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

147

Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.  

PubMed

When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning. PMID:17420309

Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

2007-04-01

148

Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

149

Space law - Current status and issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of space law over the past 25 years is surveyed, with attention also given to the procedures that were followed. The treaties now in existence are given, as are issues currently before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Projections that were made 25 years ago are discussed in the light of subsequent developments. It is noted that nearly all the technological advances in space activities forecast 25 years ago have come to pass. Various provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Principles Treaty relating to stricture against weapons and the militarization of space are discussed.

Hosenball, S. N.

1983-01-01

150

Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

2011-01-01

151

ISS Update: Powering the Space Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

In the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Abbie Ryan, lead engineer for the fuel cell of the Multi-Mission Space E...

152

Space radiation concerns for manned exploration.  

PubMed

Spaceflight exposes astronaut crews to natural ionizing radiation. To date, exposures in manned spaceflight have been well below the career limits recommended to NASA by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). This will not be the case for long-duration exploratory class missions. Additionally. International Space Station (ISS) crews will receive higher doses than earlier flight crews. Uncertainties in our understanding of long-term bioeffects, as well as updated analyses of the Hiroshima. Nagasaki and Chernobyl tumorigenesis data, have prompted the NCRP to recommend further reductions by 30-50% for career dose limit guidelines. Intelligent spacecraft design and material selection can provide a shielding strategy capable of maintaining crew exposures within recommended guidelines. Current studies on newer radioprotectant compounds may find combinations of agents which further diminish the risk of radiation-induced bioeffects to the crew. PMID:11542526

Stanford, M; Jones, J A

1999-07-01

153

Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to aircraft control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration, and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent

Kalmanje KRISHNAKUMAR; Jason LOHN; John KANESHIGE

154

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration and Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate and electronics in simulated space mission scenarios ­ Blue Origin LLC successfully completed two technical · International Space Station · Launch Services Program · Exploration Systems Development Division · Commercial

Waliser, Duane E.

155

Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop  

PubMed Central

Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8–10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond “science protection” per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address “harmful contamination” beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Extraterrestrial life—Life in extreme environments—Environment—Habitability. Astrobiology 12, 1017–1023. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

2012-01-01

156

Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.  

PubMed

With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

2012-11-01

157

Manned Space Exploration Can Provide Great Scientific Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An AGU Council statement (NASA: Earth and space sciences at risk, available at http:// www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/positions/ earthspace_risk.shtml) and an Eos editorial [Barron, 2005], addressing NASA's envisioned manned Moon-Mars initiative, implicitly assume a zero-sum situation between manned and unmanned space programs. They also imply that the NASA initiative will not contribute significantly to science but will ``impact on the current and future health of Earth and space science research.'' I wish to respond to these concerns. It is generally agreed that the International Space Station and shuttle program have limited value and need to be terminated. But one should not assume that funds freed up by elimination of manned programs will accrue to unmanned programs. On the contrary, without a manned component, NASA will probably cease to exist. Congress likely will not continue to fund unmanned planetary exploration over the long term, and Earth and space researchers will then have to compete for support with scientists using non-space techniques.

Singer, S. Fred

2005-08-01

158

SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION GRADUATE PROGRAM GUIDEBOOK  

E-print Network

1 SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION GRADUATE PROGRAM GUIDEBOOK ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Last .....................................................................................................21 VIII. Forms and Recommended Timelines......................................................................21 M.S. Timeline Table

Rhoads, James

159

Explorations in Space and Time: Computer-Generated Astronomy Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the computer animation technique to travel through space and time and watch models of astronomical systems in motion. Included is a list of eight computer-generated demonstration films entitled Explorations in Space and Time.'' (CC)

Meeks, M. L.

1973-01-01

160

NASA Shows Progress of President's Space Exploration Vision  

NASA Video Gallery

On the third anniversary of President Obama's visit to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where he set his space exploration vision for the future, news media representatives were given an opp...

161

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2010-01-08

162

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Reorganization Status future. 4. Advance aeronautics research for societal benefit. 5. Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA's aeronautics and space activities. 6. Share NASA with the public, educators

Waliser, Duane E.

163

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

164

Nuclear data needs for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

On July 20, 1989, the President of the United States announced a new direction for the US Space Program. The new Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is intended to emplace a permanent base on the Lunar surface and a manned outpost on the Mars surface by 2019. In order to achieve this ambitious challenge, new, innovative and robust technologies will have to be developed to support crew operations. Nuclear power and propulsion have been recognized as technologies that are at least mission enhancing and, in some scenarios, mission enabling. Because of the extreme operating conditions present in a nuclear rocket core, accurate modeling of the rocket will require cross section data sets which do not currently exist. In order to successfully achieve the goals of the SEI, major obstacles inherent in long duration space travel will have to be overcome. One of these obstacles is the radiation environment to which the astronauts will be exposed. In general, an unshielded crew will be exposed to roughly one REM per week in free space. For missions to Mars, the total dose could exceed more than one-half the total allowed lifetime level. Shielding of the crew may be possible, but accurate assessments of shield composition and thickness are critical if shield masses are to be kept at acceptable levels. In addition, the entire ship design may be altered by the differential neutron production by heavy ions (Galactic Cosmic Rays) incident on ship structures. The components of the radiation environment, current modeling capability and envisioned experiments will be discussed.

Howe, S.D.; Auchampaugh, G.

1991-01-01

165

PISCES: A "Stepping Stone" to International Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) was initiated by the Japan/US Science, Technology and Space Application Programs (JUSTSAP) to advance research and education in space exploration technology and systems working closely with the State of Hawaii. Hawaii has a heritage with space exploration including the training of Apollo astronauts and testing of lunar rover systems in some of the most realistic terrestrial sites available. The high altitude dry environment with greater solar insolation, and the dry lunar regolith-like volcanic ash and cratered terrain make Hawaiian sites ideal to support, international space exploration technology development, demonstration, education and training. This paper will summarize development and roles of PISCES in lunar surface analogs, simulations, technology demonstrations, research and training for space exploration technology and systems.

Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.; Schowengerdt, Frank

2007-01-01

166

NASA's future directions in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Presidential policy statement of July 4, 1982 has outlined basic U.S. goals for activities in space which include strengthening security, maintaining space leadership, obtaining economic and scientific benefits, expanding private sector investment and involvement in space-related activities, promoting international cooperative activities, and cooperating with other nations in maintaining freedom of space for activities enhancing the security and welfare of mankind. NASA's priorities include: operational status for a four-Orbiter Shuttle fleet, demonstration of the Shuttle's ability to recover and repair the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the first launch of Spacelab, and the 1986 launch of the Space Telescope. Future projects include the Venus Radar Mapper, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, and the establishment of large permanent space facilities. It is stated that the United States must take the necessary steps now to achieve an understanding of the potential benefits of continued manned operations in space.

Odonnell, W. J.

1983-01-01

167

Autonomous medical care for exploration class space missions.  

PubMed

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in low Earth orbit for the International Space Station is designed to support a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the moon are similar to low Earth orbit class missions but also include an additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has identified five levels of care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. To implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new crew medical officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics. PMID:18385587

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2008-04-01

168

Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations Part 2: Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews what is currently known about the solar system and the objects that make up the solar system. Information about the individual planets, comets, asteroids and moons is reviewed.

Chau, Savio

2005-01-01

169

Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

1992-01-01

170

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

171

MONTE CARLO EXPLORATIONS OF POLYGONAL KNOT SPACES KENNETH C. MILLETT  

E-print Network

1 MONTE CARLO EXPLORATIONS OF POLYGONAL KNOT SPACES KENNETH C. MILLETT Department of Mathematics Monte Carlo explorations, is provided. Keywords: Monte Carlo, polygonal knots, energy, thickness, HOMFLY of n sides into three­dimensional Euclidean space such that the edges go to line segments connecting

Bigelow, Stephen

172

Visions for Space Exploration: ILS Issues and Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the logistic issues that the Vision for Space Exploration will entail. There is a review of the vision and the timeline for the return to the moon that will lead to the first human exploration of Mars. The lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and other such missions are also reviewed.

Watson, Kevin

2005-01-01

173

INVESTMENTS IN OUR FUTURE: EXPLORING SPACE THROUGH INNOVATIONAND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

payoff, disruptive technology that industry cannot tackle today, Space Technology matures the technologyINVESTMENTS IN OUR FUTURE: EXPLORING SPACE THROUGH INNOVATIONAND TECHNOLOGY Dr. BobbyBraun NASA.D.Braun, GeorgiaTech,Fall 2008. #12;4 Human Mars Surface Exploration: A Significant Technological Challenge #12

174

An architectural space exploration tool for domain specific reconfigurable computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a design space exploration (DSE) tool for domain specific reconfigurable computing where the needs of the applications drive the construction of the device architecture. The tool has been developed to automate the design space case studies which allows application developers to explore architectural tradeoffs efficiently and reach solutions quickly. We selected some of the core

Gayatri Mehta; Alex K. Jones

2010-01-01

175

Flexible Path for Human and Robotic Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 2009, a flexible path scenario for human and robotic space exploration was developed that enables frequent, measured, and publicly notable human exploration of space beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The formulation of this scenario was i...

D. D. Mazanek, D. J. Korsmeyer, R. Landis, R. B. Adams, R. D. Falck, R. G. Merrill

2010-01-01

176

Design space exploration of the turbo decoding algorithm on GPUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the design space of the Turbo decoding algorithm on GPUs and find a performance bottleneck. We consider three axes for the design space exploration: a radix degree, a parallelization method, and the number of sub-frames per thread block. In Turbo decoding, a degree of radix affects computational complexity and memory access patterns in both algorithmic

Dongwon Lee; Marilyn Wolf; Hyesoon Kim

2010-01-01

177

Gravitational biology and space life sciences: current status and implications for the Indian space programme.  

PubMed

This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress through several generations in microgravity. Astrobiology is emerging as an exciting field promoting research in biospherics and fabrication of controlled environmental life support systems. India is one of the 14-nation International Space Exploration Coordination Group (2007) that hopes that someday humans may live and work on other planets within the Solar System. The vision statement of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) includes planetary exploration and human spaceflight. While a leader in several fields of space science, India is yet to initiate serious research in gravitational and life sciences. Suggestions are made here for establishing a full-fledged Indian space life sciences programme. PMID:22116289

Dayanandan, P

2011-12-01

178

Rationale and constituencies for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to maximize the benefits from prospective space-exploration endeavors, and to enlist the support of as many constituencies as possible, NASA is either conducting or developing programs which emphasize different aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative. Attention is presently given to the cases of education using space exploration themes as teaching tools and technology transfer from government to private industry. Only on the basis of the establishment of such constituencies, will it be possible to sustain funding over the three decades foreseen as required for a Mars exploration effort.

Johnson, Kristine A.

1992-01-01

179

Why Space Science and Exploration Benefit Everyone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific inquiry into the nature of the universe beyond Earth and exploration of the Sun's solar system have to date been enterprises carried out primarily by the United States, the former Soviet Union, and only a few other industrialized states.

Ocampo, A.; Friedman, L.; Logsdon, J.

1998-01-01

180

From NASA to a National Space Exploration Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created by federal legislation known as the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. As NASA turns fifty and begins to carry out nascent national plans for the long-term human exploration of the Moon, many within and outside the space exploration community question the rationale for the back-to-the-Moon effort and the

Arthur M. Hingerty

181

Universal stowage module for future space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design effort to develop, design, and fabricate a prototype Universal Stowage Module with universal restraints that are readily adaptable for most sizes and shapes of items that would be launched into space and returned aboard shuttle payloads is presented.

Descamp, V. A.; Hussey, M. W.; Garber, P.; Mandras, W.; Mckinney, D.

1974-01-01

182

Radiation risk and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

2003-01-01

183

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

SciTech Connect

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2012-11-29

184

A Space Elevator Based Exploration Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances and recent studies have laid the groundwork for eventual construction of a space elevator. Within 15 years an operational space elevator could be running from Earth to beyond geosynchronous. The basic mechanical operation allows for low operational cost ($250\\/kg), high capacity (>13tons, >5tons\\/day\\/elevator), a range of destinations (LEO, GEO, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, and Venus), and minimal launch forces.

Bradley C. Edwards

2004-01-01

185

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

ScienceCinema

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2014-05-30

186

Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

187

Give Me a Boost - How Gravity Assists Aid Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about how spacecraft use gravity assists to get where they are going. Learners will explore how engineers minimize the use of fuel by utilizing gravity. In Activity 1, students explore the physical conservation laws by observing the behavior of balls colliding with other objects. In Activity 2, the students use an interactive online simulation tool to explore the various ways in which gravity assists can be used to aid space exploration.

188

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Exploration  

E-print Network

of gravity assist trajectory operations Builds off of ISS life support with less earth support Enables beyond LEO Basis for international HSF exploration partnerships 9 #12;ISS Enables Long Duration Testbed · Docking System High Reliability Closed Loop Life Support Long Term System Performance

Waliser, Duane E.

189

High temperature electronics applications in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extension of the range of operating temperatures of electronic components and systems for planetary exploration is examined. In particular, missions which utilize balloon-borne instruments to study the Venusian and Jovian atmospheres are discussed. Semiconductor development and devices including power sources, ultrastable oscillators, transmitters, antennas, electromechanical devices, and deployment systems are addressed.

Jurgens, R. F.

1981-01-01

190

Design space exploration with A Stream Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider speeding up general-purpose applications with hardware accelerators. Traditionally hardware accelerators are tediously hand-crafted to achieve top performance ASC (A Stream Complier) simplifies exploration of hardware accelerators by transforming the hardware design task into a software design process using only 'gcc' and 'make' to obtain a hardware netlist. ASC enables programmers to customize hardware accelarators at three levels of

Oskar Mencer; David J. Pearce; Lee W. Howes; Wayne Luk

2003-01-01

191

Design Space Exploration for The Beamformer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design exploration strategy for the beamformer system, an exampleof a typical DSP system. In order to do so, we first define a parameterizeddesign template for the beamformer and for a FIR filter, since the filteringoperation is a part of the overall beamformer system. We then discuss someapproaches for varying the design parameters for the filter and the

Daniel D. Gajski; Smita Bakshi

1993-01-01

192

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

-Earth asteroids (NEAs), near-Earth objects (NEOs) The moons of Mars (Phobos, Deimos), Mars orbit multiple paths get us where we want to go? 5 Low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) High Earth Orbit (HEO), Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) Cis-lunar space

Waliser, Duane E.

193

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Exploration Vehicle Concept  

E-print Network

the International Space Station, satellite servicing and near- Earth asteroid missions. A wheeled chassis concept. The SEV would use the same cabin for in-space missions (i.e., satellite servicing, telescope assembly pivoting wheels that enable "crab style" sideways movement, which helps the vehicle maneuver over difficult

194

Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier years, Indian scientists carried out studies of ionosphere and cosmic rays phenomena primarily using ground based radio techniques and balloon borne detectors. With the advent of the space era, parallel efforts in the indigenous design and development of different sounding rockets for electrojet and x-ray astronomy related research, satellite launch vehicles and satellites were undertaken. While these developments

S. C. Chakravarty

2004-01-01

195

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shield effectiveness of lunar regolith is compared with possible prefabricated shield materials from Earth,including commercially used shield materials in nuclear facilities. Several of the fabricated materials categorized asneutron absorbers and moderators exhibit favorable characteristics for space radiation protection. Although thiseffort is not intended to be a definitive trade study for specific shielding recommendations, attention is given toseveral factors that

J. W. Wilson; J. Miller; A. Konradi; F. A. Cucinotta

1997-01-01

196

Young Space Explorers: IDEAS in the Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

YSE is an astronomy and space outreach program for children ages 5 through 8 years of age. A team of three astronomers and several librarians from the Howard County Library (Maryland) have worked together to carry out a series of programs involving hands-on activities. There is little age-appropriate material available for this age group, so we were challenged to derive

C. L. Imhoff; H. M. Hart; C. A. Grady; H. L. Chase; I. Nachlas-Gabin

2001-01-01

197

Wider benefits of Space Science & Exploration  

E-print Network

easy to predict a priori the economic impact of new and disruptive technology #12;Commercial drivers/MREP, and for an associated National Space Technology Programme #12;Science Drivers · Drivers: ­ Function ­ Ultimate performance ­ Payload and platform performance · Strong driver for innovation and game- changing technologies

Anand, Mahesh

198

Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

Moran, Matthew E.

2006-01-01

199

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

200

Universal stowage module for future space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, design, and fabrication of a prototype storage module, with internal restraints, for the stowage of items that are normally launched to support a space mission are discussed. The primary design criteria was that the storage module be universal in accomodating most sizes and shapes of items that could be launched and returned in a shuttle payload. Mechanical drawings of various types of storage modules are provided.

