These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Role of the current young generation within the space exploration sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space sector gathers together people from a variety of fields who work in the industry on different levels and with different expertise. What is often forgotten is the impact and role of the current young generation. Their engagement is of great importance as undeniably today's young 'space generation' will be defining the direction of future space exploration. Today's vision of future human and robotic space exploration has been set out in the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). This focuses on sustainable, affordable and productive long-term goals. The strategy begins with the International Space Station (ISS) and then expands human presence into the solar system, including a human mission to Mars. This paper presents a general overview of the role of today's youth within the space exploration sector and the challenges to overcome. To complete this perspective, we present results from a survey made among students and young professionals about their levels of awareness of the GER. The respondents presented their opinion about current aspects of the GER and prioritised the GER's objectives. It is hoped that the paper will bring a new perspective into the GER and a contribution to the current GER strategy.

Calzada-Diaz, A.; Dayas-Codina, M.; MacArthur, J. L.; Bielicki, D. M.

2014-08-01

2

The space elevator in the context of current space exploration policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space elevator is an advanced space transportation system that someday could replace chemical rockets as humanity's primary means of reaching Earth's orbit. However, before this can occur, a number of enabling technologies will need to be developed, and a variety of economic and policy questions must be addressed. The goal of this paper is to examine the feasibility of

Mark S. Avnet

2006-01-01

3

NASA Robotics for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

Fischer, RIchard T.

2007-01-01

4

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Exploration Vehicle Concept  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts Space Exploration Vehicle Concept Background NASA is testing concepts for a new generation of space exploration vehicles. These space concept called the common Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) is currently being developed. The SEV cabin

5

Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration September 2013 International Space from Space Exploration Table of Content Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Fundamental Benefits of Space Exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

6

Exploring the Design Space  

E-print Network

This paper explores the topic of exploration (sic) within the design space and discusses how this can support the development of research design. It highlights the relevance of reflecting upon the exploration of the design space and briefly introduces a set of techniques that can be used for this. Author Keywords Design research, design space, idea generation, reflection in action.

Corina Sas; Alan Dix

7

Muscle Research and Human Space Exploration: Current Progress and Future Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of human space flight, there has been serious concern over the exposure of human crewmembers to the microgravity of space due to the systemic effects on terrestrially-evolved creatures that are adapted to Earth gravity. Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our currently developed space vehicles, are exposed to various periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). Unloading of skeletal muscle both on Earth and during spaceflight results in remodeling of muscle (atrophic response) as an adaptation to the reduced loads placed upon it. As a result, there are decrements in skeletal muscle strength, fatigue resistance, motor performance, and connective tissue integrity. This normal adaptive response to the microgravity environment is for the most part of little consequence within the space vehicle per se but may become a liability resulting in an increased risk of crewmember physical failure during extravehicular activities or abrupt transitions to environments of increased gravity (such as return to Earth or landing on another planetary body).

Feedback, Daniel L.

2004-01-01

8

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

9

Nutrition for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

Smith, Scott M.

2005-01-01

10

Motivations for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibly the greatest barrier to progress in space exploration is the lack of compelling motivations to justify the necessary investments. Spaceflight, a concept that gained currency in the middle of the twentieth century, may not be well adapted to the twenty-first century without significant modification. This article assesses the traditional motivations for space exploration, documented in a Harvard study carried

William Sims Bainbridge

2009-01-01

11

International Space Exploration Coordination Group  

E-print Network

International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap September 2011, and stimulating technical and commercial innovation. As more nations undertake space exploration activities agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are developing

12

International Space Exploration Coordination Group  

E-print Network

International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap September 2011 participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are developing the Global. Agencies agree that human space exploration will be most successful as an international endeavor because

13

Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, fielding a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads will pave the way for a new century of scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

2008-01-01

14

The space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

Priest, Pete

1991-01-01

15

INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION COORDINATION GROUP  

E-print Network

1 INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION COORDINATION GROUP WORKPLAN Update following 3rd ISECG Meeting space exploration infrastructure standards facilitating interoperability through an international architecture working group. · Continue development of the INTERnational Space Exploration Coordination Tool

16

History of Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can choose from an extensive selection of links to resources for use in the study of the history of space exploration. The links provide access to historic information and publications, chronologies, and mission summaries for American, Russian, European, and other space missions. For educators, there are links to guides to robotic spacecraft and to observing the space shuttle in orbit. Links are also provided to a variety of spacecraft homepages and to other topics such as a primer on the basics of space flight, the Apollo lunar surface journals, and the NASA historic archives.

17

Market Driven Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA's recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance Jupiter type missions, but it also important for providing greater access to planets and bodies nearer to the Earth. NASA has been working with industrial partners since 1987 through its Research Partnerships Centers (RPCs) to utilize the attributes of space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Plans are now being made to utilize the RPCs and industrial partners in extending the duration and boundaries of human space flight to create new opportunities for exploration and discovery. Private investors are considering setting up shops in LEO for commercial purposes. The trend is for more industrial involvement in space. Nuclear power and propulsion will hasten the progress. The objective of this paper is to show the progression of space market driven research and its potential for supporting space exploration given nuclear power and propulsion capabilities.

Gavert, Raymond B.

2004-02-01

18

International Space Exploration Coordination Group  

E-print Network

International Space Exploration Coordination Group The Global Exploration Roadmap August 2013 #12 The Global Exploration Roadmap is being developed by space agencies participating in the International Space for collaborative space exploration missions beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing

Rathbun, Julie A.

19

European Space Agency European Space Exploration  

E-print Network

European Space Agency Aurora European Space Exploration Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;2 Aurora Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. What is Aurora? A European Space Exploration Programme based on a road map economically and politically as a leading world power, it cannot leave space exploration to the other space

Crawford, Ian

20

Translational Research in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

2007-01-01

21

UK Space Exploration Working Group Report of the  

E-print Network

UK Space Exploration Working Group Report of the UK Space Exploration Working Group 13 September 2007 #12;UK Space Exploration Working Group The UK Space Exploration Working Group Chair: Prof Frank committee to: · review current global plans for space exploration; · assess what opportunities and benefits

Crowther, Paul

22

Robots in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief outline of NASA's current robotics program is presented. Efforts are being concentrated on a roving surface vehicle for Mars exploration. This vehicle will integrate manipulative, locomotive, and visual functions and will feature an electromechanical manipulator, stereo TV cameras, a laser rangefinder, a minicomputer, and a remote off-line computer. The program hinges on the iterative development of complex scenarios describing the robot's mission and the interrelationships among its various subsystems.

Dobrotin, B. M.

1974-01-01

23

Enabling Space Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

Weber, William J.

2006-01-01

24

The International Space Station in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

2006-01-01

25

How have we explored space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many individuals have helped us advance in our space explorations - let's take a look at these advancements in our space program! We have come to the end of the space shuttle program, yet through the past 30 years it has made strides to help us develop the International Space Station. We will continue on with our discoveries and explorations of space! Launch Discovery launches to International Space Station Journey to the Space Station Journey to Space Station Mission Highlights of STS131 STS 131 Mission Highlights Landing Discovery Landing at Kennedy Space Center New Era of ...

Mrs. Keller

2010-05-01

26

Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the

1999

27

Robotic Exploration of Space Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive timeline from NASA journeys through the last century, detailing key discoveries, experiments, missions, and other events that brought robotic space exploration from science fiction to reality.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2005-12-17

28

Ethics and the Space Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As

W. Mendell

2002-01-01

29

Stepping stones toward global space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations and developing countries. For each of these three proposed stepping stones, recommendations for coordination mechanisms are presented.

Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

2011-06-01

30

Aurora europe's space exploration programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and

F. Ongaro; J. P. Swings; R. Condessa

2003-01-01

31

The history of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

1994-01-01

32

Telescopes and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

1982-01-01

33

Innovative Technologies for Global Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), Directorate Integration Office (DIO), The Tauri Group with NASA's Technology Assessment and Integration Team (TAIT) completed several studies and white papers that identify novel technologies for human exploration. These studies provide technical inputs to space exploration roadmaps, identify potential organizations for exploration partnerships, and detail crosscutting technologies that may meet some of NASA's critical needs. These studies are supported by a relational database of more than 400 externally funded technologies relevant to current exploration challenges. The identified technologies can be integrated into existing and developing roadmaps to leverage external resources, thereby reducing the cost of space exploration. This approach to identifying potential spin-in technologies and partnerships could apply to other national space programs, as well as international and multi-government activities. This paper highlights innovative technologies and potential partnerships from economic sectors that historically are less connected to space exploration. It includes breakthrough concepts that could have a significant impact on space exploration and discusses the role of breakthrough concepts in technology planning. Technologies and partnerships are from NASA's Technology Horizons and Technology Frontiers game-changing and breakthrough technology reports as well as the External Government Technology Dataset, briefly described in the paper. The paper highlights example novel technologies that could be spun-in from government and commercial sources, including virtual worlds, synthetic biology, and human augmentation. It will consider how these technologies can impact space exploration and will discuss ongoing activities for planning and preparing them.

Hay, Jason; Gresham, Elaine; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd; Reeves, John D.

2012-01-01

34

Telescopes and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

1976-01-01

35

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new vision of space exploration encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. Extended human space travel requires high reliability and high performance systems for propulsion, vehicle structures, thermal and radiation protection, crew habitats and health monitoring. Advanced materials and processing technologies are necessary to meet the exploration mission requirements. Materials and processing technologies must be sufficiently mature before they can be inserted into a development program leading to an exploration mission. Exploration will be more affordable by in-situ utilization of materials on the Moon and Mars.

Vickers, John; Shah, Sandeep

2005-01-01

36

Tunable Optical Filters for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrally tunable liquid crystal filters provide numerous advantages and several challenges in space applications. We discuss the tradeoffs in design elements for tunable liquid crystal birefringent filters with special consideration required for space exploration applications. In this paper we present a summary of our development of tunable filters for NASA space exploration. In particular we discuss the application of tunable liquid crystals in guidance navigation and control in space exploration programs. We present a summary of design considerations for improving speed, field of view, transmission of liquid crystal tunable filters for space exploration. In conclusion, the current state of the art of several NASA LaRC assembled filters is presented and their performance compared to the predicted spectra using our PolarTools modeling software.

Crandall, Charles; Clark, Natalie; Davis, Patricia P.

2007-01-01

37

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration  

E-print Network

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration 09 January 2014 A pre-Summit Conference of the HEADS OF SPACE AGENCIES SUMMIT ON EXPLORATION 5) Space Exploration play complementary roles in achieving ambitious space exploration efforts, which are increasingly cost

de Weck, Olivier L.

38

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration  

E-print Network

IAA Space Exploration Conference Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration 09 January 2014 A pre-Summit Conference of the HEADS OF SPACE AGENCIES SUMMIT ON EXPLORATION 5) Space Exploration: The Imperative of Global Cooperation Evaluation of Human Space Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit Oleg

de Weck, Olivier L.

39

Space exploration in neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study investigated the gaze as well as the head and the eye-in-head movements of neglect patients while they were exploring their surroundings. A random configuration of letters was presented on the inner surface of a sphere that surrounded the subject, requiring free exploratory eye and head movements. The subjects were requested to search for a single (non-existent)

H.-O. Karnath; M. Niemeier; J. Dichgans

1998-01-01

40

Current Research Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) X-ray Concentrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICER is a proposed NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity and will study the extreme gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear physics of neutron stars. Observations will be performed by an X-ray timing and spectroscopy instrument on board the International Space Station (ISS) with launch scheduled for late 2016. NICER consists of grazing incident optics coupled with silicon drift detectors that will provide high throughput photon collection with relatively low background. The optical system consists of 56 X-ray optics, each of which comprise of 24 individual concentrators made from thin aluminum shells with epoxy replicated gold surface. These specialized concentrators focus incident X-rays allowing for small detectors thus increasing the signal to noise while minimizing mass and fabrication cost. The concentrators have three distinct design differences from traditional thin foil epoxy replicated imaging optics. Firstly, the concentrators use only a single reflection and therefore have degraded imaging resolution for extended sources. They also have a full shell structure to further improve the effective area to mass ratio and a curved axial profile to improve resolution and hence concentration at a short focal length. NICER is the second project using these style concentrators, the first of which was the X-ray Advanced Concepts Testbed (XACT) sounding rocket payload (expected to launch in December 2013). The fabrication of the NICER optics began in spring 2012 and were tested using a collimated X-ray beam in summer 2012. In the following months, the concentrators fabrication method has been improved and adapted from the method used with XACT. X-ray measurements have been made to characterize the concentrators by calculating half power diameters, off-axis performance, and effective area measurements. These have been compared to ray tracing and theoretical calculations. Here we report the performance to date with comparisons to the theoretical calculations as well as the advancements in the fabrication method from the previous generation X-ray concentrators.

Balsamo, Erin; Okajima, T.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Jalota, L.; Soong, Y.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

2013-04-01

41

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

42

Space exploration and world peace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using space exploration as an instrument in procuring world peace is studied. Suggestions for obtaining such a peace, utilizing space programs, include removal of worldwide educational and communication barriers, building of an emotionally and socially stable society, creation of a unit or whole world rather than the mine and yours concept, and reevaluation and reorientation of human relations and values.

Mercieca, C.

1972-01-01

43

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space Exploration Framework Summary For Public Release 1 #12;Overview Context and approach for human space exploration Key guiding time. Human Space Exploration Architecture Planning Human spaceflight (HSF) programs

Waliser, Duane E.

44

Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

Jeevarajan, Antony

2014-01-01

45

Why Do We Explore Space?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

2006-09-01

46

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Exploration  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA's Exploration Strategy April 2014 #12;Why Human Space Exploration? §Scientific and human exploration and pioneering mark advancing civilizations generations § § § Space exploration is human and robotic explorers in partnership § Robots explore distant

Waliser, Duane E.

47

Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

Moloney, Padraig G.

2006-01-01

48

Ethics and the Space Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth, and by analogy ethical issues exist that translate into the spatial dimension.

Mendell, W.

2002-01-01

49

Materials Challenges in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon. Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-performance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure: lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano-structural materials. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2005-01-01

50

NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

2006-01-01

51

The Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the coming years as this plan is implemented. I also cannot overstate how profound the rewards will be on this new course. With the support of Congress, the science community, the NASA civil and contractor workforce, and most importantly, the American public, we will embark on this very exciting future. When Christopher Columbus made his voyages across the Atlantic in the 15th and 16th centuries, his ships carried the inscription 'Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World.' I look forward to joining you as we follow the light of the planets and the stars into the new worlds of the 21st century.

2004-01-01

52

Propellant Depots: The Future of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA is currently exploring several options for mankind's return to the lunar surface and beyond. The selected option must stimulate both commercial and international involvement, support future missions to the Moon and other destinations, and above all, fit within the current budget profile. Contrary to the current Constellation approach, this paper describes the option of using an in-space propellant depot architecture that can refuel or top-off visiting vehicles at EML1, and how it fits within NASA's new space exploration criteria. In addition to receiving and transferring fuel, the propellant depot will also provide cryogenic propellant storage and management that utilizes flight proven technologies in conjunction with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management and acquisition devices, thermodynamic analysis, and key enabling technologies are also discussed. Depot design concepts along with an overview of a future lunar mission sequence are also presented.

Crenwelge, Drew

53

Science Explorations: Journey Into Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations is a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Journey Into Space: Gravity, Orbits, and Collisions exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, two Level 1 online activities for students in grades 3-6, two Level 2 online activities for students in grades 6-10, a glossary of related terms, a collection of articles, captioned photos, short videos, and informative links, off-line activities that challenge students to apply what they've learned, and advice and step-by-step tools to help students prepare research presentations.

54

"Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

Jordan, Anne Devereaux

1997-01-01

55

Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

2006-01-01

56

United States Space Explorations 1958  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

57

Challenges of Human Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book tells the story of what was accomplished during the Shuttle-Mir programme based on the interviews granted to the author by three of the astronauts. It focuses on their descriptions of the human aspects of exploration of space and their attempts to solve problems both mechanical and interpersonal. It describes the experiments they undertook during the Apollo\\/Soyuz and Shuttle-Mir

Marsha Freeman

2000-01-01

58

A Space Elevator Based Exploration Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances and recent studies have laid the groundwork for eventual construction of a space elevator. Within 15 years an operational space elevator could be running from Earth to beyond geosynchronous. The basic mechanical operation allows for low operational cost ($250/kg), high capacity (>13tons, >5tons/day/elevator), a range of destinations (LEO, GEO, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, and Venus), and minimal launch forces. The low risk operation of the space elevator would allow large scale robotic and human exploration of the solar system. An operational elevator will immediately move primary interest from LEO to GEO for many activities and open commercial space activities such as solar power satellite arrays for beaming power to Earth. Robotic exploration to all destinations would be able to use larger, fixed structures, more massive platforms and be launched for a fraction of current costs. Human exploration could start at GEO for maintaining commercial assets, and enhanced Earth-observing systems and then step to Mars where a receiving elevator could also be established. This paper will cover the basics of a space elevator and a comprehensive strategy for human and exploratory use of space based on the space elevator.

Edwards, Bradley C.

2004-02-01

59

Human Factors in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

2010-01-01

60

Aurora europe's space exploration programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not totally clear, however in the Aurora long term plan a lander mission is being considered for the first half of the next decade and a human mission for later on. An example of what an Arrow mission to the Moon could be is SMART-1, in this class a cooperative opportunity for lunar exploration could be envisaged. ExoMars is proposed to fly in 2009 and is an exobiology driven mission. It includes a rover carrying a payload called Pasteur, which integrates a set of instruments with the primary objective of identifying biosignatures. A secondary objective is to assess the hazards (e.g. radiation) to human exploration. Mars Sample Return, aimed for launch in 2011, is one of the most important milestones for Mars exploration as even a small amount of sample brought back to Earth will dramatically increase our knowledge about the red planet. Besides, this would be the first mission to incorporate all the basic operations of a human mission. Earth Re-entry will validate technologies required for future missions, namely the Mars Sample Return. Mars Aerocapture will test an orbit insertion technique, which could significantly reduce the cost of future missions. The assessment of priorities and most urgent technology fields to be developed by Europe, within an international framework, are determined taking into consideration the technologies that will enable the most immediate Aurora missions; as well those which are fundamental for the European interests and need an early development start given their complexity or originality. Fields which will be of relevance to planetary exploration include: Automated guidance & navigation control; Micro-Avionics; Data Processing & Communication Entry, Descent and Landing; Crew and Life Support Systems; In Situ Resource Utilisation; Power generation, conditioning and storage; Propulsion (In-space transportation, Ascent/descent vehicles); Robotics and mechanisms; Structure & thermal control; Instrument Technologies.

Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

2003-04-01

61

The School of Earth and Space Exploration  

E-print Network

The School of Earth and Space Exploration Fact Sheet TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF EXPLORERS DEGREE PROGRAMS Undergraduate Studies · B.S. in Earth & Space Exploration · B.S. in Geological Sciences The School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University, established in 2006

Rhoads, James

62

The business of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite healthy economic conditions worldwide, aerospace companies have been struggling since the end of the Cold War. The industry faces a very uncertain future as people and money are leaving in droves. But that has not diminished interest in significantly opening up the space frontier for commercial uses. Is there a major disconnect between expectation and reality? What can the Government and private sectors do to positively shape the future? This paper examines the market forces in play and uses the development of the commercial air transportation business to assess the prospect for commercial space transportation and exploration. It also addresses the elements and criteria for business opportunity, and suggests ways in which the public and private sector can work together to build the future of space. .

Tam, Daniel C.

2001-02-01

63

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

NASA Johnson Space Center Leading Human Space Exploration NASA Advisory Council Commercial Space live Goal 3 Create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future & Mission Vision ­ Declaration of our future: JSC leads a global enterprise in human space exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

64

Human Space Exploration The Next Fifty Years  

PubMed Central

Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

Williams, David R.; Turnock, Matthew

2011-01-01

65

Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

Houts, Michael G.

2010-01-01

66

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

Wilson J. W. (Editor); Miller, J. (Editor); Konradi, A. (Editor); Cucinotta, F. A. (Editor)

1997-01-01

67

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

Wilson, J. W.; Miller, J.; Konradi, A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

1997-12-01

68

Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

2011-01-01

69

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Exploration Vehicle Concept  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Exploration Vehicle Concept NASAfacts Background NASA is testing concepts for a new generation of roving space exploration vehicles. These new ideas will help future robots and astronauts explore more than ever before, build a long-term space

70

An Approach for Effective Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

An Approach for Effective Design Space Exploration Eunsuk Kang1 , Ethan Jackson2 , and Wolfram, Redmond, WA, USA ejackson,schulte@microsoft.com Abstract. Design space exploration (DSE) refers for systematically exploring the design space in a cost-effective manner. The key idea is that many of the design

Jackson, Daniel

71

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration CHUCK A. BAKER, LAYNE T. WATSON: ­ The preliminary design space exploration for large, interdisciplinary engineering problems is often a difficult optimizer to reduce the computational time of the design space exploration. The method is applied

Neumaier, Arnold

72

Technologies for Human Space Exploration: ASI PROGRAMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of National Space Plan, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) has defined, on the basis of its deep involvement in the International Space Station (ISS) a road map on the enabling technologies for Human Space Exploration. This strategy is in line with NASA strategy for Critical Technologies Demonstration that includes possible international partnership such as inflatable modules and advanced life support. In this respect ASI has been developing for years two projects oriented to these technologies, namely FLECS and CAB and is working in technologies for astronaut wellness as well. The paper describes in the details the ASI programs and their current results, together with the role that is playing in the international cooperation in line with the relevant future national strategies.

Svelto, F.

73

Is a Space Laundry Needed for Exploration?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space exploration missions will lengthen to years, and keeping crews clothed without a huge resupply burden is an important consideration for habitation systems. A space laundry system could be the solution; however, the resources it uses must be accounted for and must win out over the very reliable practice of bringing along enough spare underwear. Through NASA's Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project, trade off studies have been conducted to compare current space clothing systems, life extension of that clothing, traditional water based clothes washing and other sanitizing techniques. The best clothing system of course depends on the mission and assumptions, but in general, analysis results indicate that washing clothes on space missions will start to pay off as mission durations push past a year.

Ewert, Michael K.; Jeng, Frank F.

2014-01-01

74

Space exploration policy: Towards an operational vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the historical and social context of space exploration policy. It seeks to reconcile a contradiction between the visionary grandeur of space and public perceptions of space exploration as the province of a narrowly-focused political interest group. The author argues that perceptions of the space age are artificially restricted by dating its origins to Sputnik and Apollo and

Harvey Meyerson

1995-01-01

75

DIPS space exploration initiative safety  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issues were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.

Dix, T.E. (Rockwell International/Rocketdyne Division, 6633 Canoga Avenue, MS HB07, Canoga Park, California 91303 (US))

1991-01-01

76

Exploring the Deep... Ocean Currents  

E-print Network

are of cold water, while its current is of warm; the Gulf of Mexico is its fountain, and its mouth? Thisanswerrequiresstudentstospeculatesoanyexplanationisacceptable.For example,heatcarriedbytheGulfStreamandthenorthAtlanticdriftwarmsEurope. Norway,at60--"rivers in the ocean"--that flow over long distances along predictable paths. In , Matthew Maury wrote about the Gulf

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

77

Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future consideration and are addressed in this paper. These applications have been made available to the various NASA study groups that are determining the next steps the Agency must take to secure a sound foundation for future space exploration The paper also addresses how follow-on demonstrations, as launch performance grows, can build on the earlier applications to provide increased benefits for both the commercial and scientific communities. The architecture of incrementally building upon previous successes and insights dramatically lowers the overall associated risk for developing and maturing the key enabling technologies. The goal is to establish a potential business case that encourages commercial activity, thereby reducing the cost for the demonstration while using the technology maturation in developing readiness for future space exploration with overall less risk.

Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.

2011-01-01

78

Space exploration challenges : characterization and enhancement of space suit mobility and planetary protection policy analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two challenges associated with advanced space and planetary exploration: characterizing and improving the mobility of current and future gas pressurized space suits; and developing effective domestic ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2010-01-01

79

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a

R. Bjrk

80

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. Exploration of the Galaxy is simulated by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40000 stars in a

R. Bjrk

2007-01-01

81

The Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES) Project, a research and development collaboration between NASA centers which focuses on the investigation and development of technologies, processes and integrated simulations related to the collaborative distributed simulation of complex space systems in support of NASA's Exploration Initiative. This paper describes the three major components of DSES: network infrastructure, software infrastructure and simulation development. In the network work area, DSES is developing a Distributed Simulation Network that will provide agency wide support for distributed simulation between all NASA centers. In the software work area, DSES is developing a collection of software models, tool and procedures that ease the burden of developing distributed simulations and provides a consistent interoperability infrastructure for agency wide participation in integrated simulation. Finally, for simulation development, DSES is developing an integrated end-to-end simulation capability to support NASA development of new exploration spacecraft and missions. This paper will present current status and plans for each of these work areas with specific examples of simulations that support NASA's exploration initiatives.

Crues, Edwin Z.; Chung, Victoria I.; Blum, Mike G.; Bowman, James D.

2007-01-01

82

A timely rationale for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is shown to be useful for enhancing a country's education, technology, and economic competitiveness. Technologies required for the Space Exploration Initiative are compared to emerging technologies identified by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The impact of previous space ventures on specific technologies are illustrated with examples such as miniaturized electronics, computers and software, and high-strength materials. The case for educational advancement as a by-product of space exploration is made by discussing the high-level requirements of the programs and describing the inspirational effect of space exploration on young students. Invigorating space exploration is argued to generate near- and long-term economic opportunities for key sectors of the national economy by means of technology transfer, space-resource utilization, and the commercialization of space.

Peterson, Douglas D.; Walters, Larry D.

1992-01-01

83

Parallel Global Aircraft Configuration Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary design space exploration for large, interdisciplinary engineering problems is often a difficult and time-consuming task. General techniques are needed that efficiently and methodically search the design space. This work focuses on the use of parallel load balancing techniques integrated with a global optimizer to reduce the computational time of the design space exploration. The method is applied to

CHUCK A. BAKER; LAYNE T. WATSON; BERNARD GROSSMAN; WILLIAM H. MASON; RAPHAEL T. HAFTKA

1999-01-01

84

Pioneering space exploration: The JSC strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The framework that JCS's senior management will use to guide effective decision making to achieve our long-rang goals while soliciting inputs from all levels of JSC is presented. This plan was developed to allow us to meet head-on the responsibilities and challenges we have today while assuring that we are well prepared to meet the opportunities and challenges of tomorrow. The JSC strategy is closely aligned with the overall strategic direction currently being defined by NASA. One of our major goals was to keep our plan and process tightly focused but flexible enough so that as our national interests in space exploration evolve, so can JSC.

1992-01-01

85

Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

Turyshev, Slava

2004-01-01

86

Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

87

Exploring Space on the Computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past year Dennis Stocker has been in the process of developing pencil and paper games, which are fun, challenging, and educational for middle school and high school students. The latest version of these pencil and paper games is Spaceship Commander. The objective of the game is to earn points by plotting the flight path of a spaceship so astronauts can perform microgravity experiments, and make short-range measurements of other planets. During my ten weeks here at the GRC my goal is to create a computer based version of Spaceship commander. During the development of this game the primary focus has been on making it as educational and fun for the student as possible. The main educational objective of this game is to give students an understanding of forces and motion, including gravity. This is done by incorporating Newton's laws into the game. For example a spacecraft in the video game experiences a gravitational force applied to it by planets. The software I am using to create this game is a freeware application called Game Maker. Game Maker allows novice computer programmers like me to create arcade style games using a visual drag and drop interface. By using functions provided by Game Maker and a few I have written myself, I have been able to create a few simple computer games. Currently the computer game allows the student to navigate a space ship around planets, and asteroids by using the arrow keys on the numeric keypad. Each time an arrow key is pressed by the student the corresponding acceleration of the space ship is seen on the screen. Points are earned by navigating the space ship close enough to planets to gather scientific data. However the game encourages the student to plan his or her course carefully, because if the student gets too close to a planet they may not be able to escape the planet s gravity, and crash into the planet. The next step in the game development is to include a launch sequence which allows the student to launch from their home planet at a speed and direction determined by the student. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Bozym, Patrick

2004-01-01

88

Current Collection from Space Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

Singh, Nagendra (editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (editor); Stone, Nobie H. (editor)

1990-01-01

89

The potential of space exploration for education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration and observations from space offer unique opportunities with respect to education. Recent technical advances have significantly increased the width and sensitivity of the electromagnetic spectrum window through which we are able to 'see' the universe. Observations from space have forced a realization that the earth is a beautiful, complex, and interconnected system. Space astronomy and the remote sensing

Fredrick H. Shair

1993-01-01

90

Human Space Exploration architecture study in TAS-I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon, Mars and asteroids. The US Space Exploration program addresses the objective "to explore space and extend a human presence across the Solar System". Main steps include the completion of the International Space Station and its utilization in support of space exploration goals, "as the launching point for missions beyond the Low Earth Orbit". Along a parallel matching path, Europe has developed a roadmap for exploration - Aurora - and has supported design activities on combined Moon-Mars Exploration Architectures. Thales Alenia Space - Italia has been involved in the major European activities related to exploration and it is currently analyzing the different exploration scenarios considered by the major Space Agencies with the objective to identify an international reference scenario for exploration taking into account the need to balance collaboration at international level due to the highly demanding nature of planetary exploration missions, and the development of autonomous key capabilities considered of strategic importance.

Perino, M. A.

91

Global visions for space exploration education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) has partnered with Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) to support NSBRI-NASA's education mission, which is to strengthen the nation's future science workforce through initiatives that communicate space exploration biology research findings to schools; support undergraduate and graduate programs; fund postdoctoral fellowships; and engage national and international audiences in collegial exchanges that promote global visions for space exploration education. This paper describes select MSM-NSBRI-EPOP activities, including scholarly interchanges with audiences in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Spain. The paper also makes the case for a global space exploration education vision that inspires students, engages educators and informs general audiences about the benefits that space exploration holds for life on Earth.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.

2010-04-01

92

Design space exploration using the genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical VLSI layout problem involves the simultaneous optimization of a number of competing criteria. Rather than generating a single compromise solution, some recent approaches explicitly explores the design space and outputs a set of alternative solutions, thereby providing explicit information on the possible tradeoffs. This paper discuss the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for design space exploration and propose

Henrdk Esbensen; Ernest S. Kuh

1996-01-01

93

Space colonies and the philosophy of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many space enthusiasts believe that the possibilities offered by space colonies clinch the case in favor of space exploration. Such possibilities, however, cannot by themselves surmount the central social and ideological objections against space exploration. Moreover, to justify the process by which we can determine whether space colonies are a good idea requires that we meet those objections first. This task is often attemped by pointing to the many unintended good results of previous exploration (the serendipity of science) and then extrapolating to the future. But social and ideologial critics need not be impressed by a purely historical case for serendipity. Fortunately, a philosophical analysis of scientific exploration reveals that serendipity is an essential aspect of it. This result provides a justification for exploring space. And in light of that justification, we can begin to evaluate the proposals for space colonies.

Munvar, Gonzalo

1986-08-01

94

ISRU Propellant Selection for Space Exploration Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical propulsion remains the only viable solution as technically matured technology for the near term human space transportation to Lunar and Mars. Current mode of space travel requires us to "take everything we will need", including propellant for the return trip. Forcing the mission designers to carry propellant for the return trip limits payload mass available for mission operations and results in a large and costly (and often unaffordable) design. Producing propellant via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) will enable missions with chemical propulsion by the "refueling" of return-trip propellant. It will reduce vehicle propellant mass carrying requirement by over 50%. This mass reduction can translates into increased payload to enhance greater mission capability, reduces vehicle size, weight and cost. It will also reduce size of launch vehicle fairing size as well as number of launches for a given space mission and enables exploration missions with existing chemical propulsion. Mars remains the ultimate destination for Human Space Exploration within the Solar System. The Mars atmospheric consist of 95% carbon dioxide (CO2) and the presence of Ice (water) was detected on Mars surfaces. This presents a basic chemical building block for the ISRU propellant manufacturing. However, the rationale for the right propellant to produce via ISRU appears to be limited to the perception of "what we can produce" as oppose to "what is the right propellant". Methane (CH4) is often quoted as a logical choice for Mars ISRU propellant, however; it is believed that there are better alternatives available that can result in a better space transportation architecture. A system analysis is needed to determine on what is the right propellant choice for the exploration vehicle. This paper examines the propellant selection for production via ISRU method on Mars surfaces. It will examine propellant trades for the exploration vehicle with resulting impact on vehicle performance, size, and on launch vehicles. It will investigate propellant manufacturing techniques that will be applicable on Mars surfaces and address related issues on storage, transfer, and safety. Finally, it will also address the operability issues associated with the impact of propellant selection on ground processing and launch vehicle integration.

Chen, Timothy T.

2013-01-01

95

Selected topics in robotics for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

Montgomery, Raymond C. (editor); Kaufman, Howard (editor)

1993-01-01

96

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky\\u000aWay, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an\\u000aanswer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first\\u000aexamining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore\\u000a40,000 stars in a

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-01-01

97

UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

98

BiSpace Planning: Concurrent Multi-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a planning algorithm called BiSpace that produces fast plans to complex high-dimensional problems by simultaneously exploring multiple spaces. We specifically focus on finding robust solutions to manipulation and grasp planning problems by using BiSpace's special characteristics to explore the work and configuration spaces of the environment and robot. Furthermore, we present a number of techniques for constructing informed

Rosen Diankov; Nathan Ratliff; Dave Ferguson; Siddhartha Srinivasa; James Kuffner

99

Supervised space robots are needed in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High level systems engineering models were developed to simulate and analyze the types, numbers, and roles of intelligent systems, including supervised autonomous robots, which will be required to support human space exploration. Conventional and intelligent systems were compared for two missions: (1) a 20-year option 5A space exploration; and (2) the First Lunar Outpost (FLO). These studies indicate that use of supervised intelligent systems on planet surfaces will 'enable' human space exploration. The author points out that space robotics can be considered a form of the emerging technology of field robotics and solutions to many space applications will apply to problems relative to operating in Earth-based hazardous environments.

Erickson, Jon D.

1994-01-01

100

Women's place in space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mars manned space mission would be characterized by long-lasting psycho-social stress for its human participants. Based on the results of our and other authors' experiments with small human groups under simulated space stress conditions, and bearing in mind historical evidence of the changing role of women in human society, the differences of feminine and masculine cognitive patterns should be

J. Skora; I. olcov; J. Dvo?k; M. Polnkov; A. Tome?ek

1996-01-01

101

Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging developing countries and emerging space nations in an international space exploration program, it will be possible to create a critical bottom-up support structure to support program continuity in the development and execution of future global space exploration frameworks. With a focus on stepping stones, COSPAR can support a global space exploration program that stimulates scientists in current and emerging spacefaring nations, and that will invite those in developing countries to participatepursuing research aimed at answering outstanding questions about the origins and evolution of our solar system and life on Earth (and possibly elsewhere). COSPAR, in cooperation with national and international science foundations and space-related organizations, will advocate this stepping stone approach to enhance future cooperative space exploration efforts.

Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

2012-01-01

102

Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

2009-01-01

103

ESA strategic planning for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA) is pursuing an independent strategic planning process for consolidating a destination driven (LEO, Moon, Mars) space exploration strategy. ESA's space exploration strategy is driven by the goals to maximise knowledge gain and to contribute to economic growth. International cooperation is a key pillar of ESA's strategy as it is considered both, an enabler for achieving common goals and a benefit, opening new perspective for addressing future challenges. The achievement of ESA's space exploration strategy is enabled through international partnerships. The interagency coordination process conducted within the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) plays an important role in laying the foundations for future partnerships. It has achieved so far the development of a common vision for space exploration, a common plan for implementing the vision in the form of the Global Exploration Roadmap, as well as a common approach for articulating the value of global space exploration. ESA has been a strong promoter and supporter of the interagency coordination process conducted within ISECG and thanks to its unique expertise in international cooperation the Agency has contributed to its success.

Hufenbach, B.; Reiter, T.; Sourgens, E.

2014-08-01

104

Social Sciences and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

1988-01-01

105

Material flammability in space exploration atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity, NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles with a different cabin pressure and oxygen concentration than used previously. This work explores how the flammability of solid materials changes in this new environment. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To this end, piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel subject to this new space exploration atmosphere (SEA -- 58.6 kPa and 32% oxygen) and compared to similar tests in standard atmospheric conditions. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to a range of oxidizer flow velocities and externally applied heat fluxes. It was found that the ignition time was reduced by 27% in the intended space exploration atmosphere. It was also noted that the critical heat flux for ignition decreases in exploration atmospheres. These results show that materials are more susceptible to ignition than in current spacecraft atmospheres. To further explore the effect of pressure and oxygen concentration, tests were performed for a wide range of pressures and oxygen concentrations. In all oxygen concentrations tested, the ignition delay time was seen to decrease with pressure, reach a minimum, and then increase with further reduction in pressure creating a classic u-shaped curve. No ignition was seen at sufficiently low pressures. The no ignition pressure depended on the oxygen concentration. Increasing the oxygen concentration uniformly decreases the ignition time; however, no significant differences were seen in oxygen concentrations above 24%. These results indicate there are several competing mechanisms controlling the ignition time. By reducing the pressure, the heat transfer coefficient and the mass flow rate of fuel to reach the lean flammability limit are reduced. Conversely, a reduction in pressure increases the gas-phase chemical induction time. The competition between these three mechanisms is responsible for the u-shaped dependence of ignition time on total pressure. In addition to gaining insight into the effect of pressure on piloted ignition, these results have practical applications including high altitude structures and airplane cabins.

McAllister, Sara Suzanne

106

Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

Yowell, Leonard L.

2007-01-01

107

Exploration of RNA structure spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to understand the structure of real structure spaces, we are studying the 5S rRNA structure space experimentally. A plasmid containing a synthetic 5S rRNA gene, two rRNA promoters, and transcription terminators has been assembled. Assays are conducted to determine if the foreign 5S rRNA is expressed, and to see whether or not it is incorporated into ribosomes. Evolutionary competition is used to determine the relative fitness of strains containing the foreign 5S rRNA and a control 5S rRNA. By using site directed mutagenesis, a number of mutants can be made in order to study the boundaries of the structure space and how sharply defined they are. By making similar studies in the vicinity of structure space, it will be possible to determine how homogeneous the 5S rRNA structure space is. Useable experimental protocols have been developed, and a number of mutants have already been studied. Initial results suggest an explanation of why single stranded regions of the RNA are less subject to mutation than double stranded regions.

Fox, G. E.

1991-01-01

108

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Reorganization Status we live. 3. Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic space flight, space operations and research 4 #12;Human Exploration & Operations: Organization Public

Waliser, Duane E.

109

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems NASA Advisory Council Demonstrations ETD ­ Exploration Technology Development STMD ­ Space Technology Mission Directorate GCD - Game-on" surface exploration and in- space operations, including crew excursion vehicles, advanced space suits

Waliser, Duane E.

110

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration and Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate · International Space Station · Launch Services Program · Exploration Systems Development Division · Commercial Space Transportation · Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications · Advanced Exploration

Waliser, Duane E.

111

Exploration of Attacks on Current Generation Smartphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ever increasing capabilities of current generation smartphones, they are quickly becoming more attractive targets for malicious attackers. The potential of porting attacks and malware from modern computers to these mobile devices is becoming a reality. In this paper, we explore the possibility of staging some attacks on the 802.11 network interface which is common to all smartphones.

Steven Salerno; Ameya Sanzgiri; Shambhu Upadhyaya

2011-01-01

112

Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical weighted figure of merit (WFoM) approach that quantifies the effectiveness of a candidate material to shield space crews from the whole of the space radiation environment. The results of the WFoM approach should prove useful to designers and engineers in seeking alternative materials suitable for the construction of spacecraft or planetary surface habitats needed for long-term space exploration missions. The dosimetric measurements in this study have confirmed the principle of good space radiation shielding design by showing that low-Z materials are most effective at reducing absorbed dose and dose equivalent while high-Z materials are to be avoided. The relatively high WFoMs of carbon composite and lunar- and Martian-regolith composite could have important implications for the design and construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats. The ground-based measurements conducted in this study have validated the heavy ion extension of FLUKA by producing normalized differential LET fluence spectra that are in good agreement with experiment.

DeWitt, Joel Michael

113

Efficient design space exploration in PICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated design tools must understand and exploit the hierarchical structure of large design spaces. We have developed a general methodology for decomposing system design spaces into smaller component design spaces, followed by component-level evaluation, filtering, recomposition and system-level evaluation. This methodology greatly reduces the time and cost of design space exploration, since the typical number of system-level evaluations is greatly

Santosh G. Abraham; B. Ramakrishna Rau

2000-01-01

114

Boeing Integrated Defense System : Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Exploration, a division of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, is a leading global supplier of reusable and human space systems and services. Headquartered in Houston, the organization comprises more than 4,000 people operating in five locations. The organization s legacy began in the late 1950s with the X-15, spanned to the Apollo missions of the 1960 and 70s, and continues today with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.

2007-12-12

115

Mind: explore the space inside.  

PubMed

When caught in the dilemma of career choice, a critical conversation helped the writer crystallize the decision to plunge into the field of mental health. The decision just not only kindled interest in psychiatry but passion to study the science of the mind despite the fact that in earlier times psychiatry mainly catered to patients with chronic schizophrenia and uncontrolled bipolar disorder. Weathering the curious glances of colleagues the writer pursued to explore the field of the science of the mind. Not restricting himself to classical trends in private practice, he explored every opportunity to reach out to the common man through writing articles in popular newspapers and also ran a TV Show to respond to people's queries on mental health. He further ventured into training and development of young MBA aspirants and trained himself into an international coach and facilitator. The science of Behavioural Economics beckons him now. PMID:25838734

Barve, Rajendra

2015-01-01

116

Mind: Explore the Space Inside  

PubMed Central

When caught in the dilemma of career choice, a critical conversation helped the writer crystallize the decision to plunge into the field of mental health. The decision just not only kindled interest in psychiatry but passion to study the science of the mind despite the fact that in earlier times psychiatry mainly catered to patients with chronic schizophrenia and uncontrolled bipolar disorder. Weathering the curious glances of colleagues the writer pursued to explore the field of the science of the mind. Not restricting himself to classical trends in private practice, he explored every opportunity to reach out to the common man through writing articles in popular newspapers and also ran a TV Show to respond to people's queries on mental health. He further ventured into training and development of young MBA aspirants and trained himself into an international coach and facilitator. The science of Behavioural Economics beckons him now.

Barve, Rajendra

2015-01-01

117

Exploring Washington, DC, from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze an image of Washington, DC, taken from orbit. They will determine scale and take measurements of several features in the image. A link to more images taken from the International Space Station and the answer key are provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

118

The business of space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite healthy economic conditions worldwide, aerospace companies have been struggling since the end of the Cold War. The industry faces a very uncertain future as people and money are leaving in droves. But that has not diminished interest in significantly opening up the space frontier for commercial uses. Is there a major disconnect between expectation and reality? What can the

Daniel C. Tam

2001-01-01

119

Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America's competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

Buden, D.

1991-06-14

120

Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America`s competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

Buden, D.

1991-06-14

121

Team Proposes Paradigm Shift in Robotic Space Exploration Team Proposes Paradigm Shift in Robotic Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Team Proposes Paradigm Shift in Robotic Space Exploration Team Proposes Paradigm Shift in Robotic Space Exploration A team of interdisciplinary scientists has unveiled a proposal to make core changes in the robotic exploration of the solar system. In addition to spaceborne orbiters, the "new paradigm" would

Arizona, University of

122

NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster features several of the NASA Earth and Space Science Explorers, plus suggestions for using the series in the classroom. The series of online articles features NASA explorers, young and old, with many backgrounds and interests. Most articles are written for three different reading levels: grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12 and up.

IGES

2007-01-01

123

The New National Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the Apollo landings on the Moon, to robotic surveys of the Sun and the planets, to the compelling images captured by advanced space telescopes, U.S. achievements in space have revolutionized humanity s view of the universe and have inspired Americans and people around the world. These achievements also have led to the development of technologies that have widespread applications to address problems on Earth. As the world enters the second century of powered flight, it is appropriate to articulate a new vision that will define and guide U.S. space exploration activities for the next several decades. Today, humanity has the potential to seek answers to the most fundamental questions posed about the existence of life beyond Earth. Telescopes have found planets around other stars. Robotic probes have identified potential resources on the Moon, and evidence of water - a key ingredient for life - has been found on Mars and the moons of Jupiter. Direct human experience in space has fundamentally altered our perspective of humanity and our place in the universe. Humans have the ability to respond to the unexpected developments inherent in space travel and possess unique skills that enhance discoveries. Just as Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo challenged a generation of Americans, a renewed U.S. space exploration program with a significant human component can inspire us - and our youth - to greater achievements on Earth and in space. The loss of Space Shuttles Challenger and Columbia and their crews are a stark reminder of the inherent risks of space flight and the severity of the challenges posed by space exploration. In preparation for future human exploration, we must advance our ability to live and work safely in space and, at the same time, develop the technologies to extend humanity s reach to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The new technologies required for further space exploration also will improve the Nation s other space activities and may provide applications that could be used to address problems on Earth. Like the explorers of the past and the pioneers of flight in the last century, we cannot today identify all that we will gain from space exploration; we are confident, nonetheless, that the eventual return will be great. Like their efforts, the success of future U.S. space exploration will unfold over generations. The fundamental goal of this new national vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. In support of this goal, the United States will: 1) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; 2) Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of IMars and other destinations; 3) Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and 4) Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Geveden, Rex; King, David A.

2004-01-01

124

Ecological problems of space exploration  

SciTech Connect

In the report ecologically unfavorable consequences of the use of space-rocket engineering are considered. Problems, connected with the use of toxic propellant components, with the effect of rocket propellant combustion products on the atmosphere of the Earth, including the ozone layer, contamination of an earth surface in the impact areas by metal fragments of rocket blocks and remains of propellant components and also accumulation on near-earth orbits of a significant amount of an artificial origin objects are selected first of all. The main directions of the decrease of ecologically unfavorable effect on the environment are considered. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Kuzin, A.I. [Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Central Scientific-Research Institute of Space Force Russia, Moscow, K-160 (Russian Federation)

1997-01-01

125

Heavy ion carcinogenesis and human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the human exploration of Mars or long-duration missions on the Earth's moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared with radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer

Marco Durante; Francis A. Cucinotta

2008-01-01

126

Life Space Structure: Explorations and Speculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of life space structure described elsewhere is developed and explored as a means of representing and explaining the effectiveness of individuals' characteristic behavioral patterns of arranging work and personal life. Common problems and opportunities of work and personal life coordination are described and analyzed from the perspective of four types of life space structure: home-based nuclear, work-based nuclear,

Mary Dean Lee

1985-01-01

127

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

128

Design Space Exploration of Network Processor Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to explore the design space for architectures of packet processing devices on the sys- tem level. Our method is specific to the application domain of packet processors and is based on (1) models for packet processing tasks, a specification of the workload generated by traffic streams, and a description of the feasible space of architectures including

Lothar Thiele; Samarjit Chakraborty; Matthias Gries; Simon Kunzli

2002-01-01

129

Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

Millis, Marc G.