Seccamp, V. A.; Hussex, M. W.; Garber, P.; Mandras, W.; Mckinney, D.

1973-01-01

201

Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration Class Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station (ISS) contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for the ISS is designed to enable a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the Moon are similar to LEO class missions with the additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DCMF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. NASA has identified five Levels of Care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. In order to implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new Crew Medical Officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics.

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2007-01-01

202

Estimating the costs of human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

1994-01-01

203

Nuclear technology and the space exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategy for a major exploration initiative leading to permanent human presence beyond earth orbit is still being developed; however enough is known to begin defining the role of nuclear technologies. Three broad areas are discussed: low power (less than 10 kWe) rover/vehicle power systems; integrated, evolutionary base power systems (25 to 100 kW) and nuclear energy for electric propulsion (2 to 100 MWe); and direct thermal propulsion (1000s MW). A phased, evolutionary approach is described for both the moon and Mars, and the benefits of nuclear technologies relative to solar and their integration are described.

Brandhorst, Henry W.; Sovie, Ronald J.

1990-01-01

204

Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

2005-01-01

205

Versatile dynamic isotope power systems for the exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic, isotope-heated power systems are needed to carry out the exploration of space and are major elements identified by NASA for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program is aimed at establishing the advanced technology as well as the system designs and hardware for the SEI and other exploratory missions. Several conceptual designs of DIPS systems have been developed to provide compact, reliable, and long-lived power systems.

Johnson, Richard A.; Stadnik, Andrew G.; Cataldo, Robert; Williams, Rex

1991-01-01

206

Hardware\\/Software Design Space Exploration for a Reconfigurable Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to hardware\\/software design space exploration for reconfigurable processors. The existing compiler tool-chain, because of the user-definable instructions, needs to be extended in order to offer developers an easy way to explore design space. Such extension often is not easy to use for developer that have only a software background, thus ignoring reconfigurable architecture details or

Alberto La Rosa; Luciano Lavagno; Claudio Passerone

2003-01-01

207

School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) was formed in 2006 by merging previously separate academic programs in geoscience and planetary science, astronomy, and systems engineering. SESE is explicitly designed to enhance knowledge of Earth and the universe through innovative trans-disciplinary exploration, research, and teaching. Earth and space science education research, teacher preparation, and outreach are among the principal functions of SESE.

Exploration, School O.; University, Arizona S.

208

Cancer Risk from Exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays - Implications for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. However, space radiation is a major barrier to human exploration of the solar system because the biological effects of high-energy and charge (HZE) ions, which are the main contributors to radiation risks in deep space, are poorly understood. Predictions of the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Great efforts have been dedicated worldwide in recent years toward a better understanding of the oncogenic potential of galactic cosmic rays. A review of the new results in this field will be presented here.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durant, marco

2006-01-01

209

Atmosphere Revitalization Technology Development for Crewed Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space exploration objectives extend human presence beyond low Earth orbit, the solutions to technological challenges presented by supporting human life in the hostile space environment must build upon experience gained during past and present crewed space exploration programs. These programs and the cabin atmosphere revitalization process technologies and systems developed for them represent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) past and present operational knowledge base for maintaining a safe, comfortable environment for the crew. The contributions of these programs to the NASA s technological and operational working knowledge base as well as key strengths and weaknesses to be overcome are discussed. Areas for technological development to address challenges inherent with the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) are presented and a plan for their development employing unit operations principles is summarized

Perry, Jay L.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Harris, Danny W.

2006-01-01

210

Fast, Power-Rich Space Transportation Key to Human Space Exploration and Survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

above the rest: Physiological debilitation, radiation sickness and psychological stress. Many counter-measures are presently being considered to ameliorate these difficulties; however, in the long run, two important new developments are required: abundant space power and advanced propulsion. Recent initiatives are beginning to focus on these long-term issues. As a result, important technologies currently in the conceptual realm are now being considered for rapid test and deployment. This presentation discusses the promises and the challenges of the new approaches and the profound impact they will have on our capability to survive and explore our new human frontier.

Chang-Diaz, F.

2002-01-01

211

Challenges for Electronics in the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has been a brief snapshot discussing electronics and Exploration-related challenges. The vision for Space Exploration creates a new paradigm for NASA missions. This includes transport (Crew Exploration Vehicle-CEV), and lunar and Mars Exploration and human presence. If one considers the additional hazards faced by these concepts versus more traditional NASA missions, multiple challenges surface for reliable utilization of electronic parts. The true challenge is to provide a risk as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA-a traditional biological radiation exposure term), while still providing cost effective solutions. This presentation also discusses the hazard for electronic parts and exploration, the types of electronic parts for exploration, and the critical juncture for space usage of commercial changes in the electronics world.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2005-01-01

212

Will the US remain the real leader of human space exploration? A comparative assessment of space exploration policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human space exploration is at a turning point which should find its outcome during the coming decade: Shuttle is being retired, ISS will be exploited up to 2020 minimum. Today the US exploration plans are sucked down into political battles, Europe and Japan are nearly nowhere, Russia's plans are hazy, China's ambitions are clear and implemented, and new actors such as India are raising their profile. In this uncertain environment, the question might be asked: who will be the leaders of human space exploration in 10-15 years from now? The assumption of the paper is that some key enabling factors are essential for a country to play a substantial role in human space exploration: There should be some long term political stability or continuity The domain should be high in the political agenda of the country's decision makers The global budget environment of the country should be positive Space should not be too much competed by other budget "catchers" The paper will propose a tentative comparison of the main space faring countries plans, ambitions and likely positioning, for human space exploration. Starting from the today situation and recent past evolutions, we will try to establish future trends for these key factors, and through that to identify which countries might be the most dynamically engaged in human space exploration.

Grimard, Max

2012-06-01

213

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

214

National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!  

E-print Network

1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics for Exploration Systems! NASA Headquarters! Presented to the NASA Advisory Councils Task Force on Planetary Program (xPRP) #12;Title_Design Editor! 3! ESMD: Blazing a Trail Into the Solar System! · NASA's human

Waliser, Duane E.

215

TriMedia CPU64 Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Philips Research Labs, we are investigating the 64- bit VLIW core for future TriMedia processors. We have per- formed an extensive Design Space Exploration (DSE) on this core using quantitative analysis, using a benchmark suite of applications which are representative for multi- media processing. We have explored, among others, the configurations of the different functional units (FUs) of the

Gerben J. Hekstra; G. D. La Hei; Peter Bingley; Frans Sijstermans

1999-01-01

216

Goals for space exploration based on stakeholder value network considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology that provides traceable analysis from stakeholders’ needs to prioritized goals for human space exploration. We first construct a network to represent the stakeholder environment of NASA’s human exploration efforts, then assess the intensity of these stakeholder needs, and build a numerical model to represent the flow of value in the network. The underlying principle is that

Bruce G. Cameron; Theodore Seher; Edward F. Crawley

2011-01-01

217

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Big Picture on Exploration  

E-print Network

, and Budget Context · Architecture Planning · NASA's Activities: Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT: Human Exploration and Operations 3 #12;Human Space Exploration Architecture Planning · Human spaceflight spaceflight portfolio (in FY12 budget) validated by NASA framework studies and consistent with NASA

Waliser, Duane E.

218

U.S. Vision for Space Exploration: Who Benefits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2004, President Bush announced a new vision for NASA, starting with a human return to the Moon by 2020 to be followed by human exploration of Mars and other destinations. The President's Moon-Mars initiative provides a compelling directive for the future of NASA, one that is at the next frontier in space exploration. However, it also presents substantial

Eric Barron

2005-01-01

219

Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often

Peter Suedfeld

2010-01-01

220

Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

2003-01-01

221

Commercialization is Required for Sustainable Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Space Exploration policy outlines an exciting new direction in space for human and robotic exploration and development beyond low Earth orbit. Pressed by this new visionary guidance, human civilization will be able to methodically build capabilities to move off Earth and into the solar system in a step-by-step manner, gradually increasing the capability for humans to stay longer in space and move further away from Earth. The new plans call for an implementation that would create an affordable and sustainable program in order to span over generations of explorers, each new generation pushing back the boundaries and building on the foundations laid by the earlier. To create a sustainable program it is important to enable and encourage the development of a selfsupporting commercial space industry leveraging both traditional and non-traditional segments of the industrial base. Governments will not be able to open the space frontier on their own because their goals change over relatively short timescales and because the large costs associated with human spaceflight cannot be sustained. A strong space development industrial sector is needed that can one day support the needs of commercial space enterprises as well as provide capabilities that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other national space agencies can buy to achieve their exploration goals. This new industrial space sector will someday provide fundamental capabilities like communications, power, logistics, and even cargo and human space transportation, just as commercial companies are able to provide these services on Earth today. To help develop and bolster this new space industrial sector, NASA and other national space agencies can enable and facilitate it in many ways, including reducing risk by developing important technologies necessary for commercialization of space, and as a paying customer, partner, or anchor tenant. This transition from all or mostly government developed and operated facilities and services to commercial supplied facilities and services should be considered from the very earliest stages of planning. This paper will first discuss the importance of space commercialization to fulfilling national goals and the associated policy and strategic objectives that will enable space exploration and development. Then the paper will offer insights into how government can provide leadership to promote the nascent commercial space industry. In addition, the paper describes programs and policies already in place at NASA and offers five important principles government can use to strengthen space industry.

Martin, Gary L.; Olson, John M.

2009-01-01

222

NASA/CP--2006214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop  

E-print Network

NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Washington, DC April 2006 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program

de Weck, Olivier L.

223

Space Exploration: Manned and Unmanned Flight. Aerospace Education III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of…

Coard, E. A.

224

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and

Josette Bellan

1993-01-01

225

Assessment of electronics for cryogenic space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration missions require electronics capable of efficient and reliable operation at low temperatures. Presently, spacecraft on-board electronics are maintained at approximately 20°C through the use of radioisotopes. Cryogenic electronics would enhance efficiency of space systems, improve reliability, and simplify their design. A Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics

R. L. Patterson; A. Hammoud; M. Elbuluk

2006-01-01

226

A solution methodology for exact design space exploration in a three-dimensional design space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an exact solution methodology, implemented in Rensselaer's Voyager design space exploration system, for solving the scheduling problem in a three-dimensional (3-D) design space: the usual two-dimensional (2-D) design space (which trades off area and schedule length), plus a third dimension representing clock length. Unlike design space exploration methodologies which rely on bounds or estimates, this methodology is

Samit Chaudhuri; S. A. Blthye; Robert A. Walker

1997-01-01

227

The Space Science Suitcase--Instruments for Exploring Near-Earth Space from the Classroom  

E-print Network

The Space Science Suitcase--Instruments for Exploring Near-Earth Space from the Classroom Kjartan and Technology, University of Bergen, are constructing a Space Science Suitcase with a set of simple versions are carried out under controlled conditions in a laboratory. One of the purposes of the Space Science Suitcase

Ã?stgaard, Nikolai

228

The Space Science Suitcase--Instruments for Exploring Near-Earth Space from the Classroom  

E-print Network

The Space Science Suitcase--Instruments for Exploring Near-Earth Space from the Classroom Kjartan at The Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, are constructing a Space Science Suitcase of the purposes of the Space Science Suitcase is to offer the students an opportunity also to study phenomena

Bergen, Universitetet i

229

The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

Pasachoff, Jay M.

2011-06-01

230

A tool for parameter-space explorations  

E-print Network

A software for managing simulation jobs and results, named "OACIS", is presented. It controls a large number of simulation jobs executed in various remote servers, keeps these results in an organized way, and manages the analyses on these results. The software has a web browser front end, and users can submit various jobs to appropriate remote hosts from a web browser easily. After these jobs are finished, all the result files are automatically downloaded from the computational hosts and stored in a traceable way together with the logs of the date, host, and elapsed time of the jobs. Some visualization functions are also provided so that users can easily grasp the overview of the results distributed in a high-dimensional parameter space. Thus, OACIS is especially beneficial for the complex simulation models having many parameters for which a lot of parameter searches are required. By using API of OACIS, it is easy to write a code that automates parameter selection depending on the previous simulation results....

Murase, Yohsuke; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-01-01

231

Determining Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is a major risk for astronauts in long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Radiation shielding is needed to reduce the radiation hazard to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials. In this talk we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. As a result, these cross sections need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2005-01-01

232

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

Bellan, Josette

1993-04-01

233

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

Bellan, Josette

1993-01-01

234

Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such

L. Alkalai; S. Chau; A. T. Tai

2001-01-01

235

Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the technologies needed for Mars mission. Agencies see the importance of assessing gaps and overlaps in their plans to advance technologies in order to leverage their investments and enable exciting missions as soon as practical. They see the importance of respecting the ability of any agency to invest in any technologies considered interesting or strategic. This paper will describe the importance of developing an appropriate international strategy for technology development and ideas for effective mechanisms for advancing an international strategy. This work will both inform and be informed by the development of an ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap and serve as a concrete step forward in advancing the Global Exploration Strategy.

Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

2010-01-01

236

Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces  

PubMed Central

Background The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). Results This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical dimensions for analysis purposes. The latter one reduces the annotation set associated to each collection item into a set of points of the multidimensional space. Additionally, we have developed a visual tool, called 3D-Browser, which implements OLAP-like operators over the generated multidimensional space. The method and the tool have been tested and evaluated in the context of the Health-e-Child (HeC) project. Automatic semantic annotation was applied to tag three collections of abstracts taken from PubMed, one for each target disease of the project, the Uniprot database, and the HeC patient record database. We adopted the UMLS Meta-thesaurus 2010AA as the reference knowledge resource. Conclusions Current knowledge resources and semantic-aware technology make possible the integration of biomedical resources. Such an integration is performed through semantic annotation of the intended biomedical data resources. This paper shows how these annotations can be exploited for integration, exploration, and analysis tasks. Results over a real scenario demonstrate the viability and usefulness of the approach, as well as the quality of the generated multidimensional semantic spaces. PMID:22373409

2012-01-01

237

Human life support for advanced space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near-term technologies are adequate to implement a Lunar Base CELSS. There are no apparent "show-stoppers" which require the development of new technologies. However, there are several areas in which new materials and technologies could be used for a more efficient implementation of the system, e.g., by decreasing mass or power requirement and increasing recycling efficiency. These areas must be further addressed through research and development. Finally, although this study focused on the development of a Lunar Base CELSS, the same technologies and a nearly identical design would be appropriate for a Mars base. Actually, except for the distance of transportation, the implementation of a CELSS on Mars would even be easier than it would be on the Moon. The presence of atmospheric CO2 on Mars, although in low concentration, coupled with the fact that the day/night cycle on Mars is very similar to that on Earth, makes the use of light-weight, greenhouse-like structures for growing food plants even more feasible than on the Moon. There are some environmental problems, which would have to be dealt with, like dust storms and the large amount of the ultraviolet radiation incident on the planet's surface. However, the materials and methods are largely available today to develop such a life support system for a Mars base.

Schwartzkopf, S. H.

1997-01-01

238

Human life support for advanced space exploration.  

PubMed

The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near-term technologies are adequate to implement a Lunar Base CELSS. There are no apparent "show-stoppers" which require the development of new technologies. However, there are several areas in which new materials and technologies could be used for a more efficient implementation of the system, e.g., by decreasing mass or power requirement and increasing recycling efficiency. These areas must be further addressed through research and development. Finally, although this study focused on the development of a Lunar Base CELSS, the same technologies and a nearly identical design would be appropriate for a Mars base. Actually, except for the distance of transportation, the implementation of a CELSS on Mars would even be easier than it would be on the Moon. The presence of atmospheric CO2 on Mars, although in low concentration, coupled with the fact that the day/night cycle on Mars is very similar to that on Earth, makes the use of light-weight, greenhouse-like structures for growing food plants even more feasible than on the Moon. There are some environmental problems, which would have to be dealt with, like dust storms and the large amount of the ultraviolet radiation incident on the planet's surface. However, the materials and methods are largely available today to develop such a life support system for a Mars base. PMID:9048141

Schwartzkopf, S H

1997-01-01

239

Why We Explore: The Value of Space Exploration for Future Generations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its industry partners are making measurable progress toward delivering new human space transportation capabilities to serve as the catalyst for a new era of discovery, as directed by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. In the interest of ensuring prolonged support, the Agency encourages space advocates of all stripes to accurately portray both the tangible and intangible benefits of space exploration, especially its value for future generations. This may be done not only by emphasizing the nation's return on its aerospace investment, but also by highlighting enabling security features and by promoting the scientific and technological benefits that accrue from the human exploration of space. As America embarks on a new era of leadership and international partnership on the next frontier, we are poised to master space by living off-planet on the Moon to prepare astronauts for longer journeys to Mars. These and other relevant facts should be clearly in the view of influential decision-makers and the American taxpayers, and we must increasingly involve those on whom the long-term sustainability of space exploration ultimately depends: America's youth. This paper will examine three areas of concrete benefits for future generations: fundamental security, economic enterprise, and high-technology advancements spurred by the innovation that scientific discovery demands.