1990-01-01

130

Space Exploration Direction, Authorized by Congress  

E-print Network

Complete the International Space Station Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010 Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle no later than 2014 Return to the Moon no later than 2020 Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures Promote international and commercial participation in exploration NASA Authorization Act of 2005 The Administrator shall establish a program to develop a sustained human presence on the Moon, including a robust precursor program to promote exploration, science, commerce and U.S. preeminence in space, and as a stepping stone to future exploration of Mars and other destinations. 30 Exploration Progress In December 2006, we released Exploration themes and objectives- Developed together with U.S. industry, academia, and science communities 13 other space agencies Our initial Lunar architecture results- then shared with the broader community In 2007, our collective and individual communities have continued to make progress in defining what and how we will achieve our exploration objectives Here we will present results from latest studies To be communicated and discussed with the broader community Compared with architecture studies from these communities 31

Geoffrey Yoder; Figures Of Merit

131

Making Space Science and Exploration Accessible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are currently 28 million hard of hearing and deaf Americans, approximately 10 to 11 million blind and visually impaired people in North America, and more than 50 million Americans with disabilities, approximately half of whom are students. The majority of students with disabilities in the US are required to achieve the same academic levels as their non-impaired peers. Unfortunately, there are few specialized materials to help these exceptional students in the formal and informal settings. To assist educators in meeting their goals and engage the students, we are working with NASA product developers, scientists and education and outreach personnel in concert with teachers from exceptional classrooms to identify the types of materials they need and which mediums work best for the different student capabilities. Our goal is to make the wonders of space science and exploration accessible to all. As such, over the last four years we have been hosting interactive workshops, observing classroom settings, talking and working with professional educators, product developers, museum and science center personnel and parents to synthesize the most effective media and method for presenting earth and space science materials to audiences with exceptional needs. We will present a list of suggested best practices and example activities that can help engage and encourage a person with special needs to study the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Runyon, C. J.; Guimond, K. A.; Hurd, D.; Heinrich, G.

132

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate Committee Report July 23rd, 2012 Research for Human Exploration #12;National Aeronautics and Space to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Physical Sciences ·Conducts fundamental

Waliser, Duane E.

133

Cross-cultural management supporting global space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.

2010-01-01

134

Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

Clark, Natalie

2007-01-01

135

Exploration of the space charge behaviour of polyethylene using measurements of thermally stimulated discharge currents coupled with the determination of space charge distributions by the thermal step method in hydrogenated poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the thermally stimulated discharge currents (TSDC) technique and coupling it with the thermal step (TS) method, which allows accurate measurement of the space charge distribution (an outstanding electrical property), both the relaxation and the relative contribution of the intrinsic polarization charges and the extrinsic trapped charges have been analysed for a series of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials after

N Guarrotxena; J Contreras; A Toureille; J Milln

1999-01-01

136

Logistics Information Systems for Human Space Exploration: State of the Art and Emerging Technologies  

E-print Network

Logistics Information Systems for Human Space Exploration: State of the Art and Emerging an overview of the current state of the art in logistics management for space exploration focused difficulties in mission planning for interplanetary human space exploration is logistics management

de Weck, Olivier L.

137

Challenges to the Sustainability of Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has an elaborate process for identifying and mitigating technical risks in its human space exploration program. However, non-technical riskspolitical, economic, and societalare not captured in this process. Such risks are large in number, diverse in character, often unpredictable, and can be impossible to prevent because they are beyond the space agency's control. NASA's mission directorates are responsible for long-term

James A. Vedda

2008-01-01

138

Space-Charge-Limited Currents in Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currents, far in excess of ohmic currents, can be drawn through thin, relatively perfect insulating crystals. These currents are the direct analog of space-charge-limited currents in a vacuum diode. In actual crystals, the space-charge-limited currents are less than their theoretical value for an ideal crystal by the ratio of free to trapped carriers. Space-charge-limited currents become, therefore, a simple tool

A. Rose

1955-01-01

139

The Biology and Space Exploration Video Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biology and Space Exploration video series illustrates NASA's commitment to increasing the public awareness and understanding of life sciences in space. The video series collection, which was initiated by Dr. Joan Vernikos at NASA headquarters and Dr. Alan Hargens at NASA Ames Research Center, will be distributed to universities and other institutions around the United States. The video series parallels the "Biology and Space Exploration" course taught by NASA Ames scientists at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. In the past, students have shown considerable enthusiasm for this course and have gained a much better appreciation and understanding of space life sciences and exploration. However, due to the unique nature of the topics and the scarcity of available educational materials, most students in other universities around the country are unable to benefit from this educational experience. Therefore, with the assistance of Ames experts, we are producing a video series on selected aspects of life sciences in space to expose undergraduate students to the effects of gravity on living systems. Additionally, the video series collection contains space flight footage, graphics, charts, pictures, and interviews to make the materials interesting and intelligible to viewers.

William, Jacqueline M.; Murthy, Gita; Rapa, Steve; Hargens, Alan R.

1995-01-01

140

Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan

Chindgren, Tina M.

2008-01-01

141

Logistics Information Systems for Human Space Exploration: State of the Art and Emerging Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space agencies around the world are gearing up for new human space exploration missions. In order to ensure that such programs are sustainable, it is worthwhile to examine the lessons learned from past experiences with space logistics and supply chain management. This paper offers an overview of the current state of the art in logistics management for space exploration focused

Sarah A. Shull; Erica L. Gralla; Matthew Silver; Olivier de Weck

142

NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

143

Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-ended fusion system in which a high-density plasma is confined and heated to thermonuclear temperatures is examined as a potential high specific power propulsion device that can be used for space exploration. With a collision mean free path much smaller than a characteristic dimension of the system, the plasma behaves much like a continuous medium (fluid) for which the

Terry Kammash; Myoung-Jae Lee

1995-01-01

144

Synergies of space exploration and Earth science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more flexible policy basis from which to manage our planet in the 21st century is desirable. As one contribution, we note that synergies between space exploration and the preservation of our habitat do exist, and that protecting life on Earth requires similar concepts and information as investigations of life beyond the Earth, including the expansion of human presence in

Y. Chung; P. Ehrenfreund; J. Rummel; N. Peter

2009-01-01

145

Space Exploration Initiative multibeam antenna study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multibeam antenna which will be based on a Mars orbiting satellite has been proposed for the Space Exploration Initiative. This antenna would be used for a variety of purposes; besides communicating with fixed bases, the antenna would simultaneously need to communicate with mobile ground terminals mounted on vehicles or robots. Six basic antenna designs are presented, with additional variations

M. L. Zimmerman; S. W. Lee; B. Houshmand; H. Ling

1992-01-01

146

Sustainable and autonomic space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts

Roy Sterritt; Mike Hinchey; Christopher Rouff; James Rash; Walt Truszkowski

2006-01-01

147

Design space exploration of streaming multiprocessor architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comparison of two design-space exploration approaches. The comparison is in terms of (1) speed of simulation versus accuracy of performance numbers, and (2) connection to trajectories for detailed design. The two approaches are: the trace driven approach and the control data flow graph approach. The first approach leads to the shortest simulation time, but

V. D. Zivkovic; Ed Deprettere; P. van der Wolf; E. de Kock

2002-01-01

148

Power efficient mediaprocessors: design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for rapidly exploring the design space of low power application-specific programmable processors (ASPP), in particular mediaprocessors. We focus on a category of proces- sors that are programmable yet optimized to reduce power con- sumption for a specific set of applications. The key components of the framework presented in this paper are a retargetable instruction level parallelism

Johnson Kin; Chunho Lee; William H. Mangione-Smith; Miodrag Potkonjak

1999-01-01

149

Baseline antenna design for space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key element of the future NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission is the lunar and Mars telecommunication system. This system will provide voice, image, and data transmission to monitor unmanned missions to conduct experiments, and to provide radiometric data for navigation. In the later half of 1991, a study was conducted on antennas for the Mars Exploration Communication. Six antenna configurations were examined: three reflector and three phased array. The conclusion was that due to wide-angle scan requirement, and multiple simultaneous tracking beams, phased arrays are more suitable. For most part, this report studies phased array antenna designs for two different applications for Space Exploration Initiative. It also studies one design for a tri-reflector type antenna. These antennas will be based on a Mars orbiting satellite.

Chen, Y. L.; Nasir, M. A.; Lee, S. W.; Zaman, Afroz

1993-01-01

150

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a box from -300 to 300 pc above the Galactic thin disk, as a function of Galactic radius. I then model the Galaxy to consist of $\\sim{}260,000$ of these 40,000 stellar systems all located in a defined Galactic Habitable Zone and show how long time it takes to explore this zone. The result is that with 8 probes, each with 8 subprobes $\\sim{}4%$ of the Galaxy can be explored in $2.92\\cdot{}10^{8}$ years. Increasing the number of probes to 200, still with 8 subprobes each, reduces the exploration time to $1.52\\cdot{}10^{7}$ years.

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-04-23

151

Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

Pickering, Karen D.

2014-01-01

152

What do nations want from international collaboration for space exploration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2006 to 2007 14 space agencies developed a Global Exploration Strategy outlining the rationales, goals, and timelines for space exploration. As more nations gain support for exploration programs and begin executing missions, the informal meetings of the Global Exploration Strategy partners should be formalized through the establishment of a new international collaboration mechanism for space exploration. This paper outlines

Audrey M. Schaffer

2008-01-01

153

ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014  

E-print Network

ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014 Imaging the Birthplaces of Stars and Space Exploration #12;ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014 SESE Terahertz Group · Murdock Hart, BS 2011 #12;ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration September 10, 2014 #12;ASU School

Rhoads, James

154

Space exploration and colonization - Towards a space faring society  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development trends of space exploration and colonization since 1957 are reviewed, and a five-phase evolutionary program planned for the long-term future is described. The International Geosphere-Biosphere program which is intended to provide the database on enviromental changes of the earth as a global system is considered. Evolution encompasses the anticipated advantages of such NASA observation projects as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility, and the Cosmic Background Explorer. Attention is given to requirements for space colonization, including development of artificial gravity and countermeasures to mitigate zero gravity problems; robotics and systems aimed to minimize human exposure to the space environment; the use of nuclear propulsion; and international collaboration on lunar-Mars projects. It is recommended that nuclear energy sources be developed for both propulsion and as extraterrestrial power plants.

Hammond, Walter E.

1990-01-01

155

The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the "Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember." This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this risk. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to define the set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur during exploration space flight missions. The list was derived from the International Space Station Medical Checklist, the Shuttle Medical Checklist, in-flight occurrence data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, and NASA subject matter experts. The list of conditions was further prioritized for eight specific design reference missions with the assistance of the ExMC Advisory Group. The purpose of the SMEMCL is to serve as an evidence-based foundation for the conditions that could affect a crewmember during flight. This information is used to ensure that the appropriate medical capabilities are available for exploration missions.

Watkins, Sharmi; Barr, Yael; Kerstman, Eric

2011-01-01

156

Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

Crawford, Ian A.

2010-08-01

157

Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.  

PubMed

An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

Crawford, Ian A

2010-01-01

158

TESSX: A Mission for Space Exploration with Tethers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tethers offer significant potential for substantially increasing payload mass fraction, increasing spacecraft lifetime, enhancing long-term space travel, and enabling the understanding and development of gravity-dependent technologies required for Moon and Mars exploration. The development of the Tether Electrodynamic Spin-up and Survivability Experiment (TESSX) will support applications relevant to NASA's new exploration initiative, including: artificial gravity generation, formation flying, electrodynamic propulsion, momentum exchange, and multi-amp current collection and emission. Under the broad term TESSX, we are currently evaluating several different tether system configurations and operational modes. The initial results of this work are presented, including hardware development, orbital dynamics simulations, and electrodynamics design and analysis.

Cosmo, Mario L.; Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gramer, Daniel J.; Hoffman, John H.; Mazzoleni, Andre P.

2005-01-01

159

Implementing the Vision 2nd Space Exploration Conference  

E-print Network

Implementing the Vision 2nd Space Exploration Conference Implementing the Vision 2nd Space Aeronautics and Space Administration December 4, 2006 #12;2 A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized · Promote international and commercial participation in exploration · Complete the International Space

Rathbun, Julie A.

160

Space exploration and the origin of life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important aspect of space exploration is connected with investigations regarding the existence of life on other celestial bodies. The most important objects to be studied for this purpose include the planets, the satellites of planets, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The exploration of Mars, in particular, beginning with the telescope, fly-by and orbiting spacecraft, followed by landed laboratories, and perhaps culminating eventually in manned expeditions, may well provide a significant portion of the data we seek about the origin of life and introduce a new era of understanding of man's place in the universe.

Young, R. S.

1972-01-01

161

Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

162

Ion mobility spectrometry in space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has proven to be an effective tool for chemical detection and identification. Ion mobility spectrometers can be manufactured in small, rugged and portable designs and have been used in several mission critical circumstances from security screening and military preparedness. Perhaps most visible are the IMS analyzers that have been deployed in airports around the world to detect traces of explosives on passenger carry-on luggage. Intrinsic properties of ion mobility spectrometers make these analyzers suitable for both manned and robotic space exploration. In this review, we will discuss the utility, previous use and future use of ion mobility spectrometers in space environments.

Johnson, Paul V.; Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Eiceman, Gary A.; Kanik, Isik

2007-04-01

163

Exotic propulsion systems - A space exploration imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment is given to the need for and use of unusual propulsion systems in the forthcoming development of space vehicles. The requirements of lunar and Martian outposts are set forth, and the expected delta velocities, vehicle masses, and specific energy levels are listed. Exotic propulsion systems are considered that can provide the specific impulse levels needed for the scenarios discussed. Discussed are antimatter propulsion, teleportation, and antigravity machines, and the theoretical and practical implications of their development and use are mentioned. The use of antiprotons in medical treatment and materials processing is explained and extended to the propulsion application. The paper demonstrates the potential of exotic propulsion systems to contribute to space exploration.

Haloulakos, V. E.

1992-07-01

164

Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

2008-01-01

165

Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

Manohara, Harish

2007-01-01

166

Active Exploration of the Space Enviornment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will outline a set of activities developed to illustrate basic space physics concepts. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models in understanding and predicting the space environment. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the afternoon labs students work in groups of four to answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. The labs explore all of the domains involved in space weather: solar corona, solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere. Formative assessment using student evaluations and pre/post tests provided important feedback to gauge how well the labs met the goals of the summer school. Recently, these lab materials have been made available for dissemination. This presentation will outline the goals of the labs, the tools used during the labs, and how to use them in different settings.

Gross, N. A.

2011-12-01

167

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

168

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Big Picture on Exploration  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Big Picture on Exploration Planning: Human Exploration and Operations 3 #12;Human Space Exploration Architecture Planning · Human spaceflight: International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Created · 2009: Review of U.S. HSF Plans Committee

Waliser, Duane E.

169

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative  

E-print Network

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar Exploration Initiative Briefing Topic: Crater Slopes & Roughness David A. Kring #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative ejecta) · Lunokhod Lessons · LExSWG (1995) Conclusions #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration

Rathbun, Julie A.

170

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative  

E-print Network

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar Exploration Initiative Briefing Topic. (1977) and the Lunar Sourcebook. Updated 3 April 2006 #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration 2006 #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Solar Cosmic Rays · Most events have

Rathbun, Julie A.

171

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative  

E-print Network

Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar Exploration Initiative Briefing Topic: Lunar Mobility Review David A. Kring #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar Robotic Vehicles · Robotic Rovers

Rathbun, Julie A.

172

PUBLISHED ON THE OCCASION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

PUBLISHED ON THE OCCASION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION CONFERENCE BERLIN, GERMANY, 8 - 9 NOVEMBER 2007. e European Objectives and Interests in Space Exploration #12;3 Executive Summary way, and as a test bed for future exploration technologies. Until now, space exploration has largely been funded

173

National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration!  

E-print Network

1! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! www.nasa.gov/exploration! National Aeronautics and Space Administration! Exploration Precursor Robotic Program (xPRP) and Exploration Scout (xScout): Two · President's Budget challenges NASA to embark on a new human space exploration program that invests near

Waliser, Duane E.

174

SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND  

E-print Network

- REPORT ON SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NEXT and Supporting Research National Space Weather Program Council Joint Action Group for Space Environmental Gap of the President #12;ii NATIONAL SPACE WEATHER PROGRAM COUNCIL (NSWPC) MR. SAMUEL P. WILLIAMSON, Chairman Federal

Schrijver, Karel

175

Human space exploration - From surviving to performing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

Clment, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

2014-07-01

176

Space exploration of the Jovian atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews our current knowledge of Jupiter's atmosphere, concentrating on the meteorological features of the dynamic atmosphere, and discusses future space missions to Jupiter and the outer planets. The major atmospheric constituents are discussed, and the variety of colors displayed by the outer solar system is pointed out as suggesting the existence of complex hydrocarbons and possible exobiological processes.

G. E. Hunt

1977-01-01

177

A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Chapter 11 A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method The paper A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method pre- sented in this chapter has been published as a conference-Line State Space Exploration Method #3; Lars M. Kristensen #3;y Thomas Mailund y Abstract State space

Mailund, Thomas

178

INVESTMENTS IN OUR FUTURE: EXPLORING SPACE THROUGH INNOVATIONAND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

INVESTMENTS IN OUR FUTURE: EXPLORING SPACE THROUGH INNOVATIONAND TECHNOLOGY Dr. BobbyBraun NASA is the Equivalent of Our Generation's "Space Race"? #12;3 My View of Our Space Exploration Future 9 Game This Big? #12;7 12 Space Stations Human Mars Exploration Low Earth Orbit Departure Mass Requirement 37

179

Space Physics at UNH FROM THE DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION, UNH space scientists, engineers, and  

E-print Network

Space Physics at UNH FROM THE DAWN OF SPACE EXPLORATION, UNH space scientists, engineers, and students in the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) have worked on mission design and modeling. The Space Science Center, housed at EOS, is engaged in research and graduate education in all

Pringle, James "Jamie"

180

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

181

Space Launch System for Exploration and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a low-risk, direct return of Martian material. For the Europa Clipper mission the SLS eliminates Venus and Earth flybys, providing a direct launch to the Jovian system, arriving four years earlier than missions utilizing existing launch vehicles. This architecture allows increased mass for radiation shielding, expansion of the science payload and provides a model for other outer planet missions. SLS provides a direct launch to the Uranus system, reducing travel time by two years when compared to existing launch capabilities. SLS can launch the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST 16 m) to SEL2, providing researchers 10 times the resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope and up to 300 times the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope. SLS is the only vehicle capable of deploying telescopes of this mass and size in a single launch. It simplifies mission design and reduces risks by eliminating the need for multiple launches and in-space assembly. SLS greatly shortens interstellar travel time, delivering the Interstellar Explorer to 200 AU in about 15 years with a maximum speed of 63 km/sec--13.3 AU per year (Neptune orbits the sun at an approximate distance of 30 AU ).

Klaus, K.

2013-12-01

182

The application of spread-spectrum system in the area of remote space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the great success of satellite application and aerospace engineering,China has formally startedup moon exploration project,in the future China will execute exploration of more remote object.In this paper, combining the development step of Chinese deep space exploration, the author introduces the current situation of deep exploration techniques home and abroad, meanwhile the author briefly compares the advantage and disadvantage of spread-spectrum deep exploration system and USB deep exploration system, and the author also briefly describes the important status of intending spread-spectrum deep exploration system in the area of deep space exploration. According to the characteristic of deep space exploration, this paper analyzes the problem and key techniques such as spread-spectrum measurement system of remote space orbit, reception of the weak signal and high efficient coding and decoding, super large aperture antenna and antenna array combination technique, high power control amplifier technique, insulating of transmitting and receiving signals applied in deep space exploration,at the same time,the author proposes evolution suggestion of spread-spectrum exploration technique applied in deep space exploration. Meanwhile,through combining the current situation of spread-spectrum exploration system home and abroad,the author analyzes a few key techniques of spread-spectrum exploration system applied in deep space exploration.

Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Xiaonan

2009-12-01

183

Conference on Advanced Space Exploration Initiative Technologies  

SciTech Connect

In striving to reduce exploration cost and exploration risks, a crucial aspect of the plans is program continuity, i.e., the continuing application of a given technology over a long period so that experience will accumulate from extended testing here on Earth and from a diversity of applications in space. An integrated view needs to be formed of the missions SEI will carry out, near term as well as far, and of the ways in which these missions can mutually support one another. Near term programs should be so constituted as to provide for the long term missions both the enabling technologies and the accumulation of experience they need. In achieving this, missions in Earth orbit should both evolve and show the technologies crucial to long term missions on the lunar surface, and the program for the lunar labs should evolve and show the enabling technologies for exploration of the surface of Mars and for flights of human beings to Mars and return. In the near term, the program for the Space Station should be directed and funded to develop and demonstrate the solar Brayton power plant that will be most useful as the power generator for the SP-100 nuclear reactor.

English, R.E.

1991-01-01

184

Exploring the relationship between semantics and space.  

PubMed

The asymmetric distribution of human spatial attention has been repeatedly documented in both patients and healthy controls. Biases in the distribution of attention and/or in the mental representation of space may also affect some aspects of language processing. We investigated whether biases in attention and/or mental representation of space affect semantic representations. In particular, we investigated whether semantic judgments could be modulated by the location in space where the semantic information was presented and the role of the left and right parietal cortices in this task. Healthy subjects were presented with three pictures arranged horizontally (one middle and two outer pictures) of items belonging to the same semantic category. Subjects were asked to indicate the spatial position in which the semantic distance between the outer and middle pictures was smaller. Subjects systematically overestimated the semantic distance of items presented in the right side of space. We explored the neural correlates underpinning this bias using rTMS over the left and right parietal cortex. rTMS of the left parietal cortex selectively reduced this rightward bias. Our findings suggest the existence of an attentional and/or mental representational bias in semantic judgments, similar to that observed for the processing of space and numbers. Spatial manipulation of semantic material results in the activation of specialised attentional resources located in the left hemisphere. PMID:19396359

Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Bonn, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo; Smirni, Daniela; Cipolotti, Lisa

2009-01-01

185

Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

Holt, Alan C.

2004-01-01

186

Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) Bachelor of Science (B.S.)  

E-print Network

Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) ­ Bachelor of Science (B Engineering for Space Missions 3 Grade of C CLAS Upper Division Science and Society 3 Grade of C Upper & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) ­ Bachelor of Science (B.S.) College of Liberal Arts

Rhoads, James

187

Exploring the Possibilities: Earth and Space Science Missions in the Context of Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to Dr. Edward J. Weiler, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "Exploration without science is tourism". At the American Astronautical Society's 43rd Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium it was quite apparent to all that NASA's current Exploration Initiative is tightly coupled to multiple scientific initiatives: exploration will enable new science and science will enable exploration. NASA's Science Mission Directorate plans to develop priority science missions that deliver science that is vital, compelling and urgent. This paper will discuss the theme of the Goddard Memorial Symposium that science plays a key role in exploration. It will summarize the key scientific questions and some of the space and Earth science missions proposed to answer them, including the Mars and Lunar Exploration Programs, the Beyond Einstein and Navigator Programs, and the Earth-Sun System missions. It will also discuss some of the key technologies that will enable these missions, including the latest in instruments and sensors, large space optical system technologies and optical communications, and briefly discuss developments and achievements since the Symposium. Throughout history, humans have made the biggest scientific discoveries by visiting unknown territories; by going to the Moon and other planets and by seeking out habitable words, NASA is continuing humanity's quest for scientific knowledge.

Pfarr, Barbara; Calabrese, Michael; Kirkpatrick, James; Malay, Jonathan T.

2006-01-01

188

Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.

2002-01-01

189

Generic strategies for chemical space exploration.  

PubMed

The chemical universe of molecules reachable from a set of start compounds by iterative application of a finite number of reactions is usually so vast, that sophisticated and efficient exploration strategies are required to cope with the combinatorial complexity. A stringent analysis of (bio)chemical reaction networks, as approximations of these complex chemical spaces, forms the foundation for the understanding of functional relations in Chemistry and Biology. Graphs and graph rewriting are natural models for molecules and reactions. Borrowing the idea of partial evaluation from functional programming, we introduce partial applications of rewrite rules. A framework for the specification of exploration strategies in graph-rewriting systems is presented. Using key examples of complex reaction networks from carbohydrate chemistry we demonstrate the feasibility of this high-level strategy framework. While being designed for chemical applications, the framework can also be used to emulate higher-level transformation models such as illustrated in a small puzzle game. PMID:24878732

Andersen, Jakob L; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel; Stadler, Peter F

2014-01-01

190

Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration architecture.

Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

2012-01-01

191

Toxicological Risks During Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of toxicological risk assessment of human space flight is to identify and quantify significant risks to astronaut health from air pollution inside the vehicle or habitat, and to develop a strategy for control of those risks. The approach to completing a toxicological risk assessment involves data and experience on the frequency and severity of toxicological incidents that have occurred during space flight. Control of these incidents depends on being able to understand their cause from in-flight and ground-based analysis of air samples, crew reports of air quality, and known failures in containment of toxic chemicals. Toxicological risk assessment in exploration missions must be based on an evaluation of the unique toxic hazards presented by the habitat location. For example, lunar and Martian dust must be toxicologically evaluated to determine the appropriate control measures for exploration missions. Experience with near-earth flights has shown that the toxic products from fires present the highest risk to crew health from air pollution. Systems and payload leaks also present a significant hazard. The health risk from toxicity associated with materials offgassing or accumulation of human metabolites is generally well controlled. Early tests of lunar and Martian dust simulants have shown that each posses the potential to cause fibrosis in the lung in a murine model. Toxicological risks from air pollutants in space habitats originate from many sources. A number of risks have been identified through near-earth operations; however, the evaluation of additional new risks present during exploration missions will be a challenge.

James, John T.; Limero, T. F.; Lam, C. W.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

192

Envisioning cognitive robots for future space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

2010-04-01

193

Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

2010-01-01

194

Reactor safety for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

A task force was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a 90-day study to support efforts to determine requirements to meet the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative. The task force identified the need for a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power required as the outpost power demands on the Moon and Mars evolve into hundreds of kilowatts. A preliminary hazards analysis has been performed to examine safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems for representative missions to the Moon and Mars. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and martian flights. Potential alternatives to each mission phase were also defined. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for the mission phases. The safety issues decay heat removal, reactor control, disposal, criticality, end-of-mission shutdown, radiation exposure, the martian environment, high speed impact on the surfaces of the Moon or Mars, and return flyby trajectories were identified.

Dix, T.E. (Rockwell International/Rocketdyne Division, 6633 Canoga Avenue, MS HB07, Canoga Park, California 91303 (US))

1991-01-01

195

Exploring Space: The Quest for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The search through the cosmos for intelligent life, or any life for that matter, continues to fascinate everyone from dedicated scientists working for NASA to such personages as Shirley MacLaine. Broad in its scope, and innovative in its use of computer-animated deep-space imagery, this program from PBS explores the various mysteries about the origins of life that may lie in outer space. This site provides a host of online essays and interactive features that are meant as complements to the television program. The sections here include ??The Mars Prospect?, ??The Search for Aliens?, and ??Meteorites & Life?. Within each section, there are a number of quizzes and fun activities, such as one that lets visitors attempt to fly to Mars. The site is rounded out by a number of insightful essays, including those that deal with the themes of the rights of alien life forms and other such speculative topics.

2005-01-01

196

Exploring Theory Space with Monte Carlo Reweighting  

E-print Network

Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. In particular, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.

James S. Gainer; Joseph Lykken; Konstantin T. Matchev; Stephen Mrenna; Myeonghun Park

2014-12-25

197

Interactive Exploration of Neuroanatomical Meta-Spaces  

PubMed Central

Large-archives of neuroimaging data present many opportunities for re-analysis and mining that can lead to new findings of use in basic research or in the characterization of clinical syndromes. However, interaction with such archives tends to be driven textually, based on subject or image volume meta-data, not the actual neuroanatomical morphology itself, for which the imaging was performed to measure. What is needed is a content-driven approach for examining not only the image content itself but to explore brains that are anatomically similar, and identifying patterns embedded within entire sets of neuroimaging data. With the aim of visual navigation of large- scale neurodatabases, we introduce the concept of brain meta-spaces. The meta-space encodes pair-wise dissimilarities between all individuals in a population and shows the relationships between brains as a navigable framework for exploration. We employ multidimensional scaling (MDS) to implement meta-space processing for a new coordinate system that distributes all data points (brain surfaces) in a common frame-of-reference, with anatomically similar brain data located near each other. To navigate within this derived meta-space, we have developed a fully interactive 3D visualization environment that allows users to examine hundreds of brains simultaneously, visualize clusters of brains with similar characteristics, zoom in on particular instances, and examine the surface topology of an individual brain's surface in detail. The visualization environment not only displays the dissimilarities between brains, but also renders complete surface representations of individual brain structures, allowing an instant 3D view of the anatomies, as well as their differences. The data processing is implemented in a grid-based setting using the LONI Pipeline workflow environment. Additionally users can specify a range of baseline brain atlas spaces as the underlying scale for comparative analyses. The novelty in our approach lies in the user ability to simultaneously view and interact with many brains at once but doing so in a vast meta-space that encodes (dis) similarity in morphometry. We believe that the concept of brain meta-spaces has important implications for the future of how users interact with large-scale archives of primary neuroimaging data. PMID:19915734

Joshi, Shantanu H.; Horn, John Darrell Van; Toga, Arthur W.

2009-01-01

198

Exploring de Sitter Space and Holography  

E-print Network

We explore aspects of the physics of de Sitter (dS) space that are relevant to holography with a positive cosmological constant. First we display a nonlocal map that commutes with the de Sitter isometries, transforms the bulk-boundary propagator and solutions of free wave equations in de Sitter onto the same quantities in Euclidean anti-de Sitter (EAdS), and takes the two boundaries of dS to the single EAdS boundary via an antipodal identification. Second we compute the action of scalar fields on dS as a functional of boundary data. Third, we display a family of solutions to 3d gravity with a positive cosmological constant in which the equal time sections are arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces, and compute the action of these spaces as a functional of boundary data from the Einstein gravity and Chern-Simons gravity points of view. These studies suggest that if de Sitter space is dual to a Euclidean conformal field theory (CFT), this theory should involve two disjoint, but possibly entangled factors. We argue that these CFTs would be of a novel form, with unusual hermiticity conditions relating left movers and right movers. After exploring these conditions in a toy model, we combine our observations to propose that a holographic dual description of de Sitter space would involve a pure entangled state in a product of two of our unconventional CFTs associated with the de Sitter boundaries. This state can be constructed to preserve the de Sitter symmetries and and its decomposition in a basis appropriate to antipodal inertial observers would lead to the thermal properties of static patch.

Vijay Balasubramanian; Jan de Boer; Djordje Minic

2002-09-11

199

MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM PLATFORMS  

E-print Network

MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM PLATFORMS Jan Madsen, Thomas K. Stidsen framework. Section 6 present the design space exploration case study of a smart phone. Finally, we present

200

Design space exploration for multiprocessor-based embedded systems  

E-print Network

Design space exploration is the process of obtaining the optimal design out of all possible design alternatives. The design-space becomes very large when the target architecture consists of heterogeneous components, and it is not possible to explore...

Mohanty, Debashis

2001-01-01

201

Matrix Methods for Optimal Manifesting of Multinode Space Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

This paper presents matrix-based methods for determining optimal cargo manifests for space exploration. An exploration system is defined as a sequence of in-space and on-surface transports between multiple nodes coupled ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas

202

Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

Liu, Scan X.

2005-01-01

203

The Chameleon Suit--a liberated future for space explorers.  

PubMed

Mankind's spacefaring future demands the ability to work freely and frequently in space. Traditional spacesuit systems burden both the spacefarer and the mission, limiting the extent to which this is possible. The spacefarer is burdened by a pressure suit designed for isolation from the environment and a life support system designed to replace everything our environment normally provides. The space mission is burdened by this equipment and the expendable materials to operate and maintain it. We aren't free to work in space as frequently, as long, or in all of the locations envisioned. The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) has sponsored research on an alternative concept, the "Chameleon Suit", that seeks to liberate future explorers and missions from these limitations. The Chameleon Suit system works with the environment in an adaptive fashion to minimize hardware and expendable materials. To achieve this, functions of the life support system are integrated with the pressure suit using emerging materials and design technology. Technologies under study include shape change polymers and electroemissive materials to modify heat transfer characteristics of the spacesuit "skin" achieving thermoregulation analogous to that in natural biological systems. This approach was shown to be feasible for many space missions during the Phase 1 study program. The current Phase 2 program is investigating more aggressive concepts aimed at eliminating most of the hardware currently included in the spacesuit's life support backpack. This paper describes the concept, study results to date, and possible impacts on future human space exploration. PMID:12959138

Hodgson, Edward

2003-06-01

204

SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION GRADUATE PROGRAM GUIDEBOOK  

E-print Network

1 SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION GRADUATE PROGRAM GUIDEBOOK ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Last by the faculty of the School of Earth and Space Exploration for students enrolled in programs leading to the M select a faculty member of the School of Earth and Space Exploration who agrees to serve

Rhoads, James

205

A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method  

E-print Network

A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method EXTENDED VERSION Last modi#12;ed: April. State space exploration is a main approach to veri#12;cation of #12;nite-state systems. The sweep state space exploration, and thereby alleviate the state explosion prob- lem. We show

Mailund, Thomas

206

Chip Multiprocessor Design Space Exploration through Statistical Simulation  

E-print Network

Chip Multiprocessor Design Space Exploration through Statistical Simulation Davy Genbrugge is a challenging problem. Solving this problem is especially valuable for design space exploration purposes during space exploration. The idea of statistical simulation is to measure a number of program execution

Eeckhout, Lieven

207

Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets The paper Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets pre- sented in this chapter has been published as a workshop changes. 89 #12; 90 Chapter 9. Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets #12; 9

Mailund, Thomas

208

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems  

E-print Network

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems A.D. Pimentel, S are developing a modeling and simulation environment which aims at efficient design space exploration simulation practice for the design space exploration of heterogeneous embedded systems architectures

Pimentel, Andy D.

209

A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration The paper A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration presented in this chapter has been published as a conference paper at TACAS 2001. [21] S. Christensen, L.M. Kristensen, and T. Mailund, A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration

Mailund, Thomas

210

DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION WITH AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF IP-BASED  

E-print Network

DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION WITH AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF IP-BASED EMBEDDED SOFTWARE Júlio C. B. de library and a design space exploration tool. The software IP library has different algorithmic of a software library and a design space exploration tool to allow an automatic software IP selection

Wagner, Flávio Rech

211

NASA/CP--2006214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop  

E-print Network

NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Hanover, MD 21076-1320 #12;NASA/CP--2006­214202 NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings January 17-18, 2006 Washington, DC The first Space Exploration Logistics Workshop, hosted by MIT and SOLE

de Weck, Olivier L.

212

Model Driven Engineering for MPSoC Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Model Driven Engineering for MPSoC Design Space Exploration Marcio F. da S. Oliveira, Eduardo W This paper presents a Model Driven Engineering approach for MPSoC Design Space Exploration (DSE) to deal-Aided Design (CAD) General Terms Design, Measurement, Performance Keywords Design space exploration, multi

Wagner, Flávio Rech

213

Modular design space exploration framework for embedded systems  

E-print Network

Modular design space exploration framework for embedded systems S. Ku¨ nzli, L. Thiele and E. Zitzler Abstract: Design space exploration is introduced as one of the major tasks in embedded system is to review existing approaches to design space exploration of embedded systems and to describe a generic

Zitzler, Eckart

214

EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING  

E-print Network

EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING UML-BASED TOOLS FLÁVIO R. WAGNER, carro}@inf.ufrgs.br Abstract: This tutorial discusses design space exploration and software automation and allow design space exploration together with software automation. Key words: Embedded Software, Design

Wagner, Flávio Rech

215

A New Paradigm for Space Exploration John H. Marburger, III  

E-print Network

A New Paradigm for Space Exploration John H. Marburger, III Science Advisor to the President was possible. Today we know much more about the difficulties of space exploration by humans or machines through a plan for space exploration that is at once visionary and pragmatic. Described by the President

Colorado at Boulder, University of

216

A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method ?  

E-print Network

A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method ? Lars Michael Kristensen 1: flmkristensen,mailundg@daimi.au.dk Abstract. State space exploration is a main approach to veri#12;cation of #12 to reduce peak memory usage during state space exploration. We present a new sweep-line algorithm

Mailund, Thomas

217

Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets ?  

E-print Network

Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets ? Guy Edward Gallasch 1 , Lars Michael- sign/CPN, Veri#12;cation and validation. 1 Introduction State space exploration and analysis mem- ory becomes scarce without compromising the termination of the state space exploration. The sweep

Mailund, Thomas

218

Space Exploration: A Measure of American Competitiveness Michael D. Griffin  

E-print Network

1 Space Exploration: A Measure of American Competitiveness Michael D. Griffin Administrator, and to be a leader on the frontier of space exploration and aeronautics research, NASA will need the best ideas, hard between American competitiveness, innovation, and space exploration. This month, we marked the dawn

219

Shape Space Exploration of Constrained Meshes Yong-Liang Yang  

E-print Network

Shape Space Exploration of Constrained Meshes Yong-Liang Yang KAUST Yi-Jun Yang KAUST Helmut shape space exploration Figure 1: Starting from a single input mesh along with a set of non order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration

Mitra, Niloy J.

220

The Case for Managed International Cooperation in Space Exploration  

E-print Network

The Case for Managed International Cooperation in Space Exploration By D. A. Broniatowski, G. Ryan Faith, and Vincent G. Sabathier Introduction International cooperation in space exploration has will accrue to those partners who choose to approach space exploration as a mutually beneficial endeavor

de Weck, Olivier L.

221

Systems Verification using Randomized Exploration of Large State Spaces  

E-print Network

Systems Verification using Randomized Exploration of Large State Spaces Nazha Abed, Stavros, but considerable, state space exploration with little memory and time requirements. 1 Introduction To verify system the amount of memory necessary for states storage or reducing the state space to explore. Examples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

HIGHER-ORDER MODELING AND AUTOMATED DESIGN-SPACE EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

HIGHER-ORDER MODELING AND AUTOMATED DESIGN-SPACE EXPLORATION J¨orn W. Janneck EECS Department in the same set of languages used to model the original sys- tem. Hence the set of design space exploration for an investigation into different solutions--an exploration of the design space. In many real-world systems

Esser, Robert

223

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems NASA Advisory Council capabilities to enable human and robotic exploration: Deep Space Habitation Capability: Enable the crew the crew to conduct "hands-on" surface exploration and in-space operations outside habitats and vehicles

Waliser, Duane E.

224

Exploring Very Large State Spaces Using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Exploring Very Large State Spaces Using Genetic Algorithms Patrice Godefroid1 and Sarfraz Khurshid2 this frame- work in conjunction with VeriSoft, a tool for exploring the state spaces of software applications, thereby mak- ing exhaustive state-space exploration intractable. Several approaches have been proposed

Khurshid, Sarfraz

225

CAMPUS MAP AND DIRECTIONS TO EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION DAY  

E-print Network

CAMPUS MAP AND DIRECTIONS TO EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION DAY SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 2010 AT THE SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY BATEMAN PHYSICAL SCIENCE F-WING FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT THE SCHOOL OF EARTH AND SPACE EXPLORATION AT (480) 965-5081 Public parking is free in any

Rhoads, James

226

A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration  

E-print Network

A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration Zachary James Bailey, David W. Miller June 2010 SSL # 11-10 #12;#12;A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration Zachary James Bailey, David W of Technology. #12;2 #12;A Trade Space Model for Robotic Lunar Exploration by Zachary James Bailey Submitted

227

By 2020, Droids Could Explore Space For Us | Universe Today  

E-print Network

By 2020, Droids Could Explore Space For Us | Universe Today Subscribe Podcast Home Additional Explore Space For Us Written by Ian O'Neill If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! By 2020, Droids Could Explore Space For Us | Universe Today http

Arizona, University of

228

The Great Exploratory Tragedy of Our Time: Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

The Great Exploratory Tragedy of Our Time: Human Space Exploration Viraj Pandya April 17, 2012. In this talk, I will briefly review the history of space exploration and then share my thoughts on the path Space Exploration Problem," our species does not stand a ghost of a chance at becoming a spacefaring

Zeilberger, Doron

229

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

230

The Nexus of Space Science and Human Space Exploration (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NLSI Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR) consortium is pursuing research to advance the space sciences and to strengthen the bond between science and human exploration of the Moon. Our science is derived from the three recent NRC Decadal Surveys in astrophysics, heliophysics, and planetary science. Four research themes were developed that are uniquely facilitated by human exploration: Heliophysics and Space Radiation, Lunar Laser Ranging, Low Radio Frequency Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Exploration Science. In this talk, we describe some of the fundamental problems which our team is investigating including the acceleration of high energy particles in the heliosphere that are potentially harmful for humans and spacecraft beyond low Earth orbit, the nature of gravity beyond Einstein's Relativity and the cores of airless bodies using laser ranging, and the origins of the first stars and galaxies in the Universe using low frequency radio telescopes on the radio-quiet lunar farside. In addressing these issues, we are developing technologies that are likely to have a dual purpose, serving both exploration and science. Our team has proposed compelling science for a 'waypoint' mission involving human telerobotics at the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point. Astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle will operate lunar farside surface assets for the first time which also serves as an important proving ground for future exploration missions in deep space. The science objectives include returning rock samples from the ancient South Pole-Aitken basin and deployment of a low frequency radio telescope for cosmological observations of the early Universe's Cosmic Dawn. We will describe the first recently-completed simulation of a human waypoint mission where astronauts aboard the International Space Station interactively controlled a high fidelity planetary rover at an outdoor analog testbed at NASA/Ames to deploy a prototype radio antenna. LUNAR is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Burns, J. O.

2013-12-01

231

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Charting the Course for Sustainable Human Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Space Exploration #12;Table of Contents Executive Summary: Charting the Course 2 Why We Explore 4 How We Explore: A Capability-Driven Approach 6 The International Space Station: Cornerstone of Human Space Exploration 8 Destination: Cis-Lunar Space 10 Destination: Near-Earth Asteroid 12 Destination: Moon 14

Rathbun, Julie A.

232

Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future missions under consideration requiring human habitation beyond the International Space Station (ISS) include deep space habitats in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar missions, satellite servicing, and Mars vehicle servicing missions. Habitat designs are also under consideration for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including transfers to near-Earth asteroids and Mars orbital destinations. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS designs and those that could be fabricated from the Space Launch System (SLS) propellant tanks. This paper presents a comparison showing several options for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats using ISS derived and SLS derived modules and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that the larger SLS diameter modules offer built-in compatibility with the launch vehicle, single launch capability without on-orbit assembly, improved radiation protection, lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long duration missions without resupply. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume comparison data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning efforts.

Smitherman, David; Griffin, Brand N.

2014-01-01

233

Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

Dix, Terry E.

1991-01-01

234

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five goals of the Human Exploration and Development of Space include: 1) Explore the Space Frontier; 2) Expand Scientific Knowledge; 3) Enable Humans to Live and Work Permanently in Space; 4) Enable the Commercial Development of Space; and 5) Share the Experience and Benefits of Discovery.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2000-01-01

235

Exploration of the Design Space for the . . .  

E-print Network

The ABLV-GT is a conceptual design for an advanced reusable launch vehicle based on the current NASA Langley ABLV concept. It is a Vision Vehicle class, horizontal takeoff, horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. Main propulsion is provided by Aerojet's `Strutjet' LOX/LH2 rocket-based combined cycle engine design. The ABLV-GT is designed to deliver 25,000 lbs. to the orbit of the International Space Station from Kennedy Space Center. This paper will report the findings of a conceptual design study on the ABLV-GT performed over the last year by members of the Space Systems Design Lab at Georgia Tech. This work has been sponsored by the Advanced Reusable Transportation Technologies program office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Details of the concept design including external and internal configuration, mass properties, trajectory analysis, aerodynamics, and aeroheating are given. This vehicle study resulted in the closure of 18 different vehicle designs. The trade vari...

J. Bradford; J. Olds; R. Bechtel; T. Cormier; D. Messitt

2004-01-01

236

Service-Oriented Architecture for Space Exploration Robotic Rover Systems  

E-print Network

Currently, industrial sectors are transforming their business processes into e-services and component-based architectures to build flexible, robust, and scalable systems, and reduce integration-related maintenance and development costs. Robotics is yet another promising and fast-growing industry that deals with the creation of machines that operate in an autonomous fashion and serve for various applications including space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research, and manufacturing. It is in space exploration that the most common type of robots is the planetary rover which moves across the surface of a planet and conducts a thorough geological study of the celestial surface. This type of rover system is still ad-hoc in that it incorporates its software into its core hardware making the whole system cohesive, tightly-coupled, more susceptible to shortcomings, less flexible, hard to be scaled and maintained, and impossible to be adapted to other purposes. This paper proposes a service-oriented architecture fo...

Bassil, Youssef

2012-01-01

237

Contributions of the International Space Station towards future exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the idea of a large space station in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) was conceived in the 1980s, it was primarily planned as an orbiting laboratory for microgravity research. Some even thought of it as an industrial plant in space. Whereas the latter did not materialize because of various reasons, the former is absolutely true when you talk about the International Space Station (ISS). Since the transition to a six astronaut crew in 2009 and the completion of its assembly in 2011, it has been intensively used as laboratory in a wide field of scientific topics. Experiments conducted on ISS have yielded first class results in biology, physiology, material science, basic physics, and many more. While its role as a laboratory in space is widely recognized, the awareness for its potential for preparing future exploration missions beyond LEO is just increasing. This paper provides information on how the ISS programme contributes to future exploration efforts, both manned and unmanned. It highlights the work that has been done or is currently underway in the fields of technology, operations, and science. Further potentials and future projects for exploration preparation are also shown. A special focus lies on experiments and projects primarily funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) or with strong German participation in the science team.

Weppler, Johannes

2014-11-01

238

Coherent accumulation technology for space target exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the space target exploration with narrowband radar, targets with high-speed go through several range cells in the observation period which makes it more difficult to get each target's power coherently accumulated for target detection. In addition, for multi-target detection with different velocity, the range migration amount will not be equal. This is another problem for small target detection. In this study, novel multi-target detection with narrowband radar system is proposed. The Keystone transform firstly be used for correcting the range migration in a pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Then the fold factor of the strongest target can be estimated through Sparse Radon transform and compensates the corresponding phase term, following a quadratic phase term be compensated and at last the energy of the strongest target can be accumulated effectively by Fourier transform. The Clean technique is applied to the case of multi-target detection. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation results.

Su, Jun-hai

2011-08-01

239

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

240

Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

241

A SweepLine Method for State Space Exploration  

E-print Network

A Sweep­Line Method for State Space Exploration Søren Christ ensen 1 , Lars Michael Krist ensen 1.kristensen@unisa.edu.au Abstract. We present a state space exploration methodf or on­the­fly verification. The method is aimed space and time used during state space exploration. The method is not spe­ cific to Coloured Petri Nets

Mailund, Thomas

242

Liquid Acquisition Strategies for Exploration Missions: Current Status 2010  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing the propulsion system concepts for human exploration missions to the lunar surface. The propulsion concepts being investigated are considering the use of cryogenic propellants for the low gravity portion of the mission, that is, the lunar transit, lunar orbit insertion, lunar descent and the rendezvous in lunar orbit with a service module after ascent from the lunar surface. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks to the exploration vehicles main propulsion system (MPS) engines and reaction control system (RCS) engines. Propellant management devices (PMD s) such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD s), vanes and sponges currently are used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter OMS and RCS applications and spacecraft propulsion applications but only very limited propellant management capability exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA has begun a technology program to develop LAD cryogenic fluid management (CFM) technology through a government in-house ground test program of accurately measuring the bubble point delta-pressure for typical screen samples using LO2, LN2, LH2 and LCH4 as test fluids at various fluid temperatures and pressures. This presentation will document the CFM project s progress to date in concept designs, as well ground testing results.

Chato, David J.