Cook, Stephen A.; Armstrong, Robert C., Jr.

2007-01-01

240

Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

2005-01-01

241

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized that the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) might countermeasure various space-caused disorders so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using animal models of disorders (hindlimb suspension unloading system and beta-thalassemia), the HSCT was tested for muscle loss, immunodeficiency and space anemia. The results indicate feasibility of HSCT for these disorders. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

2003-01-01

242

Exploring Current Arts Practice in Kindergartens and Preparatory Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring…

Garvis, Susanne

2012-01-01

243

Office of Biological and Physical Research: Overview Transitioning to the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on NASA's transition to its vision for space exploration is presented. The topics include: 1) Strategic Directives Guiding the Human Support Technology Program; 2) Progressive Capabilities; 3) A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover; 4) Risk Mitigation Status Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Countermeasures Readiness Level (CRL); 5) Biological And Physical Research Enterprise Aligning With The Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 6) Critical Path Roadmap Reference Missions; 7) Rating Risks; 8) Current Critical Path Roadmap (Draft) Rating Risks: Human Health; 9) Current Critical Path Roadmap (Draft) Rating Risks: System Performance/Efficiency; 10) Biological And Physical Research Enterprise Efforts to Align With Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 11) Aligning with the Vision: Exploration Research Areas of Emphasis; 12) Code U Efforts To Align With The Vision For U.S. Space Exploration; 13) Types of Critical Path Roadmap Risks; and 14) ISS Human Support Systems Research, Development, and Demonstration. A summary discussing the vision for U.S. space exploration is also provided.

Crouch, Roger

2004-01-01

244

CMP design space exploration subject to physical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the multi-dimensional design space for chip multiprocessors, exploring the inter-related vari-ables of core count, pipeline depth, superscalar width, L2 cache size, and operating voltage and frequency, under various area and thermal constraints. The results show the importance of joint optimization. Thermal constraints dominate other physical constraints such as pin-bandwidth and power delivery, demonstrating the importance of con-sidering

Yingmin Li; Benjamin Lee; David Brooks; Zhigang Hu; Kevin Skadron

2006-01-01

245

CMP Design Space Exploration Subject to Physical Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the multi-dimensional design space for chip multiprocessors, exploring the inter-related vari- ables of core count, pipeline depth, superscalar width, L2 cache size, and operating voltage and frequency, under various area and thermal constraints. The results show the importance of joint optimization. Thermal constraints dominate other physical constraints such as pin-bandwidth and power delivery, demonstrating the importance of

Yingmin Li; Benjamin Lee; David Brooks; Zhigang Huy; Kevin Skadron

246

Adaptive Simulated Annealer for high level synthesis design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a microarchitectural design space exploration tool called cwbexplorer based on an Adaptive Simulated Annealer Exploration Algorithm (ASA-ExpA) for behavioral descriptions written in untimed C or SystemC. Cwbexplorer automatically generates a series of designs given a set of constraints (area and latency) from an untimed high level language description. A commercial high level synthesis tool (Cy- berWorkBench) is

Benjamin Carrion Schafer; Takashi Takenaka; Kazutoshi Wakabayashi

2009-01-01

247

Multi-objective design space exploration using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we provide a technique for efficiently exploring a parameterized system-on-a-chip (SoC) architecture to find all Pareto-optimal configurations in a multi-objective design space. Globally, our approach uses a parameter dependency model of our target parameterized SoC architecture to extensively prune non-optimal sub-spaces. Locally, our approach applies Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to discover Pareto-optimal configurations within the remaining design points.

Maurizio Palesi; Tony Givargis

2002-01-01

248

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

249

A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a state space exploration method for on-the-fly verification. The method is aimed at systems for which it is possible to define a measure of progress based on the states of the system. The measure of progress makes it possible to delete certain states on-the-fly during state space generation, since these states can never be reached again. This in

Søren Christensen; Lars Michael Kristensen; Thomas Mailund

2001-01-01

250

Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

Goldman, Arthur E.

2012-01-01

251

Phase-Space Exploration in Nuclear Giant Resonance Decay  

E-print Network

The rate of phase-space exploration in the decay of isovector and isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in $^{40}$Ca is analyzed. The study is based on the time dependence of the survival probability and of the spectrum of generalized entropies evaluated in the space of 1p-1h and 2p-2h states. If the 2p-2h background shows the characteristics typical for chaotic systems, the isovector excitation evolves almost statistically while the isoscalar excitation remains largely localized, even though it penetrates the whole available phase space.

S. Drozdz; S. Nishizaki; J. Speth; J. Wambach

1994-07-08

252

Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

253

Visualisation Support for Exploring Urban Space and Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban research is fundamentally underpinned by heterogeneous, highly varied data. The availability and quantity of digital data sources is increasing rapidly. In order to facilitate decision-making and support processes related to urban policy and management, such data has to be readily analysed, synthesised and the results readily communicated to support evidence based decision-making. In this paper, we consider the current state of play of visualisation as it supports urban research. In doing so we firstly consider visualisation environments such as geographical information systems (GIS) and Cartography tools, digital globes, virtual simulation environments, building information models and gaming platforms. Secondly, we consider a number of visualisation techniques with a focusing on GIS and Cartography tools including space time cubes, heat maps, choropleth maps, flow maps and brushing. This review of visualisation environments and techniques is undertaken in the context of the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network project (www.aurin.org.au). AURIN is tasked with developing a portal and associated e-Infrastructure, which provides seamless access to federated data, modelling and visualisation tools to support the urban researcher community in Australia. We conclude by outlining future research and development opportunities in developing the AURIN visualisation toolkit by reflecting on the value of visualisation as a data exploration and communication tool for researchers and decision-makers to assist with the study and management of the urban fabric.

Pettit, C.; Widjaja, I.; Russo, P.; Sinnott, R.; Stimson, R.; Tomko, M.

2012-07-01

254

Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

2005-01-01

255

The Great Exploratory Tragedy of Our Time: Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Abstract In the twentieth century, our civilization set out into the darkness. In an effort to realize). His name was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Three hundred years before him, another man was forced to kneel ex- ploration. Not yet, but hopefully one day. #12;Pandya 4 2 Defining Space Exploration Let's define

Zeilberger, Doron

256

Intelligent Systems Technologies for Human Space Exploration Mission Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human space flight and exploration continues to be a key goal of the NASA, with an emphasis on utilizing new technologies to improve the effectiveness, efficiencies and safety associated with this endeavor, including the ground-based mission support. This search for improvement has led to cross- fertilization between the advanced software development community and the manned spaceflight operations community within NASA.

Ernest E. Smith; David J. Korsmeyer

2011-01-01

257

Creating and exploring a large photorealistic virtual space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for exploring large collections of photos in a virtual 3D space. Our system does not assume the photographs are of a single real 3D location, nor that they were taken at the same time. Instead, we organize the photos in themes, such as city streets or skylines, and let users navigate within each theme using intuitive

Josef Sivic; Biliana Kaneva; Antonio Torralba; Shai Avidan; William T. Freeman

2008-01-01

258

Data Management in Planetary Exploration and Space Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary exploration and space physics approach data management in very different ways. In this talk we will compare the approaches in these two disciplines with emphasis on how each has dealt with the problems of locating and accessing distributed data. We also will outline the data management challenges each will face in the next decade. Sixteen years ago the NASA

R. J. Walker; S. P. Joy; T. A. King

2003-01-01

259

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

260

The practical value of health management in space exploration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a body of evidence, and a group of advocates, supporting the need for integrated system health management for space exploration systems. The advocates include operators responsible for complex and inherently risky decisions, and the technologists working in the domain of health management and looking for application for their products. Others in the decision loops take the view that

William Kahle; Jim Miller

2005-01-01

261

A modular robotic system with applications to space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots

Matthew D. Hancher; Gregory S. Hornby

2006-01-01

262

Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

263

Hardware\\/software partitioning with integrated hardware design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated approach to hardware software partitioning and hardware design space exploration. We propose a genetic algorithm which performs hardware software partitioning on a task graph while simultaneously contemplating various design alternatives for tasks mapped to hardware. We primarily deal with data dominated designs typically found in digital signal processing and image processing applications. A detailed description

Vinoo Srinivasan; Shankar Radhakrishnan; Ranga Vemuri

1998-01-01

264

Efficient search space exploration for HW-SW partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware\\/software (HW-SW) partitioning is a key problem in the codesign of embedded systems, studied extensively in the past. One major open challenge for traditional partitioning approaches -- as we move to more complex and heterogeneous SOCs -- is the lack of efficient exploration of the large space of possible HW\\/SW configurations, coupled with the inability to efficiently scale up with

Sudarshan Banerjee; Nikil D. Dutt

2004-01-01

265

Functional abstraction driven design space exploration of heterogeneous programmable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid Design Space Exploration (DSE) of a programmable architecture is feasible using an automatic toolkit (compiler, simulator, assembler) generation methodology driven by an Architecture Description Language (ADL). While many contemporary ADLs can effectively capture one class of architecture, they are typically unable to capture a wide spectrum of processor and memory features present in DSP, VLIW, EPIC and Superscalar processors.

Prabhat Mishra; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

2001-01-01

266

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative  

E-print Network

with radiogenic heater #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunokhod 2 Science · Science observations ­ Perform laser ranging experiments from Earth ­ Observe solar x-rays ­ Measure local magnetic ­ Astrophotometer for VIS and UV light ­ Radiometer ­ Rubin-1 photodetector for laser detection & French

Rathbun, Julie A.

267

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration DEstination  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration DEstination systEms roa.2.1.4. Manufacturing and Infrastructure Emplacement (HEDS TABS 7.1.4) TA07-14 2.2.2. Sustainability & Supportability Recommended Revisions to the TABS TA07-32 6.2. NRC Prioritization TA07-34 6.3. Additional / Salient Comments

Waliser, Duane E.

268

Project Explorer - Student experiments aboard the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Explorer, a program of high school student experiments in space in a Space Shuttle self-contained payload unit (Getaway Special), sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in cooperation with four Alabama universities is presented. Organizations aspects of the project, which is intended to promote public awareness of the space program and encourage space research, are considered, and the proposal selection procedure is outlined. The projects selected for inclusion in the self-contained payload canister purchased in 1977 and expected to be flown on an early shuttle mission include experiments on alloy solidification, electric plating, whisker growth, chick embryo development and human blood freezing, and an amateur radio experiment. Integration support activities planned and underway are summarized, and possible uses for a second payload canister purchased by ASRC are discussed.

Buckbee, E.; Dannenberg, K.; Driggers, G.; Orillion, A.

1979-01-01

269

Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

Sanders, Gerald B.

2000-01-01

270

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to make possible the permanent extension of human presence beyond the bounds of Earth and enable historic improvements in our understanding of our solar system and the universe, and the quality of life, NASA must: (1) Undertake, in partnership with the scientific community, sustained international explorations throughout the inner solar system by integrated human/robotic expeditions; (2) Achieve breakthrough discoveries and technology developments through basic, applied, and commercial research in the unique venue of space--exploiting characteristics such as microgravity, vacuum, radiation, and location; (3) Establish safe and routine access to space in support of permanent commercial human operations in low-Earth orbit and ongoing exploration activities at one or more sites beyond Earth orbit; (4) Engage the private sector in the commercial development of space and enable the creation of new space industries generating new wealth for the US economy; and (5) Communicate the excitement and importance of the discovery of new worlds and the profound insights we will gain into the origins of life and the universe. In order to guide planning, the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise has identified some potential future targets and goals (e.g. 'Design Reference Points') beginning with the near-term and extending to the far-term and beyond.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Cooke, Douglas (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2001-01-01

271

Space debris, remarks on current legal issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A legal definition of space debris must take into consideration its consequences on the legal status of the object. For the purpose of mitigation of space debris at the time of the launch, any object launched in outer pace will turn sooner or later into a space debris. For liability purposes, a definition of a "space object " is more useful that the notion of "space debris". It must be sure that every space debris is considered as a space objet according to the liability convention. At the end and certainly a more difficult issue is the qualification of a space object as a space debris when it will be technically feasible to remove it. The question of the property of the debris or object should be important. States are responsible and liable for space debris. According to article VI and VII of the Outer Space Treaty, they must authorise and control any national space activity and make sure these activities will not be conducted against the law. In the case of an accident and excepting the use of nuclear power sources, the main problem lies on damage in outer space to other spacecraft. In that case, the victim must prove a fault. According with the lack of precise rules it should be difficult. It should be necessary to precise the law applicable to space debris. At the domestic level, rules must be taken to prevent space debris through an assessment of risk within the licensing process. At the international level, the principle of an obligation to mitigate debris should be clearly accepted. Some general rules should be useful to avoid breach of competition between commercial actors. The adoption of a clear and precise code of conduct should be of great help because it would determine the good launching States' behaviour and greatly helps the judge appreciating the proof of a fault in case of an accident.

Kerrest, Armel

2001-10-01

272

High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for future space instrumentation : current development within the French Space Orbitrap Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has been used for years in space exploration to characterise the chemical composition of solar system bodies and their environment. Because of the harsh constraints imposed to the space probe instruments, their mass resolution is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, sometimes leading to significant limitations in the treatment of the data collected with this type of instrumentation. Future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). For a few years, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies formed a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). This development is carried out in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. We are indeed pursuing, within international collaborations, the definition of several instrument concepts based on the core elements that are subject of our R&T programme. In this talk, we briefly discuss science applications for future orbitrap-based HRMS space instruments. We highlight present results of our R&T programme.

Briois, Christelle; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Szopa, Cyril; Thirkell, Laurent; Aradj, Kenzi; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chalumeau, Gilles; Chapelon, Olivier; Colin, Fabrice; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Kukui, Alexandre; Pennanech, Cyril; Thissen, Roland; Vuitton, Véronique; Zapf, Pascal; Makarov, Alexander

2014-05-01

273

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

274

METRIC CURRENTS AND GEOMETRY OF WASSERSTEIN SPACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate some geometric aspects of Wasserstein spaces through the continuity equation as worked out in mass transportation the- ory. By defining a suitable homology on the flat torus Tn, we prove that the space Pp(Tn) has non-trivial homology in a metric sense. As a byprod- uct of the developed tools, we show that every parametrization of a Mather's minimal

LUCA GRANIERI

275

Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the design, development, testing, and evaluation of both vehicles and serves as lead systems integrator. A little over a year after it was chartered, the Exploration Launch Projects team is testing engine components, refining vehicle designs, performing wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I-l, scheduled for spring 2009. The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration lays out a roadmap for a long-term venture of discovery. This endeavor will inspire and attract the best and brightest students to power this nation successfully to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. If one equates the value proposition for space with simple dollars and cents, the potential of the new space economy is tremendous, from orbital space delivery services for the International Space Station to mining and solar energy collection on the Moon and asteroids. The Vision for Space Exploration is fundamentally about bringing the resources of the solar system within the economic sphere of humaind. Given the immense size of our solar system, the amount of available material and energy with

Sexton, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

276

The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

1983-01-01

277

Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is a risky enterprise. Rockets launch astronauts at enormous speeds into a harsh, unforgiving environment. Spacecraft must withstand the bitter cold of space and the blistering heat of reentry. Their skin must be strong enough to keep the inside comfortably pressurized and tough enough to resist damage from micrometeoroids. Spacecraft meant for lunar or planetary landings must survive the jar of landing, tolerate dust, and be able to take off again. For astronauts, however, there is one danger in space that does not end when they step out of their spacecraft. The radiation that permeates space -- unattenuated by Earth s atmosphere and magnetosphere -- may damage or kill cells within astronauts bodies, resulting in cancer or other health consequences years after a mission ends. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently embarked on Project Constellation to implement the Vision for Space Exploration -- a program announced by President George W. Bush in 2004 with the goal of returning humans to the Moon and eventually transporting them to Mars. To adequately prepare for the safety of these future space explorers, NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate requested that the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council establish a committee to evaluate the radiation shielding requirements for lunar missions and to recommend a strategic plan for developing the radiation mitigation capabilities needed to enable the planned lunar mission architecture

2008-01-01

278

Evaluating science return in space exploration initiative architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science is an important aspect of the Space Exploration Initiative, a program to explore the Moon and Mars with people and machines. Different SEI mission architectures are evaluated on the basis of three variables: access (to the planet's surface), capability (including number of crew, equipment, and supporting infrastructure), and time (being the total number of man-hours available for scientific activities). This technique allows us to estimate the scientific return to be expected from different architectures and from different implementations of the same architecture. Our methodology allows us to maximize the scientific return from the initiative by illuminating the different emphases and returns that result from the alternative architectural decisions.