2010-01-01

243

Biology-Inspired Explorers for Space Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building upon three innovative technologies, each of which received a NTR award from NASA, a specific explorer is described. This "robot" does away with conventional gears, levers, pulleys,.... And uses "Muscle Materials" instead; these shape-memory materials, formerly in the Nickel-Titanium family, but now in the much wider class of ElectroActivePolymers(EAP), have the ability to precisely respond to pre"programmed" shape changes upon application of an electrical input. Of course, the pre"programs" are at the molecular level, much like in biological systems. Another important feature is the distributed power. That is, the power use in the "limbs" is distributed, so that if one "limb" should fail, the others can still function. The robot has been built and demonstrated to the media (newspapers and television). The fundamental control aspects are currently being worked upon, and we expect to have a more complete mathematical description of its operation. Future plans, and specific applications for reliable planetary exploration will be outlined.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Lozano, Peter; Furfaro, Roberto

2002-01-01

244

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Program Status  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Program Status Doug Cooke Associate capabilities ­ A "flexible path" approach to space exploration opening up vast opportunities including near Administrator NASAs Exploration Systems Mission Directorate January 11, 2011 #12; A New Path: The NASA

Waliser, Duane E.

245

Space Lower Bounds for Graph Exploration via Reduced Automata  

E-print Network

Space Lower Bounds for Graph Exploration via Reduced Automata Pierre Fraigniaud1 , David Ilcinkas1 Heidelberg 2005 #12;Space Lower Bounds for Graph Exploration 141 in practice, due to e.g. privacy concerns the task of exploring graphs with anonymous nodes by a team of non-cooperative robots modeled as finite

Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7

246

Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

2010-01-01

247

In-Space Operations: Developing a Path to Affordable, Evolutionary Space Exploration  

E-print Network

In-Space Operations: Developing a Path to Affordable, Evolutionary Space Exploration David L. Akin options for future human spaceflight programs which meet the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Alabama AIAA 2010-2293 #12;I. Introduction With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration

Akin, David

248

Investigating public space exploration support in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public.

Marta Entradas; Steve Miller

2010-01-01

249

Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop  

PubMed Central

Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 810, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond science protection per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address harmful contamination beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protectionExtraterrestrial lifeLife in extreme environmentsEnvironmentHabitability. Astrobiology 12, 10171023. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

2012-01-01

250

Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.  

PubMed

With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. PMID:23095097

Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

2012-11-01

251

An Exploration Space Control As Intelligent Assistance In Enabling Systems  

E-print Network

In order to support learning-by-exploration involving the understanding of domain concepts/knowledge and the skills in domain related tasks, it is necessary to provide facilities which enable learners to explore domain with less restriction, and to consider intelligent assistance which adequately limits the learning space (called exploration space). Although there have existed already such intelligent assistant methods such as navigation, information tailoring, etc., these are not always sharable and reusable among designers and developers. This paper proposes a new concept of Exploration Space Control to generalize the educational tasks of supporting exploration. Following this concept, this paper also provides preliminary vocabulary for describing Exploration Space Control and a design rationale for implementing Exploration Space Control as an intelligent component. In addition, the paper describes the application of the design rationale in InterSim project, which project aims to facilitate learning structure and functionality of organs and to improve appropriate skills in diagnosing and treating the related diseases.

Akihiro Kashihara; Kinshuk; Reinhard Oppermann; Rossen Rashev; Helmut Simm

1997-01-01

252

The International Space Station: Stepping-stone to Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Space Shuttle returns to flight this year, major reconfiguration and assembly of the International Space Station continues as the United States and our 5 International Partners resume building and carry on operating this impressive Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush ratified the United States' commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. The current ongoing research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human physiology will greatly benefit human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. The continual operation of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of system and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Program, including a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; Kelly, Brian K.; Kelly, Brian K.

2005-01-01

253

The International Space Station: Stepping-stone to Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Space Shuttle returns to flight this year, major reconfiguration and assembly of the International Space Station continues as the United States and our 5 International Partners resume building and carry on operating this impressive Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14,2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. The current ongoing research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human physiology will greatly benefit human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. The continual operation of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of system and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Program, including a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

Gerstenmaier, William H.; Kitmacher, Gary H.; Kelly, Brian K.

2005-01-01

254

Solar Power Satellites for Space Exploration and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power generation is one of the crucial elements of space vehicles and of future infrastructures on planets and moons. The increased demand for power faces many constraints, in particular the sizing of the power generation system also driven by eclipse periods and the solar intensity at the operational spot. In the medium term, Earth orbiting platforms will require higher power levels. Interplanetary exploration vehicles face the problem of distance to the Sun, especially when large amount of power may be needed. Large infrastructures on Moon and planets, like Mars, are constrained by environment attenuation, long eclipse or distance to the Sun. New systems and technologies have to be found, which go beyond simple improvements of the current technologies. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) systems, based on wireless power transmission, are attractive candidate solutions to provide power to space vehicles or to elements on planet surface. Studies have been carried out for many years on the problem of providing renewable electrical energy from space to Earth with SPS. This paper reviews the main results of an ESA funded study, led by EADS Astrium with the support of the Universit of La Runion, which assessed the utilisation of SPS concepts for space-to-space and space-to-planet applications.

Cougnet, C.; Sein, E.; Celeste, A.; Summerer, L.

2004-12-01

255

Space Station accommodation of the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that Space Station Freedom (SSF) will support the transportation, research, and development requirements of the Space Exploration Initiative through augmentation of its resources and initial capabilities. These augmentations include providing facilities for lunar and Mars vehicle testing, processing, and servicing; providing laboratories and equipment for such enabling research as microgravity countermeasures development; and providing for the additional crew that will be required to carry out these duties. It is noted that the best way to facilitate these augmentations is to ensure 'design-for-growth' capabilities by incorporating necessary design features in the baseline program. The critical items to be accommodated in the baseline design include provisions for future increased power-generation capability, the ability to add nodes and modules, and the ability to expand the truss structure to accommodate new facilities. The SSF program must also address the effect on nonexploration users (e.g., NASA experimenters, commercial users, university investigators, and international partners of the U.S.) of SSF facilities.

Ahlf, Peter; Peach, Lewis; Maksimovic, Velimir

1990-01-01

256

Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

2007-01-01

257

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

ScienceCinema

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2010-01-08

258

Explorations in Space and Time: Computer-Generated Astronomy Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the computer animation technique to travel through space and time and watch models of astronomical systems in motion. Included is a list of eight computer-generated demonstration films entitled Explorations in Space and Time.'' (CC)

Meeks, M. L.

1973-01-01

259

Space Nuclear Program INL's role in energizing exploration  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory is helping make space exploration possible with the development of radioisotope power systems, which can work in areas too harsh and too isolated in space where the suns rays cannot be used for energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

2008-04-22

260

Plans and Considerations for the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Settlement Design Competition is a program for high school students and teachers to experience the process of mission and hardware design. It provides a top level view into how NASA plans to explore space. I will be involved with all three days of this competition. On Friday I plan to give two presentations, one to the employees of White Sands Test Facility and one to students and teachers. On Saturday, I will have a question and answer session with some of the teachers participating in the workshop. Sunday I will serve as one of the judges that will review the students projects created over the weekend. The main emphasis of my talk will focus on exploring the possibilities of the future of space exploration. I will discuss the Mars Reference Mission 3.0, as well as some of the current robotic missions being sent to Mars. Next, I will present a business model perfected by Hum Mandell, showing how the public, private, and commercial sectors all play a major role in sending humans to Mars. I will also discuss the work of the Integrated Design Team at JSC and how that working together approach is key for a successful design. Finally, I will present that the question of how humans can reach out beyond low earth orbit and place permanent settlements on Mars is really a function of the imagination of those who intend on going there.

Derkowski, Brian J.

2001-01-01

261

Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The knowledge obtained by space life sciences will play a pivotal role as humankind reaches out to explore the solar system. Information is needed concerning the existence of life beyond the Earth, the potential interactions between planets and living organisms, and the possibilities for humans to inhabit space safely and productively. Programs in the involved disciplines are an integral part of NASA's current and future missions. To realize their objectives, the development and operation of diverse ground and flight facilities and clost coordination with numerous scientific and governmental organizations in the U.S. and abroad are required. The status and goals of the life sciences programs are examined. Ways and means for attaining these goals are suggested.

1988-01-01

262

PISCES: A "Stepping Stone" to International Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) was initiated by the Japan/US Science, Technology and Space Application Programs (JUSTSAP) to advance research and education in space exploration technology and systems working closely with the State of Hawaii. Hawaii has a heritage with space exploration including the training of Apollo astronauts and testing of lunar rover systems in some of the most realistic terrestrial sites available. The high altitude dry environment with greater solar insolation, and the dry lunar regolith-like volcanic ash and cratered terrain make Hawaiian sites ideal to support, international space exploration technology development, demonstration, education and training. This paper will summarize development and roles of PISCES in lunar surface analogs, simulations, technology demonstrations, research and training for space exploration technology and systems.

Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.; Schowengerdt, Frank

2007-01-01

263

Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing  

DOEpatents

A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

Latham, Wayne Meredith (Forest, VA); Hancock, Jimmy Wade (Lynchburg, VA); Grut, Jayne Marie (Madison Heights, VA)

1998-01-01

264

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

265

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

266

Gravitational biology and space life sciences: current status and implications for the Indian space programme.  

PubMed

This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress through several generations in microgravity. Astrobiology is emerging as an exciting field promoting research in biospherics and fabrication of controlled environmental life support systems. India is one of the 14-nation International Space Exploration Coordination Group (2007) that hopes that someday humans may live and work on other planets within the Solar System. The vision statement of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) includes planetary exploration and human spaceflight. While a leader in several fields of space science, India is yet to initiate serious research in gravitational and life sciences. Suggestions are made here for establishing a full-fledged Indian space life sciences programme. PMID:22116289

Dayanandan, P

2011-12-01

267

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space  

E-print Network

, Travlou, P, Roe, J & Orme, A 2010, Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives. Natural England Thompson, C., Travlou, P., Roe, J., & Orme, A. (2010). Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives NECR025 Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives www.naturalengland.org.uk First published 20

Edinburgh, University of

268

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

269

Exploring tablet surrounding interaction spaces for medical Hanae Rateau  

E-print Network

Exploring tablet surrounding interaction spaces for medical imaging Hanae Rateau University Lille 1 at a slice. Given both their mobil- ity and their adequacy to support direct manipulation, tablets to understand subtle visual changes. To overcome this problem, we propose to explore the space around tablet

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

270

The Model Design Space Exploration / Optimization Comparisons/Conclusions  

E-print Network

Examining the process of Pre-Conceptual Design We want to explore the state space, not just find optimum Want (near) real time results Want to create a simple model that is easy to modify ? 80 % fidelity is okay Context: subsonic unmanned reconnaissance Discrete effects? The Model Design Space Exploration / Optimization Comparisons/Conclusions

Mentor John Hoffman; Lockheed Martin; Tactical Systems; Jeff Haack; Moonchang Kim; Darin Mohr; Helmi Temimi; Weight Model

2007-01-01

271

Constraints-driven design space exploration for distributed embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for design space exploration for distributed embedded systems. The method is based on constraint logic programming (CLP) and make it possible to model distributed embedded systems and design requirements using finite domain constraints. Design space exploration tools can then use this model to find different solutions satisfying constraints. An advantage of this method is

Krzysztof Kuchcinski

2001-01-01

272

Space exploration: The interstellar goal and Titan demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated interstellar space exploration is reviewed. The Titan demonstration mission is discussed. Remote sensing and automated modeling are considered. Nuclear electric propulsion, main orbiting spacecraft, lander/rover, subsatellites, atmospheric probes, powered air vehicles, and a surface science network comprise mission component concepts. Machine, intelligence in space exploration is discussed.

1982-01-01

273

Material flammability in space exploration atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity, NASA is designing the next generation of exploration vehicles with a different cabin pressure and oxygen concentration than used previously. This work explores how the flammability of solid materials changes in this new environment. One method to evaluate material flammability is by its ease of ignition. To

Sara Suzanne McAllister

2008-01-01

274

Exploring the Architectural Trade Space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program  

E-print Network

Exploring the Architectural Trade Space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program Marc of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible, Bernie Seery NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 8800 Greenbelt Road Greenbelt, MD 20771 301

de Weck, Olivier L.

275

Design Space Pruning through Hybrid Analysis in System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Design Space Pruning through Hybrid Analysis in System-level Design Space Exploration Roberta with the number of parameters, traditional design space exploration methods fall short. This has prompted of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Email: {r.piscitelli,a.d.pimentel}@uva.nl Abstract--System-level design space

Pimentel, Andy D.

276

Space lower bounds for graph exploration via reduced automata  

E-print Network

Space lower bounds for graph exploration via reduced automata Pierre Fraigniaud David Ilcinkas the task of exploring graphs with anonymous nodes by a team of non-cooperative robots modeled as finite-state robots, there exists a graph of size O(qK) that no robot of this set can explore. This improves the O

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

2004-01-01

278

Biomimetics on seed dispersal: survey and insights for space exploration.  

PubMed

Seeds provide the vital genetic link and dispersal agent between successive generations of plants. Without seed dispersal as a means of reproduction, many plants would quickly die out. Because plants lack any sort of mobility and remain in the same spot for their entire lives, they rely on seed dispersal to transport their offspring throughout the environment. This can be accomplished either collectively or individually; in any case as seeds ultimately abdicate their movement, they are at the mercy of environmental factors. Thus, seed dispersal strategies are characterized by robustness, adaptability, intelligence (both behavioral and morphological), and mass and energy efficiency (including the ability to utilize environmental sources of energy available): all qualities that advanced engineering systems aim at in general, and in particular those that need to enable complex endeavors such as space exploration. Plants evolved and adapted their strategy according to their environment, and taken together, they enclose many desirable characteristics that a space mission needs to have. Understanding in detail how plants control the development of seeds, fabricate structural components for their dispersal, build molecular machineries to keep seeds dormant up to the right moment and monitor the environment to release them at the right time could provide several solutions impacting current space mission design practices. It can lead to miniaturization, higher integration and packing efficiency, energy efficiency and higher autonomy and robustness. Consequently, there would appear to be good reasons for considering biomimetic solutions from plant kingdom when designing space missions, especially to other celestial bodies, where solid and liquid surfaces, atmosphere, etc constitute and are obviously parallel with the terrestrial environment where plants evolved. In this paper, we review the current state of biomimetics on seed dispersal to improve space mission design. PMID:23648867

Pandolfi, Camilla; Izzo, Dario

2013-06-01

279

Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

Schmidt, George R.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Duddzinski, Leonard

2009-01-01

280

Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

Schmidt, George; Sutliff, Tom; Dudzinski, Leonard

2008-01-01

281

Why Space Science and Exploration Benefit Everyone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific inquiry into the nature of the universe beyond Earth and exploration of the Sun's solar system have to date been enterprises carried out primarily by the United States, the former Soviet Union, and only a few other industrialized states.

Ocampo, A.; Friedman, L.; Logsdon, J.

1998-01-01

282

Exploring the architectural trade space of NASAs Space Communication and Navigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASAs Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Program is responsible for providing communication and navigation services to space missions and other users in and beyond low Earth orbit. The current SCaN architecture consists of three independent networks: the Space Network (SN), which contains the TDRS relay satellites in GEO; the Near Earth Network (NEN), which consists of several NASA owned and commercially operated ground stations; and the Deep Space Network (DSN), with three ground stations in Goldstone, Madrid, and Canberra. The first task of this study is the stakeholder analysis. The goal of the stakeholder analysis is to identify the main stakeholders of the SCaN system and their needs. Twenty-one main groups of stakeholders have been identified and put on a stakeholder map. Their needs are currently being elicited by means of interviews and an extensive literature review. The data will then be analyzed by applying Cameron and Crawley's stakeholder analysis theory, with a view to highlighting dominant needs and conflicting needs. The second task of this study is the architectural tradespace exploration of the next generation TDRSS. The space of possible architectures for SCaN is represented by a set of architectural decisions, each of which has a discrete set of options. A computational tool is used to automatically synthesize a very large number of possible architectures by enumerating different combinations of decisions and options. The same tool contains models to evaluate the architectures in terms of performance and cost. The performance model uses the stakeholder needs and requirements identified in the previous steps as inputs, and it is based in the VASSAR methodology presented in a companion paper. This paper summarizes the current status of the MIT SCaN architecture study. It starts by motivating the need to perform tradespace exploration studies in the context of relay data systems through a description of the history NASA's space communicati- n networks. It then presents the generalities of possible architectures for future space communication and navigation networks. Finally, it describes the tools and methods being developed, clearly indicating the architectural decisions that have been taken into account as well as the systematic approach followed to model them. The purpose of this study is to explore the SCaN architectural tradespace by means of a computational tool. This paper describes the tool, while the tradespace exploration is underway.

Sanchez, M.; Selva, D.; Cameron, B.; Crawley, E.; Seas, A.; Seery, B.

283

Global partnerships: Expanding the frontiers of space exploration education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalization is creating an interdependent space-faring world and new opportunities for international partnerships that strengthen space knowledge development and transfer. These opportunities have been codified in the Global Exploration Strategy, which endorses the "inspirational and educational value of space exploration" [1]. Also, during the 2010 Heads of Space Agencies Summit celebrating the International Academy of Astronautics' (IAA) 50th Anniversary, space-faring nations from across the globe issued a collective call in support of robust international partnerships to expand the frontiers of space exploration and generate knowledge for improving life on Earth [2]. Educators play a unique role in this mission, developing strategic partnerships and sharing best educational practices to (1) further global understanding of the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth and (2) prepare the next generation of scientists required for the 21st Century space workforce. Educational Outreach (EO) programs use evidence-based, measurable outcomes strategies and cutting edge information technologies to transfer space-based science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) knowledge to new audiences; create indigenous materials with cultural resonance for emerging space societies; support teacher professional development; and contribute to workforce development initiatives that inspire and prepare new cohorts of students for space exploration careers. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) have sustained a 13-year space science education partnership dedicated to these objectives. This paper briefly describes the design and achievements of NSBRI's educational programs, with special emphasis on those initiatives' involvement with IAA and the International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The IAA Commission 2 Draft Report, Space for Africa, is discussed as a model for developing sustainable partnerships and indigenous programs that support Africa's steady emergence as a global space-faring force. The IAC will provide timely: 2011 South Africa will provide timely feedback to refine that report's strategies for space life sciences education and public engagement in Africa and around the globe.

MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Akinyede, Joseph O.; Goswami, Nandu; Thomson, William A.

2012-11-01

284

Exploring a "Space" for Emergent Learning to Occur: Encouraging Creativity and Innovation in the Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research set out to explore perceptions about the concept of an emergent learning space within private organisations, as the current literature on learning does not adequately differentiate between organised learning and emergent learning. The research objectives explored the existence of, and perceived level of organisational encouragement

Armson, Genevieve

2009-01-01

285

Japan robotics aim for unmanned space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of a study sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Automation and Robotics Program, prepared for the US government's program evaluating Japanese technology, are summarized. They reveal that the Japanese government, industry, and university leaders have embarked on cooperative projects to develop next-generation robots for space. The goals are to minimize the

W. L. Whittaker; T. Kanade

1990-01-01

286

Higher spin currents in orthogonal Wolf space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the N=4 superconformal coset theory by \\frac{SO(N+4)}{SO(N) SU(2)} U(1) (that contains an orthogonal Wolf space) with N = 4, the N=2 WZW affine current algebra is obtained. The 16 generators (or 11 generators) of the large N=4 linear (or nonlinear) superconformal algebra are described by these WZW affine currents explicitly. Along the line of large N=4 holography, the extra 16 currents with spins (2,\\frac{5}{2},\\frac{5}{2},3), (\\frac{5}{2},3,3,\\frac{7}{2}), (\\frac{5}{2},3,3,\\frac{7}{2}), and (3,\\frac{7}{2},\\frac{7}{2},4) are obtained in terms of the WZW affine currents. The lowest spin of this N=4 multiplet is two rather than one, which is for a unitary Wolf space. The operator product expansions between the above 11 currents and these extra 16 higher spin currents are found explicitly.

Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub

2015-02-01

287

Give Me a Boost - How Gravity Assists Aid Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about how spacecraft use gravity assists to get where they are going. Learners will explore how engineers minimize the use of fuel by utilizing gravity. In Activity 1, students explore the physical conservation laws by observing the behavior of balls colliding with other objects. In Activity 2, the students use an interactive online simulation tool to explore the various ways in which gravity assists can be used to aid space exploration.

2012-12-06

288

MONTE CARLO EXPLORATIONS OF POLYGONAL KNOT SPACES KENNETH C. MILLETT  

E-print Network

1 MONTE CARLO EXPLORATIONS OF POLYGONAL KNOT SPACES KENNETH C. MILLETT Department of Mathematics Polygonal knots are embeddings of polygons in three space. For each n, the collection of embedded n­gons determines a subset of Euclidean space whose structure is the subject of this paper. Which knots can

Bigelow, Stephen

289

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Distribution for Space Exploration Applications  

E-print Network

Space Suit Life Support Systems 2007 Phase II Proposal X9.01-9829 Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Paragon Space Development Corporation #12;SBIR SBIR 46 47 I Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Distribution for Space Exploration Applications

290

Physics Education Launched from Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have cooperated with some schools and performed several activities. The feature of our plan is to make the "space" a keyword and let students understand the importance and the fun of physics. We have practiced our plan, and it has turned out to be effective for schoolchild, high school students, and for college students. In this paper we report on the contents of our activities, and present some methods of physics education related to basic space science and space technology, to make physics more interesting.

Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kijima, Masachika; Ishizuka, Wataru

291

A global space policy that would revive space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost every nation today relies on space-based technology for communications, weather forecasting, satellite navigation and resource management, either through indigenous programs or through programs run by its allies. As such, it is safe to say that every country is a space-faring nation. However, when it comes to space science and technology, attention must be directed towards countries that possess the

Tanay Sharma; C. R. C Chatwin; R. C. D Young; P. Birch

2011-01-01

292

Novel Chemical Space Exploration via Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notable in coverage of chemical space, and tangible lead-like NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbours of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method, were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbours. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery, in the search for novel leads with unique properties. PMID:19265440

Rosn, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I.

2009-01-01

293

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

ScienceCinema

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2014-05-30

294

The political context for human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public and political discourses are often punctuated with unfair questions. Space activities seem to attract such unfair questions\\u000a in particular by the little minds. High-spirited activities such as humans in outer space and their visions risk being ridiculed\\u000a or slammed. One such unfair question is: do astronauts solve any problems on Earth? It relates to the pressing questions our

Kai-Uwe Schrogl

295

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

SciTech Connect

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2012-11-29

296

A journey into open space and an exploration of management development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores the writers learning about open space technology - from a first experience of it - and also shares some of the content and conclusions of a session offered during an open space event. Describes the session entitled: Is current management development appropriate for future roles in organizations? Explains that one of the key observations was: What has to be

Margaret Neal

1996-01-01

297

High temperature electronics applications in space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extension of the range of operating temperatures of electronic components and systems for planetary exploration is examined. In particular, missions which utilize balloon-borne instruments to study the Venusian and Jovian atmospheres are discussed. Semiconductor development and devices including power sources, ultrastable oscillators, transmitters, antennas, electromechanical devices, and deployment systems are addressed.

Jurgens, R. F.

1981-01-01

298

Design space exploration with A Stream Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider speeding up general-purpose applications with hardware accelerators. Traditionally hardware accelerators are tediously hand-crafted to achieve top performance ASC (A Stream Complier) simplifies exploration of hardware accelerators by transforming the hardware design task into a software design process using only 'gcc' and 'make' to obtain a hardware netlist. ASC enables programmers to customize hardware accelarators at three levels of

Oskar Mencer; David J. Pearce; Lee W. Howes; Wayne Luk

2003-01-01

299

Design Space Exploration for The Beamformer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design exploration strategy for the beamformer system, an exampleof a typical DSP system. In order to do so, we first define a parameterizeddesign template for the beamformer and for a FIR filter, since the filteringoperation is a part of the overall beamformer system. We then discuss someapproaches for varying the design parameters for the filter and the

Daniel D. Gajski; Smita Bakshi

1993-01-01

300

Fostering links between environmental and space exploration: the Earth and Space Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links between Earth and space exploration occur across a broad spectrum, from the use of satellite technology to support environmental monitoring and habitat protection to the study of extreme environments on Earth to prepare for the exploration of other planets. Taking the view that Earth and space exploration are part of a mutually beneficial continuum is in contrast to

Charles Cockella; Don Whitec; Douglas Messierd; M. Dale Stokese

301

Fostering links between environmental and space exploration: the Earth and Space Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links between Earth and space exploration occur across a broad spectrum, from the use of satellite technology to support environmental monitoring and habitat protection to the study of extreme environments on Earth to prepare for the exploration of other planets. Taking the view that Earth and space exploration are part of a mutually beneficial continuum is in contrast to

Charles Cockell; Don White; Douglas Messier; M. Dale Stokes

2002-01-01

302

Visualization of Computer Architecture Simulation Data for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Visualization of Computer Architecture Simulation Data for System-level Design Space Exploration and design space exploration of multi-core embedded systems. Our results show that our multivariate space. Keywords: Computer architecture simulation, design space exploration, exploratory visualization

Pimentel, Andy D.