Budden, Nancy Ann; Spudis, Paul D.

1993-01-01

279

Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

Ferri, A.

280

U.S. Vision for Space Exploration: Who Benefits?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2004, President Bush announced a new vision for NASA, starting with a human return to the Moon by 2020 to be followed by human exploration of Mars and other destinations. The President's Moon-Mars initiative provides a compelling directive for the future of NASA, one that is at the next frontier in space exploration. However, it also presents substantial technical challenges and will require considerable financial resources at a time of highly constrained federal budgets. Consequently, the Moon-Mars initiative may have significant impacts on scientific programs not only at NASA but also at other agencies, and may affect the many collaborations within the global community of Earth and space scientists. Will Earth and space sciences be impacted by the Moon-Mars initiative? There are several factors that provide reason for concern. First, although the President's request for NASA funding includes a modest increase for fiscal year 2005, NASA faces major challenges in reinstituting a Shuttle program, finishing the Space Station, and starting Moon-Mars. A significant number of Earth and space missions don't appear to fit within the budget envelope. Further, the ``queue'' for future science missions is also much smaller than in the past. It is difficult not to equate these two factors with reduced future opportunities for science.

Barron, Eric

2005-04-01

281

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2009-01-01

282

Tethers and their role in the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses some potential applications for tethers in space, and describes a mission designed to deploy a satellite from a Delta II launch vehicle, by NASA's Small Expendable Deployer System, via a 46 km long tether. The mission, targeted for 1993, will contribute to the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative, and along with the shuttle flight of the tethered satellite system, TSS1, will be one of the first attempts to experimentally characterize the dynamics of a tethered system. Data taken from two experimental packages onboard the satellite will be analyzed to verify mathematical simulations related to tether dynamics.

Bankston, Cheryl D.; Gilbert, John A.; Wingo, Dennis R.

1992-01-01

283

NASA-KSC's earth resources benefits from space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify the nature and scope of earth resources activities at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Because of recent developments from space exploration, NASA and KSC have evolved an earth resources program which focuses on applied R&D activities of direct benefit to a variety of federal, state, and local users. The historical development of this program is traced, and several projects are identified with special emphasis on the use of sidelooking airborne radar in several Brevard County, Florida test areas.

Ragusa, J. M.; Hecker, E. J.

1974-01-01

284

78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Aviation Administration Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of...Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation...Brinkman, Licensing Program Lead, Commercial Space Transportation--Licensing and...

2013-08-27

285

The role of nuclear reactors in space exploration and development  

SciTech Connect

The United States has launched more than 20 radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) into space over the past 30 yr but has launched only one nuclear reactor, and that was in 1965. Russia has launched more than 30 reactors. The RTGs use the heat of alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu for power and typically generate <1 kW of electricity. Apollo, Pioneer, Voyager, Viking, Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini all used RTGs. Space reactors use the fission energy of {sup 235}U; typical designs are for 100 to 1000 kW of electricity. The only US space reactor launch (SNAP-10A) was a demonstration mission. One reason for the lack of space reactor use by the United States was the lack of space missions that required high power. But, another was the assumed negative publicity that would accompany a reactor launch. The net result is that all space reactor programs after 1970 were terminated before an operating space reactor could be developed, and they are now many years from recovering the ability to build them. Two major near-term needs for space reactors are the human exploration of Mars and advanced missions to and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. To help obtain public acceptance of space reactors, one must correct some of the misconceptions concerning space reactors and convey the following facts to the public and to decision makers: Space reactors are 1000 times smaller in power and size than a commercial power reactor. A space reactor at launch is only as radioactive as a pile of dirt 60 m (200 ft) across. A space reactor contains no plutonium at launch. It does not become significantly radioactive until it is turned on, and it will be engineered so that no launch accident can turn it on, even if that means fueling it after launch. The reactor will not be turned on until it is in a high stable orbit or even on an earth-escape trajectory for some missions. The benefits of space reactors are that they give humanity a stairway to the planets and perhaps the stars. They open a new frontier for their children and their grandchildren. They pave the way for all life on earth to move out into the solar system. At one time, humans built and flew space reactors; it is time to do so again.

Lipinski, R.J.

2000-07-01

286

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

287

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

288

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

289

An Overview of Space Exploration Simulation (Basis of Confidence) Documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models and simulations (M&S) are critical resources in the exploration of space. They support program management, systems engineering, integration, analysis, test, and operations by providing critical information that supports key analyses and decisions (technical, cost and schedule). Consequently, there is a clear need to establish a solid understanding of M&S strengths and weaknesses, and the bounds within which they can credibly support decision making. In this presentation we will describe how development of simulation capability documentation will be used to form a Basis of Confidence (Basis of Confidence) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) M&S. The process by which BOC documentation is developed will be addressed, as well as the structure and critical concepts that are essential for establishing credibility of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) legacy M&S. We will illustrate the significance of BOC documentation in supporting decision makers and Accreditation Authorities in M&S risk management.

Bray, Alleen; Hale, Joseph P.

2006-01-01

290

Prediction of solar flares for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 21st century is likely to see the start of the manned exploration and settlement of the inner solar system. NASA's plans for this endeavor are focused upon the Space Exploration Initiative which calls for a return to the Moon, to stay, followed by manned missions to Mars. To execute these missions safely provides solar physics with both a challenge and an opportunity. As the past solar maximum has clearly demonstrated, the Sun, through the solar flare process, is capable of generating and accelerating to high energies large fluxes of protons whose cumulative dose to unprotected astronauts can be fatal. It will be the responsibility of solar physicists to develop an accurate physical description of the mechanisms of flare energy storage and release, and of particle acceleration and propagation through interplanetary space upon which to base a sound method of flare and energetic particle prediction.

Davis, John M.

1994-01-01

291

Forecasting Water Waves and Currents: A Space-time Approach  

E-print Network

Forecasting Water Waves and Currents: A Space-time Approach Vijaya Raghav Ambati #12;Colophon the copyright owner. ISBN 978-90-365-2632-6 #12;FORECASTING WATER WAVES AND CURRENTS: A SPACE-TIME APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Water waves and currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 Research objectives

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

292

Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with minimal redesign effort required such that the modular architecture can be quickly and efficiently honed into a specific mission point solution if required.

Hill, Terry R.

2010-01-01

293

The potential of space exploration for the fine arts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Art provides an integrating function between the 'upper' and 'lower' centers of the human psyche. The nature of this function can be made more specific through the triune model of the brain. The evolution of the fine arts - painting, drawing, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, dance, and drama, plus cinema and mathematics-as-a-fine-art - are examined in the context of their probable stimulations by space exploration: near term and long term.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1993-01-01

294

Super Earth Explorer: A Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope  

E-print Network

The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii >. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of the parent starlight reflected by the planets, in the wavelength range 400-1250 nm

J. Schneider; A. Boccaletti; D. Mawet; P. Baudoz; J. -L. Beuzit; R. Doyon; M. Marley; D. Stam; G. Tinetti; W. Traub; J. Trauger; A. Aylward; J. Y. -K. Cho; C. -U. Keller; S. Udry; for the SEE-COAST Team

2008-11-24

295

Multi-objective design space exploration under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a new technique for efficiently exploring a multi-objective design space to find non-dominated solutions in the presence of uncertainty. Our approach uses a two-stage optimization technique. In the first-stage, the design problem is represented by a multi-objective optimization problem considering the performances associated with design parameters. In the second stage, the design problem is expressed

Soorathep Kheawhom; Paisan Kittisupakorn

2005-01-01

296

Design Space Exploration for Memory Subsystems of VLIW Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a design space exploration of the memory subsystem of our configurable CoreVA VLIW architecture. The development of resource efficient processor architectures is based on a two-stage tool flow using a high-level processor specification as a reference. We evaluate several memory configurations like one memory port or two memory ports, as well as different write-miss-allocation modes.

Thorsten Jungeblut; Gregor Sievers; Mario Porrmann; Ulrich Rückert

2010-01-01

297

Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. Fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR Element supports the entire life cycle of Exploration by: reducing downtime due to failed components; decreasing risk to crew by recovering quickly from degraded operation of equipment; improving system functionality with advanced geometry capabilities; and enhancing mission safety by reducing assembly part counts of original designs where possible. This paper addresses the fabrication infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; these infrastructures allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon, Mars and beyond.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Manning, Curtis W.; Good, Jim

2007-01-01

298

Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

Joosten, B. Kent

2006-01-01

299

We can't explore space without it - Common human space needs for exploration spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is conducted of physiological, psychological, and human-interface requirements for manned spaceflight programs to establish common criteria. Attention is given to the comfort levels relevant to human support in exploration mission spacecraft and planetary habitats, and three comfort levels (CLs) are established. The levels include: (1) CL-1 for basic crew life support; (2) CL-2 for enabling the nominal completion of mission science; and (3) CL-3 which provides for enhanced life support and user-friendly interface systems. CL-2 support systems can include systems for EVA, workstations, and activity centers for repairs and enhanced utilization of payload and human/machine integration. CL-3 supports can be useful for maintaining crew psychological and physiological health as well as the design of comfortable and earthlike surroundings. While all missions require CL-1 commonality, CL-2 commonality is required only for EVA systems, display nomenclature, and restraint designs.

Daues, K. R.; Erwin, H. O.

1992-01-01

300

Microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space-current status and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:25130885

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

2014-09-17

301

Microbial Monitoring of Crewed Habitats in Space--Current Status and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed.

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

2014-01-01

302

Space Radiation and Exploration - Information for the Augustine Committee Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents significant health risks including mortality for Exploration missions: a) Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) heavy ions are distinct from radiation that occurs on Earth leading to different biological impacts. b) Large uncertainties in GCR risk projections impact ability to design and assess mitigation approaches and select crew. c) Solar Proton Events (SPEs) require new operational and shielding approaches and new biological data on risks. Risk estimates are changing as new scientific knowledge is gained: a) Research on biological effects of space radiation show qualitative and quantitative differences with X- or gamma-rays. b) Expert recommendations and regulatory policy are changing. c) New knowledge leads to changes in estimates for the number of days in space to stay below Permissible Exposure Limits (PELS).

Cucinotta, Francis; Semones, Edward; Kim, Myung-Hee; Jackson, Lori

2009-01-01

303

Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (<3.0 kg) free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft in an effort to enhance safety and reduce risk in future human and exploration missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such as robotic missions, where human teleoperation capability is not locally available.

Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

2005-01-01

304

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

305

Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine  

E-print Network

1 Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine What is MINAR? Boulby from the space exploration sector to the mining industry to improve mining safety and profitable space exploration and mining. The two day workshop (From Outer Space to Mining; Bowler, 2013) at Boulby

Strathclyde, University of

306

Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-10-01

307

THE FLUIDS AND COMBUSTION FACILITY: ENABLING THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an International Space Station facility designed to support physical and biological research as well as technology experiments in space. The FCF consists of two racks called the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). The capabilities of the CIR and the FIR and plans for their utilization will support the President s vision for space exploration. The CIR will accommodate physical research and technology experiments that address needs in the areas of spacecraft fire prevention, detection and suppression, incineration of solid wastes, and power generation. Initial experiments will provide data to support design decisions for exploration spacecraft. The CIR provides a large sealed chamber in a near-weightless environment. The chamber supports many simulated atmospheres including lunar or Martian environments. The FIR will accommodate experiments that address needs for advanced life support, power, propulsion, and spacecraft thermal control systems. The FIR can also serve as a platform for experiments that address human health and performance, medical technologies, and biological sciences. The FIR provides a large volume for payload hardware, reconfigurable diagnostics, customizable software, active rack-level vibration isolation, and data acquisition and management in a nearly uniform temperature environment.

Weiland, Karen J.; Gati, Frank G.; Hill, Myron E.; OMalley, Terence; Zurawski, Robert L.

2005-01-01

308

The Fluids and Combustion Facility: Enabling the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an International Space Station facility designed to support physical and biological research as well as technology experiments in space. The FCF consists of two racks called the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). The capabilities of the CIR and the FIR and plans for their utilization will support the President's vision for space exploration. The CIR will accommodate physical research and technology experiments that address needs in the areas of spacecraft fire prevention, detection and suppression, incineration of solid wastes, and power generation. Initial experiments will provide data to support design decisions for exploration spacecraft. The CIR provides a large sealed chamber in a near-weightless environment. The chamber supports many simulated atmospheres including lunar or Martian environments. The FIR will accommodate experiments that address needs for advanced life support, power, propulsion, and spacecraft thermal control systems. The FIR can also serve as a platform for experiments that address human health and performance, medical technologies, and biological sciences. The FIR provides a large volume for payload hardware, reconfigurable diagnostics, customizable software, active rack-level vibration isolation, and data acquisition and management in a nearly uniform temperature environment.

Weiland, Karen J.; Gati, Frank G.; Hill, Myron E.; O'Malley Terence F.; Zurawski, Robert L.

2005-01-01

309

Active Radiation Shield for Space Exploration Missions (ARSSEM)  

E-print Network

One of the major issues to be solved is the protection from the effects of ionizing radiation. Exploration mission, lasting two to three years in space, represents a very significant step from the point of view of radiation protection: both the duration (up to 5 times) and the intensity (up to 5 times) of the exposure to radiation are increased at the same time with respect to mission on the ISS reaching and sometime exceeding professional career limits. In this ARSSEM report, after reviewing the physics basis of the issue of radiation protection in space, we present results based for the first time on full physics simulation to understand the interplay among the the various factors determining the dose absorbed by the astronauts during a long duration mission: radiation composition and energy spectrum, 3D particle propagation through the magnetic field, secondary production on the spacecraft structural materia, dose sensitivity of the various parts of the human body. As first application of this approach, we use this analysis to study a new magnetic configuration based on Double Helix coil and exhibiting a number of interesting features which are suited to active shield application. The study also proposes a technology R&D roadmap for active radiation shield development which would match ESA decadal development strategy for human exploration of space.

R. Battiston; W. J. Burger; V. Calvelli; R. Musenich; V. Choutko; V. I. Datskov; A. Della Torre; F. Venditti; C. Gargiulo; G. Laurenti; S. Lucidi; S. Harrison; R. Meinke

2012-09-10

310

Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

1990-01-01

311

Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

Suedfeld, Peter

2010-03-01

312

Benefits of electric propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the benefits which may be derived through the use of electric propulsion in support of the Space Exploration Initiative is presented. Lunar cargo, Mars cargo and piloted Mars vehicles using electric propulsion are considered. The high performance of electric propulsion systems is shown to offer substantial benefits for these applications, including: substantially reduced initial masses in low earth orbit, reduced round-trip times for piloted Mars vehicles, availability of large amounts of electrical power en route and at the destination, less sensitivity to launch dates and windows, reusability, and growth potential for human exploration of the solar system. Hybrid chemical/NEP and NTR/NEP vehicles are discussed for their potential to reduce piloted round-trip time to Mars even further. A brief technology assessment of the major electric propulsion system components is also presented.

Brophy, John R.; Barnett, John W.

1990-01-01

313

Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

2008-01-01

314

A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

2006-01-01

315

A Coordinated Initialization Process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the federate initialization process for the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) is described. The topics include: 1) Background: DSES; 2) Simulation requirements; 3) Nine Step Initialization; 4) Step 1: Create the Federation; 5) Step 2: Publish and Subscribe; 6) Step 3: Create Object Instances; 7) Step 4: Confirm All Federates Have Joined; 8) Step 5: Achieve initialize Synchronization Point; 9) Step 6: Update Object Instances With Initial Data; 10) Step 7: Wait for Object Reflections; 11) Step 8: Set Up Time Management; 12) Step 9: Achieve startup Synchronization Point; and 13) Conclusions

Crues, Edwin Z.; Phillips, Robert G.; Dexter, Dan; Hasan, David

2007-01-01

316

Introduction to the session on `Human Space Exploration'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Schiaparelli tried to interpret the surface of Mars as it appeared from his telescope, in particular with reference to the famous "channels", he formulated the hypothesis that they would have been the product of some intelligent Mars population. Today we know that this interpretation was not correct, but we would like to consider his idea as a sort of vision for a future when the humankind will export our civilization on Mars. In fact the objective of the international plans of "Space Exploration" is exactly to land the humans on Mars to start its colonization. Although a new approach is proposed which includes International Space Station, Moon, Asteroids, etc. in a sort of "flexible path" to look for "new worlds in the Solar System where is possible for the humankind to live and operate", it is confirmed that the "final destination" is Mars.

Messidoro, P.

317

Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could avoid temperature increase thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

Chambliss, Joseph; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Michael

2011-01-01

318

Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

2010-01-01

319

The space shuttle program from challenge to achievement: Space exploration rolling on tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Transportation System is the first space program to employ the pneumatic tire as a part of space exploration. For aircraft tires, this program establishes new expectations as to what constitutes acceptable performance within a set of tough environmental and operational conditions. Tire design, stresses the usual low weight, high load, high speed, and excellent air retention features but at extremes well outside industry standards. Tires will continue to be an integral part of the Shuttle's landing phase in the immediate future since they afford a unique combination of directional control, braking traction, flotation and shock absorption not available by other systems.

Felder, G. L.

1985-01-01

320

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

321

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2007-01-01

322

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thumm, Tracy L.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

323

NASA Utilization of the International Space Station and the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the U.S. President's Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has revised its utilization plans for ISS to focus on (1) research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect our crews from the space environment during long duration voyages, (2) ISS as a test bed for research and technology developments that will insure vehicle systems and operational practices are ready for future exploration missions, (3) developing and validating operational practices and procedures for long-duration space missions. In addition, NASA will continue a small amount of fundamental research in life and microgravity sciences. There have been significant research accomplishments that are important for achieving the Exploration Vision. Some of these have been formal research payloads, while others have come from research based on the operation of International Space Station (ISS). We will review a selection of these experiments and results, as well as outline some of ongoing and upcoming research. The ISS represents the only microgravity opportunity to perform on-orbit long-duration studies of human health and performance and technologies relevant for future long-duration missions planned during the next 25 years. Even as NASA focuses on developing the Orion spacecraft and return to the moon (2015-2020), research on and operation of the ISS is fundamental to the success of NASA s Exploration Vision.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.; Thumm, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

324

Towards a framework for architecting heterogeneous teams of humans and robots for space exploration  

E-print Network

Human-robotic systems will play a critical role in space exploration, should NASA embark on missions to the Moon and Mars. A unified framework to optimally leverage the capabilities of humans and robots in space exploration ...

Arnold, Julie Ann, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

325

Space Life and Physical Sciences and Applications Research for Human Exploration  

E-print Network

Exploration Systems Division Exploration Systems Development Division Human Spaceflight Capabilities Division Commercial Spaceflight Development Space Shuttle Division Space Life & Physical Sciences Research Research Program Reduce spaceflight risks to humans and focus on the highest risks to crew health

Waliser, Duane E.

326

National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Education for the next generation of space explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new vision for space exploration by educating and inspiring the next generation of students through a seamless pipeline of kindergarten through postdoctoral education programs. NSBRI EPOP initiatives are designed to train scientists and to communicate the significance of NSBRI science, as well as other space exploration science, to schools, families and lay audiences. The NSBRI EPOP team is comprised of eight main partners: Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Binghamton University-State University of New York (BUSUNY), Colorado Consortium for Earth and Space Science Education (CCESSE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM), Rice University and the University of Texas Medical Branch (RU-UTMB), and Texas A&M University (TAMU). The current kindergarten through undergraduate college (K-16) team, which was funded through an open national competition in 2004, consolidates the past 7 years of K-16 education activities and expands the team's outreach activities to more museums and science centers across the nation. NSBRI also recently expanded its education mission to include doctoral and postdoctoral level programs. This paper describes select K-16 EPOP activities and products developed over the past 7 years, and reports on new activities planned for the next 3 years. The paper also describes plans for a doctoral program and reports on 1st-year outcomes of the new postdoctoral program.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy; Gannon, Patrick J.; Smith, Roland B.; Houston, Clifford W.; Coulter, Gary; Vogt, Gregory L.

2007-02-01

327

Exploration mission enhancements possible with power beaming. [Space Applications Power Beaming  

SciTech Connect

A key factor in the exploration and development of the space frontier is the availability of energy where and when it is needed. Currently all space satellites and platforms include self-contained power systems that supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. An alternative approach is to couple advanced high power system with energy beam transmitters and energy receivers to form an infrastructure of a space power utility where a central power system provides power to multiple users. Major space activities, such as low Earth orbit space commercialization and the colonization of the Moon or Mars, would benefit significantly from a central power generation and transmission system. This paper describes the power-beaming concept and system components as applied to space power generation and distribution in support of the Space Exploration Initiative. Beam-power scenarios are discussed including commonality of systems and hardware with cargo transport vehicles, power beaming from orbit to stationary and mobile users on the Lunar and Mars surfaces, and other surface applications. 6 refs.

Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Segna, D.R. (USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (USA))

1990-10-01

328

The Role of Cis-Lunar Space in Future Global Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cis-lunar space offers affordable near-term opportunities to help pave the way for future global human exploration of deep space, acting as a bridge between present missions and future deep space missions. While missions in cis-lunar space have value unto themselves, they can also play an important role in enabling and reducing risk for future human missions to the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Mars, and other deep space destinations. The Cis-Lunar Destination Team of NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been analyzing cis-lunar destination activities and developing notional missions (or "destination Design Reference Missions" [DRMs]) for cis-lunar locations to inform roadmap and architecture development, transportation and destination elements definition, operations, and strategic knowledge gaps. The cis-lunar domain is defined as that area of deep space under the gravitational influence of the earth-moon system. This includes a set of earth-centered orbital locations in low earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), highly elliptical and high earth orbits (HEO), earth-moon libration or "Lagrange" points (E-ML1 through E-ML5, and in particular, E-ML1 and E-ML2), and low lunar orbit (LLO). To help explore this large possibility space, we developed a set of high level cis-lunar mission concepts in the form of a large mission tree, defined primarily by mission duration, pre-deployment, type of mission, and location. The mission tree has provided an overall analytical context and has helped in developing more detailed design reference missions that are then intended to inform capabilities, operations, and architectures. With the mission tree as context, we will describe two destination DRMs to LEO and GEO, based on present human space exploration architectural considerations, as well as our recent work on defining mission activities that could be conducted with an EML1 or EML2 facility, the latter of which will be an emphasis of this paper, motivated in part by recent interest expressed at the Global Exploration Roadmap Stakeholder meeting. This paper will also explore the links between this HAT Cis-Lunar Destination Team analysis and the recently released ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap and other potential international considerations, such as preventing harmful interference to radio astronomy observations in the shielded zone of the moon.

Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.

2012-01-01

329

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

330

Challenges to Health During Deep Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration missions outside of low Earth orbit will present unique challenges to the maintenance of human health. Stressors with physiologic and psychological impacts are inherent in exploration missions, including reduced gravity, increased radiation, isolation, limited habitable volume, circadian disruptions, and cabin atmospheric changes. Operational stressors such as mission timeline and extravehicular activities must also be considered, and these varied stressors may act in additive or synergistic fashions. Should changes to physiology or behavior manifest as a health condition, the rendering of care in an exploration environment must also be considered. Factors such as the clinical background of the crew, inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, and limitations in available medical resources will have an impact on the assessment and treatment of these conditions. The presentations associated with this panel will address these unique challenges from the perspective of several elements of the NASA Human Research Program, including Behavioral Health and Performance, Human Health Countermeasures, Space Radiation, and Exploration Medical Capability.

Watkins, S.; Leveton, L.; Norsk, P.; Huff, J.; Shah, R.

2014-01-01

331

Processing of Space Resources to Enable the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA human exploration program as directed by the Vision for Exploration (G.W. Bush, Jan. 14,2004) includes developing methods to process materials on the Moon and beyond to enable safe and affordable human exploration. Processing space resources was first popularized (O Neill 1976) as a technically viable, economically feasible means to build city sized habitats and multi GWatt solar power satellites in Earth/Moon space. Although NASA studies found the concepts to be technically reasonable in the post Apollo era (AMES 1979), the front end costs the limits of national or corporate investment. In the last decade analysis of space on has shown it to be economically justifiable even on a relatively small mission or commercial scenario basis. The Mars Reference Mission analysis (JSC 1997) demonstrated that production of return propellant on Mars can enable an order of magnitude decrease in the costs of human Mars missions. Analysis (by M. Duke 2003) shows that production of propellant on the Moon for the Earth based satellite industries can be commercially viable after a human lunar base is established. Similar economic analysis (Rapp 2005) also shows large cost benefits for lunar propellant production for Mars missions and for the use of lunar materials for the production of photovoltaic power (Freundlich 2005). Recent technologies could enable much smaller initial costs, to achieve mass, energy, and life support self sufficiency, than were achievable in the 1970s. If the Exploration Vision program is executed with a front end emphasis on space resources, it could provide a path for human self reliance beyond Earth orbit. This path can lead to an open, non-zero-sum, future for humanity with safer human competition with limitless growth potential. This paper discusses extension of the analysis for space resource utilization, to determine the minimum systems necessary for human self sufficiency and growth off Earth. Such a approach can provide a more compelling and comprehensive path to space resource utilization.

Curreri, Peter A.

2006-01-01

332

U.S. Space Transportation Policy: Increased Military Role, Decreased International Cooperation, and Impacts to the Vision for Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one year after the release of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), a United States Presidential Directive established the U. S. Space Transportation Policy on January 6, 2005. The policy supersedes aspects of previous Presidential Decision Directives pertaining to National Security Council Policy, National Space Policy, Defense Space Sector Guidelines, Commercial Space Guidelines, and others. The new U. S.

Corinne M. Contant-Jorgenson

333

Exploration of Parameter Spaces in a Virtual Observatory  

E-print Network

Like every other field of intellectual endeavor, astronomy is being revolutionised by the advances in information technology. There is an ongoing exponential growth in the volume, quality, and complexity of astronomical data sets, mainly through large digital sky surveys and archives. The Virtual Observatory (VO) concept represents a scientific and technological framework needed to cope with this data flood. Systematic exploration of the observable parameter spaces, covered by large digital sky surveys spanning a range of wavelengths, will be one of the primary modes of research with a VO. This is where the truly new discoveries will be made, and new insights be gained about the already known astronomical objects and phenomena. We review some of the methodological challenges posed by the analysis of large and complex data sets expected in the VO-based research. The challenges are driven both by the size and the complexity of the data sets (billions of data vectors in parameter spaces of tens or hundreds of dimensions), by the heterogeneity of the data and measurement errors, including differences in basic survey parameters for the federated data sets (e.g., in the positional accuracy and resolution, wavelength coverage, time baseline, etc.), various selection effects, as well as the intrinsic clustering properties (functional form, topology) of the data distributions in the parameter spaces of observed attributes. Answering these challenges will require substantial collaborative efforts and partnerships between astronomers, computer scientists, and statisticians.

S. G. Djorgovski; A. Mahabal; R. Brunner; R. Williams; R. Granat; D. Curkendall; J. Jacob; P. Stolorz

2001-08-21

334

Exploration of Stellarator Configuration Space with Global Search Methods  

SciTech Connect

An exploration of stellarator configuration space z for quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) designs is discussed, using methods which provide a more global view of that space. To this end, we have implemented a ''differential evolution'' (DE) search algorithm in an existing stellarator optimizer, which is much less prone to become trapped in local, suboptimal minima of the cost function chi than the local search methods used previously. This search algorithm is complemented by mapping studies of chi over z aimed at gaining insight into the results of the automated searches. We find that a wide range of the attractive QAS configurations previously found fall into a small number of classes, with each class corresponding to a basin of chi(z). We develop maps on which these earlier stellarators can be placed, the relations among them seen, and understanding gained into the physics differences between them. It is also found that, while still large, the region of z space containing practically realizable QAS configurations is much smaller than earlier supposed.

H.E. Mynick; N. Pomphrey; S. Ethier

2001-09-10

335

Private equity investments beyond Earth orbits: Can space exploration be the new frontier for private investments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 2004 can be considered an important milestone for space activities. First, on January 14, 2004 President Bush announced a new vision for human and robotic space exploration named “A Renewed Spirit of Discovery”. This new space exploration policy called for “a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond” and seeks also

Jeph Mathurin; Nicolas Peter

2006-01-01

336

Guaranteed Characterization of the Explored Space of a Mobile Robot by using  

E-print Network

Guaranteed Characterization of the Explored Space of a Mobile Robot by using Subpavings Vincent to characterize the space explored by a mobile robot during a mission. Because of localization uncertainty exploration mission are presented. Keywords: interval analysis, mobile robots, exploration, sets, mapping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

The growth of retail REITs : an exploration of current practices and implications  

E-print Network

This study is an exploration of the current growth activity of retail real estate investment trusts (REITs). The specific questions to be explored are: How are retail REITs currently growing, how is this growth being ...

Toth, A. Eric (Anthony Eric), 1971-

2003-01-01

338

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

339

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architectures must be developed to be modularized and launched with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology. To enable long duration missions with minimal redundancy and mass, system software and hardware must be reconfigurable. This will enable increased functionality and multiple use of launched assets while providing the capability to quickly overcome components failures. Additional required capability includes the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to recover from failed hardware or to adapt to changes in mission requirements. To meet the Space Exploration goals of Interoperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architectures into architectures with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; to review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; to provide an operational example that illustrates the application to both the Crew Exploration Vehicle and a collection of 'Habot-like' mobile surface elements; to summarize the approaches that address key challenges to the acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular, Affordable and Reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

340

Space Operations for a New Era of Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human space exploration. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicles. The combined Ares I/Ares V architecture has been designed to reduce the complexity and labor intensity of ground operations for America's next journeys beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A deliberate effort is being made to ensure a high level of system operability to significantly increase safety and system availability as well as reduce recurring costs for this new launch vehicle. The Ares Projects goal is to instill operability as part of the vehicles requirements development, design, and operations. This simplicity will come from using simpler, proven engine designs, as in the case of the J-2X upper stage engine and RS-68 engine; improving existing hardware, as in the case of the Shuttle-heritage 5-segment solid rocket motor; and using common propulsion and instrument unit elements between Ares I and Ares V. Furthermore, lessons learned while developing Ares I will be applied directly to Ares V operations. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to conduct the first flight test of Ares I, designated Ares I-X. Ares I-X preparations have already prompted changes to the vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), including removing Shuttle-specific fixtures from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to accommodate Ares I-style stacking operations, new firing room computers and infrastructure in the VAB Launch Control Center, and new lightning protection system towers at Launch Complex 39B to accommodate the greater height of Ares I-X. In addition to lessons learned from the stacking of Ares I-X, the flight test itself promises to yield important data and operations lessons for assembling, launching, and flying Ares I.

Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

2010-01-01

341

Comparison of Historic Exploration with Contemporary Space Policy Suggests a Retheorisation of Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides one way of theorising this developing field, a way which has become the normative model for the discipline: science-and scholarship-driven funding for space. By contrast, a novel re-evaluation of funding policies is undertaken in this article to reframe astrobiology, terraforming and associated space travel and research. Textual visualisation, discourse and numeric analytical methods, and value theory are applied to historical data and contemporary sources to re-investigate significant drivers and constraints on the mechanisms of enabling space exploration. Two data sets are identified and compared: the business objectives and outcomes of major 15th-17th century European joint-stock exploration and trading companies and a case study of a current space industry entrepreneur company. Comparison of these analyses suggests that viable funding policy drivers can exist outside the normative science and scholarship-driven roadmap. The two drivers identified in this study are (1) the intrinsic value of space as a territory to be experienced and enjoyed, not just studied, and (2) the instrumental, commercial value of exploiting these experiences by developing infrastructure and retail revenues. Filtering of these results also offers an investment rationale for companies operating in, or about to enter, the space business marketplace.

Cokely, J.; Rankin, W.; Heinrich, P.; McAuliffe, M.

342

Vision of Space Exploration Possibilities and limits of a human space conquest.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few generations of a schoolboys, which later become active and productive space researchers, have been brought up on a science fiction books. These books told us about travels to other Galaxies with velocities larger then velocity of light, meetings with friendly aliens (necessarily with communistic mentalities in Soviet Union books), star wars with ugly space monsters (in the western hemisphere books), etc. Beginning of Space age (4/10/1957) opened the door to a magic box, full of scientific discoveries, made mostly by robotic satellites and spacecraft. However, already the first human space trips clearly demonstrated that space is vigorously hostile to a human beings. Space medicine during the years since Gagarin flight, made an outstanding progress in supporting human presence at orbital stations, but the radiation hazards and problem of hypomagnetism are still opened and there is no visible path to their solution. So the optimistic slogan of 60-ies “Space is Our Place” is not supported by an almost half a century practice. Space never will be a comfortable place for soft and vulnerable humans? There is a general consensus that man will be on Mars during this century (or even its first part). This is very difficult but task it seems to be realistic after the significant advance of modern technologies will be made. But, is there any real need for humans to travel beyond the Mars orbit or to the inner regions of the Solar system? Will the age of Solar system exploration comes to its logical as it was described by Stanislav Lem in his famous book “Return from stars”? The author of this talk has more questions than answers, and thinks that PEX1 Panel on Exploration is just a right place to discuss these usually by passed topics.