303

Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration Class Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The US-based health care system of the International Space Station (ISS) contains several subsystems, the Health Maintenance System, Environmental Health System and the Countermeasure System. These systems are designed to provide primary, secondary and tertiary medical prevention strategies. The medical system deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for the ISS is designed to enable a "stabilize and transport" concept of operations. In this paradigm, an ill or injured crewmember would be rapidly evacuated to a definitive medical care facility (DMCF) on Earth, rather than being treated for a protracted period on orbit. The medical requirements of the short (7 day) and long duration (up to 6 months) exploration class missions to the Moon are similar to LEO class missions with the additional 4 to 5 days needed to transport an ill or injured crewmember to a DCMF on Earth. Mars exploration class missions are quite different in that they will significantly delay or prevent the return of an ill or injured crewmember to a DMCF. In addition the limited mass, power and volume afforded to medical care will prevent the mission designers from manifesting the entire capability of terrestrial care. NASA has identified five Levels of Care as part of its approach to medical support of future missions including the Constellation program. In order to implement an effective medical risk mitigation strategy for exploration class missions, modifications to the current suite of space medical systems may be needed, including new Crew Medical Officer training methods, treatment guidelines, diagnostic and therapeutic resources, and improved medical informatics.

Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Melton, Shannon; Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

2007-01-01

304

Exploration system technology aspects in the exploration programme of the European Space Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within its exploration programme Aurora, the European Space Agency is preparing activities for human exploration of the solar system to be implemented in the next 510 years. These activities will be based on a long-term plan for exploration with a horizon of 30 years. As ESA is convinced that exploration can only be done via international collaboration, this long-term plan

Richard Fisackerly; Claus-Juergen Reimers; Alain Pradier

2006-01-01

305

Cancer Risk from Exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays - Implications for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. However, space radiation is a major barrier to human exploration of the solar system because the biological effects of high-energy and charge (HZE) ions, which are the main contributors to radiation risks in deep space, are poorly understood. Predictions of the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Great efforts have been dedicated worldwide in recent years toward a better understanding of the oncogenic potential of galactic cosmic rays. A review of the new results in this field will be presented here.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durant, marco

2006-01-01

306

NASA UTILIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND THE VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under U.S. President Bush s Vision for Space Exploration (January 14, 2004), NASA has refocused its utilization plans for the International Space Station (ISS). This use will now focus on: (1) the development of countermeasures that will protect crews from the hazards of the space environment, (2) testing and validating technologies that will meet information and systems needs for future exploration missions.

Robinson, Julie A.; Thomas, Donald A.

2006-01-01

307

Potential anesthesia protocols for space exploration missions.  

PubMed

In spaceflight beyond low Earth's orbit, medical conditions requiring surgery are of a high level of concern because of their potential impact on crew health and mission success. Whereas surgical techniques have been thoroughly studied in spaceflight analogues, the research focusing on anesthesia is limited. To provide safe anesthesia during an exploration mission will be a highly challenging task. The research objective is thus to describe specific anesthesia procedures enabling treatment of pre-identified surgical conditions. Among the medical conditions considered by the NASA Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability element, those potentially necessitating anesthesia techniques have been identified. The most appropriate procedure for each condition is thoroughly discussed. The substantial cost of training time necessary to implement regional anesthesia is pointed out. Within general anesthetics, ketamine combines the unique advantages of preservation of cardiovascular stability, the protective airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Ketamine side effects have for decades tempered enthusiasm for its use, but recent developments in mitigation means broadened its indications. The extensive experience gathered in remote environments, with minimal equipment and occasionally by insufficiently trained care providers, confirms its high degree of safety. Two ketamine-based anesthesia protocols are described with their corresponding indications. They have been designed taking into account the physiological changes occurring in microgravity and the specific constraints of exploration missions. This investigation could not only improve surgical care during long-duration spaceflights, but may find a number of terrestrial applications in isolated or austere environments. PMID:23513283

Komorowski, Matthieu; Watkins, Sharmila D; Lebuffe, Gilles; Clark, Jonathan B

2013-03-01

308

Space Exploration and the Benefits to Mankind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper presented at the 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Dresden, GDR in October 1990. This paper analyzes the past challenges of the space program's multi-national cooperative agreements and examines the challenges of the future as we quickly become a global society. Cross Reference ESD-T1.

T. L. Moser; R. Freitag; W. C. Schneider

1990-01-01

309

Space Exploration and the Benefits to Mankind  

SciTech Connect

Paper presented at the 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Dresden, GDR in October 1990. This paper analyzes the past challenges of the space program's multi-national cooperative agreements and examines the challenges of the future as we quickly become a global society. Cross Reference ESD-T1.

Moser, T.L.; Freitag, R.; Schneider, W.C.

1990-10-01

310

The political sustainability of space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swiftly changing policy environment introduces significant uncertainty into the design of technical systems that rely on public resources. Politics necessarily impacts technical design as requirements change to suit different needs. Simple game-theoretic models may be used to provide insights into resource allocation dynamics between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Congress. This paper utilizes game

David A. Broniatowski; Annalisa L. Weigel

2008-01-01

311

Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shield effectiveness of lunar regolith is compared with possible prefabricated shield materials from Earth,including commercially used shield materials in nuclear facilities. Several of the fabricated materials categorized asneutron absorbers and moderators exhibit favorable characteristics for space radiation protection. Although thiseffort is not intended to be a definitive trade study for specific shielding recommendations, attention is given toseveral factors that

J. W. Wilson; J. Miller; A. Konradi; F. A. Cucinotta

1997-01-01

312

Exploring Aeronautics and Space Technology. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for an introduction to the technology systems in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Designed to be used either as a stand-alone publication or to be infused into the instruction and activities of an existing technology education program, this publication describes the

Buck, Sue; And Others

313

Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

2005-01-01

314

Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

Sagan, Carl

1973-01-01

315

An international symbol for the sustained exploration of space  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humanity prepares to extend its reach beyond low-Earth-orbit for the first time since the 1970s, a new symbol of international cooperation is needed to further promote the message of peace and collaboration such exploration entails. The space race that occurred between the USSR and the USA is an ill-suited model for long-term sustained space exploration because it is too

Sanjoy Som

2010-01-01

316

School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) was formed in 2006 by merging previously separate academic programs in geoscience and planetary science, astronomy, and systems engineering. SESE is explicitly designed to enhance knowledge of Earth and the universe through innovative trans-disciplinary exploration, research, and teaching. Earth and space science education research, teacher preparation, and outreach are among the principal functions of SESE.

School of Earth and Space Exploration

317

Hardware\\/Software Design Space Exploration for a Reconfigurable Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to hardware\\/software design space exploration for reconfigurable processors. The existing compiler tool-chain, because of the user-definable instructions, needs to be extended in order to offer developers an easy way to explore design space. Such extension often is not easy to use for developer that have only a software background, thus ignoring reconfigurable architecture details or

Alberto La Rosa; Luciano Lavagno; Claudio Passerone

2003-01-01

318

Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then assessed the likelihood and consequences of each risk against each DRM, using three levels of likelihood (Low: less than or equal to 0.1%; Medium: 0.1%1.0%; High: greater than or equal to 1.0%) and four levels of consequence ranging from Very Low (temporary or insignificant) to High (death, loss of mission, or significant reduction to length or quality of life). Quantitative evidence from clinical, operational, and research sources were used whenever available. Qualitative evidence was used when quantitative evidence was unavailable. Expert opinion was used whenever insufficient evidence was available. Results: A set of 30 risks emerged that will require further mitigation efforts before being accepted by the Agency. The likelihood by consequence risk assessment process provided a means of prioritizing among the risks identified. For each of the high priority risks, a plan was developed to perform research, technology, or standards development thought necessary to provide suitable reduction of likelihood or consequence to allow agency acceptance. Conclusion: The HSRB process has successfully identified a complete set of risks to human space travelers on planned exploration missions based on the best evidence available today. Risk mitigation plans have been established for the highest priority risks. Each risk will be reassessed annually to track the progress of our risk mitigation efforts.

Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

2015-01-01

319

Nuclear technology and the space exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategy for a major exploration initiative leading to permanent human presence beyond earth orbit is still being developed; however enough is known to begin defining the role of nuclear technologies. Three broad areas are discussed: low power (less than 10 kWe) rover/vehicle power systems; integrated, evolutionary base power systems (25 to 100 kW) and nuclear energy for electric propulsion (2 to 100 MWe); and direct thermal propulsion (1000s MW). A phased, evolutionary approach is described for both the moon and Mars, and the benefits of nuclear technologies relative to solar and their integration are described.

Brandhorst, Henry W.; Sovie, Ronald J.

1990-01-01

320

Estimating the costs of human space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

1994-01-01

321

Challenges for Electronics in the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation has been a brief snapshot discussing electronics and Exploration-related challenges. The vision for Space Exploration creates a new paradigm for NASA missions. This includes transport (Crew Exploration Vehicle-CEV), and lunar and Mars Exploration and human presence. If one considers the additional hazards faced by these concepts versus more traditional NASA missions, multiple challenges surface for reliable utilization of electronic parts. The true challenge is to provide a risk as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA-a traditional biological radiation exposure term), while still providing cost effective solutions. This presentation also discusses the hazard for electronic parts and exploration, the types of electronic parts for exploration, and the critical juncture for space usage of commercial changes in the electronics world.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2005-01-01

322

Atmosphere Revitalization Technology Development for Crewed Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space exploration objectives extend human presence beyond low Earth orbit, the solutions to technological challenges presented by supporting human life in the hostile space environment must build upon experience gained during past and present crewed space exploration programs. These programs and the cabin atmosphere revitalization process technologies and systems developed for them represent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) past and present operational knowledge base for maintaining a safe, comfortable environment for the crew. The contributions of these programs to the NASA s technological and operational working knowledge base as well as key strengths and weaknesses to be overcome are discussed. Areas for technological development to address challenges inherent with the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) are presented and a plan for their development employing unit operations principles is summarized

Perry, Jay L.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Harris, Danny W.

2006-01-01

323

Identifying Sociological Factors for the Success of Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrosociology factors relevant to success of future space exploration may best be identified through studies of sociological circumstances of past successful explorations, such as the Apollo-Lunar Missions. These studies benefit from access to primary records of the past programs. The Archives and Special Collections Division of the Salmon Library at the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) houses large collections of

C. A. Lundquist; D. Tarter; A. Coleman

2011-01-01

324

U.S. Vision for Space Exploration: Who Benefits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2004, President Bush announced a new vision for NASA, starting with a human return to the Moon by 2020 to be followed by human exploration of Mars and other destinations. The President's Moon-Mars initiative provides a compelling directive for the future of NASA, one that is at the next frontier in space exploration. However, it also presents substantial

Eric Barron

2005-01-01

325

The extraterrestrial Earth: Antarctica as analogue for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polar regions have often been suggested as surrogates for the exploration and colonization of space. In particular, Antarctica's greater isolation makes it a useful analogue. Its featuresabiotic, acultural, alien to human habitationall echo the regions of interest to contemporary exploration, notably the solar system and the deep oceans. But more than a century of Antarctic experience also suggests that

Stephen J. Pyne

2007-01-01

326

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

327

TriMedia CPU64 Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Philips Research Labs, we are investigating the 64- bit VLIW core for future TriMedia processors. We have per- formed an extensive Design Space Exploration (DSE) on this core using quantitative analysis, using a benchmark suite of applications which are representative for multi- media processing. We have explored, among others, the configurations of the different functional units (FUs) of the

Gerben J. Hekstra; G. D. La Hei; Peter Bingley; Frans Sijstermans

1999-01-01

328

Exploring Current Arts Practice in Kindergartens and Preparatory Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring

Garvis, Susanne

2012-01-01

329

Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2007-01-01

330

Mass Reduction: The Weighty Challenge for Exploration Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meeting nutritional and acceptability requirements is critical for the food system for an exploration class space mission. However, this must be achieved within the constraints of available resources such as water, crew time, stowage volume, launch mass and power availability. ? Due to resource constraints, exploration class missions are not expected to have refrigerators or freezers for food storage, and current per person food mass must be reduced to improve mission feasibility. ? The Packaged Food Mass Reduction Trade Study (Stoklosa, 2009) concluded that the mass of the current space food system can be effectively reduced by decreasing water content of certain foods and offering nutrient dense substitutes, such as meal replacement bars and beverages. Target nutrient ranges were established based on the nutritional content of the current breakfast and lunch meals in the ISS standard menu. A market survey of available commercial products produced no viable options for meal replacement bar or beverage products. New prototypes for both categories were formulated to meet target nutrient ranges. Samples of prototype products were packaged in high barrier packaging currently used for ISS and underwent an accelerated shelf life study at 31 degC and 41 degC (50% RH) for 24 weeks. Samples were assessed at the following time points: Initial, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Testing at each time point included the following: color, texture, water activity, acceptability, and hexanal analysis (for food bars only). Proof of concept prototypes demonstrated that meal replacement food bars and beverages can deliver a comparable macronutrient profile while reducing the overall mass when compared to the ISS Standard Menu. Future work suggestions for meal replacement bars: Reformulation to include ingredients that reduce hardness and reduce browning to increase shelf life. Micronutrient analysis and potential fortification. Sensory evaluation studies including satiety tests and menu fatigue. Water Intake Analysis: The water in thermostabilized foods is considered as part of a crewmember's daily water intake. Extensive meal replacement would require further analyses to determine if additional water provisioning would be required per crewmember negating some of the mass savings.

Kloeris, Vickie L.

2014-01-01

331

Microgravity and the human exploration of space technology challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

If humans are to explore space beyond low-earth orbit, their health and welfare must be ensured, not only for survival in harsh environments but also so that they can work productively. The requisite technologies, and human physiology itself, are subject to reduced levels of gravity that are indigenous to space travel. Numerous studies have shown that it will require many

Simon Ostrach

2008-01-01

332

Space Exploration: Manned and Unmanned Flight. Aerospace Education III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of

Coard, E. A.

333

Advanced space storable propellants for outer planet exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the feasibility and mission performance benefits of using advanced space storable propellants for outer planet exploration was performed. For the purpose of this study, space storable propellants are defined to be propellants which can be passively stored without the need for active cooling.

Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Baker, Raymond S.; Miyake, Robert N.

2004-01-01

334

Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

2003-01-01

335

Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to air& control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent system technologies and expand on the role of intelligent systems in NASA's missions. We will also present several examples of which some are highlighted m this extended abstract.

Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Lohn, Jason; Kaneshige, John

2004-01-01

336

Commercialization is Required for Sustainable Space Exploration and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Space Exploration policy outlines an exciting new direction in space for human and robotic exploration and development beyond low Earth orbit. Pressed by this new visionary guidance, human civilization will be able to methodically build capabilities to move off Earth and into the solar system in a step-by-step manner, gradually increasing the capability for humans to stay longer in space and move further away from Earth. The new plans call for an implementation that would create an affordable and sustainable program in order to span over generations of explorers, each new generation pushing back the boundaries and building on the foundations laid by the earlier. To create a sustainable program it is important to enable and encourage the development of a selfsupporting commercial space industry leveraging both traditional and non-traditional segments of the industrial base. Governments will not be able to open the space frontier on their own because their goals change over relatively short timescales and because the large costs associated with human spaceflight cannot be sustained. A strong space development industrial sector is needed that can one day support the needs of commercial space enterprises as well as provide capabilities that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other national space agencies can buy to achieve their exploration goals. This new industrial space sector will someday provide fundamental capabilities like communications, power, logistics, and even cargo and human space transportation, just as commercial companies are able to provide these services on Earth today. To help develop and bolster this new space industrial sector, NASA and other national space agencies can enable and facilitate it in many ways, including reducing risk by developing important technologies necessary for commercialization of space, and as a paying customer, partner, or anchor tenant. This transition from all or mostly government developed and operated facilities and services to commercial supplied facilities and services should be considered from the very earliest stages of planning. This paper will first discuss the importance of space commercialization to fulfilling national goals and the associated policy and strategic objectives that will enable space exploration and development. Then the paper will offer insights into how government can provide leadership to promote the nascent commercial space industry. In addition, the paper describes programs and policies already in place at NASA and offers five important principles government can use to strengthen space industry.

Martin, Gary L.; Olson, John M.

2009-01-01

337

A solution methodology for exact design space exploration in a three-dimensional design space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an exact solution methodology, implemented in Rensselaer's Voyager design space exploration system, for solving the scheduling problem in a three-dimensional (3-D) design space: the usual two-dimensional (2-D) design space (which trades off area and schedule length), plus a third dimension representing clock length. Unlike design space exploration methodologies which rely on bounds or estimates, this methodology is

Samit Chaudhuri; S. A. Blthye; Robert A. Walker

1997-01-01

338

Determining Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is a major risk for astronauts in long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Radiation shielding is needed to reduce the radiation hazard to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials. In this talk we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. As a result, these cross sections need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2005-01-01

339

Concept space comparisons: explorations with five health domains.  

PubMed

This paper explores methods to compare concept spaces derived from different discourses in a common health domain. The concept spaces are generated from the research literature and from message board discussions on the Internet. We explore a number of methods for comparing and contrasting concept space pairs. We experiment with five select health domains in this exploratory research: Autism, AIDS, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis. The paper concludes with a discussion about the potential of our methods. Future work on refinements to our techniques is also outlined. PMID:16779165

Zhou, Li; Srinivasan, Padmini

2005-01-01

340

Secure Display of Space-Exploration Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Java EDR Display Interface (JEDI) is software for either local display or secure Internet distribution, to authorized clients, of image data acquired from cameras aboard spacecraft engaged in exploration of remote planets. ( EDR signifies experimental data record, which, in effect, signifies image data.) Processed at NASA s Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL), the data can be from either near-realtime processing streams or stored files. JEDI uses the Java Advanced Imaging application program interface, plus input/output packages that are parts of the Video Image Communication and Retrieval software of the MIPL, to display images. JEDI can be run as either a standalone application program or within a Web browser as a servlet with an applet front end. In either operating mode, JEDI communicates using the HTTP(s) protocol(s). In the Web-browser case, the user must provide a password to gain access. For each user and/or image data type, there is a configuration file, called a "personality file," containing parameters that control the layout of the displays and the information to be included in them. Once JEDI has accepted the user s password, it processes the requested EDR (provided that user is authorized to receive the specific EDR) to create a display according to the user s personality file.

Cheng, Cecilia; Thornhill, Gillian; McAuley, Michael

2006-01-01

341

Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the technologies needed for Mars mission. Agencies see the importance of assessing gaps and overlaps in their plans to advance technologies in order to leverage their investments and enable exciting missions as soon as practical. They see the importance of respecting the ability of any agency to invest in any technologies considered interesting or strategic. This paper will describe the importance of developing an appropriate international strategy for technology development and ideas for effective mechanisms for advancing an international strategy. This work will both inform and be informed by the development of an ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap and serve as a concrete step forward in advancing the Global Exploration Strategy.

Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

2010-01-01

342

The HIVE Tool for Informed Swarm State Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Swarm verification and parallel randomised depth-first search are very effective parallel techniques to hunt bugs in large state spaces. In case bugs are absent, however, scalability of the parallelisation is completely lost. In recent work, we proposed a mechanism to inform the workers which parts of the state space to explore. This mechanism is compatible with any action-based formalism, where a state space can be represented by a labelled transition system. With this extension, each worker can be strictly bounded to explore only a small fraction of the state space at a time. In this paper, we present the HIVE tool together with two search algorithms which were added to the LTSmin tool suite to both perform a preprocessing step, and execute a bounded worker search. The new tool is used to coordinate informed swarm explorations, and the two new LTSmin algorithms are employed for preprocessing a model and performing the individual searches.

Wijs, Anton

2011-01-01

343

Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces  

PubMed Central

Background The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional representation for such a semantic space, where dimensions regard the different perspectives in biomedical research (e.g., population, disease, anatomy and protein/genes). Results This paper presents a novel method for building multidimensional semantic spaces from semantically annotated biomedical data collections. This method consists of two main processes: knowledge and data normalization. The former one arranges the concepts provided by a reference knowledge resource (e.g., biomedical ontologies and thesauri) into a set of hierarchical dimensions for analysis purposes. The latter one reduces the annotation set associated to each collection item into a set of points of the multidimensional space. Additionally, we have developed a visual tool, called 3D-Browser, which implements OLAP-like operators over the generated multidimensional space. The method and the tool have been tested and evaluated in the context of the Health-e-Child (HeC) project. Automatic semantic annotation was applied to tag three collections of abstracts taken from PubMed, one for each target disease of the project, the Uniprot database, and the HeC patient record database. We adopted the UMLS Meta-thesaurus 2010AA as the reference knowledge resource. Conclusions Current knowledge resources and semantic-aware technology make possible the integration of biomedical resources. Such an integration is performed through semantic annotation of the intended biomedical data resources. This paper shows how these annotations can be exploited for integration, exploration, and analysis tasks. Results over a real scenario demonstrate the viability and usefulness of the approach, as well as the quality of the generated multidimensional semantic spaces. PMID:22373409

2012-01-01

344

A Tool for Parameter-space Explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software for managing simulation jobs and results, named "OACIS", is presented. It controls a large number of simulation jobs executed in various remote servers, keeps these results in an organized way, and manages the analyses on these results. The software has a web browser front end, and users can submit various jobs to appropriate remote hosts from a web browser easily. After these jobs are finished, all the result files are automatically downloaded from the computational hosts and stored in a traceable way together with the logs of the date, host, and elapsed time of the jobs. Some visualization functions are also provided so that users can easily grasp the overview of the results distributed in a high-dimensional parameter space. Thus, OACIS is especially beneficial for the complex simulation models having many parameters for which a lot of parameter searches are required. By using API of OACIS, it is easy to write a code that automates parameter selection depending on the previous simulation results. A few examples of the automated parameter selection are also demonstrated.

Murase, Yohsuke; Uchitane, Takeshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

345

Architecture Description Language Driven Design Space Exploration in the Presence of Coprocessors  

E-print Network

Architecture Description Language Driven Design Space Exploration in the Presence of Coprocessors Design Space Exploration DSE uses Architecture Description Languages ADL to capture the processor design space exploration. Designers have multiple choices: using a coprocessor to perform a functionality

Mishra, Prabhat

346

Design Space Exploration of incompletely specified Embedded Systems by Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Design Space Exploration of incompletely specified Embedded Systems by Genetic Algorithms Stephan design space exploration algorithm, which jointly determines a complete set of Pareto optimal for new modules in a single optimization run. This design space exploration method is based

Huss, Sorin A.

347

Why We Explore: The Value of Space Exploration for Future Generations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its industry partners are making measurable progress toward delivering new human space transportation capabilities to serve as the catalyst for a new era of discovery, as directed by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. In the interest of ensuring prolonged support, the Agency encourages space advocates of all stripes to accurately portray both the tangible and intangible benefits of space exploration, especially its value for future generations. This may be done not only by emphasizing the nation's return on its aerospace investment, but also by highlighting enabling security features and by promoting the scientific and technological benefits that accrue from the human exploration of space. As America embarks on a new era of leadership and international partnership on the next frontier, we are poised to master space by living off-planet on the Moon to prepare astronauts for longer journeys to Mars. These and other relevant facts should be clearly in the view of influential decision-makers and the American taxpayers, and we must increasingly involve those on whom the long-term sustainability of space exploration ultimately depends: America's youth. This paper will examine three areas of concrete benefits for future generations: fundamental security, economic enterprise, and high-technology advancements spurred by the innovation that scientific discovery demands.