Zelenyi, Lev

343

A flexible, modular approach to integrated space exploration campaign logistics modeling, simulation, and analysis  

E-print Network

A space logistics modeling framework to support space exploration to remote environments is the target of research within the MIT Space Logistics Project. This thesis presents a revised and expanded framework providing ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas, 1985-

2010-01-01

344

76 FR 41307 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-064] NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee...Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

2011-07-13

345

Using resonant Earth-flyby trajectories for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the advantages of using gravity assisted trajectories for flyby and rendezvous missions to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) or other solar system bodies. A special case of such orbits is considered here: resonant Earth-flyby trajectories. On these trajectories the spacecraft acquires a large relative velocity in respect to the Earth by using one deep-space maneuver along the heliocentric orbit. A resonant condition between Earth and the spacecraft is required for a subsequent flyby. This one can send the spacecraft on more inclined orbits, or on orbits with large aphelion distances. In this manner the accessibility region for NEAs is substantially increased and distant bodies in the solar system are reachable with lower costs. The problem is formulated in the frame of Opik's geometric formalism.

Berinde, ?.

2007-05-01

346

Space Station Freedom accommodation of the Human Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design requirements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are proposed based on the requirements and assumptions of the Human Exploration Initiative. In this summary of a NASA study consideration is given to the mission-supporting capabilities needed to sustain support of a continuous human presence in earth orbit for scientific activities. The initial SSF configuration (called Assembly Complete) is found to be insufficient in terms of the optimal provisions for crew size, power, pressurized volume, and truss structure. Specific design requirements are also given for the Lunar Transfer Vehicle, and the checkout of this vehicle creates additional demands on the SSF facilities. General specifications are given for the SSF modules, vehicle processing, remote manipulator, and mobile transporter within the context of a continuous human presence in orbit.

Meredith, Barry D.; Peach, Lewis L., Jr.; Ahlf, Peter R.; Saucillo, Rudolph J.

1990-01-01

347

Processing of Lunar Soil Simulant for Space Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's long-term vision for space exploration includes developing human habitats and conducting scientific investigations on planetary bodies, especially on Moon and Mars. To reduce the level of up-mass processing and utilization of planetary in-situ resources is recognized as an important element of this vision. Within this scope and context, we have undertaken a general effort aimed primarily at extracting and refining metals, developing glass, glass-ceramic, or traditional ceramic type materials using lunar soil simulants. In this paper we will present preliminary results on our effort on carbothermal reduction of oxides for elemental extraction and zone refining for obtaining high purity metals. In additions we will demonstrate the possibility of developing glasses from lunar soil simulant for fixing nuclear waste from potential nuclear power generators on planetary bodies. Compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction patterns and differential thermal analysis of processed samples will be presented.

Sen, Subhayu; Ray, Chandra S.; Reddy, Ramana

2005-01-01

348

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

1992-01-01

349

Exploration of the Equilibrium Operating Space For NSTX-Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores a range of high-performance equilibrium scenarios available in the NSTX-Upgrade device [J.E. Menard, submitted for publication to Nuclear Fusion]. NSTX-Upgrade is a substantial upgrade to the existing NSTX device [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], with significantly higher toroidal field and solenoid capabilities, and three additional neutral beam sources with significantly larger current drive efficiency. Equilibria are computed with freeboundary TRANSP, allowing a self consistent calculation of the non-inductive current drive sources, the plasma equilibrium, and poloidal field coil current, using the realistic device geometry. The thermal profiles are taken from a variety of existing NSTX discharges, and different assumptions for the thermal confinement scalings are utilized. The no-wall and idealwall n=1 stability limits are computed with the DCON code. The central and minimum safety factors are quite sensitive to many parameters: they generally increases with large outer plasmawall gaps and higher density, but can have either trend with the confinement enhancement factor. In scenarios with strong central beam current drive, the inclusion of non-classical fast ion diffusion raises qmin, decreases the pressure peaking, and generally improves the global stability, at the expense of a reduction in the non-inductive current drive fraction; cases with less beam current drive are largely insensitive to additional fast ion diffusion. The non-inductive current level is quite sensitive to the underlying confinement and profile assumptions. For instance, for BT=1.0 T and Pinj=12.6 MW, the non-inductive current level varies from 875 kA with ITER-98y,2 thermal confinement scaling and narrow thermal profiles to 1325 kA for an ST specific scaling expression and broad profiles. This sensitivity should facilitate the determination of the correct scaling of transport with current and field to use for future fully non-inductive ST devices. Scenarios are presented which can be sustained for 8-10 seconds, or (20-30)?CR, at ?N=3.8-4.5, facilitating, for instance, the study of disruption avoidance for very long pulse. Scenarios have been documented which can operate with ?T~25% and equilibrated qmin>1. The value of qmin can be controlled at either fixed non-inductive fraction of 100% or fixed plasma current, by varying which beam sources are used, opening the possibility for feedback qmin control. In terms of quantities like collisionality, neutron emission, non-inductive fraction, or stored energy, these scenarios represent a significant performance extension compared to NSTX and other present spherical torii.

S.P. Gerhardt, R. Andre and J.E. Menard

2012-04-25

350

Transition in the Human Exploration of Space at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking the next step in human exploration, beyond low Earth orbit. We have been going to low Earth orbit for the past 50 years and are using this experience to work with commercial companies to perform this function. This will free NASA resources to develop the systems necessary to travel to a Near Earth Asteroid, the Moon, Lagrange Points, and eventually Mars. At KSC, we are positioning ourselves to become a multi-user launch complex and everything we are working on is bringing us closer to achieving this goal. A vibrant multi-use spaceport is to the 21st Century what the airport was to the 20th Century - an invaluable transportation hub that supports government needs while promoting economic development and commercial markets beyond Earth's atmosphere. This past year saw the end of Shuttle, but the announcements of NASA's crew module, Orion, and heavy-lift rocket, the SLS, as well as the establishment of the Commercial Crew Program. We have a busy, but very bright future ahead of us and KSC is looking forward to playing an integral part in the next era of human space exploration. The future is SLS, 21st Century Ground Systems Program, and the Commercial Crew Program; and the future is here.

Koch, Carla A.; Cabana, Robert

2011-01-01

351

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer: A Space Ultraviolet Survey Mission  

E-print Network

We give an overview of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), a NASA Explorer Mission launched on April 28, 2003. GALEX is performing the first space UV sky-survey, including imaging and grism surveys in two bands (1350-1750 Angstroms and 1750-2750 Angstroms). The surveys include an all-sky imaging survey (m[AB] ~ 20.5), a medium imaging survey of 1000 square degrees (m[AB] ~ 23), a deep imaging survey of 100 square degrees (m[AB] ~ 25), and a nearby galaxy survey. Spectroscopic grism surveys (R=100-200) are underway with various depths and sky coverage. Many targets overlap existing or planned surveys. We will use the measured UV properties of local galaxies, along with corollary observations, to calibrate the UV-global star formation rate relationship in local galaxies. We will apply this calibration to distant galaxies discovered in the deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys to map the history of star formation in the universe over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5, and probe the physical drivers of star formation in galaxies. The GALEX mission includes a Guest Investigator program supporting the wide variety of programs made possible by the first UV sky survey.

D. Christopher Martin; James Fanson; David Schiminovich; Patrick Morrissey; Peter G. Friedman; Tom A. Barlow; Tim Conrow; Robert Grange; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Bruno Milliard; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Timothy M. Heckman; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; Susan G. Neff; R. Michael Rich; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder

2004-11-11

352

Space Exploration: A Risk for Neural Stem Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During spaceflights beyond low Earth orbit, astronauts are exposed to potentially carcinogenic and tissue damaging galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and secondary radiation that includes neutrons and recoil nuclei produced by nuclear reactions in spacecraft walls or in tissue (1). Such radiation risk may present a significant health risk for human exploration of the moon and Mars. Emerging evidence that generation of new neurons in the adult brain may be essential for learning, memory, and mood (2) and that radiation is deleterious to neurogenesis (3-5) underscores a previously unappreciated possible risk to the cognitive functions and emotional stability of astronauts exposed to radiation in space. Here we use a novel reporter mouse line to identify at-risk populations of stem and progenitor cells in the brain and find, unexpectedly, that quiescent stem-like cells (rather than their rapidly dividing progeny) in the hippocampus constitute the most vulnerable cell population. This finding raises concerns about the possible risks facing astronauts on long duration space missions.

Encinas, Juan M.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Switzer, Robert C.; Chamberland, Dennis W.; Nick, Harry; Levine, Howard G.; Scarpa, Philip J.; Enikolopov, Grigori; Steindler, Dennis A.

2006-01-01

353

Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be a part of any 2l century initiatives furthering a growing human presence beyond earth.

Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

2009-01-01

354

V and V of ISHM Software for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has established a far-reaching and long-term program for robotic and manned exploration of the solar system, beginning with missions to the moon and Mars. The Crew Transportation System (CTS), a key system for space exploration, imposes four requirements' that ISHM addresses. These requirements have a wide range of implications for V&V and certification of ISHM. There is a range of time-criticality for ISHM actions, from prognostication, which is often (but not always) non-time-critical, to time-critical state estimation and system management under off-nominal emergency conditions. These are externally imposed requirements on ISHM that are subject to V&V. - In addition, a range of techniques are needed to implement an ISHM. The approaches to ISHM are described elsewhere. These approaches range from well-understood algorithms for low-level data analysis, validation and reporting, to AI techniques for state estimation and planning. The range of techniques, and specifically the use of AI techniques such as reasoning under uncertainty and mission planning (and re-planning), implies that several V&V approaches may be required. Depending on the ISHM architecture, traditional testing approaches may be adequate for some ISHM functionality. The AI-based approaches to reasoning under uncertainty, model-based reasoning, and planning share characteristics typical of other complex software systems, but they also have characteristics that set them apart and challenge standard V&V techniques. The range of possible solutions to the overall ISHM problem impose internal challenges to V&V. The V&V challenges increase when hard real-time constraints are imposed for time-critical functionality. For example, there is an external requirement that impending catastrophic failure of the Launch Vehicle (LV) at launch time be detected and life-saving action be taken within two seconds. In this paper we outline the challenges for ISHM V&V, existing approaches and analogs in other software application areas, and possible new approaches to the V&V challenges for space exploration ISHM.

Markosian, Lawrence; Feather, Martin, S.; Brinza, David; Figueroa, F.

2005-01-01

355

Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

1999-01-01

356

In Space Nuclear Power as an Enabling Technology for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Exploration missions, both for scientific and Human Exploration and Development (HEDS), appear to be as weight limited today as they would have been 35 years ago. Right behind the weight constraints is the nearly equally important mission limitation of cost. Launch vehicles, upper stages and in-space propulsion systems also cost about the same today with the same efficiency as they have had for many years (excluding impact of inflation). Both these dual mission constraints combine to force either very expensive, mega systems missions or very light weight, but high risk/low margin planetary spacecraft designs, such as the recent unsuccessful attempts for an extremely low cost mission to Mars during the 1998-99 opportunity (i.e., Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander). When one considers spacecraft missions to the outer heliopause or even the outer planets, the enormous weight and cost constraints will impose even more daunting concerns for mission cost, risk and the ability to establish adequate mission margins for success. This paper will discuss the benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor as the basis for providing both sufficient electric power and high performance space propulsion that will greatly reduce mission risk and significantly increase weight (IMLEO) and cost margins. Weight and cost margins are increased by enabling much higher payload fractions and redundant design features for a given launch vehicle (higher payload fraction of IMLEO). The paper will also discuss and summarize the recent advances in nuclear reactor technology and safety of modern reactor designs and operating practice and experience, as well as advances in reactor coupled power generation and high performance nuclear thermal and electric propulsion technologies. It will be shown that these nuclear power and propulsion technologies are major enabling capabilities for higher reliability, higher margin and lower cost deep space missions design to reliably reach the outer planets for scientific exploration.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Houts, Michael

2000-01-01

357

Building on 50 Years of Systems Engineering Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States (US) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair lunar lander, as well as the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Shuttle's propulsion elements and is managing the design and development of the Ares rockets, along with a host of other engineering assignments in the field of scientific space exploration. Specifically, the Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate houses the skilled workforce and unique facilities needed to build capable systems upon the foundation laid by the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level testing activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation, as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. Ultimately, fielding a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads will pave the way for a new era of scientific discovery now dawning beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul K.

2008-01-01

358

14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated...of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities unrelated...the parties to agreements for NASA's science or space exploration activities...

2010-01-01

359

Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

1991-01-01

360

Micro-Power Sources Enabling Robotic Outpost Based Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic outpost based exploration represents a fundamental shift in mission design from conventional, single spacecraft missions towards a distributed risk approach with many miniaturized semi-autonomous robots and sensors. This approach can facilitate wide-area sampling and exploration, and may consist of a web of orbiters, landers, or penetrators. To meet the mass and volume constraints of deep space missions such as the Europa Ocean Science Station, the distributed units must be fully miniaturized to fully leverage the wide-area exploration approach. However, presently there is a dearth of available options for powering these miniaturized sensors and robots. This group is currently examining miniaturized, solid state batteries as candidates to meet the demand of applications requiring low power, mass, and volume micro-power sources. These applications may include powering microsensors, battery-backing rad-hard CMOS memory and providing momentary chip back-up power. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

West, W. C.; Whitacre, J. F.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Brandon, E. J.; Studor, G. F.

2001-01-01

361

Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the US Civilian Space Program. Volume 3; Using Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The underpinnings of that movement -why it took the shape it did; which individuals and organizations were involved; what factors drove a particular choice of scientific objectives and technologies to be used; and the political, economic, managerial, and international contexts in which the events of the space age unfolded- are all important ingredients of this epoch transition from an earthbound to spacefaring people. This desire to understand the development of spaceflight in the United States sparked this documentary history series. 'Exploring the Unknown' is a multi-volume series containing a selection of key documents in history of the U.S. civil space program. This current volume, Volume III, focusing on the use of space for practical applications, prints 112 key documents on the history of satellite communications, remote sensing of earth, and space as an investment in economic growth, edited for ease of use. Each is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical information, and background information necessary to understanding the document.

Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Onkst, David H. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor)

1998-01-01

362

Efficient Exploration of the Space of Reconciled Gene Trees  

PubMed Central

Gene trees record the combination of gene-level events, such as duplication, transfer and loss (DTL), and species-level events, such as speciation and extinction. Gene tree–species tree reconciliation methods model these processes by drawing gene trees into the species tree using a series of gene and species-level events. The reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alone almost always involves choosing between statistically equivalent or weakly distinguishable relationships that could be much better resolved based on a putative species tree. To exploit this potential for accurate reconstruction of gene trees, the space of reconciled gene trees must be explored according to a joint model of sequence evolution and gene tree–species tree reconciliation. Here we present amalgamated likelihood estimation (ALE), a probabilistic approach to exhaustively explore all reconciled gene trees that can be amalgamated as a combination of clades observed in a sample of gene trees. We implement the ALE approach in the context of a reconciliation model (Szöll?si et al. 2013), which allows for the DTL of genes. We use ALE to efficiently approximate the sum of the joint likelihood over amalgamations and to find the reconciled gene tree that maximizes the joint likelihood among all such trees. We demonstrate using simulations that gene trees reconstructed using the joint likelihood are substantially more accurate than those reconstructed using sequence alone. Using realistic gene tree topologies, branch lengths, and alignment sizes, we demonstrate that ALE produces more accurate gene trees even if the model of sequence evolution is greatly simplified. Finally, examining 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacterial genomes we find that joint likelihood-based inference results in a striking reduction in apparent phylogenetic discord, with respectively. 24%, 59%, and 46% reductions in the mean numbers of duplications, transfers, and losses per gene family. The open source implementation of ALE is available from https://github.com/ssolo/ALE.git. [amalgamation; gene tree reconciliation; gene tree reconstruction; lateral gene transfer; phylogeny.] PMID:23925510

Szollosi, Gergely J.; Rosikiewicz, Wojciech; Boussau, Bastien; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent

2013-01-01

363

Space medicine innovation and telehealth concept implementation for medical care during exploration-class missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical care on the International Space Station (ISS) is provided using real-time communication with limited medical data transmission. In the occurrence of an off-nominal medical event, the medical care paradigm employed is 'stabilization and transportation', involving real-time management from ground and immediate return to Earth in the event that the medical contingency could not be resolved in due time in space. In preparation for future missions beyond Low-Earth orbit (LEO), medical concepts of operations are being developed to ensure adequate support for the new mission profiles: increased distance, duration and communication delays, as well as impossibility of emergency returns and limitations in terms of medical equipment availability. The current ISS paradigm of medical care would no longer be adequate due to these new constraints. The Operational Space Medicine group at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is looking towards synergies between terrestrial and space medicine concepts for the delivery of medical care to deal with the new challenges of human space exploration as well as to provide benefits to the Canadian population. Remote and rural communities on Earth are, in fact, facing similar problems such as isolation, remoteness to tertiary care centers, resource scarcity, difficult (and expensive) emergency transfers, limited access to physicians and specialists and limited training of medical and nursing staff. There are a number of researchers and organizations, outside the space communities, working in the area of telehealth. They are designing and implementing terrestrial telehealth programs using real-time and store-and-forward techniques to provide isolated populations access to medical care. The cross-fertilization of space-Earth research could provide support for increased spin-off and spin-in effects and stimulate telehealth and space medicine innovations to engage in the new era of human space exploration. This paper will discuss the benefits of space-Earth research projects for the advancement of both terrestrial and space medicine and will use examples of operational space medicine projects conducted at the CSA in areas such as remote training, tele-mentoring and remote control of an ultrasound.

Martin, Annie; Sullivan, Patrick; Beaudry, Catherine; Kuyumjian, Raffi; Comtois, Jean-Marc

2012-12-01

364

Tightly Integrated Design Space Exploration with Spatial and Temporal Partitioning in SPARCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the tight integration of design space exploration with spatial and temporal partitioning algorithms in the SPARCS design automa- tion system for RCs. In particular, this paper describes a novel technique to per- form efficient design space exploration of parallel-process behaviors using the knowledge of spatial partitioning. The exploration technique satisfies the design latency constraints imposed by temporal

Sriram Govindarajan; Ranga Vemuri

2000-01-01

365

Exploring children's face-space: A multidimensional scaling analysis of the mental representation of facial identity  

E-print Network

Exploring children's face-space: A multidimensional scaling analysis of the mental representation recognition Visual memory Multidimensional scaling Similarity judgments Face-space a b s t r a c t We explored similarity of faces in a multidimensional space. Five dimensions accounted optimally for the judgments

Maurer, Daphne M.

366

HEXANE: Architecting Manned Space Exploration Missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit  

E-print Network

HEXANE: Architecting Manned Space Exploration Missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit by Alexander August;2 [page intentionally left blank] #12;3 Architecting Manned Space Exploration Missions beyond Low- Earth and Astronautics Abstract With the end of the Space Shuttle Program and the cancellation of the Constellation

de Weck, Olivier L.

367

Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration?  

E-print Network

Applying Space to Earth What is the Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration? · Formed and space · Aims to lead Canadian planetary science and exploration efforts by creating a research in space systems design and makes it the focus for planetary science research in Canada · Its members

Denham, Graham

368

Processing of Lunar Soil Simulant for Space Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's long-term vision for space exploration includes developing human habitats and conducting scientific investigations on planetary bodies, especially on Moon and Mars. Processing and utilization of planetary in-situ resources is recognized as an important element of this vision since it can minimize the level of up-mass that will have to be transported from earth to the planetary bodies. Within this scope and context, we have undertaken a general effort aimed primarily at extracting and refining metals, developing glass, glass-ceramic, or traditional ceramic type materials using lunar soil simulants. In this paper we will present preliminary results on our effort on simultaneous carbothermal reduction of oxides for elemental extraction and zone refining for obtaining high purity metals. In additions we will demonstrate the possibility of developing glass fibers as reinforcement agents for planetary habitat construction, glasses for fixing nuclear waste from potential nuclear power generators, and glasses for magnetic applications. The paper will also include initial thermal characterization of the glasses produced from lunar simulant. Compositional analysis of processed samples will be presented.

Sen, Subhayu; Ray, C. S.; Ramachandran, N.

2005-01-01

369

Use of antarctic analogs to support the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report has discussed the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) in the context of assessing the potential rationale and strategy for conducting a cooperative NASA/NSF (National Science Foundation) effort. Specifically, such an effort would address shared research and data on living and conducting scientific research in isolated, confined, hostile, and remote environments. A review of the respective goals and requirements of NASA and the NSF indicates that numerous opportunities exist to mutually benefit from sharing relevant technologies, data, and systems. Two major conclusions can be drawn: (1) The technologies, experience, and capabilities existing and developing in the aerospace community would enhance scientific research capabilities and the efficiency and effectiveness of operations in Antarctica. The transfer and application of critical technologies (e.g., power, waste management, life support) and collaboration on crew research needs (e.g., human behavior and medical support needs) would streamline the USAP operations and provide the scientific community with advancements in facilities and tools for Antarctic research. (2) Antarctica is the most appropriate earth analog for the environments of the the Moon and Mars. Using Antarctica in this way would contribute substantially to near- and long-term needs and plans for the SEI. Antarctica is one of the few ground-based analogs that would permit comprehensive and integrated studies of three areas deemed critical to productive and safe operations on the Moon and Mars: human health and productivity; innovative scientific research techniques; and reliable, efficient technologies and facilities.

Wharton, Robert; Roberts, Barney; Chiang, Erick; Lynch, John; Roberts, Carol; Buoni, Corinne; Andersen, Dale

1990-01-01

370

Exploring predictions of safe operating spaces for human water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Nature article 'A safe operating space for humanity', Rockström et al. (2009) introduce the idea of a safe space for human activities that will not push the planet out of the 'Holocene state'. Rockström et al. have identified nine earth-system processes and associated thresholds which, if crossed, are expected to generate unacceptable environmental change. Rockström et al. (2009) focus on the scientific prediction of these thresholds. Concerning the use of these boundaries for public policy, these authors limit their efforts to concluding that the evidence so far suggests that, as long as the thresholds are not crossed, humanity has the freedom to pursue long-term social and economic development. The approach advocated by Rockström et al. (2009) is plagued by two related problems: uncertainty and dynamic complexity (Molden, 2009; Brewer, 2009). The latter problem addresses the reductionist approach of Rockström et al and argues, in opposition, that the limits on each of the nine earth-system processes are co-depended and thus the safe operating space constitutes a single multi-dimensional space that can only be identified holistically. The first problem is that our current scientific knowledge and understanding of the earth system is incomplete and partly contested. A majority of the authors reacting on the global limit concept do however emphasize their relevance as "targets for policy makers". However, the two problems imply that the establishment of predicted global limits as a substantive base for public policy is meaningless. Still, the presence of scientific uncertainty and dynamic complexity and thus the omnipresence of unpredictability need not be used as an excuse to ignore the importance of a substantive grounding of these policies. In this paper, we argue and show how despite dynamic complexity and irreducible uncertainty, policies can be designed, tested, and shown to be effective in reaching broad social goals related to social and economic development. To this end, we utilize ANEMI (Davies and Simonovic, 2011), a dynamic impact assessment model of the planetary fresh water cycle and related systems (e.g. economy, land use, population, and climate). We assess the dynamics of this model over a broad range of different uncertainties; we identify combinations of uncertainties that produce dynamics that threaten the flourishing of humanity, and use these insights to develop public policies that can counteract these undesirable dynamics.

Kwakkel, J. H.; Timmermans, J. S.

2012-04-01

371

Historical review and current plans. [for space stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space station concept published in Colliers Magazine in 1952 was the result of a proposal made by a group of visionary scientists and engineers. NASA began studies regarding the concepts and technology needed for a space station in 1959 during its first year of existence. Formative studies regarding the design and the construction of a space station are discussed, taking into account the 1960 space station design of an American aerospace company, the scale model of a hexagonal self-deploying space station, the concept of the Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory (MORL), MORL with Apollo Logistics System, the MORL Brayton Cycle power system, MORL with nuclear power, a manned orbiting telescope, the 1967 Large Space Station concept, the phase B modular space station, the MOSC configuration 1975, a basic manned platform with resupply, and a concept for a space operations center studied in 1979. A Soviet space station program began with Salyut 1 in April 1971. The U.S. Skylab was launched in May 1973. Attention is also given to military stations and current planning.

Hook, W. R.

1982-01-01

372

Current Space Projects of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2008, with the successful launch of the first Venezuelan telecommunication satellite VENESAT-1, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela became an active player in the international space sector aimed at using space science and technology as a powerful tool to promote the national development. Based on that, through the Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities (ABAE), Venezuela has been implemented several space projects such as the manufacturing and launch of the first Venezuelan remote sensing satellite, the construction of a design center for small satellite technologies, as well as research and development activities related with the estimation of the physical properties of the Earth. This paper presents a brief description of the current space projects that are being developed by Venezuela.

Hernández, R.; Acevedo R.; Varela, F.; Otero, S.

2014-06-01

373

Exploring the Use of Online Space in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analysed how three teacher-researchers of Singapore's elementary school used online space extensively in Grade 2-Grade 4 classrooms. Such online space, made possible by free and readily available web 2.0 and open source applications, was meant to complement the physical learning space as such space can allow learning activities, which…

Lye, Sze Yee; Abas, Suriati; Tay, Lee Yong; Saban, Fadilah

2012-01-01

374

Tracking Current Events: Using the Internet to Explore Unfolding Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have designed and piloted an internet site, Track Current Events, which enables students to follow and research current events online and to present their work in the form of an online newspaper or "Tracker." The program is available to teachers free of charge. This article describes the design of the site and summarizes the…

O'Brien, Joseph; Grill, Aaron; Schwartz, Stacia; Schlicht, Jennifer

2006-01-01

375

Space and surface power for the space exploration initiative: Results from project outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis and evaluations of the Space and Surface Power panel, one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program, is documented. In addition to managing and evaluating the responses, or submissions, to this public outreach program, RAND conducted its own analysis and evaluation relevent to SEI mission concepts, systems, and technologies. The Power panel screened and analyzed submissions for which a substantial portion of the concepts involved power generation sources, transmission, distribution, thermal management, and handling of power (including conditioning, conversion, packaging, and enhancements in system components). A background discussion of the areas the Power panel covered and the issues the reviewers considered pertinent to the analysis of power submissions are presented. An overview of each of the highest-ranked submissions and then a discussion of these submissions is presented. The results of the analysis is presented.

Shipbaugh, C.; Solomon, K.; Gonzales, D.; Juncosa, M.; Bauer, T.; Salter, R.

1991-01-01

376

A trade space model for robotic lunar exploration  

E-print Network

The last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the moon as a target for planetary exploration. In light of the growing interest in the robotic exploration of the moon, this thesis presents a quantitative methodology ...

Bailey, Zachary James

2010-01-01

377

Mobility feasibility of fuel cell powered hopping robots for space exploration  

E-print Network

Small hopping robots have been proposed that offer the potential to greatly increase the reach of unmanned space exploration. Using hopping, bouncing, and rolling, a small spherical robot could access and explore subterranean ...

Kesner, Samuel B. (Samuel Benjamin)

2007-01-01

378

Viewpoints: A New Computer Program for Interactive Exploration of Large Multivariate Space Science and Astrophysics Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graphics processing units (GPUs) built in to all professional desktop and laptop computers currently on the market are capable of transforming, filtering, and rendering hundreds of millions of points per second. We present a prototype open-source cross-platform (windows, linux, Apple OSX) application which leverages some of the power latent in the GPU to enable smooth interactive exploration and analysis of large high-dimensional data using a variety of classical and recent techniques. The targeted application area is the interactive analysis of complex, multivariate space science and astrophysics data sets, with dimensionalities that may surpass 100 and sample sizes that may exceed 10^6-10^8.

Levit, Creon; Gazis, P.

2006-06-01

379

Exploring the spectrum of QCD using a space-time lattice  

E-print Network

Some past and ongoing explorations of the spectrum of QCD using Monte Carlo simulations on a space-time lattice are described. Glueball masses in the pure-gauge theory are reviewed, and the energies of gluonic excitations in the presence of a static quark-antiquark pair are discussed. Current efforts to compute the baryon spectrum using extended three-quark operators are also presented, emphasizing the need to use irreducible representations of the cubic point group to identify spin quantum numbers in the continuum limit.

Colin Morningstar

2005-09-21

380

Exploring the spectrum of QCD using a space-time lattice  

E-print Network

Some past and ongoing explorations of the spectrum of QCD using Monte Carlo simulations on a space-time lattice are described. Glueball masses in the pure-gauge theory are reviewed, and the energies of gluonic excitations in the presence of a static quark-antiquark pair are discussed. Current efforts to compute the baryon spectrum using extended three-quark operators are also presented, emphasizing the need to use irreducible representations of the cubic point group to identify spin quantum numbers in the continuum limit.

Morningstar, C

2006-01-01

381

Model-Driven Design-Space Exploration for Embedded Systems: The Octopus Toolset  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The complexity of today’s embedded systems and their development trajectories requires a systematic, model-driven design approach,\\u000a supported by tooling wherever possible. Only then, development trajectories become manageable, with high-quality, cost-effective\\u000a results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper introduces the Octopus Design-Space Exploration (DSE) toolset that aims to leverage existing modeling, analysis,\\u000a and DSE tools to support model-driven DSE for embedded systems. The current toolset

Twan Basten; Emiel van Benthum; Marc Geilen; Martijn Hendriks; Fred Houben; Georgeta Igna; Frans Reckers; Sebastian de Smet; Lou J. Somers; Egbert Teeselink; Nikola Tr?ka; Frits Vaandrager; Jacques Verriet; Marc Voorhoeve; Yang Yang

2010-01-01

382

MECSAT: Stimulating Minority Undergraduate Interest in Space Science and Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MECSAT is a scientific balloon project to stimulate student interest in Space Science and exploration. The project is based in an urban, minority-serving undergraduate institution and participating students are Computer Science, Physics/Space Science, Environmental Science and Mathematics majors. The project provides a hands-on end-to-end microscale view of NASA missions including instrument selection and/or construction, flight simulation and dynamics, tracking and communications, recovery, data validation and analysis, and project management. Initial student experiments included a Geiger counter (cosmic rays), dust/particle collector, ozonesonde, weather data loggers, flight computer and communications equipment. Student experiments are components of existing curriculum including courses in Space Science, Remote Sensing, Networks and Data Communications, and Scientific Computing. Student response to the project has been overwhelmingly enthusiastic and anecdotal evidence shows a significantly increased interest in NASA science among the participating students. MECSAT is partially supported by the following NASA programs: MUCERPI, MUSPIN and the New York State Space Grant Consortium.

Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.; Vaughn, G. A.; Brathwaite, K. A.; Amoa, K.; Flowers, J. M.

2004-12-01

383

Design of high performance management and control system of nano-satellite for distributed space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-satellite is a kind of advanced and effective tool for space exploration. And the nano-satellite formation flight technology becomes more and more important in distributed space exploration. Thus a design of high performance management and control system (named MCS) of nano-satellite for formation space exploration is presented in this paper. Different with traditional design concept for satellites, MCS adopts a

Ke Sun; Jiancheng Fang; Zhuangsheng Zhu; Xuechao Wei

2008-01-01

384

SESE Graduate Guidebook August 2011 version page 1 SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

SESE Graduate Guidebook August 2011 version page 1 SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION GRADUATE.................................................................................................24 VIII. Forms and Recommended Timelines...................................................................24 M.S. Timeline Table

Shumway, John

385

SESE Graduate Guidebook January 2011 version page 1 SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

SESE Graduate Guidebook January 2011 version page 1 SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION GRADUATE.................................................................................................24 VIII. Forms and Recommended Timelines...................................................................24 M.S. Timeline Table

Rhoads, James

386

Storylines: Visual Exploration and Analysis in Latent Semantic Spaces Weizhong Zhu, Chaomei Chen  

E-print Network

Storylines: Visual Exploration and Analysis in Latent Semantic Spaces Weizhong Zhu, Chaomei Chen thematic structure. The system innovatively integrates latent semantic indexing, natural language and directly accessible representation of a latent semantic space derived from the text corpus, an integrated

Chen, Chaomei

387

Edinburgh Research Explorer Standard Anatomical and Visual Space for the Mouse Retina  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Standard Anatomical and Visual Space for the Mouse Retina: Computational Reconstruction and Transformation of Flattened Retinae with the Retistruct Package Citation and Visual Space for the Mouse Retina: Computational Reconstruction and Transformation of Flattened Retinae

Koehn, Philipp

388

Giving children space: A phenomenological exploration of student experiences in space science inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived experience of twenty 4th grade students as well as the reflections of two high school students looking back on their 4th grade space science experience. To open the phenomenon more deeply, the concept of space is explored as an overarching theme throughout the text. The writings of several philosophers including Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer are opened up to understand the existential aspects of phenomenology and the act of experiencing the classroom as a lived human experience. The methodological structure for the study is based largely on the work of Max van Manen (2003) in his seminal work, Researching Lived Experience, which describes a structure of human science research. A narrative based on classroom experiences, individual conversations, written reflections, and group discussion provides insight into the students' experiences. Their stories and thoughts reveal the themes of activity , interactivity, and "inquiractivity," each emerging as an essential element of the lived experience in the inquiry-based space science classroom. The metaphor of light brings illumination to the themes. Activity in the classroom is associated with light's constant and rapid motion throughout the Milky Way and beyond. Interactivity is seen through students' interactions just as light's reflective nature is seen through the illumination of the planets. Finally, inquiractivity is connected to questioning, the principal aspect of the inquiry-based classroom just as the sun is the essential source of light in our solar system. As the era of No Child Left Behind fades, and the next generation of science standards emerge, the students' stories are viewed through the lens of the scientific practices found in A Framework for K-12 Science Education (The National Research Council, 2011). The critical challenge for elementary educators interacting with this text is to find the lived meaning of giving children space in an inquiry-based experience.