Cook, Stephen A.; Armstrong, Robert C., Jr.

2007-01-01

348

A Flexible Path for Human and Robotic Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 2009, a flexible path scenario for human and robotic space exploration was developed that enables frequent, measured, and publicly notable human exploration of space beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The formulation of this scenario was in support of the Exploration Beyond LEO subcommittee of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee that was commissioned by President Obama. Exploration mission sequences that allow humans to visit a wide number of inner solar system destinations were investigated. The scope of destinations included the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun Lagrange points, near-Earth objects (NEOs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons. The missions examined assumed the use of Constellation Program elements along with existing launch vehicles and proposed augmentations. Additionally, robotic missions were envisioned as complements to human exploration through precursor missions, as crew emplaced scientific investigations, and as sample gathering assistants to the human crews. The focus of the flexible path approach was to gain ever-increasing operational experience through human exploration missions ranging from a few weeks to several years in duration, beginning in deep space beyond LEO and evolving to landings on the Moon and eventually Mars.

Korsmeyer, David J.; Landis, Robert; Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Falck, Robert D.; Adams, Robert B.

2010-01-01

349

Space environmental interactions for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: atomic oxygen attack; arcing and discharges; micrometeoroids and debris; state-of-the-art computer tools; current collection and snapover; effluents--neutral and ionized; and winds, dust, and contamination.

Ferguson, Dale C.

1992-01-01

350

Future of robotic space exploration: visions and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous and remote controlled mobile robots and manipulators have already proved their utility throughout several successful national and international space missions. NASA and ESA both sent robots and probes to Mars and beyond in the past years, and the Space Shuttle and Space Station Remote Manipulator Systems brought recognition to CSA. These achievements gained public attention and acknowledgement; however, all are based on technologies developed decades ago. Even the Canadian Dexter robotic arm-to be delivered to the International Space Station this year-had been completed many years ago. In the past decade robotics has become ubiquitous, and the speed of development has increased significantly, opening space for grandiose future plans of autonomous exploration missions. In the mean time, space agencies throughout the world insist on running their own costly human space flight programs. A recent workshop at NASA dealing with the issue stated that the primary reason behind US human space exploration is not science; rather the USA wants to maintain its international leadership in this field. A second space-race may fall upon us, fueled by the desire of the developing space powers to prove their capabilities, mainly driven by national pride. The aim of the paper is to introduce the upcoming unmanned space exploration scenarios that are already feasible with present day robotic technology and to show their humandriven alternatives. Astronauts are to conquer Mars in the foreseeable future, in but robots could go a lot further already. Serious engineering constraints and possibilities are to be discussed, along with issues beyond research and development. Future mission design planning must deal with both the technological and political aspects of space. Compromising on the scientific outcome may pay well by taking advantage of public awareness and nation and international interests.

Haidegger, Tamas

351

Human life support for advanced space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near-term technologies are adequate to implement a Lunar Base CELSS. There are no apparent "show-stoppers" which require the development of new technologies. However, there are several areas in which new materials and technologies could be used for a more efficient implementation of the system, e.g., by decreasing mass or power requirement and increasing recycling efficiency. These areas must be further addressed through research and development. Finally, although this study focused on the development of a Lunar Base CELSS, the same technologies and a nearly identical design would be appropriate for a Mars base. Actually, except for the distance of transportation, the implementation of a CELSS on Mars would even be easier than it would be on the Moon. The presence of atmospheric CO2 on Mars, although in low concentration, coupled with the fact that the day/night cycle on Mars is very similar to that on Earth, makes the use of light-weight, greenhouse-like structures for growing food plants even more feasible than on the Moon. There are some environmental problems, which would have to be dealt with, like dust storms and the large amount of the ultraviolet radiation incident on the planet's surface. However, the materials and methods are largely available today to develop such a life support system for a Mars base.

Schwartzkopf, S. H.

1997-01-01

352

Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved,

Franklin D. Schowengerdt

2005-01-01

353

Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASAs Space Product Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved,

Franklin D. Schowengerdt

2005-01-01

354

Bounding the Spacecraft Atmosphere Design Space for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft and space suit atmospheres for future human space exploration missions will play an important, if not critical, role in the ultimate safety, productivity, and cost of such missions. Internal atmosphere pressure and composition (particularly oxygen concentration) influence many aspects of spacecraft and space suit design, operation, and technology development. Optimal atmosphere solutions must be determined by iterative process involving research, design, development, testing, and systems analysis. A necessary first step in this process is the establishment of working bounds on the atmosphere design space.

Lange, Kevin E.; Perka, Alan T.; Duffield, Bruce E.; Jeng, Frank F.

2005-01-01

355

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized that the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) might countermeasure various space-caused disorders so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using animal models of disorders (hindlimb suspension unloading system and beta-thalassemia), the HSCT was tested for muscle loss, immunodeficiency and space anemia. The results indicate feasibility of HSCT for these disorders. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

2003-01-01

356

Enabling human exploration of space - A life sciences overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the transition from the short-duration missions of the Space Shuttle era to long-duration exploration missions, the health and safety of crewmembers must be ensured. The body undergoes many complex physiological changes as a result of its adaptation to a microgravity environment and U.S. and Soviet experiences have shown that time is required for readaptation to gravity. The consequences of these changes for the extended exploration missions envisioned for the future are unknown. A Mars mission may require crewmembers to spend many months in microgravity, and then work effectively in a one-third gravity environment. Other problems may arise when returning crewmembers must readapt to earth's gravity. Life Sciences activities are being planned to systematically address the physiological issues involved with long-term manned exploration missions, through ground-based studies and flight investigations on the Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The areas of focus are artificial gravity, radiation, health care, and space human factors.

Gaiser, Karen K.; Sulzman, Frank M.

1989-01-01

357

CMP design space exploration subject to physical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the multi-dimensional design space for chip multiprocessors, exploring the inter-related vari-ables of core count, pipeline depth, superscalar width, L2 cache size, and operating voltage and frequency, under various area and thermal constraints. The results show the importance of joint optimization. Thermal constraints dominate other physical constraints such as pin-bandwidth and power delivery, demonstrating the importance of con-sidering

Yingmin Li; Benjamin Lee; David Brooks; Zhigang Hu; Kevin Skadron

2006-01-01

358

Measurements of Sheath Currents and Equilibrium Potential on the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 xi)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data were obtained from the Explorer VIII satellite on five parameters pertinent to the problem of the interaction of space vehicles with an ionized atmosphere. The five parameters are: photoemission current due to electrons emitted from the satellite surfaces as a result of solar radiation; electron and positive ion currents due to the diffusion of charged particles from the medium to the spacecraft; the vehicle potential relative to the medium, and the ambient electron temperature. Included in the experimental data is the aspect dependence of the photoemission and diffusion currents. On the basis of the observations, certain characteristics of the satellite's plasma sheath are postulated.

Bourdeau, R. E.; Donley, J. L.; Serbu, G. P.; Whipple, E. C., Jr.

1961-01-01

359

Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years [1-3]. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR conference. However, whatever the list the issue of cooperation and binding collaboration remains. As observers of Moon and other space enterprises, we all know that a room full of 60 scientists will not agree on much of anything and there will probably be 60! pleas for more funding. People have special interests and little common sense (e.g., conflict between NSF- and NASA-funding roadmaps). Scientists are no exception. Nevertheless, CERN has done it on Earth! Can we do the same on the Moon? Some of the present generation of proposals for science from and on the Moon, plus new ones, will witness a place in space exploration's future. It is clear, however, that the world has not thought this through adequately, except for talk about an international space federation - whatever that is. An outpost on the Moon with humans permanently living there much like Antarctica on Earth may be in our future. However, such planning is our collective international responsibility and not that of special-interest investigators from individual nations - unless they intend to pay for it. [1] Mendell W. W. (1985) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston. [2] Potter A. E. and Wilson T. L. (1990) Physics and Astrophysics from a Lunar Base, AIP Conf. Proc. 202, American Institute of Physics, New York. [3] Mumma M. J. and Smith H. J. (1990) Astrophysics from the Moon, AIP Conf. Proc. 207, American Institute of Physics, New York.

Wilson, Thomas

360

A space exploration strategy that promotes international and commercial participation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has created a plan to implement the Flexible Path strategy, which utilizes a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver crew and cargo to orbit. In this plan, NASA would develop much of the transportation architecture (launch vehicle, crew capsule, and in-space propulsion), leaving the other in-space elements open to commercial and international partnerships. This paper presents a space exploration strategy that reverses that philosophy, where commercial and international launch vehicles provide launch services. Utilizing a propellant depot to aggregate propellant on orbit, smaller launch vehicles are capable of delivering all of the mass necessary for space exploration. This strategy has benefits to the architecture in terms of cost, schedule, and reliability.

Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Chai, Patrick R.; Jones, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

361

Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings. [Space Exploration Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

Not Available

1992-01-01

362

A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a state space exploration method for on-the-fly verification. The method is aimed at systems for which it is possible to define a measure of progress based on the states of the system. The measure of progress makes it possible to delete certain states on-the-fly during state space generation, since these states can never be reached again. This in

Sren Christensen; Lars Michael Kristensen; Thomas Mailund

2001-01-01

363

Multi-objective design space exploration using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we provide a technique for efficiently exploring a parameterized system-on-a-chip (SoC) architecture to find all Pareto-optimal configurations in a multi-objective design space. Globally, our approach uses a parameter dependency model of our target parameterized SoC architecture to extensively prune non-optimal sub-spaces. Locally, our approach applies Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to discover Pareto-optimal configurations within the remaining design points.

Maurizio Palesi; Tony Givargis

2002-01-01

364

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

365

Heliospheric Physics and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration outlines NASA's development of a new generation of human-rated launch vehicles to replace the Space Shuttle and an architecture for exploring the Moon and Mars. The system--developed by the Constellation Program--includes a near term (approx. 2014) capability to provide crew and cargo service to the International Space Station after the Shuttle is retired in 2010 and a human return to the Moon no later than 2020. Constellation vehicles and systems will necessarily be required to operate efficiently, safely, and reliably in the space plasma and radiation environments of low Earth orbit, the Earth's magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and on the lunar surface. This presentation will provide an overview of the characteristics of space radiation and plasma environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-lunar injection and trans-Earth injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose and plasma wake charging environments in near lunar space, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the design and operational environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

Minow, Joseph I.

2007-01-01

366

Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

Goldman, Arthur E.

2012-01-01

367

Visualisation Support for Exploring Urban Space and Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban research is fundamentally underpinned by heterogeneous, highly varied data. The availability and quantity of digital data sources is increasing rapidly. In order to facilitate decision-making and support processes related to urban policy and management, such data has to be readily analysed, synthesised and the results readily communicated to support evidence based decision-making. In this paper, we consider the current state of play of visualisation as it supports urban research. In doing so we firstly consider visualisation environments such as geographical information systems (GIS) and Cartography tools, digital globes, virtual simulation environments, building information models and gaming platforms. Secondly, we consider a number of visualisation techniques with a focusing on GIS and Cartography tools including space time cubes, heat maps, choropleth maps, flow maps and brushing. This review of visualisation environments and techniques is undertaken in the context of the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network project (www.aurin.org.au). AURIN is tasked with developing a portal and associated e-Infrastructure, which provides seamless access to federated data, modelling and visualisation tools to support the urban researcher community in Australia. We conclude by outlining future research and development opportunities in developing the AURIN visualisation toolkit by reflecting on the value of visualisation as a data exploration and communication tool for researchers and decision-makers to assist with the study and management of the urban fabric.

Pettit, C.; Widjaja, I.; Russo, P.; Sinnott, R.; Stimson, R.; Tomko, M.

2012-07-01

368

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

369

Robots Explore the Farthest Reaches of Earth and Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"We were the first that ever burst/Into that silent sea," the title character recounts in Samuel Taylor Coleridge s opus Rime of the Ancient Mariner. This famous couplet is equally applicable to undersea exploration today as surface voyages then, and has recently been applied to space travel in the title of a chronicle of the early years of human space flight ("Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965"), companion to the +n the Shadow of the Moon book and movie. The parallel is certainly fitting, considering both fields explore unknown, harsh, and tantalizingly inhospitable environments. For starters, exploring the Briny Deep and the Final Frontier requires special vehicles, and the most economical and safest means for each employ remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ROVs have proven the tool of choice for exploring remote locations, allowing scientists to explore the deepest part of the sea and the furthest reaches of the solar system with the least weight penalty, the most flexibility and specialization of design, and without the need to provide for sustaining human life, or the risk of jeopardizing that life. Most NASA probes, including the historic Voyager I and II spacecraft and especially the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, feature remote operation, but new missions and new planetary environments will demand new capabilities from the robotic explorers of the future. NASA has an acute interest in the development of specialized ROVs, as new lessons learned on Earth can be applied to new environments and increasingly complex missions in the future of space exploration.

2008-01-01

370

Graphs of models for exploring design spaces in the engineering of Human Computer Interaction  

E-print Network

that currently Model Driven Engineering (MDE) sustains the latest stages of design only (i.e., when the code and prototyping as key for creative designs whatever the domain is. Buxton [1] stresses that the value of sketchesGraphs of models for exploring design spaces in the engineering of Human Computer Interaction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Autonomous Logistics Technologies for Space Exploration: Experiment Results and Design Considerations  

E-print Network

Autonomous Logistics Technologies for Space Exploration: Experiment Results and Design Station (ISS) everything from food and clothing to tools and experiments is currently managed manually/software development and field-testing. This paper describes design and testing of tracking systems for remote base

de Weck, Olivier L.

372

Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR conference. However, whatever the list the issue of cooperation and binding collaboration remains. As observers of Moon and other space enterprises, we all know that a room full of 60 scientists will not agree on much of anything and there will probably be 60! please for more funding. People have special interests and little common sense (e.g., conflict between NSF- and NASA-funding roadmaps). Scientists are no exception. Nevertheless, CERN has done it on Earth! Can we do the same on the Moon? Some of the present generation of proposals for science from and on the Moon, plus new ones, will witness a place in space exploration's future. It is clear, however, that the world has not thought this through adequately, except for talk about an international space federation whatever that is. An outpost on the Moon with humans permanently living there much like Antarctica on Earth may be in our future. However, such planning is our collective international responsibility and not that of special-interest investigators from individual nations unless they intend to pay for it.

Wilson, Thomas

2008-01-01

373

Benefits to society from space exploration and use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many obvious benefits to society from the exploration and use of outer space have been reported. The conviction that such benefits exist is what motivates national governments to provide funding for national space programs. There is a well known litany of improvements in space applications and space science, as well as the benefits to technology development and basic research in physical sciences. These are the generally visible and often discussed benefits. There are also numerous indirect and less well known benefits that accrue to society. The stimulation of electronics miniaturization, for example, contributes to improvements in medicine, manufacturing processes, and many new forms of automation. New materials development provides advances in aeronautical, maritime and terrestrial transportation and communication systems. In the past 30 years, these developments have also: (1) stimulated improved and expanded educational and research programs: (2) created new organizations: (3) generated jobs: and (4) fostered new forms and sources of national and personal pride and prestige. Rarely is there articulation of the more metaphysical aspects of the philosophical and psychological benefits of the exploration and use of space for society. While this paper touches on many primary, secondary and tertiary physical and industrial benefits, it also deals with the more ephemeral and philosophical benefits that are infrequently explored. Although fascinating stories of courageous development programs in astronautics can be told of programs in Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico and other countries, there is perhaps no story as dramatic as the story of India as it undertook and pursued major space program development over the past 30 years. Examined in some detail, the story of India indicates clearly how participation in space exploration and use produces benefits to a national society as well as to the international soceity of mankind. Creation of a success spiral, reinforced by a skills-building cycle, produces national societies that can be proud, productive, and can contribute to the health and vigor of the world society.

Doyle, Stephen E.

374

Plans for the development of cryogenic engines for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting a broad range of basic research and focused technology development activities in both aeronautical and space propulsion. By virtue of the successfull conduct of these programs, LeRC is strongly qualified to lead Advanced Development and subsequent development programs on cryogenic space propulsion systems in support of the Space Exploration Initiative. This paper provides a review of technology status, including recent progress in the ongoing activities, and a top level description of the proposed program.

Stone, James R.; Shaw, Loretta M.; Aukerman, Carl A.

1991-01-01

375

Plans for the development of cryogenic engines for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting a broad range of basic research and focused technology development activities in both aeronautical and space propulsion. By virtue of the successful conduct of these programs, LeRC is strongly qualified to lead Advanced Development and subsequent development programs on cryogenic space propulsion systems on support of the Space Exploration Initiative. A review is provided of technology status, including recent progress in the ongoing activities, and a top level description of the proposed program.

Stone, James R.; Shaw, Loretta M.; Aukerman, Carl A.

1991-01-01

376

Phase-Space Exploration in Nuclear Giant Resonance Decay  

E-print Network

The rate of phase-space exploration in the decay of isovector and isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in $^{40}$Ca is analyzed. The study is based on the time dependence of the survival probability and of the spectrum of generalized entropies evaluated in the space of 1p-1h and 2p-2h states. If the 2p-2h background shows the characteristics typical for chaotic systems, the isovector excitation evolves almost statistically while the isoscalar excitation remains largely localized, even though it penetrates the whole available phase space.

S. Drozdz; S. Nishizaki; J. Speth; J. Wambach

1994-07-08

377

High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for future space instrumentation : current development within the French Space Orbitrap Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has been used for years in space exploration to characterise the chemical composition of solar system bodies and their environment. Because of the harsh constraints imposed to the space probe instruments, their mass resolution is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, sometimes leading to significant limitations in the treatment of the data collected with this type of instrumentation. Future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). For a few years, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies formed a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). This development is carried out in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. We are indeed pursuing, within international collaborations, the definition of several instrument concepts based on the core elements that are subject of our R&T programme. In this talk, we briefly discuss science applications for future orbitrap-based HRMS space instruments. We highlight present results of our R&T programme.

Briois, Christelle; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Szopa, Cyril; Thirkell, Laurent; Aradj, Kenzi; Bouabdellah, Abdel; Boukrara, Amirouche; Carrasco, Nathalie; Chalumeau, Gilles; Chapelon, Olivier; Colin, Fabrice; Cottin, Herv; Engrand, Ccile; Grand, Noel; Kukui, Alexandre; Pennanech, Cyril; Thissen, Roland; Vuitton, Vronique; Zapf, Pascal; Makarov, Alexander

2014-05-01

378

An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical

Edmund P. Coomes; Jeffery E. Dagle; Judith A. Bamberger; Kent E. Noffsinger

1992-01-01

379

An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly

E. P. Coomes; J. E. Dagle; J. A. Bamberger; K. E. Noffsinger

1992-01-01

380

Functional abstraction driven design space exploration of heterogeneous programmable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid design space exploration (DSE) of a programmable architecture is feasible using an automatic toolkit (compiler, simulator, assembler) generation methodology driven by an architecture description language (ADL). While many contemporary ADLs can effectively capture one class of architecture, they are typically unable to capture a wide spectrum of processor and memory features present in DSP, VLIW, EPIC and Superscalar processors.

Prabhat Mishra; Nikil Dutt; Alex Nicolau

2001-01-01

381

SUBSYMBOLIC PATH-PLANNING FOR SPACE AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION ROBOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space and planetary exploration and construction can be significantly facilitated by the use of robotic technology, which can provide low risk and low cost means. Especially for remote missions, it seems necessary to use robots able to autonomously pursue mission goals specified beforehand by humans. One key competence that such an autonomous robotic agent should possess is the ability to

John Pisokas

382

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

383

Data Management in Planetary Exploration and Space Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary exploration and space physics approach data management in very different ways. In this talk we will compare the approaches in these two disciplines with emphasis on how each has dealt with the problems of locating and accessing distributed data. We also will outline the data management challenges each will face in the next decade. Sixteen years ago the NASA

R. J. Walker; S. P. Joy; T. A. King

2003-01-01

384

Functional abstraction driven design space exploration of heterogeneous programmable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid Design Space Exploration (DSE) of a programmable architecture is feasible using an automatic toolkit (compiler, simulator, assembler) generation methodology driven by an Architecture Description Language (ADL). While many contemporary ADLs can effectively capture one class of architecture, they are typically unable to capture a wide spectrum of processor and memory features present in DSP, VLIW, EPIC and Superscalar processors.

Prabhat Mishra; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

2001-01-01

385

Hardware\\/software partitioning with integrated hardware design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated approach to hardware software partitioning and hardware design space exploration. We propose a genetic algorithm which performs hardware software partitioning on a task graph while simultaneously contemplating various design alternatives for tasks mapped to hardware. We primarily deal with data dominated designs typically found in digital signal processing and image processing applications. A detailed description

Vinoo Srinivasan; Shankar Radhakrishnan; Ranga Vemuri

1998-01-01

386

Efficient search space exploration for HW-SW partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware\\/software (HW-SW) partitioning is a key problem in the codesign of embedded systems, studied extensively in the past. One major open challenge for traditional partitioning approaches -- as we move to more complex and heterogeneous SOCs -- is the lack of efficient exploration of the large space of possible HW\\/SW configurations, coupled with the inability to efficiently scale up with

Sudarshan Banerjee; Nikil D. Dutt

2004-01-01

387

Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

388

Skateboarders exploring urban public space: Ollies, obstacles and conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an explorative study about skateboarding practices in Amsterdam. One indoor spot and nine street locations for skateboarding were observed and over thirty skaters were interviewed. The research questions concern the identity of the people involved, the group interactions, and the use of urban space and routes. The majority of the observed skateboarders are male middle-class youngsters.

Lia Karsten; Eva Pel

2000-01-01

389

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

390

A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

2013-01-01

391

Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to make possible the permanent extension of human presence beyond the bounds of Earth and enable historic improvements in our understanding of our solar system and the universe, and the quality of life, NASA must: (1) Undertake, in partnership with the scientific community, sustained international explorations throughout the inner solar system by integrated human/robotic expeditions; (2) Achieve breakthrough discoveries and technology developments through basic, applied, and commercial research in the unique venue of space--exploiting characteristics such as microgravity, vacuum, radiation, and location; (3) Establish safe and routine access to space in support of permanent commercial human operations in low-Earth orbit and ongoing exploration activities at one or more sites beyond Earth orbit; (4) Engage the private sector in the commercial development of space and enable the creation of new space industries generating new wealth for the US economy; and (5) Communicate the excitement and importance of the discovery of new worlds and the profound insights we will gain into the origins of life and the universe. In order to guide planning, the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise has identified some potential future targets and goals (e.g. 'Design Reference Points') beginning with the near-term and extending to the far-term and beyond.

Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Cooke, Douglas (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

2001-01-01

392

Project Explorer - Student experiments aboard the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Explorer, a program of high school student experiments in space in a Space Shuttle self-contained payload unit (Getaway Special), sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in cooperation with four Alabama universities is presented. Organizations aspects of the project, which is intended to promote public awareness of the space program and encourage space research, are considered, and the proposal selection procedure is outlined. The projects selected for inclusion in the self-contained payload canister purchased in 1977 and expected to be flown on an early shuttle mission include experiments on alloy solidification, electric plating, whisker growth, chick embryo development and human blood freezing, and an amateur radio experiment. Integration support activities planned and underway are summarized, and possible uses for a second payload canister purchased by ASRC are discussed.

Buckbee, E.; Dannenberg, K.; Driggers, G.; Orillion, A.

1979-01-01

393

Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

Sanders, Gerald B.

2000-01-01

394

Leveraging Modular Simulation for Systematic Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Due to the growing complexity of processors, architecture design space exploration has always been more an art than a systematic process. The architect usually applies a trial-and-error process where intuition and experience often drive the creation and selection of appropriate designs. The widespread use of multi-cores only further increases the design space by adding the number of cores, their communications means, memory coherence issues, and a wealth of associated software issues. Therefore, a more systematic design approach could help streamline the process and thus keep design cycles reasonable, or at the very least, it could help the designer focus on the design areas with the best potential. Both in companies and academia, more systematic design space exploration techniques are emerging, such as

Veerle Desmet; Grigori Fursin; Sylvain Girbal; Olivier Temam

395

State Space Exploration of RT Systems in the Cloud  

E-print Network

The growing availability of distributed and cloud computing frameworks make it possible to face complex computational problems in a more effective and convenient way. A notable example is state-space exploration of discrete-event systems specified in a formal way. The exponential complexity of this task is a major limitation to the usage of consolidated analysis techniques and tools. We present and compare two different approaches to state-space explosion, relying on distributed and cloud frameworks, respectively. These approaches were designed and implemented following the same computational schema, a sort of map & fold. They are applied on symbolic state-space exploration of real-time systems specified by (a timed extension of) Petri Nets, by readapting a sequential algorithm implemented as a command-line Java tool. The outcome of several tests performed on a benchmarking specification are presented, thus showing the convenience of cloud approaches.

Bellettini, Carlo; Capra, Lorenzo; Monga, Mattia

2012-01-01

396

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program: A Step Toward Interstellar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is investing in technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the robotic exploration of deep space. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs and, in some cases, enable missions previously considered impossible. Continued reliance on conventional chemical propulsion alone will not enable the robust exploration of deep space. The maximum theoretical efficiencies have almost been reached and are insufficient to meet needs for many ambitious science missions currently being considered. By developing the capability to support mid-term robotic mission needs, the program is laying the technological foundation for travel to nearby interstellar space. The In-Space Propulsion Technology Program s technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next-generation ion propulsion systems operating in the 5-10 kW range, to solar sail propulsion, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called "propellantless" because they do not require onboard fuel to achieve thrust. Propellantless propulsion technologies include scientific innovations, such as solar sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aerocapture. This paper will provide an overview of those propellantless and propellant-based advanced propulsion technologies that will most significantly advance our exploration of deep space.

Johnson, Les; James, Bonnie; Baggett, Randy; Montgomery, Sandy

2005-01-01

397

Space Life and Physical Sciences and Applications Research for Human Exploration  

E-print Network

Space Life and Physical Sciences and Applications ­ Research for Human Exploration Brad Carpenter, Acting Director Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Space Life and Physical Sciences are common to Exploration and Research · Research is Exploration with structure · Human Exploration of Space

Waliser, Duane E.

398

Towards Multi-application Workload Modeling in Sesame for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Towards Multi-application Workload Modeling in Sesame for System-level Design Space Exploration and simulation framework aims at early and thus efficient system-level design space exploration of embedded design space exploration. Such early design space exploration is of eminent importance as early design

Pimentel, Andy D.

399

On the Calibration of Abstract Performance Models for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

On the Calibration of Abstract Performance Models for System-level Design Space Exploration Andy D-level design as they facilitate early architectural design space exploration. An impor- tant precondition design space exploration. Such early design space exploration is of eminent importance as early design

Pimentel, Andy D.

400

Crawford:Human space exploration 2.22 A&G April 2012 Vol. 53  

E-print Network

Crawford:Human space exploration 2.22 A&G · April 2012 · Vol. 53 Crawford:Human space exploration field analogue studies and trends in robotic space exploration all point to exactly the opposite conclusion. Benefits of human space exploration As demonstrated by the Apollo missions 40 years ago

Crawford, Ian

401

A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

2005-01-01

402

Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

403

NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

1990-01-01

404

Space: exploration-exploitation and the role of man.  

PubMed

The early years of space activity have emphasized a crew role similar to that of the test pilot or the crew of a high performance aircraft; even the Apollo lunar exploration missions were dominated by the task of getting to and from the moon. Skylab was a prototype space station and began to indicate the range of other functional roles man will play in space. The operation of the Space Shuttle has the elements of the operation of any other high performance flight vehicle during launch and landing; but in its on-orbit operations, it is often a surrogate space station, developing techniques and demonstrating the role of a future space station in various functions. In future space systems, the role of the crew will encompass all of the activities pursued in research laboratories, manufacturing facilities, maintenance shops, and construction sites. The challenge will be to design the tasks and the tools so that the full benefit of the opportunities offered by performing these functions in space can be attained. PMID:3778404

Loftus, J P

1986-10-01

405

78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Aviation Administration Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of...Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation...Brinkman, Licensing Program Lead, Commercial Space Transportation--Licensing and...

2013-08-27

406

United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well underway, and integrated flight testing will begin in 2009. This white paper summarizes 3 years of Constellation Program progress and accomplishments, and it describes the foundation set for human lunar return in 2020.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

407

Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the design, development, testing, and evaluation of both vehicles and serves as lead systems integrator. A little over a year after it was chartered, the Exploration Launch Projects team is testing engine components, refining vehicle designs, performing wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I-l, scheduled for spring 2009. The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration lays out a roadmap for a long-term venture of discovery. This endeavor will inspire and attract the best and brightest students to power this nation successfully to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. If one equates the value proposition for space with simple dollars and cents, the potential of the new space economy is tremendous, from orbital space delivery services for the International Space Station to mining and solar energy collection on the Moon and asteroids. The Vision for Space Exploration is fundamentally about bringing the resources of the solar system within the economic sphere of humaind. Given the immense size of our solar system, the amount of available material and energy with

Sexton, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

408

Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration is a risky enterprise. Rockets launch astronauts at enormous speeds into a harsh, unforgiving environment. Spacecraft must withstand the bitter cold of space and the blistering heat of reentry. Their skin must be strong enough to keep the inside comfortably pressurized and tough enough to resist damage from micrometeoroids. Spacecraft meant for lunar or planetary landings must survive the jar of landing, tolerate dust, and be able to take off again. For astronauts, however, there is one danger in space that does not end when they step out of their spacecraft. The radiation that permeates space -- unattenuated by Earth s atmosphere and magnetosphere -- may damage or kill cells within astronauts bodies, resulting in cancer or other health consequences years after a mission ends. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently embarked on Project Constellation to implement the Vision for Space Exploration -- a program announced by President George W. Bush in 2004 with the goal of returning humans to the Moon and eventually transporting them to Mars. To adequately prepare for the safety of these future space explorers, NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate requested that the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council establish a committee to evaluate the radiation shielding requirements for lunar missions and to recommend a strategic plan for developing the radiation mitigation capabilities needed to enable the planned lunar mission architecture

2008-01-01

409

Giving Children Space: A Phenomenological Exploration of Student Experiences in Space Science Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived

Horne, Christopher R.

2011-01-01

410

The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

1983-01-01

411

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2009-01-01

412

Secondary Electron Emission and the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emission of secondary electrons from surfaces exposed to the space plasma and radiation environment is a process of great importance to space system engineering design and operations. A spacecraft will collect charge until it reaches an equilibrium potential gov,erned by the balance of incoming electron and ion currents from the space environment with outgoing secondary, backscattered, and photoelectron currents. Laboratory measurements of secondary electron yields are an important parameter for use in spacecraft charging analyses because the magnitude and sign of the equilibrium potential depends on both the energy spectrum of electrons and ions in the space environment and the electrical properties of the surface materials (including the energy dependent secondary electron yields). Typical benign equilibrium potentials range &om a few tens of volts positive in interplanetary space to a few volts negative in low Earth orbit. However, spacecraft are known to charge to negative potentials exceeding one to ten kilovolts in some environments and anomalies or system failures due to electrostatic discharges originating from highly charged surfaces becomes a serious concern. This presentation will provide a review of the spacecraft charging process with special emphasis on the role of secondary electrons in controlling the current balance process. Charging examples will include spacecraft in Earth orbit and interplanetary space as well as dust charging on the lunar surface, a phenomenon of importance to future lunar surface operations.

Minow, Joseph I.

2006-01-01

413

Microbial Monitoring of Crewed Habitats in SpaceCurrent Status and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:25130885

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

2014-01-01

414

Microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space-current status and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Previous space research conducted during short-term flight experiments and long-term environmental monitoring on board orbiting space stations suggests that the relationship between humans and microbes is altered in the crewed habitat in space. Both human physiology and microbial communities adapt to spaceflight. Microbial monitoring is critical to crew safety in long-duration space habitation and the sustained operation of life support systems on space transit vehicles, space stations, and surface habitats. To address this critical need, space agencies including NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are working together to develop and implement specific measures to monitor, control, and counteract biological contamination in closed-environment systems. In this review, the current status of microbial monitoring conducted in the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the results of recent microbial spaceflight experiments have been summarized and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:25130885

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Roberts, Michael; Castro, Sarah; Oubre, Cherie; Makimura, Koichi; Leys, Natalie; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Sugita, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

2014-09-17

415

Prediction of solar flares for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 21st century is likely to see the start of the manned exploration and settlement of the inner solar system. NASA's plans for this endeavor are focused upon the Space Exploration Initiative which calls for a return to the Moon, to stay, followed by manned missions to Mars. To execute these missions safely provides solar physics with both a challenge and an opportunity. As the past solar maximum has clearly demonstrated, the Sun, through the solar flare process, is capable of generating and accelerating to high energies large fluxes of protons whose cumulative dose to unprotected astronauts can be fatal. It will be the responsibility of solar physicists to develop an accurate physical description of the mechanisms of flare energy storage and release, and of particle acceleration and propagation through interplanetary space upon which to base a sound method of flare and energetic particle prediction.

Davis, John M.

1994-01-01

416

Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

1991-01-01

417

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

418

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

419

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

420

The potential of space exploration for the fine arts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Art provides an integrating function between the 'upper' and 'lower' centers of the human psyche. The nature of this function can be made more specific through the triune model of the brain. The evolution of the fine arts - painting, drawing, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, dance, and drama, plus cinema and mathematics-as-a-fine-art - are examined in the context of their probable stimulations by space exploration: near term and long term.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1993-01-01

421

'Configuring new tourism space': exploring Singapore's regional tourism forays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of 'regional tourism' has gained salience in Asia since the 1990s. The traditional practice of single-country tourism development is increasingly complemented by cross-border collaborations in planning and promotion. Through these transnational practices, new tourism spaces are being configured with region-states emerging alongside nation-states. In this paper I explore the concept of Asian regional tourism from the perspective of

T C Chang

2001-01-01

422

Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

2007-01-01

423

Super Earth Explorer: A Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope  

E-print Network

The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii >. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of the parent starlight reflected by the planets, in the wavelength range 400-1250 nm

J. Schneider; A. Boccaletti; D. Mawet; P. Baudoz; J. -L. Beuzit; R. Doyon; M. Marley; D. Stam; G. Tinetti; W. Traub; J. Trauger; A. Aylward; J. Y. -K. Cho; C. -U. Keller; S. Udry; for the SEE-COAST Team

2008-11-25

424

Exploring science and technology through the Herschel space observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because modern astronomy associates the quest of our origins and high-tech instruments, communicating and teaching astronomy explore both science and technology. We report here on our work in communicating astronomy to the public through Web sites (www.herschel.fr), movies on Dailymotion (www.dailymotion.com/AstrophysiqueTV) and new ITC tools that describe interactively the technological dimension of a space mission for astrophysics.

Minier, V.; Rouz, M.

2015-03-01

425

The role of nuclear reactors in space exploration and development  

SciTech Connect

The United States has launched more than 20 radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) into space over the past 30 yr but has launched only one nuclear reactor, and that was in 1965. Russia has launched more than 30 reactors. The RTGs use the heat of alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu for power and typically generate <1 kW of electricity. Apollo, Pioneer, Voyager, Viking, Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini all used RTGs. Space reactors use the fission energy of {sup 235}U; typical designs are for 100 to 1000 kW of electricity. The only US space reactor launch (SNAP-10A) was a demonstration mission. One reason for the lack of space reactor use by the United States was the lack of space missions that required high power. But, another was the assumed negative publicity that would accompany a reactor launch. The net result is that all space reactor programs after 1970 were terminated before an operating space reactor could be developed, and they are now many years from recovering the ability to build them. Two major near-term needs for space reactors are the human exploration of Mars and advanced missions to and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. To help obtain public acceptance of space reactors, one must correct some of the misconceptions concerning space reactors and convey the following facts to the public and to decision makers: Space reactors are 1000 times smaller in power and size than a commercial power reactor. A space reactor at launch is only as radioactive as a pile of dirt 60 m (200 ft) across. A space reactor contains no plutonium at launch. It does not become significantly radioactive until it is turned on, and it will be engineered so that no launch accident can turn it on, even if that means fueling it after launch. The reactor will not be turned on until it is in a high stable orbit or even on an earth-escape trajectory for some missions. The benefits of space reactors are that they give humanity a stairway to the planets and perhaps the stars. They open a new frontier for their children and their grandchildren. They pave the way for all life on earth to move out into the solar system. At one time, humans built and flew space reactors; it is time to do so again.

Lipinski, R.J.

2000-07-01

426

Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with minimal redesign effort required such that the modular architecture can be quickly and efficiently honed into a specific mission point solution if required.

Hill, Terry R.

2010-01-01

427

Framework for the Parametric System Modeling of Space Exploration Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodology for performing architecture definition and assessment prior to, or during, program formulation that utilizes a centralized, integrated architecture modeling framework operated by a small, core team of general space architects. This framework, known as the Exploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), enables: 1) a significantly larger fraction of an architecture trade space to be assessed in a given study timeframe; and 2) the complex element-to-element and element-to-system relationships to be quantitatively explored earlier in the design process. Discussion of the methodology advantages and disadvantages with respect to the distributed study team approach typically used within NASA to perform architecture studies is presented along with an overview of EXAMINE s functional components and tools. An example Mars transportation system architecture model is used to demonstrate EXAMINE s capabilities in this paper. However, the framework is generally applicable for exploration architecture modeling with destinations to any celestial body in the solar system.

Komar, David R.; Hoffman, Jim; Olds, Aaron D.; Seal, Mike D., II

2008-01-01

428

Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. Fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR Element supports the entire life cycle of Exploration by: reducing downtime due to failed components; decreasing risk to crew by recovering quickly from degraded operation of equipment; improving system functionality with advanced geometry capabilities; and enhancing mission safety by reducing assembly part counts of original designs where possible. This paper addresses the fabrication infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; these infrastructures allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon, Mars and beyond.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Manning, Curtis W.; Good, Jim

2007-01-01

429

Efficient Algorithms to Explore Conformation Spaces of Flexible Protein Loops  

PubMed Central

Several applications in biologye.g., incorporation of protein flexibility in ligand docking algorithms, interpretation of fuzzy X-ray crystallographic data, and homology modelingrequire computing the internal parameters of a flexible fragment (usually, a loop) of a protein in order to connect its termini to the rest of the protein without causing any steric clash inside the loop and with the rest of the protein. One must often sample many such conformations in order to explore and adequately represent the conformational range of the studied loop. While sampling must be fast, it is made difficult by the fact that two conflicting constraintskinematic closure and clash avoidancemust be satisfied concurrently. This paper describes two efficient and complementary sampling algorithms to explore the space of closed clash-free conformations of a flexible protein loop. The seed sampling algorithm samples broadly from this space, while the deformation sampling algorithm uses seed conformations as starting points to explore the conformation space around them at a finer grain. Computational results are presented for various loops ranging from 5 to 25 residues. More specific results also show that the combination of the sampling algorithms with a functional site prediction software (FEATURE) makes it possible to compute and recognize calcium-binding loop conformations. The sampling algorithms are implemented in a toolkit, called LoopTK, which is available at https://simtk.org/home/looptk. PMID:18989041

Yao, Peggy; Dhanik, Ankur; Marz, Nathan; Propper, Ryan; Kou, Charles; Liu, Guanfeng; van den Bedem, Henry; Latombe, Jean-Claude; Halperin-Landsberg, Inbal; Altman, Russ Biagio

2009-01-01

430

Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

Joosten, B. Kent

2006-01-01

431

Current status of space medicine and exobiology.  

PubMed

An overview of the present state of aerospace medicine and planetary biology is given with emphasis on the ongoing search for extraterrestrial life and life science studies being made both by independent and cooperative investigations of the United States, the Soviet Union, the European Space Agency, and countries with an interest in gravitational physiology, radiation, planetary quarantine, exobiology, and general space biology. A suitable animal model for outer space medical research, in-orbit vestibular function investigations, biomedical problems in the Earth's normal 1-G gravitational intensity, and biological satellite experiments are discussed. The scope of exobiology, life detection programs, solar system organic chemistry, and attempted elucidation of the question of the origin and early evolution of life are also discussed. Evaluation of data acquired from a variety of sources indicates that all phases of exobiology lead to biopoesis and chemical evolution, with allied aviation, space, and environmental medicine being the major part of the search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:307383

Douglas, W R

1978-07-01

432

Viability of Tensegrity Robots in Space Exploration Eric Cheng-yu Hong  

E-print Network

Viability of Tensegrity Robots in Space Exploration Eric Cheng-yu Hong College of Engineering.funginstitute.berkeley.edu #12;Viability of Tensegrity Robots in Space Exploration Eric Cheng-yu Hong Project Advisor: Alice M Robots in Space Exploration Abstract Robots in extraterrestrial exploration traditionally faced

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

433

Design-Space Exploration of Stream Programs through Semantic-Preserving  

E-print Network

1 Design-Space Exploration of Stream Programs through Semantic-Preserving Transformations Pablo de present a design-space exploration technique to reduce the minimal memory required when running stream and the complexity of such exploration. In this paper we propose a design space exploration technique that generates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Incremental State-Space Exploration for Programs with Dynamically Allocated Data  

E-print Network

Incremental State-Space Exploration for Programs with Dynamically Allocated Data Steven Lauterburg technique that speeds up state-space exploration (SSE) for evolving programs with dynamically allocated data-Sim state- space explorer. The experimental results on 24 program evolutions and exploration changes show

Marinov, Darko

435

Delta Execution for Efficient State-Space Exploration of Object-Oriented Programs  

E-print Network

Delta Execution for Efficient State-Space Exploration of Object-Oriented Programs Marcelo d-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA {damorim, slauter2, marinov}@cs.uiuc.edu ABSTRACT State-space exploration execution paths in state-space exploration partially overlap and speeds up the exploration by sharing

Marinov, Darko

436

Multi-resolution Exploration in Continuous Spaces Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Multi-resolution Exploration in Continuous Spaces Ali Nouri Department of Computer Science Rutgers, 2006), although regret-type algorithms have not yet been explored in continuous-state space problems-resolution exploration (MRE) to create algorithms that explore continuous state spaces in an anytime manner without

Littman, Michael L.

437

Generic Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures Lilian Bossuet, Guy Gogniat, Jean-Luc Philippe,  

E-print Network

1 Generic Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures Lilian Bossuet, Guy Gogniat.gogniat, jean-luc.philippe}@univ-ubs.fr Abstract We propose in this paper an original design space exploration for the architecture under exploration. With this information, designer can explore the architectural design space

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

438

Space Explorers June 09..............9:00am-3:00pm.............Bring Lunch  

E-print Network

Space Explorers Day Camp June 09..............9:00am-3:00pm.............Bring Lunch June 10 Explore to infinity and beyond! Youth will explore space, from many different points of views. Youth, and exploring dairy foods. Space for this camp is limited, please register ASAP! Ages 8-13. Cost: $50

Jawitz, James W.

439

Space Radiation and Exploration - Information for the Augustine Committee Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents significant health risks including mortality for Exploration missions: a) Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) heavy ions are distinct from radiation that occurs on Earth leading to different biological impacts. b) Large uncertainties in GCR risk projections impact ability to design and assess mitigation approaches and select crew. c) Solar Proton Events (SPEs) require new operational and shielding approaches and new biological data on risks. Risk estimates are changing as new scientific knowledge is gained: a) Research on biological effects of space radiation show qualitative and quantitative differences with X- or gamma-rays. b) Expert recommendations and regulatory policy are changing. c) New knowledge leads to changes in estimates for the number of days in space to stay below Permissible Exposure Limits (PELS).

Cucinotta, Francis; Semones, Edward; Kim, Myung-Hee; Jackson, Lori

2009-01-01

440

International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

2005-01-01

441

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

Woodcock, Gordon R.

1992-01-01

442

The growth of retail REITs : an exploration of current practices and implications  

E-print Network

This study is an exploration of the current growth activity of retail real estate investment trusts (REITs). The specific questions to be explored are: How are retail REITs currently growing, how is this growth being ...

Toth, A. Eric (Anthony Eric), 1971-

2003-01-01

443

ISECG ToR 6 November 2007 INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION COORDINATION GROUP  

E-print Network

ISECG ToR 6 November 2007 INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION COORDINATION GROUP Terms of Reference In 2006, 14 space agencies1 began a series of discussions on global interests in space exploration, and developed a common set of key space exploration themes. This vision was articulated in `The Global

444

Crawford,Hapgood:UK space exploration A&G December 2007 Vol. 48 6.9  

E-print Network

Crawford,Hapgood:UK space exploration A&G · December 2007 · Vol. 48 6.9 T he future of space and benefits of levels of involvement in space exploration in the future. Many RAS Fellows work in fields. The role of space exploration in stimulating science education and the supply of scientists and engineers

Crawford, Ian

445

A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING, SIMULATION, AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING Students #12;2 A FLEXIBLE, MODULAR APPROACH TO INTEGRATED SPACE EXPLORATION CAMPAIGN LOGISTICS MODELING in Aeronautics and Astronautics #12;3 Abstract A space logistics modeling framework to support space exploration

de Weck, Olivier L.

446

Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

2010-01-01

447

Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

2012-01-01

448

Space vector based current control schemes for voltage source inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hysteresis controllers are very simple and fast schemes for current control in voltage source inverters. Their disadvantage, a much higher switching frequency compared to other PWM methods, can be distinctly reduced by applying space vector based two dimensional hysteresis controllers. Four different control schemes are discussed and compared: the conventional method with three independent phase current controllers and three space

D. Wuest; F. Jenni

1993-01-01

449

Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

1990-01-01

450

Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-10-01

451

The Fluids and Combustion Facility: Enabling the Exploration of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an International Space Station facility designed to support physical and biological research as well as technology experiments in space. The FCF consists of two racks called the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). The capabilities of the CIR and the FIR and plans for their utilization will support the President's vision for space exploration. The CIR will accommodate physical research and technology experiments that address needs in the areas of spacecraft fire prevention, detection and suppression, incineration of solid wastes, and power generation. Initial experiments will provide data to support design decisions for exploration spacecraft. The CIR provides a large sealed chamber in a near-weightless environment. The chamber supports many simulated atmospheres including lunar or Martian environments. The FIR will accommodate experiments that address needs for advanced life support, power, propulsion, and spacecraft thermal control systems. The FIR can also serve as a platform for experiments that address human health and performance, medical technologies, and biological sciences. The FIR provides a large volume for payload hardware, reconfigurable diagnostics, customizable software, active rack-level vibration isolation, and data acquisition and management in a nearly uniform temperature environment.

Weiland, Karen J.; Gati, Frank G.; Hill, Myron E.; O'Malley Terence F.; Zurawski, Robert L.

2005-01-01

452

THE FLUIDS AND COMBUSTION FACILITY: ENABLING THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an International Space Station facility designed to support physical and biological research as well as technology experiments in space. The FCF consists of two racks called the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). The capabilities of the CIR and the FIR and plans for their utilization will support the President s vision for space exploration. The CIR will accommodate physical research and technology experiments that address needs in the areas of spacecraft fire prevention, detection and suppression, incineration of solid wastes, and power generation. Initial experiments will provide data to support design decisions for exploration spacecraft. The CIR provides a large sealed chamber in a near-weightless environment. The chamber supports many simulated atmospheres including lunar or Martian environments. The FIR will accommodate experiments that address needs for advanced life support, power, propulsion, and spacecraft thermal control systems. The FIR can also serve as a platform for experiments that address human health and performance, medical technologies, and biological sciences. The FIR provides a large volume for payload hardware, reconfigurable diagnostics, customizable software, active rack-level vibration isolation, and data acquisition and management in a nearly uniform temperature environment.

Weiland, Karen J.; Gati,