Horne, Christopher R.

389

Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

1991-01-01

390

How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP’s goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

Lumpkins, S. B.; Mindock, J. A.

2014-01-01

391

How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP's goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

Lumpkins, Sarah; Mindock, Jennifer

2014-01-01

392

Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space Station. Future exploration missions will benefit from "green" technology lighting devices such as this, which show great promise for both terrestrial use and space missions.

Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

2010-01-01

393

"Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

394

Intelligent Control in Space Exploration: Interval Computations are Needed  

E-print Network

of trajectory control, etc. · For an automated planet mission, e.g., for a rover mission to Mars Control is necessary for space missions. For a space mission to be successful, it is vitally impor- tant. · However, space missions are usually sent to ex- plore new phenomena, and must operate under extreme

Kreinovich, Vladik

395

Exploration of the Chemical Space of Group 4 Polymer Dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current standards for capacitive energy storage applications are polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) which have large band gap and high breakdown strength, but a small dielectric constant. The envisaged next generation dielectric should provide high dielectric constant, while still preserving the insulating characteristics of PP and PE. To meet these growing needs, we use high throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations in combination with machine learning (ML) methods to identify classes of polymers with large dielectric constant and band gap. In our work, we consider various possible local chemical modifications to polyethylene (PE). To be specific, we allow the -CH2- unit in the PE backbone segment to be replaced by -SiF2-, -SiCl2-, -GeF2-, -GeCl2-, -SnF2-, or -SnCl2- units in a systematic manner. High throughput methods were used first to accurately determine the dielectric constant and band gap of the chemically modified PE chains for a set of limited compositions and configurations. ML methods were then used to predict the properties of systems spanning a much larger part of the configurational and compositional space. A set of most promising PE modifications (with simultaneously large dielectric constant and band gap) is identified using this strategy.

Wang, Chenchen; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

2013-03-01

396

French Current Plans for a National Space Legal Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

France bears the international obligation to authorise and supervise space activities under its jurisdiction and can be liable for damage caused by space objects launched from Kourou (French Guiana) and/or by companies registered in France. The current national framework for the activities carried by Arianespace, Starsem, Eutelsat and for the Ariane European launcher operated from the Guiana Space Centre (CSG) is adequately regulated on the basis of relevant programmatic, contractual and administrative legal regime. But in consequence of the liberalisation of the telecommunications market, of the privatisation of international organisations and State owned companies and of the increasing private demands to access CSG facilities, further regulations could be needed. In this context, the French Ministry of Research's Space Department has convened in 1999, during 2 years, more than 100 technical and legal experts organised in several working groups to propose an upgraded national legal framework for space activities. This constituted working groups dealt with: launching (to implement a licence procedure, considering the responsibility of France and international competition rules), earth observation (for licensing and data policy), telecommunications and navigation, and space objects property and security regime (linked to the registration convention and the Unidroit Space Protocol). Th report of this work named "Space Law Evolution in France Study" was presented to the Minister of Research by the beginnings of this year. The present author has driven the overall study on behalf of the French Research Ministry's Space Department. This paper presents the report's general content with following actions regarding the French national space legal framework.

Clerc, Philippe

2002-01-01

397

Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

Nisbett, Nancy

2012-01-01

398

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Askins, Bruce

2014-01-01

399

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

2004-01-01

400

Thermal Performance Of Space Suit Elements With Aerogel Insulation For Moon And Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fiber-reinforced aerogel composites were studied for use as insulation materials of a future space suit for Moon and Mars exploration. High flexibility and good thermal insulation properties of fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composites at both high and low vacuum conditions make it a promising insulation candidate for the space suit application. This paper first presents the results of a durability (mechanical cycling) study of these aerogels composites in the context of retaining their thermal performance. The study shows that some of these Aerogels materials retained most of their insulation performance after up to 250,000 cycles of mechanical flex cycling. This paper also examines the problem of integrating these flexible aerogel composites into the current space suit elements. Thermal conductivity evaluations are proposed for different types of aerogels space suit elements to identify the lay-up concept that may have the best overall thermal performance for both Moon and Mars environments. Potential solutions in mitigating the silica dusting issue related to the application of these aerogels materials for the space suit elements are also discussed.

Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Trevino, Luis A.

2006-01-01

401

[From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].  

PubMed

The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine. PMID:21848209

Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

2011-01-01

402

Visual Risk Assessment of Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure during an interplanetary mission is an important challenge for mission design and operations. If sufficient protection is not provided near solar maximum, the risk can be significant due to exposure to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Polyethylene shielded "storm shelters" inside spacecraft have been shown to limit total exposure from a large SPE to a permissible level, preventing acute risks and providing a potential approach to fulfill the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) requirement. For accurate predictions of radiation dose to astronauts involved in future space exploration missions, detailed variations of radiation shielding properties are required. Radiation fluences and doses vary considerably across both the spacecraft geometry and the body-shielding distribution. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE(TradeMark), which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. Visual assessment of radiation distribution at different points inside a spacecraft module and in the human body for a given radiation environment are described. Results will ultimately guide in developing requirements for maximal protection for astronauts from space radiation.

Hussein, Hesham F.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

403

Exploring space-time structure of human mobility in urban space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of human mobility in urban space benefits the planning and provision of municipal facilities and services. Due to the high penetration of cell phones, mobile cellular networks provide information for urban dynamics with a large spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage in comparison with traditional approaches. The original data investigated in this paper were collected by cellular networks in a southern city of China, recording the population distribution by dividing the city into thousands of pixels. The space-time structure of urban dynamics is explored by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the original data, from temporal and spatial perspectives between which there is a dual relation. Based on the results of the analysis, we have discovered four underlying rules of urban dynamics: low intrinsic dimensionality, three categories of common patterns, dominance of periodic trends, and temporal stability. It implies that the space-time structure can be captured well by remarkably few temporal or spatial predictable periodic patterns, and the structure unearthed by PCA evolves stably over time. All these features play a critical role in the applications of forecasting and anomaly detection.

Sun, J. B.; Yuan, J.; Wang, Y.; Si, H. B.; Shan, X. M.

2011-03-01

404

Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers for Space-based Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present current and near-term uses of high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers for NASA science and spacecraft applications. Fiber lasers and amplifiers offer numerous advantages for the deployment of instruments on exploration and science remote sensing satellites. Ground-based and airborne systems provide an evolutionary path to space and a means for calibration and verification of space-borne systems. NASA fiber-laser-based instruments include laser sounders and lidars for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor and methane and a pulsed or pseudo-noise (PN) code laser ranging system in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength band. The associated fiber transmitters include high-power erbium, ytterbium, and neodymium systems and a fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator. We discuss recent experimental progress on these systems and instrument prototypes for ongoing development efforts.

Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Coyle, Barry; Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.; Li, Steven X.; Riris, Haris

2012-01-01

405

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for the Federal fiscal year of 2010 are: Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments, Modeling of Radiation Effects on Electronics, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), and and Reconfigurable Computing.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2010-01-01

406

Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

2014-04-01

407

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

408

Recommendations for Exploration Space Medicine from the Apollo Medical Operations Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: A study was requested in December, 2005 by the Space Medicine Division at the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The objective was to use this new information to develop medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), Lunar Habitat, and Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits that are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. Methods: Available resources pertaining to medical operations on the Apollo 7 through 17 missions were reviewed. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified in the background research, generating 655 data records in a database. A review of the records resulted in 280 questions that were then posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers by mail, face-to-face meetings, or online interaction. Response analysis to these questions formed the basis of recommendations to items in each of the categories. Results: Thirteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (59%) participated in the project. Approximately 236 pages of responses to the questions were captured, resulting in 107 recommendations offered for medical consideration in the design of future vehicles and EVA suits based on the Apollo experience. Discussion: The goals of this project included: 1) Develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles; 2) create a centralized database for future access; and 3) take this new knowledge and educate the various directorates at NASA-JSC who are participating in the exploration effort. To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmembers input has proved to be an invaluable resource, prompting ongoing collaboration as the requirements for the future exploration missions continue to evolve and be refined.

Scheuring, R. a.; Davis, J. R.; Duncan, J. M.; Polk, J. D.; Jones, J. A.; Gillis, D. B.

2007-01-01

409

Heavy ions, radioprotectors and genomic instability: implications for human space exploration.  

PubMed

The risk associated with space radiation exposure is unique from terrestrial radiation exposures due to differences in radiation quality, including linear energy transfer (LET). Both high- and low-LET radiations are capable of inducing genomic instability in mammalian cells, and this instability is thought to be a driving force underlying radiation carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, during space exploration, flight crews cannot entirely avoid radiation exposure. As a result, chemical and biological countermeasures will be an important component of successful extended missions such as the exploration of Mars. There are currently several radioprotective agents (radioprotectors) in use; however, scientists continue to search for ideal radioprotective compounds-safe to use and effective in preventing and/or reducing acute and delayed effects of irradiation. This review discusses the agents that are currently available or being evaluated for their potential as radioprotectors. Further, this review discusses some implications of radioprotection for the induction and/or propagation of genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells. PMID:20035342

Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E

2010-08-01

410

Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

Harris, Bernard A. (editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (editor)

1994-01-01

411

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative  

E-print Network

exploration · Most serious storms in recent history: ­ February 23, 1956 ­ August 4, 1972 · GeV storms produce Exploration Initiative Solar Wind · Streams outward from Sun · Creates interplanetary magnetic field lines to maintain ready access to shelter in case these types of storms occur Updated 3 April 2006 #12;Kring

Rathbun, Julie A.

412

NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next few years the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will field new operational capabilities for monitoring the near-earth space environment in addition to maintaining continued measurements in geostationary orbit. The most exciting new capability will be transitioning routine solar wind and magnetic field measurements at L1 (240 Re) from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite to the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) which will be launched in early 2015 with a projected on-orbit readiness in mid-2015. Also under consideration is a solar-sail demonstration mission, called SUNJAMMER, for acquiring plasma and field measurements at twice the L1 location. Both DSCOVR and SUNJAMMER will provide a near-term advanced warning of impending space weather events that can adversely affect communications, satellite operations, GPS positioning and commercial air transportation. NESDIS has also supported the development of a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) which could provide a several day warning of space weather when coupled with an interplanetary disturbance propagation model like ENLIL. Routine monitoring of the ionosphere will be provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) II as a system which is a partnership among the Taiwan's National Space Organization, the U.S. Air Force and NOAA. The new operational capabilities provided by DSCOVR, SUNJAMMER, CCOR and COSMIC II are provided against the backdrop of continued space environmental measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which, in the near future, will transition to the GOES-R series of advanced space weather sensors. Continued space environmental measurements in polar low earth orbit (LEO) will continue to be provided by the remaining Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the European MetOp satellites. Instrument specialists at the National Geophysical Data Center and Space Weather Prediction Center are using a combination of operational measurements and models to develop advanced now-cast and forecast space weather applications. Present and future capabilities include but are not limited to the Oval Variation Assessment Tracking Intensity and Online Now-casting (OVATION) Prime based auroral forecast and magnetopause location and geosynchronous crossing detection applications.

Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

2014-05-01

413

Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

2005-01-01

414

... the official newsletter of the School of Earth and Space Exploration  

E-print Network

... the official newsletter of the School of Earth and Space Exploration ... the official newsletter of the School of Earth and Space ExplorationSESE Source Volume 2, Issue 1 Upcoming Events://sese.asu.edu/opportunities. Reevaluating the age of the Solar System Contents Research News 2-4 Faculty Research Profiles 5-6 Student Focus

Rhoads, James

415

Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical Analysis of State-sharing Composed Models  

E-print Network

of real-world systems is usually managed by abstracting details and structuring models in a hierarchicalSymbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical Analysis of State-sharing Composed Models Salem Diagrams, Numerical Analysis, Symbolic State-space Exploration ABSTRACT The complexity of stochastic models

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

416

Temporal partitioning combined with design space exploration for latency minimization of run-time reconfigured designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present combined temporal partitioning and design space exploration techniques for synthesizing behavioral specifications for run-time reconfigurable processors. De- sign space exploration involves selecting a design point for each task from a set of design points for that task to achieve latency minimization of partitioned solutions. We present an iterative search procedure that uses a core ILP (Integer Linear Programming)

Meenakshi Kaul; Ranga Vemuri

1999-01-01

417

A Systems Engineering Process for the Development of Analog Missions for the Vision for Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout human exploration of space, analog missions have proven to be a critical aspect in reducing risk while increasing technical and operational experience. In light of the new goals of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the prior processes and procedures for analog missions are not adequate to meet the objectives of the VSE. To solve this problem, previous analog

Elizabeth Deems; Lynn Baroff

2008-01-01

418

A Quadratic Regulator-Based Heuristic for Rapidly Exploring State Space Elena Leah Glassman  

E-print Network

A Quadratic Regulator-Based Heuristic for Rapidly Exploring State Space by Elena Leah Glassman S.B., E.E. M.I.T., 2008 Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Regulator-Based Heuristic for Rapidly Exploring State Space by Elena Leah Glassman Submitted

Tedrake, Russ

419

Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit begins by introducing students to the historical motivation for space exploration. They learn about the International Space Station, including current and futuristic ideas that engineers are designing to propel space research. Then they learn about the physical properties of the Moon, and think about what types of products engineers would need to design in order for humans to live on the Moon. Lastly, students learn some descriptive facts about asteroids, such as their sizes and how that relates to the potential danger of an asteroid colliding with the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

420

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

421

Space-Inspired Trailers Encourage Exploration on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architect Garret Finney joined Johnson Space Center's Habitability Design Center to work on creating comfortable, efficiently designed crew quarters for the ISS. Drawing directly on that experience, Finney founded Houston-based Cricket and set about creating unique, versatile recreational trailers that incorporate space habitat principles and features.

2013-01-01

422

Toys in Space: Exploring Science with the Astronauts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the Toys in Space project was to create new ways for children to discover the joy and excitement of science and technology in the world around us. This book describes how familiar toys behave in the space environment where the downward pull of gravity is absent, and clearly documents those principles of physics that explain why the…

Sumners, Carolyn

423

Engineering Ultimate Self-Protection in Autonomic Agents for Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Exploration Initiative (EI) will push space exploration missions to the limit. Future missions will be required to be self-managing as well as self-directed, in order to meet the challenges of human and robotic space exploration. We discuss security and self protection in autonomic agent based-systems, and propose the ultimate self-protection mechanism for such systems-self-destruction. Like other metaphors in Autonomic Computing, this is inspired by biological systems, and is the analog of biological apoptosis. Finally, we discus the role it might play in future NASA space exploration missions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

424

Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

2007-01-01

425

Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling  

SciTech Connect

A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

426

By 2020, Droids Could Explore Space For Us | Universe Today  

E-print Network

them all. www.fujiyusoki.com/usa/ Star Wars Kids Pajamas Explore 10,000+ Clothing Choices. Save on Boys tasks with intelligent reasoning? As robotic and computer technology increases in sophistication, one

Arizona, University of

427

Preparing America for Deep Space Exploration: Episode 2  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA is continuing to make great strides towards sending humans farther than we have ever gone before. Take a look at the work being done by teams all across the nation on NASA'??s exploration prog...

428

The NASA research and technology program on space power: A key element of the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July 1989, President Bush announced his space exploration initiative of going back to the Moon to stay and then going to Mars. Building upon its ongoing research and technology base, NASA has established an exploration technology program to develop the technologies needed for piloted missions to the Moon and Mars. A key element for the flights and for the planned bases is power. The NASA research and technology program on space power encompasses power sources, energy storage, and power management.

Bennett, Gary L.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Atkins, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

429